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Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2, 291-302 DOI 10.

1007/s12221-010-0291-6

Assessing the Relationship among Fabric Constructional Parameters, Fractional


Reflectances and Cover Factors of Polyester Fabrics by Experimental and
Mathematical Methods
Mine Akgun, Behcet Becerir*, and Halil Rifat Alpay
Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, Uludag University,
Gorukle Campus, Bursa, Turkey
(Received July 20, 2009; Accepted November 17, 2009)

Abstract: This paper focuses on the assessment of the relation among constructional properties, fractional reflectances and
cover factors of fabrics woven from polyester yarns. A novel equation for the calculation of the relation between fractional
reflectance and fabric cover factor was proposed and the usage of the equation was assessed by reflectance measurements. 48
polyester fabrics having different constructional parameters were used and the fabrics differed from each other by their cover
factors. The warp yarn type and count, warp density and warp yarn twist were the same but weft yarn count, weft yarn fiber
count and weft density were different for the fabrics in the experimental sub-groups. The reflectance measurements were con-
ducted on the pretreated but undyed fabric samples as well as on the individual yarn systems of the same fabrics. Fabrics with
the same cover factors exhibited different fractional reflectances. Reflectances were found to be dependent on the cover fac-
tor as well as on yarn fiber fineness, yarn count, yarn density and fabric weave. The changes in crimp of the yarns according
to different construction parameters also governed the changes in fractional reflectances of fabric surfaces. The proposed
equation was tested according to different fabric construction parameters and it was concluded that fiber fineness and weave
pattern were among the most important parameters which govern the total light reflectances from the fabric surfaces,
although they are not incorporated in the calculation of the fabric cover factors. The proposed equation was used to explain
the effects of these components on the reflectance behavior of the fabric surfaces and on fabric cover.
Keywords: Fractional reflectance, Cover factor, Polyester fabric, Fabric cover, Weave pattern

Introduction research is going to be made upon light reflectances from


fabric surfaces. These physical forms include the properties
Fabrics which are composed of yarns are divided into two of fibers, yarns and fabrics and they must usually be taken
main categories which are woven and knitted ones. Woven into account in more than one dimension. A physical change
fabrics are made of two sets of yarns, a lengthwise set called which seems relatively unimportant among the others may
the warp, and a crosswise set called the weft. Yarns are affect the scientific results in a way that can not be predicted.
usually consist of many different kinds of fibers, continuous For that reason, the surface and reflectance properties of
or staple, parallel or twisted, tightly or loosen. Woven fabrics woven fabrics comprise many parameters that have to be
are classified as to weave or structure according to the controlled, and even independently sometimes.
manner in which warp and weft cross each other. The three In order to perform scientific researches on the properties
fundamental weaves are plain, twill and satin. The light of interaction of surfaces with light, some parameters may
reflection from cloth relies on that of yarns and the woven be needed to be incorporated in a single parameter. The
structures [1]. cover factor of the woven fabrics incorporates the yarn
The composition of light and its interaction with the densities and yarn counts to establish the covered area by the
surfaces are still among the scientific research topics which yarns and it provides a valuable tool for considering the
are studied the most but still remain partly unsolved. The relation between surfaces and light.
reflectance models of rough surface have been widely
researched [1-6]. The proposed models have assumed Fabric Cover

microscopic facets to be specular or Lambertian in reflection, The cover of a cloth may be judged by the appearance of
and most of them are based on geometrical optics. Studies the cloth held up against the light, and it depends not only on
on physical optics are made and a general reflectance the number of threads per cm and their linear density, but
framework is proposed [7]. A few researches are focused on also on their regularity, hairiness, fiber composition, twist
woven cloth simulations [8-11], and material and weaving and the cloth finishing processes [12,13-19,20]. The cover
structure properties of cloth are considered. factor indicates the extent to which the area of a fabric is
There are many topics which are related with the physical covered by one set of threads [14]. The cover factor thus
forms of the textile materials to be considered when a indicates the degree of closing or cover, the proportion of the
area which is covered by the projection of the threads. It is
*Corresponding author: becerir@uludag.edu.tr well known that ooziness of yarn, flattening in finishing and

