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to be analyzed. POPULATION!!!!!!

2. is another name for a categorical variable. NOMINAL!!!!!

3. Uses graphical representation data DESCRIPTIVE!!!!!

4. have been collected, summarized, reported and stored DATA!!!

5. data which are numerical in nature. These data can be ordered or ranked.

QUANTITATIVE!!!!

6. assumes values that can be counted and their values are represented by

counting numbers only. DISCRETE!!!!

7. to determine whether there is a relationship between two variables and to

describe the relationship. CORRELATIONAL!!!!

8. discrepancy between a sample statistic and its population parameter SAMPLING

ERROR!!!!

9. one variable is manipulated to create treatment conditions. A second variable is

observed and measured to obtain scores for a group of individuals in each of the

treatment conditions. The measurements are then compared to see if there are

differences between treatment conditions. EXPERIMENT!!!!

10. All other variables are controlled to prevent them from influencing the results.

EXPERIMENT!!!!

11. observed variable is_______ DEPENDENT!!!!!

12. ∑ SIGMA!!!!

13. upper limit of the summation is represented by_____ n!!!!

14. one simply names or categorizes responses. NOMINAL!!!!!

15. branch of science that deals with studies involving collection, organization,

analysis, interpretation, and drawing conclusions from the data. STATISTICS!!!!!

16. allow comparisons of the degree to which two subjects possess the dependent

variable. ORDINAL SCALE (!!!!)

17. numerical scales in which intervals have the same interpretation throughout

INTERVAL SCALE (!!!!)

18. the most informative scale RATIO SCALE (!!!)

19. is the formula used to generate each term of the sum a(summation index)

20. research is the label given to a study when a researcher cannot control,

manipulate or alter the predictor variable or subjects, but instead, relies on

interpretation, observation or interactions to come to a conclusion. QUASI

EXPERIMENTAL OR NON-EXPERIMENTAL!!!!

21. A numerical value summarizing the sample data. STATISTIC (!!!)

22. are variables that can be placed into categories according to their characteristics

or attributes. QUALITATIVE!!!!

23. the manipulated variable is called the IDEPENDENT!!!

24. Shorthand way of expressing a sum SUMMATION NOTATION!!!!

25. Any letter in can be _____in summation notation SUMMATION INDEX!!!!!

26. If the variable cannot be further subdivided, it is a clue that you are probably

dealing with a DISCRETE!!!

27. study simply observes the two variables as they exist naturally.

CORRELATIONAL!!!!

28. demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables; that is, to

show that changing the value of one variable causes changes to occur in a

second variable. EXPERIMENT!!!!

29. It is an interval scale with the additional property that its zero position indicates

the absence of the quantity being measured. RATIO SCALE!!!!

30. they do not imply any ordering among the responses. NOMINAL SCALE (!!!)

31. Arithmetic operations, such as addition and averaging, are not meaningful for

data resulting from______ QUALITATIVE!!!!

32. are usually associated with counting DISCRETE!!!!!

33. helps in making scientific judgments in the face if uncertainty and variation

INFERENTIAL!!!!

34. a decision making procedure to find out whether there is a significant difference

between a claim about a population and another information about the said

population. HYPHOTHESIS TESTING!!!!!

35. have two or more categories without having any kind of natural order. NOMINAL

VARIABLE (!!!)

36. The value of the variable associated with one element of a population or sample.

This value may be a number, a word, or a symbol. DATA SINGULAR!!!!

37. Arithmetic operations such as addition and averaging, are meaningful for data

resulting from QUANTITATIVE!!!!

38. is one which can assume all values between any two specific values or intervals.

The values are obtained through measurement. CONTINUOUS VARIABLE (!!!)

39. are variables with no numeric value, such as occupation or political party

affiliation NOMINAL VARIABLE (!!!)

40. is similar to a categorical variable. The difference between the two is that there is

a clear ordering of the variables. ORDINAL VARIABLE (!!!)

41. A numerical value summarizing all the data of an entire population.

PARAMETER!!!

42. are usually associated with measurements CONTINUOUS!!!

43. A subset of the population or a part of population that has the same

characteristics of the given population. SAMPLE!!!!

