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ZEICHENLEHRE FÜR

ARCHITEKTEN
DRAWING MIES AND GROPIUS
ON THE TRAIL OF THE BAUHAUS

Edited by John DeSalvo and Natascha Meuser


CONTENT

Introduction 7

On the Trail of the Bauhaus


Residences in Berlin, Potsdam and Dessau

Bauhaus Building 21
Master’s Houses 23
Lemke House 25
Urbig Villa 27
Mosler House 29
Riehl House 31

Drawing Mies and Gropius


Student Artwork

Basic Literature 35
Riehl House. Inventory and Analysis 45
Bauhaus Building 91
Master’s Houses 94
Törten Estate 88
Konsumgebäude 100
Korngebäude 103
Lemke House 104
Collective Housing Afrikanische Straße 108
Collection of sketches 111

Appendix

Photos 114
Authors and Participants 118
INTRODUCTION

Die Zeichenlehre für Architekten stand im Jahr des 100-jährigen Gründungs-


jubiläums des Bauhauses ganz im Zeichen der Bauhausbauten in Dessau.
Das Seminar vermittelte grundlegende Kenntnisse zur künstlerisch-gestalte-
rischen Bewegung des Bauhauses und ging entscheidenden Fragen zur Dar-
stellungsmethodik nach. Neben einer kurzen kunsthistorischen Einführung
wurden Bilder, Zeichnungen und Collagen in verschiedenen Zeichentech-
niken erstellt, die Methoden und Stilelemente des Bauhauses aufgreifen.
Anhand der Vermittlung von zeichnerischen Grundlagen sollte das Zeichnen
von Architektur zu einer routinierten und kurzweiligen Erfahrung werden.
Dabei wurde großer Wert auf Komposition, Bildaufbau, Kontrast, Linie, räum-
liche Tiefe und Maßstab gelegt. Ziel war es, eine künstlerische Handschrift
zu entwickeln, die ein Maß an zeichnerischem Niveau darstellt. So wurden
anhand des »Urban Sketching« elementare Methoden der Gestaltung vermit-
telt und erprobt. Vom 26. Mai bis 1. Juni 2019 fand hierzu eine begleitende
Exkursion mit Studierenden vom Illinois Institute of Technlogy aus Chicago
statt. Ziel war es, Bauhausbauten (Modelle representativen Wohnens) der bei-
den ehemaligen Bauhaus Direktoren Walter Gropius und Ludwig Mies van der
Rohe in Berlin und in Dessau zu zeichnen. Die Arbeitsergebnisse wurden in
einer Ausstellung in Dessau gezeigt.

To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Bauhaus movement in 2019, the


Dessau School of Architecture and the Illinois Institute of T
­ echnology, Chicago
were launching a cooperation. Over the course of a one-week joint excursion
to Berlin and Dessau, students from both institutions documented Bauhaus
buildings through drawings and illustrations. The results were shown in an
exhibition. Intensive education, not only intended to sharpen their senses of
colour and form, but also to taught them the adequate use of materials.

The preparation course was taught by Prof. Dr. Natascha Meuser (Hochschule
Anhalt Dessau). The excursion was organised and taught by Prof. John DeSalvo
(Associate Studio Professor, Illinois Institute of Technology), supported by
Frank Assmann (Stiftung Bauhaus, Head of Department Construction) and
Luftbild: DOM publishers Carsten Krohn (Architect and Architectural Historian).

