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Name ______________________________

Portable Electricity Investigation

Part 1: Batteries

An electrical cell or battery has chemicals


inside which store energy. The chemicals
react to generate electrical energy when the
battery is part of a complete circuit.

The energy transfer can be shown like this:

………….. Electrical
energy Energy

1 Which type of energy should go in the blank?


A Electrical
B GPE (gravitational potential energy)
C Chemical
D Kinetic

Voltage (measured in volts, V) is a measure of how much energy a battery produces.

2. What is the maximum (nominal) voltage written on the side of a battery? ………………

3. Use a voltmeter to measure the actual voltage produced by a battery. ……………………

4. Draw a circuit diagram of the set up you used for Q3.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

battery

5. What percentage of the original energy is left in the battery?

actual voltage produced by battery


×100 %
nominal voltage of battery
6. Can this type of battery be recharged? Yes / No

7. What energy change happens when a battery is being charged?

………….. ……….
Energy Energy

8. Measure the voltage in the set up shown below and complete the table.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

The voltage is ………….. V

This is larger / smaller


than the voltage in Q3.

The batteries are in series / parallel.

The push of each battery is in


the same / a different direction

9. Measure the voltage in the set up shown below and complete the table.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

The voltage is ………….. V

This is larger / smaller


than the voltage in Q8.

The batteries are in series / parallel.

The push of each battery is in the


the same / a different direction
10. Measure the voltage in the set up shown below and complete the table.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

The voltage is ………….. V

This is larger / smaller


than the voltage in Q8.

The batteries are in series / parallel.

The push of each battery is in the


the same / a different direction

Part 2: Investigating Generators

A generator or dynamo is a small machine that produces electricity when you turn it.

11. What energy change happens when a generator is


working?

………….. Electrical
energy Energy

12. What energy changes happen when a diesel or


petrol generator is working?

………….. ………….. Electrical


energy energy Energy
13. Measure the voltage in the set up shown below and complete the table.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

spindle
generator

Turn the spindle clockwise as quickly as


possible. The voltage is ………….

Turn the spindle anticlockwise as quickly as The energy change happening here is:
possible. The voltage is ………….
………….. …………..
To get the maximum voltage you should turn energy energy
the spindle fast / slow.

Part 3: Solar Cells

Solar cells can produce electrical energy directly


from sunlight.

14 What kind of energy change is going on?

………….. Electrical
energy Energy

15. Measure the voltage in the set up shown below and complete the table.

Picture of set up Circuit Diagram

voltmeter

solar cell
The energy change happening here is:
The voltage produced under normal
conditions is ................V ………….. …………..
energy energy
The voltage produced near the window is
………V How many solar cells would it take to
replace one battery?
The voltage produced with the desk lamp on
is …………. V ……………………………..