44. consists of higher degree of analysis, interpretation and inferences.

INFERENTIAL!!!!

45. the use of _____________in many areas involves the gathering of information or

scientific data. STATISTICAL METHOD

46. Provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.

DESCRIPTIVE!!!

47. can be classified as qualitative or quantitative VARIABLE!!!!

48. Trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone

INFERENTIAL!!!!

49. The set of values collected for the variable from each of the elements belonging

to the sample. DATA PLURAL!!!!!

50. To establish relationships between variables, researchers must observe the

variables and record their observations. This requires that the variables be

MEASURED!!!!

51. used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple

summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics

analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.

DESCRIPTIVE!!!!

52. A planned activity whose results yield a set of data. EXPERIMENT!!!!

53. process that classifies each individual into one category. SCALE OF

MEASUREMENT

54. A characteristic about each individual element of a population or sample.

VARIABLE!!!!

55. The process of measuring a variable requires a set of categories called a SCALE

OF MEASUREMENT!!!

objects, phenomena) and about the settings in which they occur. DATA

COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

2. we have to be systematic in COLLECTION OF DATA

3. are data that are not organized, or if arranged, could only be from highest to lowest

or lowest to highest. UNGROUPED DATA

4. are the largest numbers that can actually belong to different classes UPPER CLASS

LIMIT

5. Also known as raffle LOTTERY SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

6. are the numbers used to separate classes, but without the gaps created by class

limits CLASS BOUNDARIES

7. The value of median and other partition values can be located from the OGIVES

8. captions above the columns HEAD BOX

9. the only way to recruit the members of rare or much sought after groups

PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

10. refers to sampling plans where the sampling is carried out in stages using smaller

and smaller sampling units at each stage. MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

11. is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an

inexpensive approximation of the truth. CONVENIENCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

12. label that classify values of a variable STUBS

13. used to draw the numbers for the sample TABLE OF RANDOM NUMBERS

14. collect data on each sampling unit that was randomly sampled from each group

STRATUM

15. obtain a simple random sample from each group STRATUM(!!!!)

16. are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes LOWER

CLASS LIMIT

17. , a line graph is drawn by joining all the midpoints of the top of the bars of a

histogram. FREQUENCY POLYGON

18. a bar graph that shows how frequently data occur within certain ranges or intervals.

The height of each bar gives the frequency in the respective interval. HISTROGRAM

19. is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative

frequency from left to right. PARETO DISTRUBUTION DIAGRAM

20. Sample has a known probability of being selected PROBABILITY SAMPLING

21. researcher may ask or invite individuals to send text opinions on certain issues or

send in their choices on their brand preferences on a particular product using their

cellphones. TEXTING METHOD

N

22. Sample Size (n) = SLOVIN’S FORMULA

1+ Ne 2

23. partition the population into groups STRATA

24. Mark is the respective average of each class limits CLASS MARK OR CLASS

MIDPOINT

25. the difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive class

boundaries CLASS WIDTH

26. method of collecting data is used to find out the cause and effect relationship of

certain phenomena under controlled conditions. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

27. can be a complex form of cluster sampling MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

28. Each of the N population members is assigned a unique number. The numbers are

placed in a bowl and thoroughly mixed. Then, a blind-folded researcher selects n

numbers. Population members having the selected numbers are included in

the sample. LOTTERY SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

29. An individual group is called a STRATUM

30. divide the population into groups CLUSTERED SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

31. Sample does not have known probability of being selected as in convenience or

voluntary response surveys NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING

32. nonprobability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a

gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a

random sample. CONVENIENCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

33. is characterized by a deliberate effort to gain representative samples by including

groups or typical areas in a sample. PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

34. Less time consuming compared to many other sampling methods because only

suitable candidates are targeted PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

35. researcher makes direct and personal contact with the interviewee. The researcher

gathers data by asking the interviewee series of questions. INTERVIEW METHOD

36. also referred to as self-administered questionnaire WRITTEN QUESTIONNAIRE

37. is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented that are to be

answered by the respondents in written form. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD

38. a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger

population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed, periodic

interval. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

39. The less than cumulative frequencies are in ascending order. The cumulative

frequency of each class is plotted against the upper limit of the class interval in this

type of ogive and then various points are joined by straight LESS THAN OGIVE

40. the nonprobability equivalent of stratified sampling. QUOTA SAMPLING

TECHNIQUE

41. is calculated by dividing the population size by the desired sample size. SAMPLING

INTERVAL

42. researcher may observe subjects individually or group of individuals to obtain data

and information related to the objectives of the investigation. OBSERVATION

METHOD

43. used to show relationship between and among variables. SCATTER DIAGRAM

44. is possible when it makes sense to partition the population into groups based on a

factor that may influence the variable that is being measured. STRATIFIED

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

45. usually more representative of target population compared to other sampling

methods PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

46. The cumulative frequencies in this type are in the descending order. The cumulative

frequency of each class is plotted against the lower limit of the class interval. MORE

THAN OGIVE

47. is a circular statistical graphic, which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical

proportion. In a PIE CHART the arc length of each slice (and consequently its

central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents.

48. used to show relationship between two sets of quantities. LINE GRAPH

49. is a table which shows the data arranged into different classes (or categories) and

the number of cases (or frequencies) which fall into each class. FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION TABLE

50. used to show vivid pictorial of data. PICTOGRAPH

51. extremely useful for analyzing what problems need attention first because the taller

bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have

the greatest cumulative effect on a given system. PARETO DIAGRAM CHART

52. effective devices of presenting both qualitative and quantitative data. TABULAR

FORM DATA (STATISTICAL TABLE)

53. Data can be presented using paragraphs or sentences. It involves enumerating

important characteristics, emphasizing significant figures and identifying important

features of data. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION DATA

54. method of collecting data is governed by our existing laws. The researcher gathers

data from offices concerned REGISTRATION METHOD

55. referred to as judgment, selective or subjective sampling is a non-

probability sampling method PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

56. this chart divides or breaks down total quantities into their component parts.

COMPONENT BAR CHART

57. used to describe or classify quantitative data by geographical areas STATISTICAL

MAP

58. are data that are organized and arranged into different classes or categories.

GROUPED DATA

59. a table which sorts data according to a certain pattern. STEM AND LEAF PLOT

2. the midpoint or class mark of each of the class intervals shall be multiplied to

their corresponding frequencies. The sum of the products is then divided by the

total number of frequencies. MIDPOINT METHOD

3. we arrange the observations from ascending to descending order or vice versa.

The observation found in the middle is the MEDIAN

4. and many (2 or more) modes MULTI-MODAL

5. difference between the frequency of the modal class and the frequency of the

class interval preceding it fm1

6. two methods in computing for the mean of grouped data UNIT DEVIATION

METHOD AND MIDPOINT METHOD

7. It is best to compute the measures of central tendency for grouped data using

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

8. Data which are arranged in a frequency distribution are called GROUPED DATA

9. associated with ordinal data. MEDIAN

10. associated with normal data. MODE

11. a positional measure MEDIAN

12. It can be easily identified by inspection of an ungrouped set of data by getting the

score or item which occurs most frequently MODE

13. a set with two modes BI MODAL

14. A set of scores or data with only one mode UNI MODAL

15. the sum of all n values divided by the total frequency. MEAN

16. most reliable measure of central tendency MEAN

17. the midpoint of the class interval having the highest frequency ASSUMED

MEAN

18. denoted by x̅ MEAN (X HAT)

19. not affected by the extreme values. MEDIAN

20. only a function of the middle values (even or odd) or the average of the two

middle values (when n is even) when the data are arranged from the highest

value to the lowest value or vice versa. MEDIAN

21. difference between the frequency of the modal class and the frequency of the

class interval following the modal class fm2

22. associated with the interval/ ratio data. MEAN

23. strongly influenced by the extreme values in a set of data MEAN AND MODE

24. is the center most observation that divides the data, arranged in either ascending