7
LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE WALTER GROPIUS
1886 – 1969 1883 – 1969

1886 Aachen – 1969 Chicago / US 1883 Berlin – 1969 Chicago / US


Original name Maria Ludwig Michael Mies Walter Adolph Georg Gropius, son of an architect father
1931 – 1937: Member of the Prussian Academy of Arts 1919: founded the Bauhaus design school in Weimar
Berlin (Preußische Akademie der Künste) in the depart- 1946: established The Architects Collaborative (TAC)
ment of fine arts; 1956 – 1969: Associate Member of the 1948–1950: founding member and president of Congrès
Academy of Arts Berlin (Akademie der Künste). Internationaux d`Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

1887 – 1900 Learnt the basics of architecture while 1903–1908 Studied architecture at the Technical
working with his father, a master University of Munich (1903–04) and in
stonemason, in Aachen. At the start of Berlin–Charlottenburg (1905–08)
his carreer, he produced an important 1908–1910 Trained in the studio of Peter Behrens
series of houses. 1910 – 1931 Founded his own architectural office in Berlin 
1905 – 1911 Relocation to Berlin, where he worked in together with Adolph Meyer
the studios of Bruno Paul, Peter Behrens, 1911 Became member of the Deutscher Werkbund
and Hendrick Berlage 1919–1928 Director of the Bauhaus school in
1912 – 1930 Founded his own architectural Weimar and Dessau;
office in Berlin Designed the Bauhaus school building
1929 Designed the German Pavilion at the and faculty housing. Only at the beginning
Barcelona Exhibition of the 1920s did Gropius turn to the
1930–1933 Director of the Bauhaus in Dessau construction of single-family houses
until its closure in 1933 (Meisterhäuser and several residences)
1938 Emigrated to the US, opened an architec- 1934 Emigrated to the US
ture office in Chicago and became head of 1938–1952 Took up position at Harvard University in
the architecture department at the Illinois Cambridge/Massachusetts as the Chairman
Institute of Technology, Chicago of the Department of Architecture

8 9
ON THE TRAIL OF THE BAUHAUS
RESIDENCES IN BERLIN, POTSDAM
AND DESSAU
Foto: Denis Esakov
Foto: Denis Esakov
Foto: Denis Esakov
BAUHAUS BUILDING FAC TS AN D FI GU RES

ARCHITECT: Walter Gropius

CLIENT: Stadt Dessau

BAUZEIT: 1925 –  1926

LO CATION: Gropiusallee 38, 06846 Dessau-Roßlau

In 1925, the city of Dessau awarded the contract for this school
building to the practice of Walter Gropius, the director of the Bauhaus
who, together with his e
­ mployees (including Carl Fieger and E
­ rnst
Neufert), turned the cuboid buildings of a university campus into an
asymmetrical ensemble which appears almost to be floating, creating
an impression of lightness and negating commonplace ­ideas about
representation and composition. The glazed three-storey workshop
wing, the wing of the teaching institution with its rows of fitted win-
dows (both equal in height with opposing generous stairwells) and the
five-storey building for the studio flats with its projecting balconies are
the main elements of the complex. A two-­s torey bridge for the adminis-
tration and building department links the workshop to the vocational
school. A single-­s torey intermediary building with a lecture hall, stage
and caféteria provides the transition from the workshop wing to the
studio building, which originally held twenty-­e ight studio flats. The
complexity of the building can be perceived o
­ nly in its movement:
each cube boasts a different design and there is no central elevation.
The Bauhaus workshops and designers – such as Marcel Breuer
László Moholy-Nagy, and Marianne Brandt – participated in the
construction, designing the l­ighting fittings, the furniture (includ­ing the
first tubular steel chairs) and the colour scheme, among other things.
Following the closure of the Bauhaus in October 1932 at the instigation
of the NSDAP faction with a dominant influ­e nce in the region, the
building m
­ ainly served the Junkers-­Flugzeugwerken. It incur­red
­s evere damage by bombing in the spring of 1945. P­ rovisionally
repaired in the post-war p
­ eriod, it was granted ­listed s­ tatus in 1964;
it was only in 1976 that it was comprehensively restored. In 1994 the
Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau ­w as formed. The B
­ auhaus building has been
­d eclared a UNESCO World Heritage site since the year 1996. WT1

1 Wolfgang Thöner: Architectural Guide Dessau/Wörlitz. Compiled by the Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau
llustration: Natascha Meuser Axonometric llustration: Dennis Sharp and the Kulturstiftung DessauWörlitz

