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1.

(a) State the name of the technique that is used to separate fragments of DNA according to
their size, during DNA profiling.

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(1)

(b) The diagram below represents the results of a paternity investigation. Track A is the
profile of the mother of a child, track B is the profile of the child and track C is the profile
of a man who might be the father.

Explain, using evidence from the diagram, whether this man is the father or not.

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(Total 4 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 1
2. The karyotype below shows the chromosomes from a person with Down syndrome.

[Source: U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program (genomics.energy.gov, genomicscience.energy.gov)]

(a) State the evidence provided by the karyotype that shows this person has Down syndrome.

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(1)

(b) Outline how Down syndrome occurs due to meiosis.

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(c) Determine, giving a reason, the sex of the person in the karyotype.

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IB Questionbank Biology 2
(d) Explain briefly why males are more likely to inherit colour blindness than females.

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(Total 6 marks)

3. The diagram below shows a pair of chromosomes during meiosis in a cell in the human testis.
The position of the alleles of some genes is indicated.

(a) Deduce, with reasons for your answer, whether the chromosomes are

(i) autosomes or sex chromosomes.

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(1)

(ii) homologous or non-homologous.

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IB Questionbank Biology 3
(b) State the stage of meiosis of a cell if it contains pairs of chromosomes as shown in the
diagram.

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(1)

(c) At the end of meiosis, each of the chromatids shown in the diagram will be in a different
haploid cell. The diagrams below represent the chromatids inside the haploid cells.
Determine the combinations of alleles that would be present on each chromatid. Use the
diagrams to indicate your answer.

(2)

(d) State the pattern of inheritance shown by the three genes.

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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 4
4. The following sequence of pictures, made using an electronic imaging technique, shows a cell
undergoing division.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Fuller, B G et al. 2008. “Midzone activation of aurora B in
anaphase produces an intracellular phosphorylation gradient”. Nature. Vol 453.]

(a) State the stage of mitosis typified by image II.

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(1)

(b) List two processes that involve mitosis.

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(2)

(c) State the process that results in tumour (cancer) formation or development.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 5
(d) Explain, using one example, how non-disjunction in meiosis can lead to changes in
chromosome number.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

5. (a) In some maize plants the seed is enclosed in a green sheath called a tunica.
The allele (T) for this is dominant to the allele (t) for normal, unenclosed seeds.
The endosperm of the seed can be starchy (allele E) or sugary (allele e). The genes for
these two characteristics are linked. The table below shows the outcome of crosses
between a plant heterozygous for both characteristics and one that is homozygous
recessive for both characteristics.

Phenotype Number
Tunica present, starchy 326
Unenclosed seeds, starchy 111
Tunica present, sugary 118
Unenclosed seeds, sugary 295

(i) State the genotype of the heterozygous parent using the correct notation.

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(1)

(ii) Identify which individuals are recombinants in this cross.

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IB Questionbank Biology 6
(iii) Explain what has occurred to cause these results.

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(2)

(b) Maize belongs to the group of plants known as angiospermophyta. Distinguish between
angiospermophytes and bryophytes.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

6. (a) Define the term polygenic inheritance.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 7
(b) Explain, using a named example, how polygenic inheritance gives rise to continuous
variation.

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(2)

(c) Describe the inheritance of colour blindness in humans.

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(Total 6 marks)

7. (a) State two procedures used for the preparation of a DNA profile.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 8
The following part of a DNA profile was used as evidence in a criminal investigation. DNA
profiles of two suspects labelled S1 and S2 were compared to the DNA profile taken from the
scene of the crime labelled E.

[Source: Solomon and Berg, (1995), The World of Biology, Saunders Harcourt Brace College, Publishers Orlando, page 238]

(b) Analyse the profiles to determine which suspect was present at the crime scene.

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(2)
(Total 3 marks)

8. (a) List two roles of testosterone in males.

1. ..........................................................................................................................

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 9
(b) A boy inherited red-green colour-blindness from one of his grandfathers. Deduce, giving
your reasons, which of his two grandfathers was also colour-blind.

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(3)
(Total 4 marks)

9. (a) State the two classes of compounds that compose chromosomes in animal cells.

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(1)

(b) Outline how meiotic division results in almost an infinite genetic variation in the gametes
produced.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 10
(c) In a species of plant, tall is dominant to short and the production of round seeds is
dominant to that of wrinkled seeds. The alleles are unlinked.

A plant heterozygous for both characteristics is crossed with a plant homozygous for tall
with wrinkled seeds.

Use the letters:

T—allele for tall


t — allele for short
R — allele for round seed
r—allele for wrinkled seed.