or descending order, into halves MEDIAN

25. There are some cases when values are given more importance than the others

WEIGHTED ARITHMETHIC MEAN

26. is the simplest measure of central tendency. MEAN

27. Three modes TRI MODAL

28. may not even exist at all MODE

29. the value within the class interval having the highest frequency. MODE

30. always a unique value in any set of data. MEAN

PPT 4 – MEASURE OF POSITION

1. define the value below which given proportion of the scores lie. QUANTILES

2. Quantity QUANTILE

3. the most utilized measures for location or classification purposes (in case of people

when the characteristics are weight, height, etc.) PERCENTILE

4. the value of the trajectory of a variable, that encompasses a specific proportion of

the population. PERCENTILE

5. is the median of the values that are below of Q2 (Second Quartile). Q1

6. divide the succession of ordered data set into ten equal parts or into nine

divisions. DECILE

7. divide the succession of ordered data set into one hundred equal parts or into 99

divisions PERCENTILE

8. is greater than one percent of the values and lower than the remaining ninety-nine.

P1

9. also called “Base Case D5

10. 50th percentile MEDIAN

11. 75% or three quarters of the way up an ascending list of sorted samples UPPER

QUARTILE

12. 25% or one quarter of the way up an ascending list of sorted samples LOWER

QUARTILE

13. divide a set into four equal parts or into three divisions QUARTILE

1. indicate the degree or extent to which numerical values are dispersed or spread out

above the average value in distribution. MEASURE OF VARIATION

2. These are the range, the semi-interquartile range, the quartile range, the mean

deviation or average deviation, the variance, and the standard deviation. MEASURE

OF VARIATION

3. The difference between the largest and the lowest values in the set of numerical

data. RANGE

4. The most important measure of variation. STANDARD DEVIATION

5. Through this, we will be able to determine the position of the scores in a frequency

distribution in relation to the mean. !!!!!!!!!!!STANDARD DEVIATION

6. The mean of the distances of each value from their mean. MEAN DEVIATION

7. The average of the squared differences from the Mean. VARIANCE

8. The square root of this variance is known as the STANDARD DEVIATION

9. indicates the variation or dispersion of the values covering the middle 50% of the

distribution of the data. SEMI INTER QUARTILE RANGE

10. It is found by getting the half of the value or distance between the third quartile or

upper quartile and the first quartile or the lower quartile. SEMI INTER QUARTILE

RANGE

11. takes into account the deviations of the individual values from the mean. MEAN

DEVIATION

12. Simplest to compute in measure of variation RANGE

13. considers only the extreme values RANGE

14. Defined as the average of the absolute deviations of the individual set of numerical

data from either the mean, the median, or the mode MEAN DEVIATION

15. Poor and Unstable measure of variation RANGE

16. It does not consider and tell anything about all the other values between these

extreme values RANGE

17. is found by finding the difference between the values of the third quartile (Q 3) or

upper quartile and the first quartile (Q1) or the lower quartile. INTER QUARTILE

DEVIATION

18. Other term for quartile deviation SEMI INTER QUARTILE DEVIATION

amount of variability, and the average. RELATIVE DISPERSION

2. Two most commonly used measures of relative dispersion COEFFICIENT

VARIATION AND THE COEFFICIENT OF QUARTILE DEVIATION

3. This is a type of measure of relative dispersion that expressed the standard

deviation as a percentage of the mean COEFFICIENT VARIATION

4. Another measure of relative dispersion that can be used when the quartiles are

known. THE COEFFICIENT OF QUARTILE DEVIATION

5. provide us additional data and information for a more accurate description of a

numerical data. MEASURE OF SHAPE

6. defined as the degree of departure from symmetry. SKWENESS

7. A frequency curve that has a longer tail to the right than to the left is said to be

8. if it has a tail which is longer to the left than to the right. POSITIVELY SKWED

9. If the mean is higher than the median, the curve is POSITIVELY SKWED

10. The degree of peakedness of a frequency curve of a distribution in relation to a

normal distribution is known as KURTOSIS

11. A frequency distribution with a relatively high curve or peak is LEPTOKURTIC

12. A flat topped distribution, where the values are relatively even in distribution

about the center is known as MESOKURTIC

13. normal distribution curve which does not have a relatively high curve or peak or

is not too flat is called PLATYKURTIC

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