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29 MAY 2019

(a) Define the undesired event to study.
An engineer with a wide knowledge of design of a system or a system analyst with an
engineering background is the best person to define and number the undesired events.

Obtain an understanding of the system.

Once the system is selected, all possible causes with probabilities of affecting the
undesired events are studied and analysed.

Constructing the fault tree.

After the undesired event is selected and having analysed the system with all causing
affects (and if possible, with their probabilities) we can now construct the fault tree.
The fault tree is based on AND and OR gates which define the major characteristics
of the fault tree.

Evaluate the fault tree

After the fault tree is assembled for a specific undesired event, it is evaluated and
analyse for any possible improvement or in other words study the risk management
and find ways for system improvement.

Control the identified hazards

This step is very specific and differ largely from one system to another, but the main
point will always be that after identifying the hazards all possible methods are
pursued to decrease the probability of occurrence.

Advantages & Disadvantages of FT

Advantages Disadvantages
It begins with a top event. For complicated process, fault tree will
become enormous.
Its specific. It will take a long time.
Used to determine min cut sets. Not all failure modes might have been
Computer application with reference Possibility of a partial failure.
Different structure if develop by
different individual.
Not all failure rates are known.
Q3 (b)
Major Area Examples
Inherent safety Chemical substitution: Substitute a less
hazardous chemical for one more
Engineering design Plant physical integrity: Use better seals or
materials of constructions.
Management Operating policies and procedures.
Early vapor detection and warning Detection by sensors
Detection by personals
Counter measures Water spray
Water curtains
Steam curtains
Air curtains
Emergency response One-site communications
Emergency shutdown equipment and
Site evacuation
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Q4 (a) (i) Flash point is the lowest temperature at which gives off enough vapor to form an
ignitable mixture with air.
(ii) Flammability limit is when vapor-air mixture will ignite and burn only over a
well-specified range of compositions.
(iii) Combustion is a chemical reaction at which substance combines with oxidants
and release energy.
(iv) Ignition is an incident when flammable mixture coming in contact with a source
of ignition with sufficient energy or the gas reaches temperature high enough to cause the gas
to auto ignite.
(v) Auto-ignition temperature (AIT) is a fixed temperature above which adequate
energy is available in the environment to provide an ignition source.

Fire Triangle
Two common examples of three components of fires are: -
(i) Wood, air and a match
(ii) Gasoline, air and a spark
Various fuels, oxidizers, and ignition sources common in the chemical industry are
(a) Fuels
Liquids: Gasoline, acetone, ether, pentane
Solids: Plastics, wood dust fibres, metal particles
Vapor: Acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen

(b) Oxidizer
Gases: Oxygen, fluorine, chlorine
Liquids: Hydrogen peroxides, nitric acid, perchloric acid
Solids: Metal peroxides, ammonium nitrites

(c) Ignition source

Spark, flames, static electricity, heat