291
292 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

regularity improve the cover of cloth, so that the indication reflectance and fabric cover factor was presented which the
given by the cover factor is not a sufficient measure of this formulation was based on equations (1) and (2);
quality but it gives a very suitable basis of comparison for The calculation of fabric cover given by Peirce [15,17] is
any experiment at investigation, not only of cover but also of presented in equation (2).
hardness, crimp, permeability and transparency, limits of Kwa × Kwe
picking, etc., in which fabrics of similar cover factors show Kf = Kwa + Kwe – ---------------------
- (2)
similarity [15]. 28
The concept of similar cloths can be made from the same where “f” stands for the fabric, “wa” stands for the warp,
fibers which still differ in five respects which are; the yarn and “we” stands for the weft.
count, the ratio of the yarn counts in warp and weft, the ratio This paper proposes equation (3) for the assessment of the
of the yarn spacing, the average yarn spacing, or the weave relation between fractional reflectances and cover factors:
may differ. Such cloths, however, can be compared for one Kwa Kwe
simple property that is the proportion of the total area of the Rf = Rwa × -------- + Rwe × -------
- (3)
yarn. It is possible, therefore, to consider cloths which differ Kf Kf
in many ways as being similar if they possess the same where;
fractional covering power [16]. Rf: reflectance of the fabric (in fractional form)
For any fabric there are two cover factors: the warp cover Rwa: reflectance of the warp yarns (in fractional form)
factor and the weft cover factor. The cloth cover factor is Rwe: reflectance of the weft yarns (in fractional form)
obtained by adding the weft cover factor to the warp cover Kf: fabric cover factor
factor. The cover factors can be adjusted to allow for yarns Kwa: warp cover factor
of different relative densities-either because of the yarn Kwe: weft cover factor
structure or because of the raw material used. The cover The fractional reflectance of the fabric surface is a
factors in SI units are calculated by multiplying the threads combination of the fractional reflectances of the warp and
per centimeter by 3.3 and dividing by the square root of the weft yarns. But, as the two yarn systems have intersections
linear density of the yarn (in Nm count) (eq. (1)). The with each other in the formation of the fabric surface, the
resultant cover factor differs by less than 5 % from the calculation of fabric fractional reflectance must consider
cotton cover factor pioneered by Peirce [15] which their contribution to the surface reflectance by taking their
expressed as the number of threads per inch divided by the cover proportions in the total covered area. Equation (3) can
square root of the cotton yarn count. predict the fabric fractional reflection from the well
engineered composition of the separate warp and weft
K = 3,3 × n-
-------------- (1) yarns.
Nm In this study, the relation among fabric constructional
where; properties, the fractional reflectances and the cover factors
K: cover factor, of polyester fabrics having different construction parameters
n: yarn density (thread/cm), were investigated. A mathematical approach was presented
Nm: yarn count in Nm (metric count; length in meters of and a novel relation between fabric cover and fractional
1 g of yarn). reflectances was proposed. The proposed equation was
For any given threads spacing, plain weave has the largest tested by using the experimental data and the validity of the
number of intersections per unit area. All other weaves have new approach was discussed. It was found that the
fewer intersections than the plain weave. The likely weavability reflectance of the fabrics depended on the construction
of all fabrics woven with the same weave and from similar parameters and on the cover factors of the fabrics as well as
yarns can be forecast from their cover factors [14]. on the fiber fineness of the yarns and on fabric weave.
The cover factors allow a more simple, general and Polyester fabrics showed different light reflecting
consistent specification of a type of cloth, which may vary in characteristics although they had the same cover factors. The
weight, than particular combinations of thread per inch and proposed equation gave reasonable results with the
counts, just as the twist factor distinguishes doubling weft, experimental data.
twist, voile and crepe yarns for all counts [15].
When widely varying cover factors are used for warp and Materials and Methods
weft, a high cover factor in one direction can generally be
compensated by a low cover factor in the other direction [14]. Fabrics composed of yarns having different yarn counts
and filament numbers were used in the experimental part.
Proposal of the Relation between Fractional Reflectance Also different weave structures were considered to assess
and Cover Factor the relation between fabric reflectance and fabric cover
A novel approach to assess the relation between fractional factor through the properties of fibers, yarns and fabrics.
Assessing Fractional Reflectances of Polyester Fabrics Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 293

Table 1.Constructional parameters of the fabrics


Fabric Fabric Warp count Warp density Weft count Weft density Kwa Kwe Kf
code weave [denier/filament] [thread/cm] [denier/filament] [thread/cm]
F1 Plain 70/36 60 100/36 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F2 Plain 70/36 60 100/48 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F3 Plain 70/36 60 100/144 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F4 1/2 Twill 70/36 60 100/36 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F5 1/2 Twill 70/36 60 100/48 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F6 1/2 Twill 70/36 60 100/144 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F7 1/5 Satin 70/36 60 100/36 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F8 1/5 Satin 70/36 60 100/48 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F9 1/5 Satin 70/36 60 100/144 15 17,46 5,22 19,42
18 17,46 6,26 19,82
20 17,46 6,96 20,08
F10 Plain 75/36 60 75/36 27 18,07 8,13 20,95
32 18,07 9,64 21,49
37 18,07 11,15 22,02
F11 1/3 Twill 75/36 60 75/36 27 18,07 8,13 20,95
32 18,07 9,64 21,49
37 18,07 11,15 22,02
F12 1/7 Satin 75/36 60 75/36 27 18,07 8,13 20,95
32 18,07 9,64 21,49
37 18,07 11,15 22,02
F13 Plain 150/36 35 70/72 18 14,91 5,24 17,36
22 14,91 6,40 17,90
26 14,91 7,57 18,45
28 14,91 8,15 18,72
F14 Plain 150/36 35 100/35 18 14,91 6,26 17,84
22 14,91 7,65 18,49
26 14,91 9,04 19,14
28 14,91 9,74 19,46
F15 Plain 150/36 35 150/96 18 14,91 7,67 18,5
22 14,91 9,37 19,29
26 14,91 11,08 20,09
28 14,91 11,93 20,49
294 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