Determine the phenotypes and genotypes of the offspring of this cross.

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(2)

(d) State how chromosome number can increase in human beings.

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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 11
10. PanI is a gene in cod fish that codes for an integral membrane protein called pantophysin.
A B
Two alleles of the gene, PanI and PanI , code for versions of pantophysin, that differ by four
amino acids in one region of the protein. Samples of cod fish were collected from 23 locations
A B
in the north Atlantic and were tested to find the proportions of PanI and PanI alleles in each
population. The results are shown in pie charts, numbered 1–23, on the map below. The
proportions of alleles in a population are called the allele frequencies. The frequency of an allele
can vary from 0.0 to 1.0. The light grey sectors of the pie charts show the allele frequency of
A B
PanI and the black sectors show the allele frequency of PanI .

[RAJ Case et al. 2005. “Macro- and micro-geographic variation in pantophysin (PanI) allele frequencies in NE
Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.” MEPS. Vol 301. Pp 267–278. Figs 1 and 3.]

B
(a) (i) State the two populations with the highest PanI allele frequencies.

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(1)

(ii) State the population in which the allele frequencies were closest to 0.5.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 12
(b) Deduce the allele frequencies of a population in which half of the cod fish had the
A A A B
genotype PanI PanI , and half had the genotype PanI PanI .

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(1)

The graphs below show the latitude and the mean surface sea temperature in June of the
A
sampling locations and the frequency of the PanI allele.

[RAJ Case et al. 2005. “Macro- and micro-geographic variation in pantophysin (PanI) allele frequencies in NE
Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.” MEPS. Vol 301. Pp 267–278. Figs 1 and 3.]

(c) State the relationship between

A
(i) latitude and the frequency of the PanI allele.

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(1)

A
(ii) mean surface sea temperature in June and the frequency of the PanI allele.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 13
(d) Suggest how natural selection could have caused the relationships shown in the graphs.

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(2)

(e) The sites close to Iceland, at a latitude of 60–65°, had very varied allele frequencies, with
A B
both PanI and PanI occurring. The water at these sample sites was highly stratified,
with much warmer water at the surface and much colder water below. Suggest reasons for
A B
both PanI and PanI alleles occurring at these sites.

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(2)

(f) Using the data in this question, predict the effects of global warming on cod fish
populations.

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(2)
(Total 11 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 14
11. Rhesus factor is an antigen present on the surface of red blood cells of Rhesus positive
individuals.
+ –
Rhesus positive (Rh ) is dominant to Rhesus negative (Rh ). A mother with Rhesus negative
blood gives birth to a baby with Rhesus positive blood and there are concerns that subsequent
pregnancies will trigger an immune response.

What are the genotypes of the mother and her first baby?

Genotype of mother Genotype of first baby


A. – – – –
Rh Rh Rh Rh
B. – – + –
Rh Rh Rh Rh
C. – – + +
Rh Rh Rh Rh
D. + – + +
Rh Rh Rh Rh
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Biology 15
12. Rice (Oryza sativa) is usually intolerant to sustained submergence under water, although it
grows rapidly in height for a few days before dying. This is true for one variety, Oryza sativa
japonica. The variety Oryza sativa indica is much more tolerant to submergence.

Three genetically modified forms of O. sativa japonica, GMFA, GMFB and GMFC, were made
using different fragments of DNA taken from O. sativa indica.

The plants were then submerged for a period of 11 days. The heights of all the plants were
measured at the beginning and at the end of the submergence period.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Xu et al. 2006. “Sub1A is an ethylene-response-factor-like
gene that confers submergence tolerance to rice.” Nature. Vol 442. Pp 705–708. Copyright 2006.
http://www.nature.com/]

(a) (i) State which group of rice plants were the shortest at the beginning of the
experiment.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 16
(ii) Calculate the percentage change in height for the O. sativa japonica unmodified
variety during the submergence period. Show your working.

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(2)

(b) Explain how the error bars can be used to compare the results for O. sativa indica.

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(2)

(c) Deduce the general relationship between the growth of all the japonica varieties and their
stated tolerance level.

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(1)

(d) Outline the use of the binomial system of nomenclature in Oryza sativa.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 17
In the same experiment, the researchers hypothesized that the capacity to survive when
submerged is related to the presence of three genes very close to each other on rice chromosome
number 9; these genes were named Sub1A, Sub1B and Sub1C. The photograph below of part of
a gel shows relative amounts of messenger RNA produced from these three genes by the
submergence-intolerant variety, O. sativa japonica, and by the submergence-tolerant variety, O.
sativa indica, at different times of a submergence period, followed by a recovery period out of
water.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Xu et al. 2006. “Sub1A is an ethylene-response-factor-like
gene that confers submergence tolerance to rice.” Nature. Vol 442. Pp 705–708. Copyright 2006.
http://www.nature.com/]

(e) (i) Determine which gene produced the most mRNA on the first day of the
submergence period for variety O. sativa japonica.

