Sie sind auf Seite 1von 77

1

DETACHABLE FASTENERS

 Screw Threads
 Screw Thread Nomenclature
 Screw Thread Forms
 Thread Designation
 Conventional Representation
 Bolts
 Nuts
 Screws
 Nut Locking Arrangement
 Foundation bolts
2
SCREW THREADS / SCREW FASTENERS
 A machine element used for holding or joining
two or more parts of a machine or structure is
known as fastener.
 Fastening is the process of joining the parts
 Fastening may be temporary (Detachable) or
permanent
 A screw thread used for temporary joining of two
components e.g. bolts, studs, nuts, machine
screws, set screws, keys, cotters, couplings etc…
 Detachable fasteners are used for fastening
components that require frequent engagement
and dis-engagement
 A Screw Thread can be generated by cutting a
helical groove on a cylindrical surface 3
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Crest: It is the outermost portion which joins the
two sides of a thread
 Root: It is the innermost portion which joins the
adjacent sides of a thread

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD 4


SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Pitch: It is the distance from a point on a screw
thread to a corresponding point on the next
thread measured parallel to the axis e.g. distance
between crest to crest or distance between root
to root

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD 5


SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Lead: It is the distance moved by a nut or bolt in
the axial direction in one complete revolution
 For single start thread;
Lead = Pitch
 For multi start thread;
 Lead = n x pitch where n = No. of starts

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD 6


SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Flank: It is the straight portion of the surface, on
either side of the screw thread
 Angle of Thread: It is the included angle between
the flanks of the thread measured in an axial
plane
 Helix Angle: Angle that thread makes with plane
perpendicular to thread axis

7
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Major or Nominal or Crest Diameter: It is the
largest diameter of a screw thread touching the
crests
 Minor or Core or Root Diameter: It is the smallest
diameter of a screw thread touching the roots

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD


8
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Pitch Diameter: It is the diameter of an imaginary
cylinder, the surface of which would pass through
the thread at the points where the thread width
is equal to the space between the threads
 Depth of the thread: It is the distance between
the crest and root of a thread measured
perpendicular to the axis

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD


9
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE

 External Threads: The threads on the outer


surface of a cylinder are called external threads
 Internal threads: The threads on the inner
surface of a cylinder are called internal threads

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD


10
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE

 Straight Threads: Threads formed on a cylinder


are called straight threads or cylindrical threads
 Taper threads: Threads formed on a cone shaped
rod are called tapered threads

NOMENCLATURE OF SCREW THREAD


11
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE

 Right Hand threads: A right hand thread is one


which advances into the nut when turned in a
clockwise direction
 Left Hand Threads: A left hand thread is one
which advances into the nut when turned in an
anti-clockwise direction
 Unless otherwise stated, the thread should be
considered as a right hand thread

12
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE

13
SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Single Start Thread: When only one helix forming
the thread run on a surface it is called single start
thread.
 A single start thread consists of a single,
continuous helical groove for which the lead is
equal to the pitch
 Only one starting point is seen in the beginning of
the threaded portion

SINGLE START THREADS 14


SCREW THREADS NOMENCLATURE
 Multiple-Start Thread: When two or more helices
forming the threads run on a surface it is called
Multiple start thread.
 The lead is equal to (pitch x no. of starts)
 Two or more than two starting points are seen in
the beginning of the threaded portion

MULTIPLE START THREADS 15


THREAD FORMS
 Two main types of threads are used which are;
(a) Triangular or V-Thread and
(b) Square threads
V- THREAD FORMS
(1) British Standard Whitworth Threads (BSW)
(2) British Association Threads (BA)
(3) Sellers Threads
(4) Unified Standard Threads
(5) ISO Metric Threads
(6) ISO metric Trapezoidal Threads
SQUARE THREAD FORMS
(1) Square Threads (2) Acme Threads
(3) Knuckle Threads (4) Buttress Threads
16
V - THREAD FORMS
British Standard Whitworth Threads (BSW)
 Used as a standard thread in Britain
 Give an effective leak-proof joint due to their fine
pitches and form
 Used on bolts, nuts and screws for general
purpose fastening

17
V - THREAD FORMS
British Association Threads (BA)
 Modified form of BSW thread with included angle
47.50
 Used for precision fastening like in mechanical
instruments, aircraft construction etc…

18
V - THREAD FORMS
Sellers Threads
 These threads have flat crest and root and can
withstand more rough usage
 Adopted as a standard form in America
 Used on fasteners for making adjustment