Materials For the reflectance measurement of the samples in fabric


Yarns and Fabrics form; polyester fabrics were cut in 5 × 5 cm pieces and they
48 polyester woven fabrics with different construction were laid as single layer on the black background, while for
parameters were used. The fabrics were woven under the reflectance measurement of the samples in yarn form;
controlled mill conditions in order to obtain the exact the yarns of one system (warp or weft) were taken out from
construction properties. After weaving, the woven fabrics the fabric construction with a pair of tweezers, neither
were pretreated under mill conditions and prepared for color destroying the structure nor the construction of the remaining
measurement in the laboratory. The construction parameters yarn system. The yarns were laid on the black background
of the fabrics were given in Table 1. Twill and satin fabrics and the reflectance was measured just as explained above. A
were weft faced ones. The fibers of the yarns had round photograph representing the yarns before the measurement
cross sectional shapes. The warp yarn properties and warp was presented in Figure 1. The yarn system which was taken
densities were the same for the corresponding sub-groups. out from the fabric structure by a pair of tweezers was absent
Weft yarn properties were different from each other in the and the remaining yarn system was held slightly tight from
corresponding sub-groups. The differences were weft yarn the both sides and it was ready for the color measurement.
count, weft yarn density, weft yarn filament number and
consequently weft crimp in the sub-groups. Measurement of the Crimp
The crimps of the yarns in the fabric structures were
Methods measured according to ASTM D3883-04 (2008) by Shirley
Preparation of the Yarn and Fabric Samples for Color Crimp meter [21].
Measurement
The reflectances of the samples were measured on a Statistical Evaluation
Macbeth Reflectance Spectrophotometer (MS 2020+) from Measured reflectance results were compared with each
400-700 nm under a D65/10 o illuminant and in SCI other according to statistical analysis of ANOVA and the
(Specular Component Included) mode. The fractional relation between the measured and calculated reflectance
reflectance values were recorded according to AATCC results were compared with each other according to
Evaluation Procedure 6 [18]. correlation analysis.
The samples were prepared as four replicas for the
reflectance measurement. Four reflectance measurements Results and Discussion
were made on each replica with a sample rotation of 90 o and
the fractional reflectance of a sample was calculated by The fractional reflectance values; as fabric reflectance,
using total sixteen measurements. warp reflectance and weft reflectance, were presented for the
Reflectance measurements of the replicas (single layer) three groups of fabrics in Figures 2-10. The first group of
were made on a black background. The single layer replicas fabrics (F1-F9) was woven from the same weft yarn count
were laid on the black background (black background color which had different filament numbers (denier/filament
coordinates; average %R: 4,88; average K/S: 9,27; L*: 26,3; number; 100/36; 100/48; 100/144). These group of fabrics
a*: 0,04; b*: -0,29; C*: 0,29; ho: 277,69) with a slight differed from each other in weft densities (15; 18 and 20
fastening from the sides; neither causing any tension nor thread/cm), in weft yarn filament numbers and in fabric
change in surface characteristics (fabrics or yarns). weave pattern (plain; 1/2 twill and 1/5 satin).
The second group of fabrics (F10-F12) was woven from
the same yarn in weft direction (75/36 weft yarn) and they
differed from each other in weft densities (27; 32 and 37
thread/cm) and in fabric weave patterns (plain; 1/3 twill and
1/7 satin).
The third group of fabrics (F13-F15) was woven from
different yarns in weft direction. The yarns differed from
each other both in yarn counts and in yarn filament numbers
(denier/filament number; 70/72; 100/35; 150/96). Also the
fabrics differed from each other in weft densities (18; 22; 26;
28 thread/cm). All the fabrics in this group had plain weave
pattern.
Figure Positioning of the yarns in the fabric during color
1. Percent Crimps of the Yarns in Fabric Structures
measurement; (a) taken by a digital camera and (b) taken under the The yarn system (warp or weft) takes the crimp according
microscope (20 times magnified). to the properties of the other yarn system. These properties
Assessing Fractional Reflectances of Polyester Fabrics Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 295

Figure 2. Fabric fractional reflectances of first group of fabrics.

Figure 3. Fabric fractional reflectances of second group of fabrics.

Figure 4. Fabric fractional reflectances of third group of fabrics.

are yarn count, yarn density and weave pattern. Warp (c1 %) fabric construction parameters chosen. The both crimps
and weft (c2 %) crimps (in Figures 5-10, on x-axis) changed increased as the weft yarn density increased. Also warp
mainly with the changes in weft density because of the crimp increased and weft crimp decreased as the weft yarn
296 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

count increased. The crimps decreased as the yarn float major characteristics from the viewpoint of increase and
length in the corresponding fabrics increased. decrease of the numerical values presented. The reflectances
decreased gradually as the weft densities and % warp crimps
Fabric Reflectances and Fabric Construction Properties increased. However, the reflectances increased slightly as
The changes in fabric fractional reflectances with fabric the fabric weave patterns changed from plain to satin.
construction parameters were presented in Figures 2-4 for The warp fractional reflectances in Figure 6 showed
the first, second and third group of fabrics respectively. The almost the same behavior of the fabrics presented in Figure 5.
fabric fractional reflectances in Figure 2 increased regularly The warp fractional reflectances slightly increased as the
as the weft densities and weft yarn filament numbers weave patterns changed from plain to satin. However, they
increased and as the fabric weave patterns changed from gradually decreased as the weft densities and % warp crimps
plain to satin. increased.
The fabric fractional reflectances in Figure 3 increased The warp fractional reflectances in Figure 7 showed the
regularly as the weft yarn densities increased and as the same behavior of the fabrics presented in Figures 5 and 6.
fabric weave patterns changed from plain to satin; similar to All the fabrics had plain weave patterns and the reflectances
the results obtained in Figure 2. decreased as the weft densities and % warp crimps increased.
The fabric fractional reflectances in Figure 4 increased In Figures 5-7, the warp fractional reflectances decreased
regularly as the weft yarn densities increased. The fractional as the % warp crimps and weft yarn densities increased. The
reflectance values differed from each other according to fractional reflectances decreased as the weft densities
different weft yarn counts and their filament numbers. increased because the crimps taken by the warp threads
In Figures 2-4, the fabric fractional reflectances increased increased. The increase in crimps of the warp yarns caused a
as the weft yarn densities increased and as the fabric weave low amount of light reflection from the surfaces due to the
patterns changed from plain to satin. The increase in weft fabric surface roughness caused by the high crimps.
density meant that the yarn number in unit area increased. Probably a diffused reflection occurred from the surface, not
The weave pattern which changed from plain to satin meant a specular one. However, the warp reflectances slightly
that the weft yarn floating length in unit area increased. The increased as the fabric patterns changed from plain to satin
both increases led to a greater fabric area which reflected because of the longer float lengths of the weft yarns in fabric
the light and consequently the fractional reflectances structure which caused a gradual decrease in warp crimps.
increased. Also the fractional reflectances increased as the Probably diffused reflection was minimized by an increase
filament numbers of the weft yarns increased in Figures 2 in specular reflection. In Figures 5 and 6, % warp crimps
and 4. gradually increased as the weft densities increased but they
gradually decreased as the fabric patterns changed from
Warp Reflectances and Fabric Construction Properties plain to satin. The changes in weave pattern caused weft
The changes in warp fractional reflectances with fabric yarns to take low crimps which resulted to low crimps in
construction parameters were presented in Figures 5-7 for warp yarns and high reflectances. It must also be pointed
the first, second and third group of fabrics respectively. that warp yarns had the same yarn count and had the same
The warp fractional reflectances in Figure 5 showed two density in the corresponding sub-groups.