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(1)

(ii) Outline the difference in mRNA production for the three genes during the
submergence period for variety O. sativa indica.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 18
(iii) Compare the mRNA production for the three genes during the submergence period
between the two varieties.

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(2)

(f) Deduce, using all the data, which gene was used to modify GMFC.

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(2)

(g) Evaluate, using all the data, how modified varieties of rice could be used to overcome
food shortages in some countries.

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(2)
(Total 17 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 19
13. Gibberellin promotes both seed germination and plant growth. Researchers hypothesize that the
gene GID1 in rice (Oryza sativa) codes for the production of a cell receptor for gibberellin.
The mutant variety gid1-1 for that gene leads to rice plants with a severe dwarf phenotype and
infertile flowers when homozygous recessive. It is suspected that homozygous recessive gid1-1
plants fail to degrade the protein SLR1 which, when present, inhibits the action of gibberellin.
The graphs show the action of gibberellin on the leaves and α-amylase activity of wild-type rice
plants (WT) and their gid1-1 mutants.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Ltd, Ueguchi-Tanaka, M et al. 2005. “Gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1
encodes a soluble receptor for gibberellins”. Nature. Vol 437. Pp 693–698. Copyright (2005).]

(a) (i) State which variety of rice fails to respond to gibberellin treatment.

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(1)

(ii) The activity of α-amylase was tested at successive concentrations of gibberellin.


Determine the increment in gibberellin concentration that produces the greatest
change in α-amylase activity in wild-type rice plants (WT).

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 20
(iii) Outline the role of α-amylase during the germination of seeds.

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(1)

(b) Discuss the consequence of crossing gid1-1 heterozygous rice plants amongst themselves
for food production.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Biology 21
Most rice varieties are intolerant to sustained submergence under water and will usually die
within a week. Researchers have hypothesized that the capacity to survive when submerged is
related to the presence of three genes very close to each other on rice chromosome number 9;
these genes were named Sub1A, Sub1B and Sub1C. The photograph below of part of a gel
shows relative amounts of messenger RNA produced from these three genes by the
submergence-intolerant variety, O. sativa japonica, and by the submergence-tolerant variety, O.
sativa indica, at different times of a submergence period, followed by a recovery period out of
water.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Xu et al. 2006. Nature. Vol 442. Pp 705–708. Copyright
2006. http://www.nature.com/]

(c) (i) Determine which gene produced the most mRNA on the first day of the
submergence period for variety O. sativa japonica.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Outline the difference in mRNA production for the three genes during the
submergence period for variety O. sativa indica.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 22
(d) Using only this data, deduce which gene confers submersion resistance to rice plants.

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(2)

The OsGI gene causes long-day flowering and the effect of its overexpression has been
observed in a transgenic variety of rice. Some wild-type rice (WT) and transgenic plants were
exposed to long days (14 hours of light per day) and others to short days (9 hours of light per
day).

The shades of grey represent the genotypes of the transgenic plants, where:

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Ltd, Ueguchi-Tanaka, M et al. 2005. “Gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1
encodes a soluble receptor for gibberellins”. Nature. Vol 437. Pp 693–698. Copyright (2005).]

IB Questionbank Biology 23
(e) (i) State the overall effect of overexpression of the OsGI gene in plants treated with
short-day light.

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(1)

(ii) Compare the results between the plants treated with short-day light and the plants
treated with long-day light.

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(2)

(iii) State, giving one reason taken from the data opposite, if unmodified rice is a short-
day plant or a long-day plant.

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(1)

+ –
(f) Discuss, using only the data opposite, if OsGI and OsGI behave as codominant alleles.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 24
(g) Evaluate, using all the data, how modified varieties of rice could be used to overcome
food shortages in some countries.

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(2)
(Total 19 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 25
14. Genetic engineering allows genes for resistance to pest organisms to be inserted into various
crop plants. Bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce proteins that are highly toxic to
specific pests.

Stem borers are insects that cause damage to maize crops. In Kenya, a study was carried out to
see which types of Bt genes and their protein products would be most efficient against three
species of stem borer. The stem borers were allowed to feed on nine types of maize (A–I),
modified with Bt genes. The graph below shows the leaf areas damaged by the stem borers after
feeding on maize leaves for five days.