21
MASTER´S HOUSES KEN N DATEN

DESSAU ARCHITEK T: Walter Gropius

BAUHERR : Stadt Dessau

BAUZEIT: 1925 –  1926

AD RESSE: Ebertallee, Dessau-Roßlau

The city commissioned the practice of W


­ alter Gropius – the director
of the B
­ auhaus – to create the buildings for the seven masters of the
Bauhaus which emerged at the same time as the Bauhaus building
itself between 1925 and 1926: a detached house (without a studio)
for the director and three semi-detached h­ ouses with studios
(the first tenants were L­ ászló Moholy-Nagy and Lyonel Feininger,
Second floor
Georg Muche and Oskar Schlemmer as well as Wassily Kandinsky
and Paul Klee). In common with the Bauhaus building, the Meisterhäuser
are defined by intersecting cube-like structures, which are separated
according to function, and are stamped by the subject of flotation. The
Direktoren­h aus features an apartment for the caretaker of each house
in the basement, as well as living rooms, a bedroom, a kitchen and a
maid’s room on the first floor. A terrace which is partially covered by
the projecting upper storey is located in front of a living and dining
area on the south side. The guestrooms and a chamber are ­located on
the L-shaped upper storey. French windows allow foot access to the
terrace and the roofs. The semi-detached houses are not strictly alike
First floor
in their design; the house ­located to the west had a somewhat s­ mal­-
ler second upper storey. A bomb d
­ estroyed the Direktorenhaus and the
Moholy-­N agy residence. The buildings were used as accommodation
and for doctors’ surgeries in the GDR period. After the fall of the Wall,
reconstruction was carried out on the remain­ing semi-­d etached houses
­Feininger (1994), K
­ andinsky­ ∕  Klee (2000) and Muche ∕ Schlemmer
(2001). The Meister­h äuser have been a U
­ NESCO World Heritage
site since 1996. The Berlin-­b ased architectural ­p ractice Bruno Fioretti
Marquez realised the G
­ ropius and Moholy-­N agy buildings, the
surrounding walls and the Trinkhalle by infusing them with a contem-
Floor plans und sections Meisterhaus Moholy-Nagy porary interpretation. WT1
Drawing: Sven Holke

1 Wolfgang Thöner: Architectural Guide Dessau/Wörlitz. Compiled by the Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau
and the Kulturstiftung DessauWörlitz

llustration: Natascha Meuser 23


LEMKE HOUSE KEN N DATEN

ARCHITEK T: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

BAUHERR : Karl and Martha Lemke

BAUZEIT: 1932 –  1933

AD RESSE: Oberseestraße 60, 13053 Berlin

»The Landhaus Lemke private residence by Mies van der Rohe exudes
the crisp, clean and formal aesthetics that are characteristic of his
architectural proclivity. Built in 1933 for Karl and Martha Lemke, the
house is rich with history and encompasses a storied past. Located on
the banks of Lake Obersee in the city of Berlin, its life began in 1930
when the Lemke’s purchased a double sized plot of land. Mies was
solicited to design the residence, with construction commencing in
August of 1932. During this time, he was also working as the director
of the Bauhaus. His current research and developing philosophy of
the courtyard house is elegantly illustrated in the design of the Lemke
residence, and remains his only realized example of this typology.
It would also mark his final project in Germany before emigrating
to the United States in 1938. uilt of solid masonry construction, the
design is simple and functional, while simultaneously incorporating
a harmonious balance of interior and exterior spaces. Large glazed
openings embrace the lakeside exterior, while smaller windows on the
street side ensure privacy. An L-shaped plan defines the volume that
encompasses an open courtyard and terrace facing Lake Obersee.
Upon entry, a pair of glazed doors on the left lead to the private
sections of the house including a studio/study and bedroom. Woo-
den doors lead to the communal areas that include the living room
with direct views to the lake, and the kitchen and utility rooms on the
streetside wall. The main experience and highlight of this building lie
in the studio with views to the west and the living room space with
views to the south, that feature floor to ceiling glazing and open onto
an exterior terrace. The two spaces, while physically disjointed are
visually connected via sightlines across the shared terrace. Built-in
glazed doors in the window walls allow access to the exterior from
both spaces.«1

