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48 THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS “ OF GALAŢI

FASCICLE VIII, 2005, ISSN 1221-4590


TRIBOLOGY

RESEARCH IN WEAR PROCESS OF VALVE RUNNING PAIR


LATCH AT ELASTIC-PLASTIC DEFORMATIONS
Akhad Kh. DZHANAKHMEDOV
Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan
dzhanakhmedov@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The contact task about interaction of running pair exposed to elastic-plastic
deformations (spindle-nut) is considered. The analytical expressions are received to
define the parameters of elastic-plastic contact. The rational choice of a material for
valve running pair by wear-resistance criteria is carried out.

KEYWORDS: running pair, wear-resistance. valve, elastic–plastic deformation,


coefficient of friction.

1. INTRODUCTION in polar system of coordinates. For a reasoning factor of


cross deformation is entered.
Christmas trees complected by valves or latches,
are exploited for hermetic sealing of a mouth of 3. METHOD OF THE SOLUTION
chinks, control and regulation of a mode of their
operation. Let's define of pressure and deformations, and also
The overall performance of oil gusher boundary between elastic and plastic zones at any
equipment in many respects depends on serviceability moment of deformation at taken off loadings. With this
of its separate units, connections and details [1]. A purpose we shall enter into account factor of cross
complexity of situation is that on the one hand is well deformation of a coil of a groove of a running nut.
investigated thread connection, and on the other hand For this purpose at first we shall write the equation
deformed condition of thread couple does not meet of intensity of pressure [4]:
known methods of calculation. Even the N. 2
Zhukovskiy’s curve gives non-uniform distribution of = σi (σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 )2 (1)
2
axial effort on coils of a groove within the limits of
elastic area (Hook’s law). where σ1, σ2, σ3 - main pressure.
However, the experience shows [2], that in Intensity of deformation
2
detail of thread couple of running nut of value encoun
= εi (ε1 − ε 2 )2 + (ε 2 − ε 3 )2 + (ε1 − ε 3 )2 (2)
tered not only elastic, but also plastic deformation and 2 (1 + µ ′)
occurs non-uniform wear process of coils of a groove.
where µ' – variable factor of cross deformation; ε1, ε2, ε3
By a N.Zhukovskiy’s curve, the maximal size of effort
- main deformations.
arises on last coil. However, the pulsing influence of
It is known [4], that at monoaxis deformation
pressure working on a spindle on the part of the
bottom part shiber, creates additional dynamic effort σ 2 = σ 3 = 0; σ 1 = σ x ; ε1 = ε 2 ; ε 2 = ε 3 = − µ ′ε1 .
to grooves [3] and begins serial maximal loading on If these parameters are taken into account
coils, because of it the plastic deformation is in (1) and (2), we shall receive
redistributed not only on the first coils, also on the = σ i σ= x ; εi ε x .
following and owing to what there is an effect of non-
Also we can write according to [4]:
uniform wear process.
ε1 −  ε2 −  ε3 − 
Thus there is a radial displacement of points = = = ψ (3)
of internal radius of a nut groove from residual σ1 −σ σ 2 −σ σ3 −σ
deformation even after removal of loading. 1
where l is the average lengthening  = θ ; θ - change
3
2. STATEMENT OF TASK of volume,
1
Let's consider a contact task about interaction of θ= ( ε 1 + ε 2 + ε 3 ) (4)
running pair exposed to elastic-plastic deformations 3
THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS “ OF GALAŢI 49
FASCICLE VIII, 2005, ISSN 1221-4590
TRIBOLOGY