19
V - THREAD FORMS
Unified Standard Threads

 These threads have been standardised by the ISO


and are available in inch and metric series

20
V - THREAD FORMS
ISO Metric Threads

 Recommended by Bureau of Indian Standards


and adopted as a standard form

21
ISO Metric Threads
 The Standard dimensions for different sizes are
listed in the table

22
V - THREAD FORMS
ISO Metric Trapezoidal Threads

 Standardised by ISO and similar to acme threads

23
SQUARE THREAD FORMS
Square Threads
 These threads have their flanks at right angles to
the axis
 Offers less resistance to the motion
 Generally used for power transmission e.g. lead
screw of lathe, screw jack
 The pitch is twice that of BSW thread for same
diameter

24
SQUARE THREAD FORMS
Acme Threads
 Modified form of square threads
 The thread angle is 290
 These threads are particularly used in cases
where engagements and dis-engagements are
frequent e.g. brass valves, lead screw of lathe
and bench vices

25
SQUARE THREAD FORMS
Knuckle Threads
 Modified form of square threads
 Rounded at top and bottom
 These threads are used in electric bulbs, bottles,
railway couplers etc…

26
SQUARE THREAD FORMS
Buttress Threads
 Combined form of V-threads and square threads
 It combines the low frictional resistance of
square threads and the strength of V-threads
 Used for power transmission in one direction only
like carpenter wise, air plane propellers etc…

27
ISO METRIC THREAD DESIGNATION
 The diameter-pitch combination of an ISO metric
screw thread is designated by the letter ‘M’
followed by the value of nominal diameter,pitch
and thread length in mm
 The two values are separated by the sign ‘x’
e.g.
M10 x 1.25 x 24 Thread length
(mm)
Metric thread Pitch (mm)

Nominal diameter (mm)

28
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION

 True projections of threaded portion of a


part consists of series of helices and it
takes considerable time to draw them
 Hence some conventional methods are
used to represent the threads
 Notes may be given at the bottom of the
threads stating the particulars e.g. thread
form, pitch, diameter, left or right hand
threads etc.
29
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION
EXTERNAL THREADS

 The crests of threads are indicated by thick


continuous line and the roots are indicated by thin
continuous line
 In side view, the threaded roots are represented by
portion of a circle drawn with a continuous thin line
of length approximately three-quarters of the
circumference
 The limit of useful length of screw threads is
represented by a continuous thick line
 The length up to which the incomplete threads are
formed beyond useful limit is represented by two
inclined lines 30
SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION
INTERNAL THREADS

 For internal screw threads, the crests and roots are


indicated by hidden lines
 In side view, the threaded roots are represented by
portion of a circle drawn with a continuous thin line
of length approximately three-quarters of the
circumference
 The limit of useful length of screw threads is
represented by hidden line
 The length up to which the incomplete threads are
formed beyond useful limit is represented by two
inclined hidden lines
31
SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION
V - THREADS

 The crests are represented by continuous thin


lines extending up to the major diameter
 The roots are represented by thick lines extending
up to the minor diameter
 These lines are drawn inclined with a slope equal
to half the pitch as shown in figure
32
SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION
SQUARE - THREADS

33
SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION
THREADS IN ASSEMBLY

 Figure (a) shows schematic representation of


threads in assembly
 Figure (b) and (c) shows simplified representation
of threads in assembly
34
BOLTS
 A cylindrical piece/job with a head on one side and
threaded length on the other side is called a bolt
 Bolts are used to join two or more parts temporarily
 The function and the purpose of a bolt decides the
shape of the bolt
 Bolt is used along with nut to tighten two parts
 Following types of bolts are generally used in
engineering applications:
(1) Hexagonal headed bolt (2) Square headed bolt
(3) Cup-headed bolt (4) Cylindrical headed bolt
(5) T-headed bolt (6) Eye bolt
(7) Lifting eye bolt (8) Hook bolt
(9) Shackle bolt (10) Headless tapered bolt
(11) Counter sunk headed bolt
35
BOLTS
HEXAGONAL-HEADED BOLT

 This is one of the most commonly used bolts


 The shape of the head is hexagonal
 The hexagonal head is chamfered at its upper end
at an angle of 300 to its base

36
BOLTS
SQUARE-HEADED BOLT

 This bolt is used where a head is to be


accommodated in a recess
 The recess is also in the form of a square shape
 This prevents the bolt from turning when the nut
is screwed on or off it
37
BOLTS
CUP-HEADED BOLT