Ground Floor
llustration: Natascha Meuser Drawing: Sven Holke 1 Freunde und Förderer des Mies van der Rohe Hauses e.V, Berlin

25
URBIG VILLA KEN N DATEN

POTSDAM ARCHITEK T: Mies van der Rohe

BAUHERR : Franz Urbig

BAUZEIT: 1915 –  1917

AD RESSE: Virchostraße 23, 14482 Potsdam

The now-listed mansion of the Berlin banker Franz Urbig, which


Ludwig Mies van der Rohe built in Potsdam-Babelsberg in 1917,
served as a residence for British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
during the Four Power negotiations after the Second World War.
Its large mass of traditional construction in masonry occupies a
rectangular ground plan, extended by a lakside dining room.
The hillside property is located on the Griebnitzsee and demanded
a creative approach to topography. Mies solved the problem by
designing the building with two-storeys on one side and three storeys
on the side facing the lake. The facade has seven sections with sculp-
tural travertine scrolls above the prestigious ground floor. The house
has a total floor space of 1,414 square metres.

First Floor
Drawing: Sven Holke

llustration: Natascha Meuser 27


MOSLER HOUSE KEN N DATEN

POTSDAM ARCHITEK T: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

BAUHERR : Georg Mosler

BAUZEIT: 1924 –  1926

AD RESSE: Karl-Marx-Straße 28 –  2 9, 14482 Potsdam

»Despite the fact that the house demonstrates Mies´declared


principle of ‘maximising the spatial impression of the plan’, from
outside it looks plain and even austere, causing the building
commission to take the militar y barracks. However, its sizable
dimmensions and the expectionally high quality of its fittings can
also evoke associations with a castle or manor. Mies invested a
large part of the financial resources in the materials and detailing«
Carsten Krohn

Ground Floor First Floor

Drawing: Sven Holke

llustration: Natascha Meuser 29


RIEHL HOUSE FAC TS AN D FI GU RES

ARCHITECT: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

CLIENT: Aloys and Sophie Riehl

CONSTRUCTION: 1906 –  1907

LO CATION: S pitzweggasse 3, 14482 Potsdam

»In fact, the Riehl House, despite its overall eclecticism of parts, was
united by a prevailing temper of cool reserve and a painstalcing
exactitude of expression. Its most distinctive features were clean,
clipped, and severe to the point of chilliness, prefiguring the rock­
hard lucidities of Mies´s later efforts: the proportions of the windows
and doors in the Halle; the bold scale and controlled positioning of
the window in the study; the razor-sharp indentations of the alcoves
plus the precice rendition of their parts; the flat exterior wall pilasters;
above all, the south face, with its sure rhythms of square-­s ectioned
columns and spaces along the veran­d a, together with the wall which
seamlessly extended the facade out­w ard into space, past and around
the garden, a device premonitory of the podiums upon which a num-
ber of his later buildings would perch. Mies in 1907 was already
committed to the classicist temperament that would remain with him
for the rest of his life.«1

1 Main bedroom
2 Bathroom
3 Bedroom

1 Entrance
2 Wardrobe
3 Living room
4 Gentlemen’s room
5 Servery
6 Hall dining room
7 Verandah

Plans: Muthesius, Hermann: Landhaus and Garten. Beispiele


neuzeitlicher Landhäuser nebst Grundrissen, Innenräumen und
llustration: Natascha Meuser Gärten, Berlin 1910 1 Franz Schulze: Mies van der Rohe. A Critival Biography, Chicago 1985

31
»ART LIES IN THE FINE DRAWING MIES AND GROPIUS
STUDENT ARTWORK
CHOICE. THE ARTIST
DOES NOT TEACH US
TO SEE FACTS: HE
TEACHES US TO FEEL
H ARMONIES.«
Arthur Wesley Dow

33
BASIC LITERATURE
READING

Bergdoll, Barry/Riley, Terence: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.


