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Internet and Web History

Internet and Web Protocols


A structure made up of millions of
 Internet and Web History interconnected computer networks that
 The World Wide Web links together
 Internet Protocols
Inter-network
 HTTP
 HTML Internet and the Web
 XML

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Internet and Web History Internet and Web History


 ARPANET
o NSFNET
Large stand-alone devices
o USENET
Share data o CSNET, and others.
To explore other ways of sharing information  Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) of the U.S.
Networking protocols government
 E-mail and File Transfer

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The World Wide Web The World Wide Web
In 1989, the WWW was founded by Timothy Components:
Berners-Lee and other researchers o Client application
CERN  Requests information from a server
Geneva, Switzerland application or asks the server to perform
A Web site is a collection of Web pages some task on its behalf
Can be linked to other Web pages
o Server application
 Typically run on powerful computers
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The World Wide Web Internet Protocols


How WWW works? Internet Protocol (IP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Diagram Protocol (UDP)

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Internet Protocols Internet Protocols
 Internet Protocol (IP)
o Part of a network protocol stack that comprises  Internet Protocol (IP)
interactions all the way from the physical network  The Internet Protocol stack
to the application program Layer Purpose/Typical implementation
o Responsibility for packaging data (bits) Application End-user application
E-mail, Web
o Responsible for addressing, which is the Transport Transport data between application
translation of a host name into an IP address, and TCP, UDP
routing Internet Transmit data packets between nodes IP
Network Transmit raw data between network nodes
Ethernet, WiFi, etc.

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Internet Protocols Internet Protocols


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Diagram Protocol (UDP)
o Like TCP, also resides above IP and below
o Used within the transport layer of the internet applications in the protocol stack
protocols stack o Provides much less service than TCP does
o Provides services to internet user o transports data much quickly
applications o Checksum-based error detection and
multiplexing

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Internet Protocols Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Difference between TCP and UDP Fundamental web protocol


Enables web clients to request delivery of
Protocol Service Related Typical
Speed Application documents from web servers
TCP Guaranteed delivery Slower E-mail
It governs both the format of web addresses,
Error detection Web
In0order delivery FRTP and the way in which documents are
Multiplexing exchanged
UDP Error detection Faster Media VoIP
Multiplexing Client-server protocol

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP Transaction Every HTTP request specifies a request


method
Method Purpose
GET Retrieve a resource
POST Submit data to be process
CONNECT Create TCP/IP tunnel
DELETE Delete named resource
HEAD Get headers only
OPTIONS Get list of supported method
PUT Replace a resource
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TRACE
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Echo the request
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

Overview Document-layout and hyperlink-specification


Special language that browsers can read language
The most common markup language Defines the syntax and placement of special
Standard Generalized Markup Language and embedded directions not displayed by the
(SGML) browser
Document Type Definition (DTD) The codes are enclosed by less than "<", and
greater than ">" brackets
Platform independent
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Extensible Markup Language (XML) Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Metalanguage  The Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation


(XSLT) standard provides a way to specify how XML
Language used to describe other languages
documents should be translated into another format,
Specifies how to represent a particular type of  XML is an official standard of the W3C
entity from any application domain as a text  Part of many web standards
document  Used to define the latest version of the Hypertext
Schema for XML document can be expressed Markup Language (HTML)
in the Document Type Definition (DTD)
language
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