Figure 5. Warp fractional reflectances of first group of fabrics.


Assessing Fractional Reflectances of Polyester Fabrics Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 297

Figure 6. Warp fractional reflectances of second group of fabrics.

Figure 7. Warp fractional reflectances of third group of fabrics.

Weft Reflectances and Fabric Construction Properties considerably with the changes in fabric construction
The changes in weft fractional reflectances with fabric parameters. The fabric reflectances were in close relation
construction parameters were presented in Figures 8-10 for with warp and weft reflectances and they were primarily
the first, second and third group of fabrics respectively. affected by weft properties because of the chosen fabric
The weft fractional reflectances in Figures 8 and 9 construction parameters. Fabric reflectances and weft
increased gradually as the weft yarn densities and % weft reflectances increased as the weft yarn densities and the
crimps increased and as the fabric weaves changed from number of filaments in the weft yarns increased and also as
plain to satin. the fabric patterns changed from plain to satin. However,
The weft fractional reflectances in Figure 10 also warp reflectances decreased as the weft yarn densities
increased gradually as the weft yarn densities and % weft increased. The reason of the decrease in warp reflectances
crimps increased. The fabrics (F13-F15) presented in Figure was the crimp of the yarns. The warp crimps increased
10 had plain weave pattern. because of the increases in weft densities which led to an
In Figures 8-10, the weft fractional reflectances increased uneven positioning of the warp yarns on fabric surface.
as the weft yarn densities and % weft crimps increased and However, weft reflectances increased as the weft densities
as the weave patterns changed from plain to satin. The and weft crimps increased. The fabrics had weft faced
reason of the increase could be explained as follows; as the constructions and the situation of weft yarns on the fabric
weft yarn densities increased and as the weave pattern surface governed the total reflectances dominantly. Because
changed from plain to satin, the solid area on the surface of that reason, the changes in the weft reflectances were
which reflected the light increased. The even surface superior on fabric and warp light reflectances. The changes
characteristic caused specular reflection to be maximized. in weft yarn properties (yarn count, % yarn crimp, yarn float
An overall discussion of the Figures 2-10 showed that length and yarn filament number) and the changes in their
fractional reflectances of the polyester fabrics changed location in the structure (plain, twill and satin weave) could
298 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

Figure 8. Weft fractional reflectances of first group of fabrics.

Figure 9. Weft fractional reflectances of second group of fabrics.

Figure 10. Weft fractional reflectances of third group of fabrics.

have maximized the specular reflection because the fabrics have maximized the diffused reflection from them. The both
(twill and satin ones) were weft faced ones. These changes light reflection characteristics determined the fabrics’ light
made an opposite effect on warp reflectances which could reflection.
Assessing Fractional Reflectances of Polyester Fabrics Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 299

Fractional Reflectances and Cover Factors Statistical Evaluation of the Reflectance Results (ANOVA)
The cover factors of the fabrics were given in Table 1. Fractional reflectances were tested according to factor
Because of the construction parameters of the fabrics, warp analysis of variance and the means were compared with each
cover factors in each sub-group were the same. Also the weft other according to Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) Test at
cover factors of the first and second group of fabrics 0.05 significance level by using a statistical package program.
changed with the changes in weft densities and they were the The statistical results (ANOVA) of the measurements for
same in their sub-groups. The weft cover factors of the third different factor numbers were presented in Table 2 for the
group of fabrics were different from each other because of first, second and third group of fabrics.
the different weft yarn counts in the corresponding sub- The ANOVA results supported the changes obtained in
groups. The fabric cover factors changed with the same rule fractional reflectances and their relation with fabric construction
of weft cover factors. parameters. When the ANOVA results were considered for
The cover factor in the warp or in the weft direction is fractional fabric and weft reflectances; the fabrics with satin
calculated by using the yarn density and yarn count in the weave, the fabrics with the highest weft densities and the
related direction (eq. (1)). The cover factor of the fabric is fabrics having the yarns with the highest filament numbers
calculated according to the Peirce formula (eq. (2)). The had the highest reflectances. The fractional warp reflectances
calculated cover factors do not take neither the weave showed almost the same behavior but the highest warp
patterns nor the yarn filament numbers into consideration. In the reflectances were obtained at the fabrics with the lowest weft
present work, different fractional reflectances were obtained density. The crimp of the warp yarns increased as the weft
at the fabrics with the same cover factor. The reflectances yarn counts increased because the fabric surface roughness
changed considerably with the weave patterns and with the increased and warp reflectances decreased.
filament numbers of the weft yarns. Although the fabric
cover factor was a measure of the cover of the fabric, the Results of the Proposed Equation
light reflected from the fabric surfaces changed in relation The calculation components and the results of equation (3)
with the other construction properties besides the yarn count for the 48 different fabrics were presented in Table 1 and they
and yarn density. were compared with the measured results in Figures 11-13.