[Source: adapted from S Mugo, et al., (2005), African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(13), pages 1490–1504]

(a) (i) State what would be used as the control in this experiment.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Biology 26
(ii) Calculate the percentage difference in leaf area damaged by Sesamia calamistis
between the control and maize type H. Show your working.

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(2)

(b) Outline the effects of the three species of stem borer on Bt maize type A.

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(2)

(c) Evaluate the efficiency of the types of Bt maize studied, in controlling the three species of
stem borers.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 27
Before the use of genetically modified maize as a food source, risk assessment must be carried
out. A 90-day study was carried out in which 3 groups of 12 adult female rats were fed either:

• seeds from a Bt maize variety


• seeds from the original non-Bt maize variety
• commercially prepared rat food.

All the diets had similar nutritional qualities.

[Source: Linda A. Malley et al. 2007. “Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley
rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol 45, issue 7. Pp 1277–1292. © Elsevier. Reproduced with permission]

(d) Calculate the change in mean mass of female rats fed on Bt maize from day 14 to 42.

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(1)

(e) Describe the change in mean mass for the female rats during the 90-day experiment.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 28
(f) Evaluate the use of Bt maize as a food source compared to the other diets tested.

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(3)
(Total 13 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 29
15. Genetic engineering allows genes for resistance to pest organisms to be inserted into various
crop plants. Bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce proteins that are highly toxic to
specific pests.

Stem borers are insects that cause damage to maize crops. In Kenya, a study was carried out to
see which types of Bt genes and their protein products would be most efficient against three
species of stem borer. The stem borers were allowed to feed on nine types of maize (A–I),
modified with Bt genes. The graph below shows the leaf areas damaged by the stem borers after
feeding on maize leaves for five days.

[Source: S Mugo et al., Figure 3 from “Developing Bt maize for resource-poor farmers—Recent advances in the
IRMA project”, African Journal of Biotechnology (2005), volume 4, number 13, pp. 1490-1504]

IB Questionbank Biology 30
(a) Calculate the percentage difference in leaf area damaged by Sesamia calamistis between
the control and maize type H. Show your working.

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(2)

(b) Discuss which species of stem borer was most successfully controlled by the genetic
engineering of the maize plants.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Biology 31
Before the use of genetically modified maize as a food source, risk assessment must be carried
out. A 90-day study was carried out in which adult male and female rats were fed either:

• seeds from a Bt maize variety


• seeds from the original non-Bt maize variety
• commercially prepared rat food.

All the diets had similar nutritional qualities.

[Source: Linda A. Malley et al. 2007. “Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley
rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol 45, issue 7. Pp 1277–1292]

(c) Calculate the change in mean mass of male and of female rats fed on Bt maize from day
14 to 42.

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......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) Evaluate the use of Bt maize as a food source on the growth of the rats.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Biology 32
(e) Comment on the use of Bt maize as a food source compared to the other diets tested.

......................................................................................................................................

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(1)

Studies have shown that Bt proteins are released by plant roots and remain in the soil.
One study looked at the biomass of microorganisms in soil surrounding the roots of:

• Bt maize
• non-Bt maize
• non-Bt maize with an insecticide (I).

The graph below shows the biomass of microorganisms at two different times in the growth
cycle of the plants (Flower and Harvest). Error bars represent standard error of the mean.

[Source: Devare, M et al. “Neither transgenic Bt maize (MON863) nor tefluthrin insecticide adversely affect soil
microbial activity or biomass: A 3-year field analysis”. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Vol 39, issue 6. Pp 2038–2047.
© Elsevier. Reproduced with permission.]

(f) State one role of bacteria in a soil ecosystem.

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(1)

(g) Compare the biomass of microbes in the soils surrounding the roots of Bt maize and non-
Bt maize.

IB Questionbank Biology 33
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(2)

(h) The researchers’ original hypothesis stated that microorganisms would be negatively
affected by the Bt protein released by the plant roots. Discuss whether the data supports
the hypothesis.

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(2)

Bt proteins act as toxins to insects, primarily by destroying epithelial cells in the insect’s
digestive system. Below is the three-dimensional structure of one such protein.

[Reprinted from Mario Soberón. 2007. “Mode of action of mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins”. Toxicon. Vol
49, issue 5. Pp 597–600. Copyright (2007), with permission from Elsevier and the International Society on
Toxicology.]

IB Questionbank Biology 34
(i) (i) State the type of structure shown in the region marked A in the diagram above.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Outline how this structure is held together.

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(2)

(iii) Region A inserts into the membrane. Deduce, with a reason, the nature of the
amino acids that would be expected to be found in this region.

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(2)
(Total 20 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology 35