1 Passing to polar coordinates (fig. 1)


ψ = - some function of a pressure; G – the = σ σ
2G 1 =θ ;σ 2 σ r .
module of shift. An average pressure is determined
from [4]:
1
σ= (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) (5)
3
From (1), (2) and (3) we shall receive
1+ µ′
ψ = εi (6)
σi
If to take into account (6) in (3)
εi
ε1 −  = ( 1 + µ ′ ) (σ − σ ) ;
σi 1
ε
ε 2 −  = ( 1 + µ ′ ) i (σ 2 − σ ) ; (7)
σi
Fig.1. The settlement circuit.
ε
ε 3 −  = ( 1 + µ ′ ) i (σ 3 − σ )
σi Also we shall accept the flat intense condition:
Under the Hook’s law =ε1 ε=θ ; ε 2 ε r [4]:
1 − 2µ
= θ (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) = σ
1
(σ r + σ θ ) (12)
E 3
where µ - Poisson’s coefficient, Е - module of With the account (12) we shall receive
elasticity of a material of a nut.
ε  1  1 − 2µ
Then ε r = i  σ r − σθ  + σθ ;
1 1 − 2µ σi  2  E
= = θ σ (8) εi  1  1 − 2µ
(13)
3 Е εθ = σ − σ + σr
From (7) and (8) we shall receive: σ i  θ 2 r  E
 1 − 2µ ε  ε For nuts, i.e. for cylindrical bodies the equation of
= ε1  − (1 + µ ′) i  σ + (1 + µ ′) i σ 1 ; balance [5]:
 E σi  σi
dσ r σ r − σθ
 1 − 2µ εi  εi + = 0 (14)
= ε2  − (1 + µ ′)  σ + (1 + µ ′) σ 2 ; dr r
 E σi  σi Here
 1 − 2µ ε  ε 1 dϕ
= ε3  − (1 + µ ′) i  σ + (1 + µ ′) i σ 3 σr = ;
 E σ i σ i
r dr
(15)
d 2ϕ
(9) σθ = 2
It is known from [4], that dr
1 1 − 2µ σ x where ϕ = ϕ ( r ) - function of r.
µ =′ − ,
2 2E ε x From (13) and (15) we shall receive
where σх, εх – Pressure and lengthening at εi  1 dϕ 1 d 2ϕ  1 − 2 µ d 2ϕ
σ х σi εr =  − + ;
monoaxial of deformation, and = . Then σi 2
 r dr 2 dr  E dr 2
ε х εi (16)
ε  d 2ϕ 1 dϕ  1 − 2 µ 1 dϕ
1 1 − 2µ σ i εθ = i  2 − +
µ =′ − (10) σi  dr 2r dr 
2 2E ε i  E r dr
From (9) and (10) we shall receive Let's write the equation of compatibility of
 3 εi 1 − 2µ  deformation [5]:
1 − 2µ
ε=
1  −  (σ 1 − σ ) + σ; d εθ εθ − ε r
2 σi 2E  Е − = 0 (17)
dr r
 3 εi 1 − 2µ  1 − 2µ
 (σ 2 − σ ) +
ε= − σ ; (11) Then from (16) and (17) we shall receive:
2 
2 σi 2E  Е ε i d 2ϕ  1 ε i d  ε i   d 2ϕ
+ +   −
 3 εi 1 − 2µ  1 − 2µ σ i dr 2  r σ i dr  σ i   dr 2
ε=
3  −  (σ 3 − σ ) + σ (18)
 2 σ i 2 E  Е  1 d  ε i  1 ε i  dϕ
−  +  =0
 2r dr  σ i  r 2 σ i  dr
50 THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS “ OF GALAŢI
FASCICLE VIII, 2005, ISSN 1221-4590
TRIBOLOGY

dϕ  E 
If we shall accept ψ = , then from (18) we ε i = σ T  1 − 1  + E1ε i (31)
dr  E 
shall have: Where Е1- the module of hardening of a material:
ε i dψ  1 ε i d  ε i   dψ Е1=0.1Е; σТ - yield limit.
+ +   −
σ i dr  r σ i dr  σ i   dr From (28), (30) and (31) we shall receive
(19) 2  E  4 A
 1 d  εi  1 εi  σθ =
−σr σ T  1 − 1  + E1 3 (32)
−  + 2 ψ =
0 3  E  3 r
 2r dr  σ i  r σ i  From (14) and (32) we shall receive
Then the equation (15) through ψ will be
dσ r 2  E 1 4 A
ψ = σ T  1 − 1  + E1 3 (33)
σr =
; dr 3  E r 3 r
r
(20) From (30) and (33):

