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Lecturer name: Group: Code Subject:

Student name: No ID: Title of Experiment:

1. Muhammad Ikhmal Bin Mohd 1. 55214117051 JAR TESTING

Ali Experiment Date: 2/3/2020
2. Muhammad Nur Khairi Bin 2. 55214117049
Dahalan Submission Date: 9/3/2020
3. Syaida Khadijah

*To be filled by the marker*

INTRODUCTION (10%) 3 6 9 12 15
Write a very brief description of the background and
theory of the experiment.
Precisely write what supposed to be done and it must
be measurable.
Describe the experiment so others would be able to
repeat the same process. (Photos can be a great help)
DATA & RESULTS (10%) 2 4 6 8 10
State all results obtained in clear and concise way with
units. (Present the data graphically)
DISCUSSIONS (30%) 6 12 18 24 30
Interpret results and relate finding to the theory.
Must shows the sample of calculation if necessary
Give a general concluding statement if the experiment
has been a success or not.
Answer the objectives with quantitative summary of the
Recommendation for future studies
REFERENCES (5%) 1 2 3 4 5
FORMAT (5%) 1 2 3 4 5
APPENDIX (5%) 1 2 3 4 5

Date of Submitted:
Student Name/ID:
Experiment title:
Student Slip
Date of Submitted:

Student Name:
Student ID:
Experiment title:

TABLE 1.1: Set 1

Set 1 (Coagulation process)

Dosage (ml) Turbidity
pH (FAU)
Coagulant Flocculants
1 1.5 0.5 7.65 745
2 2.0 0.5 7.65 919
3 2.5 0.5 7.65 772
4 3.0 0.5 7.65 754
5 3.5 0.5 7.65 594
6 0 0 7.65 921

TABLE 1.2: Set 2

Set 2 (Flocculation process)

Dosage (ml) Turbidity
pH (FAU)
Coagulant (opt) Flocculants
1 3.5 1.0 7.65 683
2 3.5 2.0 7.65 550
3 3.5 3.0 7.65 476
4 3.5 4.0 7.65 319
5 3.5 5.0 7.65 142
6 0 0 7.65 914

TABLE 1.3: Set 3

Set 3 (Optimum pH)

Dosage (ml) Turbidity
pH (FAU)
Coagulant (opt) Flocculants (opt)
1 3.5 5.0 5 196
2 3.5 5.0 6 222
3 3.5 5.0 7 339
4 3.5 5.0 8 305
5 3.5 5.0 9 273
6 0 0 890

The objective of this experiment is to perform jar testing on the water sample and to obtain
the optimum pH and chemical dosages (alum & polymer) react with the water sample. Jar testing is
intended to simulate the coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment plant. The result we
obtain are used to help optimize the performance of the plant.

Jar test experiment was begun by preparing 6 beakers with water sample. Chemical reagent
such as alum solution, polymer solution, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid also been prepared.
Before start the experiment, the initial turbidity and pH of the water sample were measured to ensure
the adjustment of dosage was in range. The initial turbidity and pH were recorded 921 FAU and
7.65pH respectively. The adjustment alum dosage was added to the water sample and stirred in rapid
mixing 200rpm for 1 minutes for coagulation process. Coagulation process is a water treatment
process where coagulant with charges opposite were added to the water to neutralise the negative
charge on disperse non- settable solid such as clay and organic substance. This process cause small
suspended solid to attract to one another and form larger particle. All those large particles still too
small to be visible and rapid mixing was used properly disperse the coagulant and promote particle to
collide to achieve good coagulation. Next, adjusted dosage of polymer was added to the sample at 20
rpm, gentle for 20 minutes to promote flocculation process. Flocculation is a water treatment process
following coagulation, which uses gentle stirring to bring the suspended particles together so they
will form larger more settle able clumps called floc. The floc size continues to build through
additional collisions and interaction with inorganic polymers formed by the coagulant or with organic
polymers added. After the mixture was stopped, and the water was let to settle down for 15 minutes.
Final turbidity, pH and Aluminium residual were of the water sample were tested.

The experiment was divided into 3 set of parameters, set 1 (adjusted alum dosage), set 2
(adjusted polymer dosage) and set 3 (adjusted Ph). For the first set, the dosage of alum was adjusted
from 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0ml, 2.5 ml, 3.5 ml and 0 ml for control. The dosage of polymer and pH were
constant which are 1 ml and 7.65 respectively. Then the final turbidity was measured once the
experiment was done. Based on the result in set 1, it showed that the best coagulant dosage was at 3.5
ml (jar 4) with lowest turbidity recorded which is 594 FAU . For the second set, the dosage of
polymer was adjusted from 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0 ml, 2.5 ml, 3.0 ml and 0 ml for constant. The dosage
of alum is fixed and based on the best record at set 1 which is 3.5 ml. The Ph was set at constant
value, 7.65 . Based on the result in set 2, the lowest turbidity recorded was 142 FAU (jar 5) with 3.5
ml dosage of polymer. Lastly, for set 3, the Ph of the water sample was adjusted from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and
7.65 (initial) for control. Acid (NaoH) and base (HCL) were used while adjusting the Ph of water
sample. Based on the results in set 3, the best pH value was at 5 with the lowest turbidity reading, 196
FAU (jar 1). The results from all the 3 sets showed that the optimum combination was 3.5 ml alum,
5.0 ml polymer and pH 5.

There were two process involved in jar test experiment, process of coagulation and
flocculation. Coagulation occur in rapid mixing and flocculation in gentle mixing. Next, for
determination of heavy metal removal we found that 3.5 ml alum, 5.0 ml polymer and pH 5 is the
best and optimum condition. The result may not valid because there was problem occur like broken
Ph meter while do the Ph adjustment. Then there were several safety precautions that need to take
care of while conducting this experiment. Firstly, students must wear proper and complete PPE to
avoid any harms such as electrical hazard and chemical hazard. Lastly, study the lab manual
completely so that the experiment will run smoothly.