Mies in Berlin – die Berliner Jahre 1907–1938, Berlin 2002

Cramer, Johannes/Sack, Dorothée: Mies van der Rohe. Frühe Bauten –


Probleme der Erhaltung, Probleme der Bewertung, Petersberg 2004

Krohn, Carsten: Mies van der Rohe. The built work, Basel 2014

Muthesius, Hermann: Landhaus and Garten. Beispiele neuzeitlicher Land-


häuser nebst Grundrissen, Innenräumen und Gärten, Freiburg i. B. 1910

35
Bergdoll, Barry/Riley Terence: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies in Berlin - die Berliner
Jahre 1907 - 1938; [anläßlich der Ausstellung Mies in Berlin im Museum of Modern Art,
New York 2001), Berlin 2002

36 37
Johannes Cramer/Dorothée Sack: Mies van der Rohe. Frühe Bauten;
Probleme der Erhaltung – Probleme der Bewertung, Berlin 2004

38 39
Johannes Cramer/Dorothée Sack: Mies van der Rohe. Frühe Bauten;
Probleme der Erhaltung – Probleme der Bewertung, Berlin 2004

40 41
DRAWING MIES AND GROPIUS
RIEHL HOUSE

BERLIN

POTSDAM

DESSAU

John DeSalvo

42 43
RIEHL HOUSE
INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS

SÜDOSTANSICHT 1:100 NORDOSTANSICHT 1:100

Elevation South-East Elevation North-East


SÜDOSTANSICHT 1:100 NORDOSTANSICHT 1:100

Elevation North-West Elevation South-West


NORDWESTANSICHT 1:100 SÜDWESTANSICHT 1:100

Drawing: Yuqing Shang

44 45
46 47
Lu Qiao Yuqin Shang

48 49
Juliane Schmidt

50 51
Juliane Schmidt

52 53
Juliane Schmidt Juliane Schmidt

54 55
Juliane Schmidt Juliane Schmidt

56 57
Juliane Schmidt Juliane Schmidt

58 59
Donglai Zhao Donglai Zhao

60 61
Zaixiao Wang

62 63
Donglai Zhao

64 65
Julian Teichert

66 67
Zhu Ziqiang
Kai-Joseph Engbers

68 69
Kai-Josef Engbers

70 71
Jeanesty Y. A. Ginting Marie Spiers

72 73
nach einer Vorlage von Moses Alm Right: Nico Feldmann

74 75
Shang Yuqing

76 77
Chigaofei Zhang Guo Xiaofei

78 79
Shang Yuqin

80 81
Donglai Zhao

82 83
PM NM

84 85
NN NN

86 87
Natascha John

88 89
Moses Alm Aubrie Smith

90 91
Guo Xiaofei Guo Xiaofei

92 93
Zaixiao Wang Guo Xiaofei

94 95
Natascha John

96 97
above: Li Qianqian
left: Alexis Rodriguez
right: Zhu Ziqiang

98 99
above: Natascha Meuser
right: Patrick Slansky

100 101
Guo Xiaofei Right: Thomas Franke Quianquian Li

102 103
Li Qianqian Thien Pham

104 105
Zhu Ziqiang

106 107
Shang Yuqing

108 109
Weiyi Zhang Weiyi Zhang

110 111
BAUHAUS

Julian Teichert

113
John DeSalvo

Yildiz Güclü

John DeSalvo Laura Schmidt John DeSalvo

114 115
MEISTERHÄUSER

above: Julian Teichert


left: Patrick Slansky Julian Teichert

116 117
Jocelyn Wong

118 119
John DeSalvo John DeSalvo

120 121
TÖRTEN ESTATE

above: Patrick Slansky

John DeSalvo John DeSalvo

122 123
KONSUMGEBÄUDE

John DeSalvo
Julian Teichert Julian Teichert

124 125
KORNGEBÄUDE

John DeSalvo above: Patrick Slansky Julian


John DeSalvo
Teichert

126 127
LEMKE HOUSE
BERLIN

Julian Teichert

128 129
Laura Schmidt Tiffany Chang

130 131
above: Aubrie Smith
Patrick Slansky left: Yildiz Güclü-

132 133
AFRIKANISCHE STRASSE
BERLIN

Julian Teichert

134 135
John DeSalvo John DeSalvo

136 137
Alexis Rodriguez

138 139
APPENDIX

141
Photos: Denis Esakov

143
Photos: Konstantin Krüger

144 145
146 147
AUTHORS AND PARTCIPANTS

HOCHSCHULE ANHALT IIT CHIGAGO FRANK ASSMANN


