c) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Examples of hydrocarbon. d) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Sulphuric acid is uses to manufacture almost all products. The neutralization ofsulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents.Uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4 1. Rayon is an example of a syntheticfibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. . BaSO4.Examples: a) Fertilisers b) Paint pigments c) Detergents d) Synthetic fibres e) Electrolyte in car batteries f) Cleaning metals g) Plastics h) Other chemical b) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate.


8)The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a.As a drying or dehydrating agent c.As a sulphonating agent e.As an oxidizing agent d.As a strong acid b.As a catalyst Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before .

Types and uses of glasses Types of glassComposition Special properties Uses Fused glass -Silicon dioxide -High transparency -High melting point Glass rods. bottles and light bulbs Borosilicate glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Boron oxide -High melting point -Low thermal expansion -Resistant to heat -Resistant to chemical attack Cooking wares and laboratory glass wires Lead crystal glass -Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Lead(II) oxide .Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Easy to clean Can withstand compression 3. quartz lenses and mirrors Soda-lime glass-Silicon dioxide -Sodium oxide -Calcium oxide -Low melting point -Easily moulded -High thermal expansion Window glass.

cups. 2. tiles.2SiO2. Ceramics have the following properties : Strong Hard but brittle Electrical insulator Resistant to heat Resistant to chemicals Able to withstand compression 3. they undergo a series of chemical reactions and arehardened permanently to form ceramics. sink.Ornamental articles -plates. Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal.bricks. Description of composite materials : Types of composite materials .2H2O.electric irons. 4. ceramics and polymers. a hydrated aluminium silicate. alloys.conductor. for example kaolin. Ceramics are made from clay. 3. Composite materials have properties that ares uperior than those of the original components. cements b.microchips e. vase and porcelain -toilet. floor and wall tiles c. toasters. ovens. glass. bowls.-High density -High refractive index Prism. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete. When the clay is heated to a very high temperature. fibre glass and photochromic glass. Semiconductors. specific super. 2. high reflective lenses and decorative glasswares CERAMICS 1.Electrical insulators . fibre optic. fuses and spark Plugs d. bones and teeth COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. Uses of ceramics : a.Medical fieldartificial limbs. Al2O3.Construction materials.

can be easily coloured and low in density. bridges and oil platform Fibre glass Glass + plastic Has high tensile strength.Components Special Properties Example / Uses Superconducto r Alloys of metal compounds + Ceramics of metal oxides Can conduct electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. Construction of high-rise buildings. Strong . Used in bullet trains and medical magneticimaging devices like MRI Reinforced concrete Concrete + steel Tough with more tensile strength and can be moulded into any shape.

skis and helmets Photochromic glass Silver Chloride + glass / transparent polymers Lenses from photochromic glass protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. Household products like water storage tanks. information display panels. optical switches and light intensity meters .and can be easily moulded and shaped. car windshields. lens in cameras. badminton rackets. small boats. Optical lenses.

As electrolyte in car batteries 3. V2O5 . i. SO2. Water Pollution Acid rain flows into lakes and rivers make them acidic. Air Pollution SO2 is released through chimneys of factories and burning of petrol in cars. The pH value of the soil will decrease thus causes salts to leach out of the top soil. O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide. ii. iii. STAGE 1 In the furnace. 1. Roots of trees will destroy and plants will die of malnutrition and diseases. The gas produced is cooled and purified. It causes respiratory problems in humans and reacts with water and oxygen to form acid rain. sulphur dioxide. Soil Pollution Acid rain destroys trees in forests. Fish and other aquatic organism die. Acid rain corrodes buildings and metal structures. SO2 and excess oxygen gas. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution. molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. S(l) + O2(g)→ SO2(g) STAGE 2 In the converter. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the Contact process that consists of three stages.

catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)→ 2H2SO4 (l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide. SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7. Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture of detergents Production of fertilizer Manufacture of artificial fibres Manufacture of paint Leather tanning . H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3. SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid. SO3 through this reversible action. the sulphur trioxide. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)→ H2S2O7(l) The oleum. STAGE 3 In the absorber. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide. H2SO4 to form a product called oleum. SO3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) 2.

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