 It is square neck bolt which fits in a square recess


 This fit prevents the bolt from rotating
 Used largely in tank construction and in certain
parts of locomotive constructions
38
BOLTS
CYLINDRICAL-HEADED BOLT

 Used when limited space is available and it also


avoids the use of spanner
 The rotation of the bolt is prevented by means of
a pin inserted in to the shank just below the head
 These bolts are commonly used in big ends of
connecting rods, eccentrics etc…
39
BOLTS
T-HEADED BOLT

 This bolt is mainly used in machine tool tables


that are provided with T-slots
 This makes it possible to mount jigs and fixtures
anywhere on the slide by using T-headed bolts
 The neck of the bolt is made square fitting in to
the slot provided on the slide 40
BOLTS
EYE BOLT

 This bolt has circular ring at one of the ends


 It is rectangular in cross-section at its head,
aiding in holding it to prevent rotation

41
BOLTS
LIFTING EYE BOLT

 This bolt is mainly used as an aid to lift heavy


machinery
 Hooks can be placed at the ends inside the ring
 Eye bolts are screwed on to their top surfaces 42
BOLTS
HOOK BOLT

 This bolt passes through a hole in one part only


while the other part is gripped by the hook
shaped bolt head
 It is used where there is no space for making a
bolt hole in one of the parts
 The square neck prevents the rotation of the bolt
43
BOLTS
SHACKLE BOLT

 This bolt is having head just like a fork having


holes to receive a pin
 Square neck is usually provided with the head to
prevent the rotation 44
BOLTS
HEADLESS TAPERED BOLT

 Used for large marine shaft couplings where any


form of head can not be used thereby involving
encroachment on valuable space
 Its shank is tapered and has no head as the name
indicates
45
BOLTS
COUNTER SHUNK HEADED BOLT

 These bolts are commonly used for securing metal


works to wood works i.e. where flush surfaces are
required
 It is provided with a pin similar to that used in the
case of cylindrical headed bolt or by means of a
square portion of the shank so as to prevent the
rotation 46
NUTS
 A device used with a bolt or a stud to join two or more
parts together temporarily is known as Nut
 Nut can not alone be used to fasten the parts
 It screws on the threaded end of the bolt and draws
the parts together by tightening it
 It is known by the outer shape of its body and consists
of internal threads of different forms according to the
application
 Following types of nuts are generally used in
engineering applications:
(1) Hexagonal headed Nut (2) Square headed Nut
(3) Flanged Nut (4) Cap Nut
(5) Dome Nut (6) Capstan Nut
(7) Wing Nut (8) Ring Nut
47
NUTS
HEXAGONAL HEADED NUT

 This form of nut finds application in almost any


form of industry
 The upper corners of this nut are rounded off or
chamfered at an angle of 300 or 450 w.r.t. base of
nut
48
NUTS
SQUARE HEADED NUT

 This form of nut is usually used in conjunction


with the square headed bolt
 It has 4 sides instead of 6 as in the case of
hexagonal nut
 The corners are chamfered in the same way as for
hexagonal nut 49
NUTS
FLANGED NUT

 This is the form of hexagonal nut with a circular


washer attached to it
 Its flat surface provides a large bearing surface
 This permits the use of a bolt in a comparatively
large size of hole
50
NUTS
CAP NUT

 It is a hexagonal nut with a cylindrical cap at the


top
 The design protects the bolt from corrosion and
also prevents leakage through the threads
 Cap nuts are used in smoke boxes or locomotive
and steam pipe connections 51
NUTS
DOME NUT

 It is another form of a cap nut having a spherical


dome at the top

52
NUTS
CAPSTAN NUT

 This is in the form of a cylinder with holes drilled


in the curved surface
 These bolts can be used to turn the nut by placing
a tommy bar in it
53
NUTS
WING NUT

 This nut has two projections with which the nut


can be easily rotated by thumb and finger and are
frequently used for securing adjustable fittings
such as wind screen of motor car
54
NUTS
RING NUT

 This nut is in the form of a ring provided with


slots in the curved surface for a special spanner
 These nuts are often used in mounting bearings

55
SCREWS

 Screws and bolts are similar except in threading

length

 Screws are threaded till the end

 They are used to prevent relative motion between

two parts

 The heads of the screws have screw driver slots or

they can be turned by wrenches or spanners

56
SCREWS

57
SCREWS

58
SCREW ENDS

59
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
 Nut and bolt are extensively used to join different
parts of the machine
 Machines are always subjected to vibrations due
to moving parts
 Due to vibrations there is always tendency for the
nut to get slack and to screw off the bolt which
may result in an accident
 To prevent slackening of nut, different
arrangements are used to achieve locking of nuts

