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# Functions as Power Series

MATHEMATICS 22

Institute of Mathematics
University of the Philippines-Diliman

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Sum of a Power Series

Definition
+∞
cn (x − a)n is a function f given by
X
The sum of a power series
n=0

+∞
cn (x − a)n
X
f (x) =
n=0

## for all x in the interval of convergence of the series.

Objectives:
Given a power series, find a non-series expression for its sum f (x),
together with the set of all numbers x for which this is valid.
Given a non-series expression g(x), find a power series whose sum is
g(x), together with the set of all numbers x for which this is valid.

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Sum of a Power Series

Example 1
+∞
xn .
X
Find a non-series expression for the sum of the power series
n=0

Solution. The given power series is a geometric series with first term 1 and
common ratio x. This series
1
converges with sum when |x | < 1, i.e., x ∈ (−1, 1) ; and
1−x
diverges when |x | ≥ 1, i.e., x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1.

Thus, we write
+∞ 1
xn =
X
, for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
n=0 1−x

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Sum of a Power Series

Example 2
Express each of the following as a power series and indicate the interval in
which this representation is valid.
1 2x 4
a − b c
x 1 + x2 2−x

Solution.
1 1
a Observe that we can write − = . By Example 1, we have
x 1 − (x + 1)

1 +∞
(x + 1)n , for |x + 1| < 1
X
− =
x n=0

1 +∞
(x + 1)n , for all x ∈ (−2, 0).
X
− =
x n=0

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Sum of a Power Series

Example 2
Express each of the following as a power series and indicate the interval in
which this representation is valid.
1 2x 4
a − b c
x 1 + x2 2−x

Solution.
1 1
b We can write 2
= ¡ ¢ . Therefore,
1+x 1 − −x2

2x
µ
1
¶ +∞ ¢n
−x2 , when |x2 | < 1

= 2x = 2x
1 + x2
¡ ¢
1 − −x2 n=0

2x +∞
(−1)n 2 x2n+1 , for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
X
=
1 + x2 n=0

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Sum of a Power Series

Example 2
Express each of the following as a power series and indicate the interval in
which this representation is valid.
1 2x 4
a − b c
x 1 + x2 2−x

Solution. µ ¶
4 4 1
c Observe that = ¡ ¢ =2 . Hence,
2 − x 2 1 − x2 1 − x2

4 +∞
X ³ x ´n ¯x¯
= 2 , for ¯ ¯ < 1
¯ ¯
2−x n=0 2 2

4 +∞
X xn
= n−1
, for all x ∈ (−2, 2).
2−x n=0 2

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Differentiation and Integration of a Power Series

Theorem
+∞
cn (x − a)n has radius of convergence R ∈ R+ or R = +∞.
X
Assume that
n=0
Then the function f defined by
+∞
cn (x − a)n
X
f (x) =
n=0

## is differentiable on the interval I = (a − R, a + R) if R ∈ R+ or I = (−∞, +∞) if R = +∞.

Furthermore,
+∞ +∞ (x − a)n+1
Z
f 0 (x) = n cn (x − a)n−1
X X
and f (x) dx = C + cn
n=1 n=0 n+1

## where C is an arbitrary constant.

Z
The series representations for f 0 (x) and f (x) dx have radius of convergence R.

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Differentiation and Integration of a Power Series

Example 3
+∞ Z x
(−1)n x2n . Find f 0 (x) and
X
Let f (x) = f (t) dt, and the intervals of
n=0 0
Z x
convergence of f (x), f 0 (x), and f (t) dt.
0

Solution.
a The given series
+∞
(−1)n x2n = 1 − x2 + x4 − x6 + · · ·
X
n=0

## is geometric with common ratio −x2 . This series

converges when ¯−x2 ¯ < 1, i.e., x ∈ (−1, 1) ; and
¯ ¯

¯ ¯

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+∞
(−1)n x2n
X
f (x) =
n=0

## b Differentiating the power series yields

+∞
f 0 (x) = (−1)n 2n x2n−1
X
n=1
and f 0 converges for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
+∞
(−1)n 2n.
X
If x = 1, the series becomes
n=1
n
Since lim (−1) 2n does not exist, the series is divergent
n→+∞
by Divergence Test.
+∞
(−1)n−1 2n.
X
If x = −1, the series becomes
n=1
Since lim (−1)n−1 2n does not exist, the series is divergent
n→+∞
by Divergence Test.
Hence, the interval of convergence of f 0 is (−1, 1).
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+∞
(−1)n x2n
X
f (x) =
n=0

## c Integrating the power series and applying the Second Fundamental

Theorem of the Calculus yields
t 2n+1 ¯¯x
Z x Z x +∞ +∞ ¯
(−1)n t 2n dt = (−1)n
X X
f (t) dt =
0 0 n=0 2n + 1 ¯
n=0 0

x +∞ (−1)n x2n+1
Z X
f (t) dt = ,
0 n=0 2n + 1

## which converges also for all x ∈ (−1, 1).

(−1)n +∞
X
If x = 1 the series is , which is an alternating series.
n=0 2n + 1
½ ¾+∞
1 1
The sequence is decreasing and lim = 0.
2n + 1 n=0 n→+∞ 2n + 1

## Hence, the series converges by the Alternating Series Test.

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x +∞
(−1)n x2n+1
Z X
f (t) dt =
0 n=0 2n + 1

Solution.
+∞
X (−1)n+1
If x = −1 the series becomes , which is the negative of the
n=0 2n + 1
alternating series produced when x = 1. Thus, this is also convergent.
Z x
Therefore, the interval of convergence of f (t) dt is [−1, 1].
0

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Differentiation and Integration of a Power Series

Example 4
1
a Find a power series representation of .
(1 − x)2
+∞
X n 1 2 3
b Find the sum of the series n
= + 2 + 3 +···.
n=1 2 2 2 2

Solution.
µ
1

1 1 +∞
X n
a Observe that Dx = . Since = x , for |x | < 1,
1−x (1 − x)2 1 − x n=0
differentiating both sides yields
1 +∞
xn
X
= Dx
(1 − x)2 n=0

1 +∞
nxn−1 , for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
X
=
(1 − x)2 n=1
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+∞
1 X n−1
= n x , for all x ∈ (−1, 1)
(1 − x)2 n=1

Example 4
1
a Find a power series representation of .
(1 − x)2
+∞
X n 1 2 3
b Find the sum of the series n
= + 2 + 3 +···.
n=1 2 2 2 2

Solution.
b By multiplying the identity obtained in (a) by x, we obtain
x +∞
n xn , for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
X
2
=
(1 − x) n=1
1
By plugging-in x = 2 ∈ (−1, 1), we get
+∞
X n 1/2
n
= = 2.
n=1 2 (1 − 1/2)2
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Differentiation and Integration of a Power Series

Example 5
Find a power series representation of the function ln(1 + x).

1
Solution. Note that that Dx ln(1 + x) = . Using Example 1, we have
1+x
1 1 +∞
(−1)n xn , for |x | < 1.
X
= =
1+x 1 − (−x) n=0

## Integrating both sides with respect to x gives

+∞
X (−1)n xn+1
ln(1 + x) = C + , for |x | < 1,
n=0 n+1

## for some constant C. In particular, if x = 0, we get C = 0. Hence,

+∞
X (−1)n xn+1
ln(1 + x) = , for all x ∈ (−1, 1).
n=0 n+1
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Differentiation and Integration of a Power Series

Example 6
Find a power series representation of tan−1 x.

1
Solution. Note that Dx tan−1 (x) = . Recall that
1 + x2
1 1 +∞
(−1)n x2n , for |x | < 1.
X
2
= =
1+x 1 − (−x2 ) n=0
Integrating both sides with respect to x yields
+∞ (−1)n x2n+1
tan−1 x = C +
X
, for |x | < 1
n=0 2n + 1
for some constant C. In particular, x = 0 gives C = 0. Moreover, it can be
shown that the equation also holds if x = ±1 (See Chapter 2.7 Exercise 3).
Hence
X (−1)n x2n+1
+∞
tan−1 (x) = , for all x ∈ [−1, 1].
n=0 2n + 1
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Exercises

1
1
3−x
3
2
6 + x3
x2
3
(3 − x)2
4 ln(3 + x)

5 ln(2 − x2 )

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