Table 2. ANOVA results


Fabric reflectance Warp reflectance Weft reflectance
Group No. Factors Treatment
*Rank *Rank *Rank
1 (Plain) 3 3 3
Weave pattern 2 (Twill 1/2) 2 2 2
3 (Satin 1/5) 1 1 1
Filament number 1 (100/36) 3 3 3
1 (denier/filament number) 2 (100/48) 2 1 1
3 (100/144) 1 2 2
Weft density 1 (15) 3 1 3
(1/cm) 2 (18) 2 2 2
3 (20) 1 3 1
1 (Plain ) 3 3 3
Weave pattern 2 (Twill 1/3) 2 2 2
3 (Satin 1/7) 1 1 1
2
Weft density 1 (27) 3 1 3
(1/cm) 2 (32) 2 2 2
3 (37) 1 3 1
Weft yarn count 1 (70/72) 3 1 3
(denier/filament number) 2 (100/35) 1 2 1
3 (150/96) 2 3 2
3 1 (18) 4 1 4
Weft density 2 (22) 3 3 3
(1/cm) 3 (26) 2 2 2
4 (28) 1 4 1
*The rank is presented from the highest reflectance to the lowest reflectance.
300 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

Figure 11. Comparison of the measured and calculated fractional reflectances of the first group of fabrics.

Figure 12. Comparison of the measured and calculated fractional reflectances of the second group of fabrics.

Figure 13. Comparison of the measured and calculated fractional reflectances of the third group of fabrics.

Warp cover factors (Kwa) were the same for all the fabrics The measured and calculated fractional reflectance values
in the corresponding sub-groups because warp yarn counts were presented in Figures 11-13 according to the construc-
and warp densities were chosen the same for all the fabric tional properties of the fabrics.
types in them. Weft cover factors changed as the weft yarn Fabric reflectances increased as the weft yarn densities,
counts and densities changed in the corresponding structures weft yarn counts, weft yarn filament numbers (for the same
in Table 1. weft yarn count) increased and as the fabric patterns changed
Assessing Fractional Reflectances of Polyester Fabrics Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 301

from plain to satin (yarn float lengths increased and yarn in the fiber and it leaves the fiber from the opposite surface.
crossings decreased) in Figures 11-13. The light falls on another filament and back-scatters to the
In this study, fabric samples were woven with the same air. This phenomenon which is encountered especially at the
warp and weft yarns in the corresponding groups and sub- fabrics woven from microfilaments increases the amount of
groups. In these groups of fabrics, the weave patterns reflected light and surfaces appear lighter. For this reason,
changed but cover factors of the fabrics remained the same. fiber fineness and fiber diameter affect the amount of
Reflectances increased as the patterns changed from plain to reflected light from the surface.
satin which meant that reflectance from unit area increased The fabrics which were used in the experimental part
due to weave pattern and surface regularity. included the both origins of specular reflection at different
The fabrics with the same yarn counts and yarn densities; levels in the corresponding sub-groups. The light reflectances
as a result they had the same fabric cover factors, had from the fabric samples increased as the patterns changed
different reflectances which originated from the differences from plain to satin (surface regularity increased) and as the
in the other fabric construction properties. These different filament diameters of the yarns decreased (back-scattering
properties were yarn filament numbers and fineness, yarn effect increased).
floats and yarn float lengths in the different fabric weave The fabric cover factor correlates the fabric surface cover
patterns. Filament fineness is not considered in the with the light reflection (or light transmission through the
calculation of the fabric cover factors but yarn density and fabric) from the surface. The formulation of the fabric cover
yarn count are taken into account. factor considers the area covered by the yarns but it does not
The increase in reflectance value meant that the light consider the interaction of light with the physical properties
reflection by unit surface increased. The increase in of the surface. The experimental results presented in this
reflectance by fabric surface showed that the light which fell paper indicated that the light reflection from the fabric
on the surface was reflected back as result of less absorption surfaces also changed with the weave patterns and filament
of the light by the surface. The absorption of the light fineness of the yarns. The proposed equation stated a novel
depends on the light absorbing molecules on or in the relation among the covers of fabrics, warp yarns and weft
surface. In this study, the measurements were made on white yarns and their reflectances.
yarns and fabric surfaces which did not include any light The results presented in Figures 11-13 revealed that the
absorbing molecules, i.e. dyes. The light was reflected by the results of the proposed equation fitted with the actual results
yarn and fabric surfaces according to the surface and obtained from reflectance measurements. Also the proposed
construction properties of the yarns and fabrics. equation considers the effects of the more regular surfaces
The increase in reflectances implied that some specular on reflectances.
reflection of light took place on fabric surfaces. In color
science and color measurement, specular reflection is the Correlation Analysis of the Proposed Equation with the
result of regular and gloss surfaces in which the incident Reflectance Measurements
light is reflected by an angle almost equal to the angle of The correlation analysis between the measured and
incidence. When the textile surfaces are considered, there calculated fractional reflectance values were computed for
are two main reasons of specular reflection from the the three groups of fabrics separately. The correlation
surfaces. The first origin of the specular reflection from coefficients were found as 0.881079, 0.889424, and 0.962625
textile surfaces is the regularity of the surfaces. As the textile for the first, second and third group of fabrics respectively.
surfaces become regular, which means that as the intersection The overall correlation coefficient of the results is 0.940349.
of the warp and weft yarns decreases (satin weave fabrics), The high correlation coefficients indicated the validity of the
the surfaces become like glossy surfaces and light reflection proposed equation for the experimental details of the study.
increases. When plain, twill and satin weaves are considered;
the amount of specularly reflected light is greater at satin Conclusion
surfaces than the remaining two because of the less
intersections of the warp and weft yarns and long floating of The experimental results showed that fabric fractional
the yarns in satin weave. Plain weave surfaces which have reflectances and weft fractional reflectances increased as the
the highest number of yarn intersections are matte surfaces weft yarn densities increased and as the fabric patterns
when compared with twill and satin surfaces. The light is changed from plain to satin. Also the fractional reflectances
usually reflected diffusely from plain weave surfaces. The changed with the changes in yarn filament numbers. Not
second origin of the specular reflection is the diameters of only fiber fineness but also fiber number is important in light
the fibers and yarns in the fabric structure. Because of the reflecting properties of the yarns and fabrics. Warp
thin diameters of the fibers and yarns, the light back- reflectances changed according to the changes in weft yarn
scattering from the surfaces increases. When the light enters properties because warp yarns were constant in the
a thin filament, e.g. a microfilament, it is not fully absorbed corresponding fabric structures and behaved according to
302 Fibers and Polymers 2010, Vol.11, No.2 Mine Akgun et al.