60
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
LOCK NUT OR CHECK NUT

 This nut is used along with an ordinary hexagonal


nut
 The two nuts lock tightly against each other
thereby preventing slackening
61
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
SPLIT PIN

 This method utilises inserting of a split-pin


through a hole provided in the bolt end
 This safely secures the nut in its position resulting
in locking of the nut
62
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
SLOTTED NUT

 In a slotted nut, slots are cut in the upper end of a


hexagonal nut
 Split pins are then placed through these holes
 The drawback of this that the nut becomes weak
63
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
CASTLE NUT

 Castle nuts are an improvement over slotted nuts


as the have a cylindrical collar in which slots are
provided for inserting split-pins
64
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
SAWN NUT OR WILES NUT

 This nut is an ordinary hexagonal nut with a slot cut


half way through it
 A cap screw is passed through a clear hole in the
upper part and is tightened in the lower tapped part of
the nut
 This causes the tightening of the threads on the bolts
resulting in locking due to friction 65
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
LOCKING WITH GRUB SCREW

 This arrangement has a grub screw mounted as


shown in the figure
 This prevents rotation of the nut till the grub
screw is totally removed
66
NUT LOCKING ARRANGEMENT
LOCKING WITH SPRING WASHER

 A Spring washer is similar to a single coil of


spring
 When this washer is placed between the nut and
the part, the nut grips the thread on the bolt due
to the spring force of the washer 67
FOUNDATION BOLTS
 Foundation bolts are used for fixing machines to their
foundation
 Foundation bolts are made by forging from mild steel
or wrought iron rods
 The bolt size depends up on the size of the machine
and the magnitude of the forces that act on them
when the machine is in operation
 For setting the bolts in position, their positions are
marked and then suspended in the holes made in the
ground
 Afterwards, cement concrete is filled in the space
around bolts
 Once cement concrete mixture sets, the bolts are
firmly secured to the ground
68
FOUNDATION BOLTS

 Various types of foundation bolts used for fixing


the heavy machines are as follows:
(1) Eye or Hoop foundation bolt
(2) Bent or Curved foundation bolt
(3) Rag foundation bolt
(4) Lewis foundation bolt
(5) Cotter foundation bolt
(6) Square headed foundation bolt
(7) T-headed foundation bolt

69
EYE OR HOOP FOUNDATION BOLT

 This is the simplest form of all foundation bolts. In


this, one end of the bolt is forged into an eye and a
cross piece is fixed in it
 Figure shows an eye foundation bolt that is set in
concrete 70
BENT OR CURVED FOUNDATION BOLT

 This bolt is forged in bent form and set in cement


concrete
 When machines are to be placed on stone beds, the
bolts are set in lead
 Figure shows a bent foundation bolt that is set first in
lead and then in cement concrete, resulting in a firm
and stable bolt 71
RAG FOUNDATION BOLT

 This bolt consists of a tapered body, square or


rectangular in cross-section, the tapered edges
being grooved
 Figure shows a rag foundation bolt that is set first
in lead and then in cement concrete 72
LEWIS FOUNDATION BOLT

73
LEWIS FOUNDATION BOLT
 This is a removable foundation bolt. The body of
the bolt is tapered in width on one side
 To use this bolt, a pit is produced in cement
concrete, by using a (foundation) block
 Once the concrete sets-in, the bolt is placed in it
so that the tapered bolt surface, bears against the
tapered face of the pit
A key is then inserted, bearing against the
straight surfaces of the pit and the bolt
 This arrangement makes the bolt firm in the bed.
However, the bolt may be removed by
withdrawing the key
74
COTTER FOUNDATION BOLT

 It is used for fixing heavy machines


 It has a rectangular slot at its bottom end, to receive a
cotter
 For putting the bolts in position, the foundation bed is first
made, providing holes for inserting cotters
 A cast iron washer (W) placed as shown, provides bearing
surface for the cotter (C) 75
SQUARE HEADED FOUNDATION BOLT

 It is a simple square headed bolt with a square


neck carrying square plate as shown in figure
 The square plate will set firmly in sulphur and will
prevent the bolt from moving automatically 76
T-HEADED FOUNDATION BOLT

 It is similar to a square headed bolt except the


head of the bolt is forged in to a T-shape as shown
in figure 77