σθ = 2  E  r 2 A
dr σr = σ T  1 − 1  ln − E1 3 + В (34)
Also σi and εi we shall express through ψ. 3  E  Rв 3 r
From (1) and (15) we can write:

ψ 
2
dψ ψ dψ 2  E  r  2 A
σ=   + − (21) σθ= σ T  1 − 1   1 + ln  + E1 3 + В
i
r dr r dr 3  E  Rв  3 r
The characteristic equation (19) can be chosen (35)
in the following kind [4]: Constant A and B are determined from boundary
d 2ψ 1 dψ ψ conditions:
+ − = 0 (22) At r=Rв, σ r = − P , where Р - specific loading on
2 r dr r
dr
Let's write boundary conditions: nuts. At r=Rв from (34) we shall receive:
σ r = − P at r=Rв; σ r = 0 at r=RH (23) 2
− E1
A
+B= −P (36)
Consistently we shall solve the equation (19). 3 Rb3
If we shall accept, that volume of nuts does not Passing from elastic deformation on plastic, at
change, then r=Rп
ε r + εθ = 0 (24)
3
or σ=
i (σθ − σ r=) σ T (37)
2
dU U
+ = 0 (25) For border of elastic area of a groove of nuts is
dr r applicable the Liame’s equation:
From (25) we shall receive:
σ r = − PRП 
A 
U=
r
(26)
σθ =
PRG RH 2
(
+ RП 2
)
 at r=Rп (38)

A A
εr = − ; εθ = (27)
2
RH2
− RП2

r r2
From (37) and (38) we shall receive
At a constancy of volume of nuts it is possible
2
to accept µ'=1/2, Then from (27) we can have 3RH
σТ = PRП .
εi =
2 A
(28)
2
RH − RП
2

3 r2 From this expression


From (11) = (ε z 0;= σz σ ):
− PRП =
(
σ Т RH2 − RП
2
) (39)
1
σ я= (σ я + σ к + σθ ) 2
3RH
3
or For plastic area agrees (34)
2  E  R 2 A
σя
=
1
(σ к + σ θ ) (29) σ T  1 − 1  ln П − E1 2 + В =
2 3  E  Rв 3 r
Then from (1) we shall receive
3 −
(
σ Т RH2 − RП
2
) (40)
=σi (σ θ − σ r ) (30) 2
3RH
2
For a plastic condition [4] we can write: From (39) and (40):
ε i =ε r + (σ i − σ r ) E
or
THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS “ OF GALAŢI 51
FASCICLE VIII, 2005, ISSN 1221-4590
TRIBOLOGY

2  E  R 2
σ T  1 − 1  ln П − E1 2 + В =
A σ  R 2   E  R
− T  1 − П
B=  + 2  1 − 1  ln П −
3  E  Rв 3 С 3  2
RH 
  E  Rв


(
σ Т RH2 − RП
2
) 2 E1  R2  
(45)

2
(41) − ( 1 − µ ) П + (1 + µ ) 
3RH 3 E  2
RH  
For definition A and B, also of transitive radius,
we use conditions of displacement of a surface of a
groove: 4. RESULTS AND THEIR
For elastic area of displacement DISCUSSIONS.
1 − µ PП RП
2
1 + µ PП RH
2 2