the yarn crimp that they had taken in the structure. Warp 4. R. L. Cook and K. E. Torrance, ACMT Graphic, 1, 7
reflectances showed slight increases as the fabric patterns (1981).
changed from plain to satin but they also showed slight 5. P. Poulin and A. Fournier, ACM Comput. Graphic
decreases as the weft yarn densities and weft yarn diameters (SIGGRAPH 90), 24, 273 (1990).
increased in the corresponding fabric groups. The changes in 6. X. D. He, K. E. Torrance, F. X. Sillion, and D. P.
warp reflectances occurred although the calculated warp Greenberg, ACM Comput. Graphic (SIGGRAPH 91), 25,
cover factors were the same. Cover factor is calculated by 175 (1991).
using the yarn density and the yarn count but the results 7. S. K. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, IEEE T Pattern
showed that fabric, warp and weft reflectances changed Anal., 13, 611 (1991).
considerably by the changes in fiber fineness, fiber number 8. Evelyn, Chun-Yi Wang, Woven Cloth Simulation. http://
and weave pattern. Changes in reflectances could be userpages.umbc.edu/~cwang3/English/Spring00/CMSC635/
considered as changes in cover of the fabric. project/finalpaper.html. (access date: 12 November 2007).
Reflectances of the fabrics changed considerably although 9. C. Schlick, Proceeding of the International Conference
they had the same fabric cover factors in the corresponding Eurographics ’94, 13, 233 (1994).
sub-groups. 10. V. V. Volevich, A. B. Khodulev, E. Kopylov, and O. A.
Fabrics woven from the yarns having the same yarn count Karpenko, The 7th International Conference on Computer
in plain and in satin weave had the same fabric cover factors. Graphics and Visualization, Moscow, Russia, May, 1997.
But their light reflectances were much different from each 11. Usami, Creating Anisotropic Reflectance Model of Cloth
other because of the changes in cover of the different Based on Analyzing Reflection Light. Master’s Thesis,
weaves. The proposed formula presented a novel relation Ritsumekan Univ., Japan, 1999.
between the fractional reflectances and cover factors of the 12. M. Akgun, B. Becerir, and H. R. Alpay, Text. Res. J., 78,
fabrics. 264 (2008).
A general statement can not always be made expressing 13. M. A. Taylor, “Technology of Textile Properties: An
that the cover of the fabrics increase as the weaves change Introduction”, (2nd Edition), London: Forbes, p.224
from plain to satin because the cover of the fabrics also (1981).
depends on the fiber fineness of the fabric constituting yarns. 14. A. R. Horrocks and S. C. Anand, “Handbook of Technical
The yarn properties which are related by fiber fineness can Textiles”, USA: CRC Press/Woodhead Publishing, p.79
compensate the effects of changing weave pattern on light (2000).
reflectances. 15. F. T. Peirce and J. R. Womersley, J. Text. Ins., 28, 48
The equation proposed in this paper can be used in (1937).
investigating the effects of yarn filament fineness, filament 16. J. W. S. Hearle, P. Grosberg, and S. Backer, “Structural
number and fabric weave on the cover and on reflectance Mechanics of Fibers, Yarns and Fabrics”, New York,
properties of the woven fabric. It gives reasonable results Wiley-Interscience, pp.334-335 (1969).
with changing fabric construction parameters. 17 A. M. Seyam, The Structural Design of Woven Fabrics:
Theory and Practice, The Textile Institute, Textile
References Progress, 31, 11-19 (2002).
18. AATCC Technical Manual, AATCC, New Jersey, 75, 373-
1. J. Yang and K. Ikeuchi, Comput Vis. Image Media, 88, 33 379 (2000).
(2003). 19. H. Gabrijelèiè, Tekstilec, 50, 93 (2007).
2. M. Oren and S. K. Nayar, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’94, 20. B. Becerir, Colourage, TexIndiaFair, 53 (2003).
239 (1994). 21. ASTM D3883-04, Standard test Method for Yarn Crimp
3. K. E. Torrance and E. M. Sparrow, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 57, and Yarn Take-up in Woven Fabrics, 2008.
1105 (1967).
International Journal of Industrial Engineering
& Technology (IJIET)
ISSN (P): 2277-4769; ISSN (E): 2278-9456
Vol. 8, Issue 1, Jun 2018, 1-8
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT

PLAIN WEAVE COTTON FABRICS

V. YASHODHAKUMARI1, H. M. DEVARAJA2 & S. SUGUMAR3


1
Associate Professor, Department Knitwear Design, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Garment Engineering, Wolkite University, Ethiopia
3
Retired Associate Professor Government Sri Krishnarajendra Silver Jubilee Technological Institute,
K. R. Circle, Bangalore, India
ABSTRACT

Cotton is the king of textile fibers. It is one of the majorly used textile fiber for the production of apparel. 40
Ne, 60 Ne, and 80 Ne cotton yarns are selected to produce plain weave fabrics for the application of apparel. 40 Ne X 40
Ne, 60 Ne X 60 Ne, 80 Ne X 80 Ne, yarns with different ends per inch and picks per inch were used to produce plain
weave fabrics. Fabric dimensional study, Tensile strength and elongation, Tearing strength, and fabric stiffness were
studied. Shrinkage in warp way is more compare to weft direction of the fabrics. It is observed that whenever the EPI or
PPI increase the Tensile strength, tearing strength and stiffness increases. Tensile strength, Tearing strength and fabric

Original Article
stiffness increase with increase in yarn cotton count.

KEY WORDS: Ends per Inch(EPI), Picks Per Inch (PPI), Dimensional Stability, Tensile Strength, Tearing Strength &
Stiffness

Received: May 11, 2018; Accepted: Jun 02, 2018; Published: Jun 22, 2018; Paper Id: IJIETJUN20181

INTRODUCTION
Textile products are being produced for centuries for clothing purposes. The manufacturing technologies
are modified and innovated based on the practical difficulties of manufacturing and invention on new fiber,
knowledge had been passed transferred from generation to generation. Inventions new machines have changed the
manufacturing technologies of Textile industries.

Simultaneously, the invention of new synthetic fibers such as Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic Etc, gave new
avenues to use the synthetic fibers for apparel and industrial application (W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle, 2008).

All the apparel products produced by utilizing natural and synthetic fibers are important for both aesthetic
a functional aspects. The purpose of clothing is for protection same time it has to be comfortable and pleasant in
look (Apurba Das and R. Alagiruswamy, 2010).

Cotton fiber has been used as natural and sustainable clothing. Till today there is no textile synthetic fiber
is comparable to cotton fiber, due to its comfort properties.

Varieties of cotton fibers are grown for the uses of textiles. There are wide varieties of cotton commercial
fabrics available for garment manufacturing. So, the selection of suitable fabric for casual and formal garments
required to understanding of the properties which are important for apparels category.

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2 V. Yashodhakumari, H. M. Devaraja & S. Sugumar

Fabric properties are conveniently divided into different groups depending upon the end user requirements special
properties may be considered and tests may be performed to assess these properties. In this study the properties which are
requisite for cotton garments are considered and performed to assess the results.

Table 1: Fabric Details


Fabric
Count EPI and PPI Fabric Type
Sample No
P1 40X40 92X88 Plain
P2 60X60 92X88 Plain
P3 80X80 92X88 Plain
P4 40X40 132X72 Plain
P5 60X60 132X108 Plain
P6 80X80 120X100 Plain

MECHANICAL PROPERTY
Fabric Dimensional Stability

In the garment industry shrinkage is one of the major quality problems facing from beginning of the process to the
consumer. Dimensional stability test is conducted for the determination of dimensional changes of fabrics when subjected
to home laundering procedures. The fabric specimens are tested by using the standard test method AATCC-135-2004.
Ten readings were observed and tabulated. The average of the same has been tabulated for further interpretations.

Table 2: Dimensional Stability


Fabric Sample Direction of Initial length Final Length Fabric Shrinkage
No. the Test Cms cms %
Warp 25 24.2 3.2
P1
Weft 25 24.5 2.0
Warp 25 24.4 2.4
P2
Weft 25 24.4 2.4
Warp 25 24.3 2.8
P3
Weft 25 24.6 1.6
Warp 25 24.3 2.9
P4
Weft 25 24.8 0.8
Warp 25 24.3 2.9
P5
Weft 25 24.8 0.8
Warp 25 24.5 2.0
P6
Weft 25 24.7 1.2

Figure 1: Dimensional Stability

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.6097 NAAS Rating: 2.63


Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of Different 3
Plain Weave Cotton Fabrics

Fabric Tensile Strength and Elongation

Test method covers the grab and modified grab test procedures for determining breaking strength and elongation
of the fabrics (Saville.B.P.1999). A 100mm (4.0 inch) wide specimen is mounted centrally in clamps of tensile testing
machine and a force applied until the specimen breaks. Values for the breaking force and elongation of the test specimen
are obtained from the computer interfaced machine scales. The fabric specimens are tested by using the standard test
method ASTM-D-5034.

Table 3: Fabric Tensile Strength and Elongation


Fabric Tensile Strength at Break in Elongation
Type kgf %
Warp Weft Warp Weft
P1 14.7 14.9 32.67 38.00
P2 14.1 10.8 23.33 36.00
P3 8.2 7.02 17.33 37.33
P4 30.3 14.4 38.00 35.33
P5 20.1 15.1 38.0 33.33
P6 11.7 7.6 24.67 36.67

Figure 2: Fabric Tensile Strength and Elongation

Fabric Tearing Strength

Test method covers the determination of the force required to tear on single strip cut of a fabric and using a
falling- pendulum type (Elmendorf) apparatus (Saville.B.P.1999). A slit is centrally precut in attest specimen held between
two clamps and the specimen is torn affixed distance. The resistance to tearing is in part factored into the scale reading of
the instrument and is computed from this reading and the pendulum capacity. The fabric specimens are tested by using the
standard test method ASTM-D-1424. Ten readings were observed and tabulated. The average of the same has been
tabulated for further interpretations.

Table 4: Fabric Tearing Strength


Type of Fabric Tear Strength in kgf
Warp Weft
P1 1.12 1.06
P2 0.90 0.80
P3 0.67 0.67
P4 1.47 1.45
P5 0.67 1.32
P6 0 0

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4 V. Yashodhakumari, H. M. Devaraja & S. Sugumar

Figure 3: Fabric Tearing Strength

Fabric Stiffness

The bending length is dependent on the fabric weight (Saville.B.P.1999) and is therefore an important component
of the drape of the fabric when it is hanging under its own weight the relationship among the length of the overhanging
strip the angle that is bends to and the flexural rigidity G, of the fabric is a complex one which was solved empirically by
pierce to give formula.

