9.

1 SULPHURIC ACID

The neutralization ofsulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. Examples of hydrocarbon. c) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. . d) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a syntheticfibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. BaSO4.Uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4 1. Sulphuric acid is uses to manufacture almost all products. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents.Examples: a) Fertilisers b) Paint pigments c) Detergents d) Synthetic fibres e) Electrolyte in car batteries f) Cleaning metals g) Plastics h) Other chemical b) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate.

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8)The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a.As an oxidizing agent d.As a sulphonating agent e.As a strong acid b.As a drying or dehydrating agent c.As a catalyst Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before .

quartz lenses and mirrors Soda-lime glass-Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Low melting point -Easily moulded -High thermal expansion Window glass. bottles and light bulbs Borosilicate glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Boron oxide -High melting point -Low thermal expansion -Resistant to heat -Resistant to chemical attack Cooking wares and laboratory glass wires Lead crystal glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Lead(II) oxide .Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Easy to clean Can withstand compression 3. Types and uses of glasses Types of glassComposition Special properties Uses Fused glass -Silicon dioxide -High transparency -High melting point Glass rods.

high reflective lenses and decorative glasswares CERAMICS 1. Al2O3.bricks.electric irons. vase and porcelain -toilet. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete. Description of composite materials : Types of composite materials . Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal. floor and wall tiles c. glass. for example kaolin. fibre optic. When the clay is heated to a very high temperature. ovens. a hydrated aluminium silicate.Medical fieldartificial limbs. Ceramics are made from clay. bones and teeth COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. 2.Construction materials.conductor.2H2O. 2. fibre glass and photochromic glass. Ceramics have the following properties : Strong Hard but brittle Electrical insulator Resistant to heat Resistant to chemicals Able to withstand compression 3. specific super. alloys. cements b. 3. 4.2SiO2. tiles.Ornamental articles -plates. Uses of ceramics : a. sink. they undergo a series of chemical reactions and arehardened permanently to form ceramics.microchips e. cups. toasters.Electrical insulators . bowls. ceramics and polymers. Semiconductors. Composite materials have properties that ares uperior than those of the original components. fuses and spark Plugs d.-High density -High refractive index Prism.

can be easily coloured and low in density. Construction of high-rise buildings.Components Special Properties Example / Uses Superconducto r Alloys of metal compounds + Ceramics of metal oxides Can conduct electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. bridges and oil platform Fibre glass Glass + plastic Has high tensile strength. Used in bullet trains and medical magneticimaging devices like MRI Reinforced concrete Concrete + steel Tough with more tensile strength and can be moulded into any shape. Strong .

car windshields.and can be easily moulded and shaped. Household products like water storage tanks. information display panels. skis and helmets Photochromic glass Silver Chloride + glass / transparent polymers Lenses from photochromic glass protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. badminton rackets. Optical lenses. lens in cameras. small boats. optical switches and light intensity meters .

molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. Acid rain corrodes buildings and metal structures. The gas produced is cooled and purified. i. SO2. Water Pollution Acid rain flows into lakes and rivers make them acidic. Soil Pollution Acid rain destroys trees in forests. ii. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution. It causes respiratory problems in humans and reacts with water and oxygen to form acid rain. Roots of trees will destroy and plants will die of malnutrition and diseases. V2O5 . iii. STAGE 1 In the furnace. Fish and other aquatic organism die. S(l) + O2(g)→ SO2(g) STAGE 2 In the converter. sulphur dioxide. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the Contact process that consists of three stages. Air Pollution SO2 is released through chimneys of factories and burning of petrol in cars. The pH value of the soil will decrease thus causes salts to leach out of the top soil. SO2 and excess oxygen gas.As electrolyte in car batteries 3. 1.

5% of the sulphur dioxide. the sulphur trioxide. H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)→ H2S2O7(l) The oleum. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) 2. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. STAGE 3 In the absorber. SO3. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)→ 2H2SO4 (l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide. Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture of detergents Production of fertilizer Manufacture of artificial fibres Manufacture of paint Leather tanning . SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3 directly to water. SO3 through this reversible action. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide.