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Developmental Theories

1. What did I learn from these theories? Which theory, in comparison to other theories, I
think has taught me a lot for my teaching? Elaborate how and why?

I have learned some theory which is

The first “cognitive” theory, developed by Jean Piaget beginning about 1920. Piaget
observed and described children at different ages. His theory is very broad, from birth
through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral
development, and memory. Piaget’s Assumptions About Children:

•Children construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences.

•Children learn many things on their own without the intervention of older children or

.•Children are intrinsically motivated to learn and do not need rewards from adults to
motivate learning.

Cognition refers to thinking and memory processes, and cognitive development refers to
long-term changes in these processes. One of the most widely known perspectives about
cognitive development is the cognitive stage theory of a Swiss psychologist named Jean
Piaget. Piaget created and studied an account of how children and youth gradually
become able to think logically and scientifically. Because his theory is especially popular
among educators, we focus on it in this chapter. After observing children closely, Piaget
proposed that cognition developed through distinct stages from birth through the end of
adolescence. By stages he meant a sequence of thinking patterns with four key features:

1. They always happen in the same order.

2. No stage is ever skipped.

3. Each stage is a significant transformation of the stage before it.

4. Each later stage incorporated the earlier stages into itself.

Basically this is the “staircase” model of development mentioned at the beginning of this
chapter. Piaget proposed four major stages of cognitive development, and called them
sensorimotor intelligence, preoperational thinking, concrete operational thinking, and
formal operational thinking. Each stage is correlated with an age period of childhood, but
only approximately. In Piaget’s theory, the sensorimotor stage is first, and is defined as
the period when infants “think” by means of their senses and motor actions. As every new
parent will attest, infants continually touch, manipulate, look, listen to, and even bite and
chew objects. According to Piaget, these actions allow them to learn about the world and
are crucial to their early cognitive development.

Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Children’s thinking is not as consistent as the stages

suggest.infants and young children are more competent than Piaget recognized.,Piaget
understates the social components of cognitive development, Piaget was better at
describing processes than expla how they operate.

Teori Erickson

Erikson percaya bahawa keperibadian orang akan berkembang melalui tingkat tertentu.
Erikson percaya bahwa dalam setiap tingkat, seseorang akan mengalami konflik atau
krisis yang akan menjadi titik balik dalam setiap perkembangannya. Menurut
pendapatnya, konflik – konflik ini berpusat pada perkembangan kualitas psikologi atau
kegagalan dalam pengembangan kualitas tersebut. Selama masa ini, potensi pertumbuhan
pribadi meningkat sejalan dengan potensi kegagalannya pula. 1.  Trust vs Mistrust
( Percaya & Tidak Percaya, 0-18 bulan)

Karena ketergantungannya, hal pertama yang akan dipelajari seorang anak atau bayi dari
lingkungannya adalah rasa percaya pada orang di sekitarnya, terutama pada ibu atau
pengasuhnya yang selalu bersama setiap hari. Jika kebutuhan anak cukup dipenuhi oleh
sang ibu atau pengasuh seperti makanan dan kasih sayang maka anak akan merasakan
keamanan dan kepercayaan.
Akan tetapi, jika ibu atau pengasuh tidak dapat merespon kebutuhan si anak, maka anak
bisa menjadi seorang yang selalu merasa tidak aman dan tidak bisa mempercayai orang
lain, menjadi seorang yang selalu skeptis dan menghindari hubungan yang berdasarkan
saling percaya sepanjang hidupnya.

Otonomi vs Malu dan Ragu – ragu

emampuan anak untuk melakukan beberapa hal pada tahap ini sudah mulai berkembang,
seperti makan sendiri, berjalan, dan berbicara. Kepercayaan yang diberikan orang tua
untuk memberikannya kesempatan bereksplorasi sendiri dengan dibawah bimbingan akan
dapat membentuk anak menjadi pribadi yang mandiri serta percaya diri.

Baca juga: Kepribadian Ganda

Sebaliknya, orang tua yang terlalu membatasi dan bersikap keras kepada anak, dapat
membentuk sang anak berkembang menjadi pribadi yang pemalu dan tidak memiliki rasa
percaya diri, dan juga kurang mandiri. Anak dapat menjadi lemah dan tidak kompeten
sehingga selalu merasa malu dan ragu – ragu terhadap kemampuan dirinya sendiri.