Christian Albrecht Morgan Colbert Studied architecture at the then Technical University of Hannover and the
Moses Alm Tiffany Chang then School of Fine Arts, Berlin. Head of the Construction Department
Lukas Bachsoliani Anna Delseith within the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation and taught architecture at the School
Jasmin Cano Margaret Lacamora of Architecture, Bremen. Honorary commercial judge at the State Court of
Zhao Cui Karen Marrugo-Zubaran Berlin and at the Berlin Chamber of Architects. Coordinator of modules and
Kai-Joseph Engbers Alexis Rodrigues lead contributor to a series of seminars on quality assurance, namely
Nico Feldmann Laura Schmidt »Der Weg zum Bauwerk« (The Path towards Good Construction). A wide
Thomas Franke Patrick Slansky range of publications and exhibitions in Germany and abroad.
Tina Frassa Aubrie Smith
Jeanesty Y. A. Ginting Jocelyn Wong JOHN DESALVO
Yildiz Güclü Michael Zima Studied architecture at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York and subse-
Lena Jaehn quently worked as an architect within the practices of Josef Paul Kleihues
Natascha John (Berlin and Chicago) and Norman Foster and Helmut Jahn in Berlin. Owner
Sarah Kehrle of his own award-winning architectural practice JDD Architects in Chicago.
Karolin Mendritzki Freehand illustrator for numerous publications (including architectural
Jaqueline Müller guides) and has given many lectures and organised exhibitions. Appointed
Danijl Nikulin Associate Studio Professor for undergraduate and postgraduate students of
Thien Huong Pham architecture at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (IIT).
Li Qianqian
Lu Qiao CARSTEN KROHN
Juliane Schmidt Studied architecture, history of art and urban planning at the University of
Yuqin Shang Fine Arts, Hamburg and Columbia University, New York. Worked as
Ruquin Song architect within Norman Foster’s practice in Berlin. Gained a Doctorate
Marie Spier in history of art based on the influence of Richard Buckminster Fuller.
Loreen Stumpf Taught at the then University of Karlsruhe, Humboldt University of Berlin
Julian Teichert and the Technical University of Berlin. Curator of the exhibition
Luise Katharina Thaler »Das ungebaute Berlin« (Unbuilt Berlin, 2010) as well as the author of
Isabell Wuttke numerous publications.
Chigaofei Zhang
Weiyi Zhang NATASCHA MEUSER
Donglai Zhao architect BDA DWB, born 1967 in Erlangen. Professor at the Anhalt Univer-
Hanchao Zheng sity of Applied Sciences, Department of Interior Planning. Studied in Rosen-
Zhu Ziqiang heim (Interior Design) and in C
­ hicago at the Illinois Institute of Technology
Guo Xiaofei (Architecture). Doctorate at the Technical University of Berlin. Numerous
publications in the field of design methodology and drawing theory for
architects as well as architectural history research on architecture and zoology.

148 149
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Fachbereich Architektur, Facility Management
und Geoinformation
Postal address: Postfach 2215,
06818 Dessau-Roßlau
Address: Bauhausstr. 5,
06846 Dessau-Roßlau

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Project Management
Natascha Meuser

Editorial Assistants
Bruno Baumgardt
Lena Jaehn

Final Proofreading
Lisa Kraut