9.

1 SULPHURIC ACID

Rayon is an example of a syntheticfibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. d) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents.Uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4 1. Examples of hydrocarbon. The neutralization ofsulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. BaSO4. . Sulphuric acid is uses to manufacture almost all products. c) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid.Examples: a) Fertilisers b) Paint pigments c) Detergents d) Synthetic fibres e) Electrolyte in car batteries f) Cleaning metals g) Plastics h) Other chemical b) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate.

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As a strong acid b.8)The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a.As a catalyst Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before .As a drying or dehydrating agent c.As an oxidizing agent d.As a sulphonating agent e.

quartz lenses and mirrors Soda-lime glass-Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Low melting point -Easily moulded -High thermal expansion Window glass. bottles and light bulbs Borosilicate glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Boron oxide -High melting point -Low thermal expansion -Resistant to heat -Resistant to chemical attack Cooking wares and laboratory glass wires Lead crystal glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Lead(II) oxide . Types and uses of glasses Types of glassComposition Special properties Uses Fused glass -Silicon dioxide -High transparency -High melting point Glass rods.Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Easy to clean Can withstand compression 3.

2. 2. a hydrated aluminium silicate. Ceramics are made from clay. glass. Uses of ceramics : a. Al2O3. cups. bowls. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete. cements b.Electrical insulators . When the clay is heated to a very high temperature. high reflective lenses and decorative glasswares CERAMICS 1.electric irons. fuses and spark Plugs d. fibre optic. 4. Ceramics have the following properties : Strong Hard but brittle Electrical insulator Resistant to heat Resistant to chemicals Able to withstand compression 3. alloys. floor and wall tiles c.2H2O.bricks. sink.2SiO2. 3. toasters.conductor. for example kaolin. tiles. Semiconductors.Construction materials. ovens.Medical fieldartificial limbs.microchips e.Ornamental articles -plates. Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal. Description of composite materials : Types of composite materials . vase and porcelain -toilet. specific super. Composite materials have properties that ares uperior than those of the original components. fibre glass and photochromic glass.-High density -High refractive index Prism. they undergo a series of chemical reactions and arehardened permanently to form ceramics. ceramics and polymers. bones and teeth COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1.

Construction of high-rise buildings.Components Special Properties Example / Uses Superconducto r Alloys of metal compounds + Ceramics of metal oxides Can conduct electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. Strong . bridges and oil platform Fibre glass Glass + plastic Has high tensile strength. can be easily coloured and low in density. Used in bullet trains and medical magneticimaging devices like MRI Reinforced concrete Concrete + steel Tough with more tensile strength and can be moulded into any shape.

lens in cameras.and can be easily moulded and shaped. badminton rackets. optical switches and light intensity meters . skis and helmets Photochromic glass Silver Chloride + glass / transparent polymers Lenses from photochromic glass protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. car windshields. Optical lenses. Household products like water storage tanks. small boats. information display panels.

It causes respiratory problems in humans and reacts with water and oxygen to form acid rain. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution. iii. The pH value of the soil will decrease thus causes salts to leach out of the top soil. The gas produced is cooled and purified. Water Pollution Acid rain flows into lakes and rivers make them acidic. Air Pollution SO2 is released through chimneys of factories and burning of petrol in cars.As electrolyte in car batteries 3. Soil Pollution Acid rain destroys trees in forests. i. Fish and other aquatic organism die. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. Roots of trees will destroy and plants will die of malnutrition and diseases. V2O5 . SO2. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. STAGE 1 In the furnace. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the Contact process that consists of three stages. 1. Acid rain corrodes buildings and metal structures. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. S(l) + O2(g)→ SO2(g) STAGE 2 In the converter. ii. sulphur dioxide.

the sulphur trioxide. Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture of detergents Production of fertilizer Manufacture of artificial fibres Manufacture of paint Leather tanning . SO3. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) 2. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. STAGE 3 In the absorber. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)→ 2H2SO4 (l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide.5% of the sulphur dioxide. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide.catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3 directly to water. H2SO4 in large quantities. SO3 through this reversible action. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. H2S2O7. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)→ H2S2O7(l) The oleum. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99.

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