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Republic of India

Bharat Ga?arajya
[other local names]
Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and
green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with
24 spokes.
Flag
Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a
galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "???????
????".
State emblem
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"[2][3]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]
MENU0:00
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green
Capital New Delhi
28�36'50?N 77�12'30?E
Largest city Mumbai (urban area)
Delhi (metropolitan area and city proper)
Official languages
HindiEnglish[b][7]
Recognised regional languages
State level and
Eighth Schedule[8][show]
National language None[9][10][11]
Religion (2011)
79.8% Hinduism
14.2% Islam
2.3% Christianity
1.7% Sikhism
0.7% Buddhism
0.4% Jainism
0.23% Unaffiliated
0.65% others[12]
See Religion in India
Demonym(s) Indian
Membership UN, WTO, BRICS, SAARC, SCO, G8+5, G20, Commonwealth of Nations
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
� President
Ram Nath Kovind
� Vice President
Venkaiah Naidu
� Prime Minister
Narendra Modi
� Chief Justice
Sharad Arvind Bobde
� Speaker of the Lok Sabha
Om Birla
� Leader of the Rajya Sabha
Thawar Chand Gehlot
Legislature Parliament
� Upper house
Rajya Sabha
� Lower house
Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom
� Dominion
15 August 1947
� Republic
26 January 1950
Area
� Total
3,287,263[6] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[c] (7th)
� Water (%)
9.6
Population
� 2018 estimate
Increase1,352,642,280[13][14] (2nd)
� 2011 census
1,210,854,977[15][16] (2nd)
� Density
405.3/km2 (1,049.7/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
� Total
Increase $12.363 trillion[17] (3rd)
� Per capita
Increase $9,027[17] (118th)
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
� Total
Increase $3.202 trillion[17] (5th)
� Per capita
Increase $2,338[17] (139th)
Gini (2013) 33.9[18]
medium � 79th
HDI (2018) Increase 0.647[19]
medium � 129th
Currency Indian rupee (?) (INR)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date format
dd-mm-yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd[d]
Mains electricity 230 V�50 Hz
Driving side left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD .in (others)

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Ancient India
2.2 Medieval India
2.3 Early modern India
2.4 Modern India
3 Geography
4 Biodiversity
5 Politics and government
5.1 Politics
5.2 Government
5.3 Administrative divisions
6 Foreign, economic and strategic relations
7 Economy
7.1 Industries
7.2 Socio-economic challenges
8 Demographics, languages, and religion
9 Culture
9.1 Art, architecture and literature
9.2 Performing arts and media
9.3 Society
9.4 Clothing
9.5 Cuisine
9.6 Sports and recreation
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 Bibliography
14 External links

India (Hindi: Bharat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bharat Ga?arajya),
[20] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the
second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded
by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of
Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[e]
China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In
the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its
Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000
years ago.[21] Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as
hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in
human genetic diversity.[22] Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the
western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into
the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.[23] By 1200 BCE, an
archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from
the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning
of Hinduism in India.[24] The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the
northern regions.[25] By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged
within Hinduism,[26] and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders
unlinked to heredity.[27] Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-
knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.[28] Their collective era
was suffused with wide-ranging creativity,[29] but also marked by the declining
status of women,[30] and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised
system of belief.[f][31] In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-
languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.[32]

In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put
down roots on India's southern and western coasts.[33] Armies from Central Asia
intermittently overran India's plains,[34] eventually establishing the Delhi
sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval
Islam.[35] In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting
composite Hindu culture in south India.[36] In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged,
rejecting institutionalised religion.[37] The Mughal empire, in 1526, ushered in
two centuries of relative peace,[38] leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.[g]
[39] Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning
India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty.[40] British
Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,[41]
but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and
the public life took root.[42] A pioneering and influential nationalist movement
emerged,[43] which was noted for nonviolent resistance and led India to its
independence in 1947.

India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system.


It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew
from 361 million in 1951 to 1,211 million in 2011.[44] During the same time, its
nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its
literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in
1951,[45] India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information
technology services, with an expanding middle class.[46] It has a space programme
which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian
movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
[47] India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of
increasing economic inequality.[48] India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks
high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours,
Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.[49] Among the socio-
economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,[50] and
rising levels of air pollution.[51] India's land is megadiverse, with four
biodiversity hotspots.[52] Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area.[53]
India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's
culture,[54] is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected
habitats.