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1 SULPHURIC ACID

BaSO4. c) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. d) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Sulphuric acid is uses to manufacture almost all products. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Rayon is an example of a syntheticfibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. .Uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4 1. The neutralization ofsulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. Examples of hydrocarbon.Examples: a) Fertilisers b) Paint pigments c) Detergents d) Synthetic fibres e) Electrolyte in car batteries f) Cleaning metals g) Plastics h) Other chemical b) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate.

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As a strong acid b.As a sulphonating agent e.8)The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a.As a catalyst Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before .As an oxidizing agent d.As a drying or dehydrating agent c.

quartz lenses and mirrors Soda-lime glass-Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Low melting point -Easily moulded -High thermal expansion Window glass.Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Easy to clean Can withstand compression 3. bottles and light bulbs Borosilicate glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Boron oxide -High melting point -Low thermal expansion -Resistant to heat -Resistant to chemical attack Cooking wares and laboratory glass wires Lead crystal glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Lead(II) oxide . Types and uses of glasses Types of glassComposition Special properties Uses Fused glass -Silicon dioxide -High transparency -High melting point Glass rods.

vase and porcelain -toilet. for example kaolin.bricks.microchips e. Semiconductors. floor and wall tiles c. When the clay is heated to a very high temperature. 2. tiles.Construction materials. ceramics and polymers. 2. glass. 3. fibre optic. alloys.electric irons. high reflective lenses and decorative glasswares CERAMICS 1. Description of composite materials : Types of composite materials . toasters. 4. Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete. fuses and spark Plugs d.2SiO2. bones and teeth COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. Ceramics have the following properties : Strong Hard but brittle Electrical insulator Resistant to heat Resistant to chemicals Able to withstand compression 3.Medical fieldartificial limbs. a hydrated aluminium silicate. cements b. Composite materials have properties that ares uperior than those of the original components. ovens. specific super.-High density -High refractive index Prism. they undergo a series of chemical reactions and arehardened permanently to form ceramics.Electrical insulators . Ceramics are made from clay. cups. sink.conductor. Uses of ceramics : a.2H2O. Al2O3.Ornamental articles -plates. fibre glass and photochromic glass. bowls.

Components Special Properties Example / Uses Superconducto r Alloys of metal compounds + Ceramics of metal oxides Can conduct electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. can be easily coloured and low in density. Construction of high-rise buildings. Strong . Used in bullet trains and medical magneticimaging devices like MRI Reinforced concrete Concrete + steel Tough with more tensile strength and can be moulded into any shape. bridges and oil platform Fibre glass Glass + plastic Has high tensile strength.

information display panels. small boats. optical switches and light intensity meters . lens in cameras. car windshields.and can be easily moulded and shaped. Household products like water storage tanks. skis and helmets Photochromic glass Silver Chloride + glass / transparent polymers Lenses from photochromic glass protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. badminton rackets. Optical lenses.

Air Pollution SO2 is released through chimneys of factories and burning of petrol in cars. It causes respiratory problems in humans and reacts with water and oxygen to form acid rain. i. S(l) + O2(g)→ SO2(g) STAGE 2 In the converter. Fish and other aquatic organism die. iii. The pH value of the soil will decrease thus causes salts to leach out of the top soil. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. Water Pollution Acid rain flows into lakes and rivers make them acidic. V2O5 . Acid rain corrodes buildings and metal structures. sulphur dioxide. SO2. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the Contact process that consists of three stages. The gas produced is cooled and purified. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. Roots of trees will destroy and plants will die of malnutrition and diseases. Soil Pollution Acid rain destroys trees in forests. ii. 1. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. STAGE 1 In the furnace.As electrolyte in car batteries 3.

the sulphur trioxide. SO3 through this reversible action. H2SO4 in large quantities. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)→ H2S2O7(l) The oleum. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) 2. Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture of detergents Production of fertilizer Manufacture of artificial fibres Manufacture of paint Leather tanning .5% of the sulphur dioxide. STAGE 3 In the absorber. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)→ 2H2SO4 (l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide. SO3. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide.catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. SO3 directly to water. H2S2O7.

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