=U r+ (42) On the basis of the equations (34) and (35) the
E RH − RП
2 2 E ( RH − RП
2 2
)r dependences radial and tangent of pressure from radius
A of a coil of a groove of running pair (spindle-nut) are
For plastic area U = . At r=RП: constructed at the following chosen materials (fig. 2): 1
r - for running pair steel SAE 4730 + Steel SAE 3110 (the
A 1 − µ PП RП2
1 + µ PП RH2 2
RП module of elasticity Е=2.15.105МPа, yield strength
= RП +
C E RH − RП
2 2 E ( RH − RП )RП
2 2 σт=800 МPа, Poisson’s coefficient µ=0.28); 2 – for
running pair steel SAE 4730 + Bronze SAE N64
From here
(Е=1.15.105 МPа, σт=450МPа, µ=0.32); 3 – for running
PRП RП RH 
2 2
R2  pair steel SAE 4730 + Brass SAE N40 (Е=1.105 МPа,
= ( 1 − µ ) П + ( 1 + µ )  (43)
( )
A
E RH2
− RП
2

2
RH  σт=350МPа, µ=0.35).
At a choice of materials for running pair
From (39) and (43): recognized that bronze SAE N64 and brass SAE N40
2   are characterized by sufficient resistance and minimal
σ T RП R2
= A ( 1 − µ ) П
2
+ ( 1 + µ )  (44) coefficient of friction.
3E  RH  As a result of account is established, that all
From (40) we have combinations of running pairs, after achievement of size
of radius of a coil of a groove of 11.14 mm, at size
tangent of a pressure - σt, Work in area is elastic -
plastic deformations.

Fig.2. Dependence tangent (1, 2, 3) and radial (1’, 2’, 3’) pressure from radius of a coil of a groove of
running pair:
1 – For running pair Steel SAE 4730 + SAE 3110 (Е=2.15.105 МPа, σт=800 МPа, µ=0.28)
2 – For running pair Steel SAE 4730+ SAE N64 (Е=1.15.105 МPа, σт=450 МPа, µ=0.32)
3 – For running pair Steel SAE 4730+ SAE N40 (Е=1.105 МPа, σт=350 МPа, µ=0.35).
52 THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS “ OF GALAŢI
FASCICLE VIII, 2005, ISSN 1221-4590
TRIBOLOGY

The analysis of influence of radial pressure The analysis of results of researches and carried
show, that at first there is a gradual increase of their out calculating have shown, that manufacturing of
size and after achievement of size of radius of a coil running pair from steel SAE 4730 (Spindle) and
of a groove of 11.75mm, there is a change of a mark bronze SAE N64 (running nut) due to low coefficient
of a pressure in the positive party. of friction (f=0.106), better keeps serviceability by
The statistical analysis and visual survey of a criteria of scoring and wear-resistance.
spindle show, that the zone of the maximal
deterioration last is in top of a coil of a groove. 5. CONCLUSIONS.
Deterioration at the end of a groove, almost in 2
times exceeds of deterioration in a root of a groove of 1. The contact task about interaction of running pair
a spindle. (spindle-nut) is solved, exposed to elastic-plastic
On our sight the summation tangent and radial deformations in polar system of coordinates.
pressure in top of a coil of a groove confirms 2. The analytical expressions for definition tangent
satisfactory concurrence of analytical researches to and radial pressure at elastic-plastic of contact
experimental results. are received.
By the further analysis of results of researches is 3. The borders of transition from elastic deformation
established, that when running pair is in area is on plastic, with use of a condition of
elastic-plastic deformations, it results to creation of displacement of a surface of a groove are
score of a surface of friction. determined.
The essential influence on creation of score 4. Established, that manufacturing of running pair
renders presence in a zone of friction of significant from steel SAE 4730 (spindle) and bronze SAE
contact pressure previous to sharp increase of factor N64 (the running nut), better keeps serviceability
of friction. by criteria of scoring and wear-resistance, due to
The intense condition during friction (at low coefficient of friction (f = 0.106).
movement of a running nut) also is elastic-plastic
deformations can also arise in local microvolumes of REFERENCES
a material at rather small nominal loadings, as the
actual pressure in them achieve significant sizes.
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individual contacts owing to increase of normal fontannoy armatury, Baku: Chashyogly.
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pressure of resistance to movement dislocation from 6. Qrozin B.D., 1951, Iznos metallov, Kiev.
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