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LU2 SHRD PROCESS

Lecture 11
QUICK REVISION

MODELS OF SHRD
LECTURE CONTRACT

By the end of the lecture, you will be able to:

•Identify and describe each of


the steps (#) in the SHRD
process model proposed by
Rothwell and Kazanas (1994)
A MODEL OF SHRD PROCESS
(Rothwell & Kazanas, 1994)

Choose long Compare the Implement


term present SWOT organizational
organizational strategy
strategy

Clarify the
Purpose of the
HRD Effort Assess the
present
Evaluate HRD
condition

Scan the
external
environment
A MODEL OF SHRD PROCESS
(Rothwell & Kazanas, 1994)
1) Clarify the 7) Evaluate
Purpose of the HRD
HRD Effort

6) Implement
2) Assess the organizational
4) Compare
present strategy
the present
condition
SWOT

5) Choose the
3) Scan the long term
external organisational
environment strategy
Formulate
1.1 the purpose
statement
Change the
Ask
purpose
Questions
statement

Clarify the
purpose of
HRD effort
WHAT WHOSE
PURPOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
? HRD
Inside Outside Line
Dept
the org. the org. Managers
Learners

ORGANISATION
PHILOSOPHY
ON HRD

Present Future
• Break down the formal purpose statement of the organization into
1.2 components pertaining to organization’s business, major areas of
1 service, customers served, etc
F
O
R • Construct draft of HRD effort based on that of the organization.

M2
U • What should be the role of HRD effort in the organization?
L • How should HRD effort meet learning needs of each stakeholder group?

3A • How should HRD effort help the organization compete against others?

T
E
3Circulate for comments to key stakeholders and revise
4
P
S • Communicate statement to others through new
employee orientation, training brochures, etc
5
1.3 CHANGE THE PURPOSE STATEMENT

Do not meet
learners'
New & needs
unexpected
external
demands

Change in
New top
strategic
management
team business plan
Major new
HR
initiatives
ASSESS THE PRESENT CONDITION
• ORGANIZATIONAL
ANALYSIS

• INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS

• OPERATION OR WORK
ANALYSIS
COMPREHENSIVE NEEDS ANALYSIS

• Definition: The process of specifying


present but general gaps between
what people should know or do and
what they actually know or do.

• Pinpoints needs (weaknesses) as well


as significant talents, skills or
competencies (strengths).
STEPS IN COMPREHENSIVE
NEEDS ANALYSIS
Identify learners to be served by the HRD effort over time:
 Who are learners and prospective learners?
 Where are they located?
 How many are there?
 How can learners be reached?
 How intense is their motivation to learn?
 When are they most interested in learning?

Classify learners into broad ‘market segments’:


 Compare actual to desired knowledge and skills at
present for each market segment of learners.
 Identify present learning needs for each market and
market segment of learners.
TYPES OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT:
• Instructional needs:
– The problem is caused by a lack of knowledge
or skill
– Two types:
• microtraining (change in 4individual) and
• macrotraining (change in the organization) needs

• Non-instructional needs:
– The problem is caused by something other th an a
lack of knowledge or skill and requires action other
than training, education and development
INSTRUCTIONAL NEEDS

• Organization analysis
• Operation o r w o r k analysis
• Individual analysis

Source: Moore & Dutton(1978)


SOURCES OF INFORMATION
ORGANIZATIONAL Organizational goals and objectives
ANALYSIS
Manpower inventory
Skills inventory Organizational climate
indices Exit interviews

OPERATIONAL Organizational goals and objectives


WORK Manpower inventory
ANALYSIS Skills inventory Organizational climate
indices Exit interviews

INDIVIDUAL Performance data Observations


ANALYSIS Interviews/questionnaires
ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING

• Environmental scanning for


HRD is the process of
monitoring trends, issues,
problems, or events which may
create future learning needs
as a result of environmental
changes.
STEPS IN ENVIRONMENTAL
SCANNING
1. Decide on a time horizon appropriate for scanning efforts.
2. Examine environmental factors for expected changes
over the time horizon they have chosen.
3. Anticipate the effects of environmental changes on:
• the general public
• external stakeholders
• department or work groups in the organization
• individuals
• job requirements

4. Identify future learning needs

5. Reassess learning needs by market segment from a future


orientation
SWOT ANALYSIS
Imagine you are the owner of a
kiosk in UNIMAS. Do a SWOT
analysis for your business.
PROCESS OF CHOOSING
ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY FOR HRD
1. Find problems (see Figure 1 below)
2. Formulate problems
3. Identify a way to look at the problems
4. Consider possible solutions
5. Choose organizational strategy for HRD
FIGURE 1: RELATIONSHIPS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING
ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY FOR HRD
TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
STRATEGIES

•Increasing HRD activities

•Decreasing HRD activities

•Changing learners served, instructional methods used, etc

•Establish closer ties to other functions in the organization

•Retrench and pursue another organizational strategy for HRD

•Pursue 2 or more strategies at the same time


IMPLEMENT ORGANIZATIONAL
STRATEGIES
1. Establish operational objectives for HRD effort
2. Review and revise HRD
3. Examine leadership in the corporation or
business
4. Review the structure of the organization,
HRD department, and learning experiences
sponsored by the organization
5. Review reward systems
6. Budget for resources to implement strategy
7. Communicate about organizational strategy for
HRD
8. Develop HRD functional strategies
EVALUATING HRD
Who wants information from evaluation of HRD?
Who will do the evaluating?
When should evaluation be carried out?
Why is evaluation necessary?
How will evaluation be conducted?
How will each of the HRD functional strategies be
evaluated?
• OD
• Nonemployee development
• Employee development/ education
• Employee training
• The HRD effort as a whole
KEY ASSUMPTIONS OF SHRD:
HRD efforts can be effectively managed in line with
strategic business plans and HR plans when:

 T her e should be an overall purpose statement for the


corporation and the HRD efforts should be related to it
(Nininger, 1982).
 Every major plan of the corporation should be weighed
in terms of human skills available to implement it and
alternative ways of obtaining those skills.
 People at all levels in the organization's chain of
command should share responsibility and accountability for
HRD efforts
 There should be a formal, systematic and holistic planning
process for the organization, HR Department and HRD.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HRD
EFFORT PLAN AND OTHER HRD PLANS
Plan for HRD
Effort
(Organizational
Strategy for
HRD)

Line Organization
HRD Department
Management Development
Plans
Plans Plans

Nonemployee Employee
Employee
Development Development Training Plans
Education
Plans Plans
KEY TAKE-AWAYS
Ø The strongest commitment to a strategic approach
to HRD in organisation will arise from commitment
by stakeholders to HRD.

Ø These are essential processes related to the


achievement of business targets & corporate
goals.

Ø Regular monitoring of the performance &


environment of the business should identify any
triggers indicating a need for HRD to become more
strategic in focus.
REFERENCES

• Moore, M. & Dutton, P. (1978). Training needs


analysis: Review and Technique. Academy of
Management Journal.

• Nininger, J. (1982). Managing Human Resources.


Ottawa: the conference board of Canada.

• Rothwell & Kazanas (1989). Human Resource


Development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

• Rothwell & Kazanas (1994). Human Resource


Development. Massachusett: HRD Press