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1 SULPHURIC ACID

c) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. d) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules).Uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4 1. . BaSO4. Rayon is an example of a syntheticfibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. The neutralization ofsulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. Sulphuric acid is uses to manufacture almost all products.Examples: a) Fertilisers b) Paint pigments c) Detergents d) Synthetic fibres e) Electrolyte in car batteries f) Cleaning metals g) Plastics h) Other chemical b) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of hydrocarbon.

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As a sulphonating agent e.8)The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a.As a catalyst Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before .As an oxidizing agent d.As a strong acid b.As a drying or dehydrating agent c.

Types and uses of glasses Types of glassComposition Special properties Uses Fused glass -Silicon dioxide -High transparency -High melting point Glass rods. bottles and light bulbs Borosilicate glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Boron oxide -High melting point -Low thermal expansion -Resistant to heat -Resistant to chemical attack Cooking wares and laboratory glass wires Lead crystal glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Lead(II) oxide . quartz lenses and mirrors Soda-lime glass-Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Low melting point -Easily moulded -High thermal expansion Window glass.Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Easy to clean Can withstand compression 3.

3. alloys. Description of composite materials : Types of composite materials . fuses and spark Plugs d. cups. bowls. they undergo a series of chemical reactions and arehardened permanently to form ceramics. fibre optic.-High density -High refractive index Prism. Ceramics have the following properties : Strong Hard but brittle Electrical insulator Resistant to heat Resistant to chemicals Able to withstand compression 3.Medical fieldartificial limbs. ovens. cements b. Al2O3. floor and wall tiles c. 4.bricks. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete. specific super. toasters. When the clay is heated to a very high temperature.microchips e. for example kaolin.2SiO2. a hydrated aluminium silicate. fibre glass and photochromic glass. glass. Composite materials have properties that ares uperior than those of the original components. Ceramics are made from clay. 2. tiles.Ornamental articles -plates. 2. ceramics and polymers. vase and porcelain -toilet. Uses of ceramics : a. bones and teeth COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. Semiconductors.conductor. sink. high reflective lenses and decorative glasswares CERAMICS 1. Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.electric irons.Construction materials.2H2O.Electrical insulators .

Strong . can be easily coloured and low in density. Construction of high-rise buildings. Used in bullet trains and medical magneticimaging devices like MRI Reinforced concrete Concrete + steel Tough with more tensile strength and can be moulded into any shape.Components Special Properties Example / Uses Superconducto r Alloys of metal compounds + Ceramics of metal oxides Can conduct electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. bridges and oil platform Fibre glass Glass + plastic Has high tensile strength.

lens in cameras. information display panels. badminton rackets. car windshields. Household products like water storage tanks. small boats. skis and helmets Photochromic glass Silver Chloride + glass / transparent polymers Lenses from photochromic glass protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. Optical lenses.and can be easily moulded and shaped. optical switches and light intensity meters .

As electrolyte in car batteries 3. ii. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the Contact process that consists of three stages. STAGE 1 In the furnace. i. Soil Pollution Acid rain destroys trees in forests. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. Air Pollution SO2 is released through chimneys of factories and burning of petrol in cars. The gas produced is cooled and purified. The pH value of the soil will decrease thus causes salts to leach out of the top soil. 1. sulphur dioxide. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. Roots of trees will destroy and plants will die of malnutrition and diseases. Fish and other aquatic organism die. It causes respiratory problems in humans and reacts with water and oxygen to form acid rain. Water Pollution Acid rain flows into lakes and rivers make them acidic. iii. Acid rain corrodes buildings and metal structures. S(l) + O2(g)→ SO2(g) STAGE 2 In the converter. V2O5 . Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution. SO2.

SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. SO3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) 2. Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture of detergents Production of fertilizer Manufacture of artificial fibres Manufacture of paint Leather tanning .5% of the sulphur dioxide. STAGE 3 In the absorber.catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)→ 2H2SO4 (l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide. SO3 through this reversible action. the sulphur trioxide. SO3. H2S2O7. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99. H2SO4 in large quantities. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)→ H2S2O7(l) The oleum.

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