• L – Length of fabric projecting, O – Angle fabric bends and

• M – Mass per unit area

Cantilever test, employing the principle of cantilever bending of the fabric under its own mass. This test method
covers measurement of stiffness properties of fabrics. Bending length of is measured as directed in the standard test method
ASTM-D-1388 using Shirley stiffness tester and bending flexural rigidity and bending modulus were calculated.
Ten readings were observed and tabulated. The average of the same has been tabulated for further interpretations

Bending Rigidity (Flexural Rigidity)

Flexural rigidity is the ratio of small change in bending moment per unit width of the material to the
corresponding small change in curvature.

Bending Rigidity G = M X C3 X103

Where

• C- Bending length (cm) and

• M- Fabric mass per unit area (g/m3)

• G- Flexural rigidity.

Bending Modulus

The stiffness of the fabric in bending is dependent on its thickness; the thicker the fabric becomes stiffer.

Bending Modulus = 12 X G X10-6/T3

T=Thickness of the fabric (cm).

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.6097 NAAS Rating: 2.63


Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of Different 5
Plain Weave Cotton Fabrics

Table 5: Bending Length, Flexural Rigidity and Bending Modulus


Fabric Bending Bending Flexural Flexural Bending Bending
Sample Length Length Rigidity Rigidity Modulus Modulus
No Warp Weft Warp Weft Warp Weft
P1 4.9 4.5 1247 966 381 295
P2 5.6 4.8 1352 852 824 519
P3 5.1 4.1 716 372 807 419
P4 4.1 4.5 827 1094 252 334
P5 5.1 5.3 1300 1459 888 996
P6 5.1 5.4 862 1024 971 1024

Figure 4: Bending Length of Fabrics

Figure 5: Fabric Flexural Rigidity

Figure 6: Fabric Blending Modulus

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6 V. Yashodhakumari, H. M. Devaraja & S. Sugumar

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Dimensional Stability

Dimensional stability of the fabrics was calculated in warp and weft direction in terms of shrinkage percentage as
shown in the table 2 and fig1. It is been observed that dimensional stability of all fabrics is good and are less than 3.5% and
it is acceptable for the production of garments. Shrinkage is found more in warp way in all the fabrics. It is due the warp
density is higher than the weft density.

Fabric Tensile Strength and Elongation

The results of tensile strength of fabrics is shown in the table3 and fig 2.The fabrics P4 and P5 shown higher
tensile strength followed by P2,P1,. Warp way is higher than weft way .this is due to higher thread density. Tensile strength
of P3 fabrics less compare to P1 and P2 fabrics due finer yarns were used in P3 fabrics. Elongation percentage of P4 and
P2 is higher compare to other fabrics. Elongation of fabric in Warp way direction shows higher than weft way direction.

Tearing Strength

Tearing strength results of the fabrics is shown in table 4 &3.P1, P4 fabrics shows higher tearing strength
compared to other fabrics. But in P6 both warp and weft tearing strength is less than 3.2 kg capacity. The samples are not
considering as test values. The tensile properties of constituent fibers and yarns, yarn density, yarn twist and yarn count
influence the tearing resistance.

Bending Rigidity

Results of bending rigidity of the fabrics are shown in table 5.and Fig: 4, 5 and 6. Fabric P1and P4 shows
maximum value of flexural rigidity followed by P5, P2, and P1. AndP4 shows least value. Warp way is higher compared to
weft way in P1, P2 P3,P4, and P6. This is because of twist in yarn.

Bending Modulus

The bending modulus is independent property of the dimensions of the fabric so that by analogy of the solid
materials it is a measure of intrinsic stiffness. The bending modulus values of fabrics are calculated and shown in the table
5 and fig 6.The fabrics P6, P5, and P2 show maximum value followed byP3, P4, and P1.The bending modulus value
depends on yarn parameters such as yarntwist, linear density and fabric thickness.

CONCLUSIONS

Dimensional stability of the all six types of cotton fabrics is good. it is acceptable for the production of garments.

P4 and P5 fabric with higher thread density shows higher tensile strength than other fabrics. The tensile properties
of constituent fibers and yarns, yarn density, yarn twist and yarn count influence the Tensile and tearing strength.

Bending modulus values are depends on factors such as Twist of the yarn, density of yarn and fabric thickness and
weave of the fabric

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.6097 NAAS Rating: 2.63


Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of Different 7
Plain Weave Cotton Fabrics

REFERENCES

1. ASTM-D-1059-01: Yarn number based on short-length specimens.

2. AATCC-135-2004: Fabric Dimensional stability

3. ASTM-D-5034: Measurement of Tensile strength of the fabrics by Grab method

4. ASTM-D-1424: Measurement of Tearing strength of fabrics

5. ASTM-D-1388: Measurement of Fabric Stiffness properties

6. Apurba Das and R. Alagiruswamy. “Science in clothing comfort” Wood head publication India pvt ltd., First edition, 2010.

7. Ford J.F., Fiber data summaries, Shirley Institute, Manchester 1966

8. Mitsuo Matsudaira, K. Nkano, Y. Yamazaki, Yoshiteru Hayashi and Osamu Hayashi “ Effects of weave density, yarn twist, and
yarn count on fabric handle of polyester woven fabrics by objective evaluation method” Journal of Textile Institute. Vol.100
No.3, April 2009, pp. 265-274.

9. Saville.B.P. “Physical Testing of Textiles” The Textile Institute, CRC Press, Wood head publishing India pvt ltd., First edition,
1999.

10. W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle. Physical properties of Textile fibers, 4th edition, wood head publishing in textiles, 2008.

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