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◉ Circular cross sections remain plane (do not warp) and perpendicular to the axis
of the shaft.

◉ Cross sections do not deform (there is no strain in the plane of the cross section).

◉ The distances between cross sections do not change (the axial normal strain is


D´' D=ρdθ=γdx

γ= ρ shear strain

angle of twist

dθ dθ
γ= ρ shear strain τ =G γ =G ρ shear stress
dx dx

shear stress varies linearly with the
radial distance 


dA−differential element

Torsion Formula

Problem #1

The 12 kN m torque is applied to the free end of the 6-m steel shaft. The angle
of rotation of the shaft is to be limited to 3 0. (a)Find the diameter d of the smallest shaft
that can be used. (b) What will be the maximum shear stress in the shaft? Use G = 83
GPa for steel.

Problem #2

The steel shaft is formed by attaching a hollow shaft to a solid shaft. Determine
the maximum torque T that can be applied to the ends of the shaft without exceeding a
shear stress of 70 MPa or an angle of twist of 2.5 0 in the 3.5-m length. Use G = 83 GPa
for steel.

Problem #3

The compound shaft, composed of steel, aluminum, and bronze segments,

carries the two torques shown in the figure. If T C = 250 lb ft, determine the maximum
shear stress developed in each material. The moduli of rigidity for steel, aluminum, and
bronze are 12 x 106 psi, 4 x 106 psi, and 6 x 106 psi, respectively.

Problem #4

A solid steel shaft in a rolling mill transmits 20 kW of power at 2 Hz. Determine

the smallest safe diameter of the shaft if the shear stress is not to exceed 40 MPa and
the angle of twist is limited to 6o in a length of 3 m. Use G = 83 GPa.

Problem #5

The steel shaft with two different diameters rotates at 4 Hz. The power supplied
to gear C is 55 kW, of which 35 kW is removed by gear A and 20 kW is removed by
gear B. Find (a) the maximum shear stress in the shaft; and (b) the angle of rotation of
gear A relative to gear C. Use G = 83 GPa for steel.

Problem #6

A 1.6m long tubular steel shaft (G=77GPa) of 42mm outer diameter D and 30mm
inner diameter d is to transmit 120kW between a turbine and a generator. Knowing that
the allowable shearing stress is 65 MPa and the angle of twist must not exceed 3 0,
determine the minimum frequency at which the shaft may rotate.