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Health, Safety, Risk Assessment and Welfare in the Engineering


There are a number of reasons companies keep records of serious accidents,
incidents and emergencies. Primarily reporting of accidents, incidents and
emergencies at work is a legal requirement. It enables companies to identify
where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents.
Organisations can then address the risks and take steps to reduce them.
There are a number of issues that can result from accidents, incidents and
emergencies in the work place such as financial costs. The reporting of
incidents requires active participation from personnel. The reporting system
relies on honest information on accidents or near misses that have occurred.
Serious accidents can affect people in different ways those directly involved or
those indirectly involved in a serious accident can experience stress after the
event which could also result in lost work time. The reports collated can also
identify any trends in accidents and highlight areas that companies may need
to look into and it allows a record to be made of the accident if any later claim
for compensation is submitted.

Costs of Accidents
Accidents caused by work activities cost time and money. If a serious
accident occurs in the workplace the cost to a company can be considerable.
There are different types of costs involved with accidents in the work place,
direct cost and indirect costs. Direct costs are those costs specifically
associated with the accident such as; cost of damage to work equipment, cost
of clean up operation, sick pay for injured worker, legal expenses,
compensation, fines and court costs resulting from legal prosecution. Indirect
costs are those cost that do not specifically relate to the accident but are the
consequence of the accident such as; loss of production/productivity, overtime
to cover loss of production/productivity, wages for replacement worker while
injured party is off on sick leave, increase in insurance premiums and the loss
off work time for senior managers involved in the investigation of the accident.

By keeping records and reporting on accidents that occur organisations can
calculate the cost of accidents, incidents and emergencies in the work place
and also predict future costs. By analysing the costs incurred from accidents
companies can assess if it is financial practicable to invest in further health
and safety measures as required by the Health and Safety at Work Act
(HASAWA) 1974.

Human Consequences
Accidents in the work place often occur and can have a varying effect on the
workforce. Accidents in the work place can cause direct injury to employees
or the public. Also accidents can have other consequences on people
involved in accidents and those that may have witnessed the accident. These
consequences affect people mentally and psychologically such as emotional

It is important to get employees onboard with the reporting procedures as the
system relies on the honesty of people reporting real incidents. The idea

Within National Grid a lot of time has been spent to nurture this culture and at present people are more willing to report near misses. This is due to the fact that accident was caused by the failure of lifting equipment which is a reportable dangerous occurrence. the reporting system should not be seen as a tool to “get people into trouble”. It is uncommon for an accident that results in a fatality or serious injury to occur from a single major cause. The records should be analysed for trends on a regular basis for example monthly depending on the number of incidents a company experiences. Task 2 (P8) The incident that occurred at Zero MOT Centre Ltd should be reported as per the Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995. Most accidents or incidents are the result of a series of factors. employers are able to monitor any trends in types of accidents happening at the workplace. By collating data and reporting all minor incidents help build a picture of the potential issues and actions can be taken to prevent more serious injuries. Examples of when RIDDOR must be used are when an accident occurs at work and: Death or Major Injury . incidents and emergencies. accident records are needed to assess whether the existing controls are adequate or to identify if trends are developing and to implement new procedures. Employees must feel safe in the knowledge that if they are reporting near misses the information is being utilised and not just disappearing into a black hole. Trends By keeping accurate records of serious accidents. This data can also be compared to national averages to see how an organisations health and safety policies are performing. By analysing trends an organisation can measure itself to identify if their health and safety record is getting better or worse and to assess if their health and safety objectives are being achieved. As part of the reactive monitoring process. Employees with certain diseases must report the details as it is important for employers to track this back as the disease could be contagious so other employees who may have come into contact with the person carrying the disease can be tested and appropriate action taken. It is not a system to initiate blame and employees need to recognise this. The information collated in the records should be used to produce recommendations and promote safety awareness around the workplace. The information and trends identified in the records should be communicated throughout the business to make employees aware of the potential hazards.behind the reporting and record keeping system is the information it provides. This is an example where an organisation relies on the honesty of one person reporting the incident and the information used to prevent the consequences of the disease.

leptospirosis or occupational cancer. An example of a situation where a dangerous occurrence would need to be reported was if a construction worker was using a piece of lifting machinery to move material around a site and the lifting machinery failed. and loss of sight or unconsciousness due to asphyxia. prolonged exposure to cutting oil could cause dermatitis which is a reportable disease under RIDDOR. Reportable dangerous occurrences are listed within RIDDOR 1995 such examples are. Some examples of reportable diseases are. A member of the management team responsible for incident reporting must notify the RIDDOR incident contact centre by the quickest means practicable. A member of the management team responsible for incident reporting must notify the RIDDOR incident contact centre by means of a completed disease report form. the accident that occurred did not result in a reportable injury. The construction worker may be not be killed but break his leg which is a major injury. dermatitis. In the case study of the motor vehicle repair company Zero MOT Centre Ltd. Over Three-Day Lost Time Injury There is an accident connected with the work activity and an employee suffers an injury which results in that person taking sick leave or not being able to perform their normal duties for more than three days including weekends. the accident that did occur was a reportable dangerous occurrence as it involved the failure of lifting equipment as stated in Schedule 2 of RIDDOR 1995. asthma. A member of the management team responsible for incident reporting must notify the RIDDOR incident contact centre by the quickest means practicable. An employee maybe exposed to cutting oil when completing his work duties. A death may be caused from a construction worker carrying out his duties at height on scaffolding and falling off to his death while completing his while completing his work duties.An employee or member of the public is killed or suffers a major injury as the result of work activities. fracture to the legs. Disease A doctor notifies a member of the management team that an employee is suffering from a work related disease. failure of lifting machinery. However. A member of the management team responsible for incident reporting must notify the RIDDOR incident contact centre by means of a completed accident report form within 10 days of the injury. any unintentional contact with overhead power lines or failure of breathing apparatus at any time. As the accident is reportable under RIDDOR 1995 as a dangerous occurrence the manager of Zero MOT Centre Ltd must notify the RIDDOR Incident Contact Centre by the quickest practicable means and within ten days of the . An example of a three-day lost time injury would be someone suffering an ankle sprain by tripping over a work object resulting in the employee being unable to complete their job responsibilities for more than 3 days. Dangerous Occurrence An incident happens which does not result in a reportable injury but could quite easily have done. Examples of major injuries could be. amputation.

The manager should keep a note of telephone notifications. In practice. notifying by the ‘quickest practicable means’ will normally mean a telephone call to the Incident Contact Centre. the name of the caller and what details were given of the event being notified.accident make a report on an approved form. F2508 and sent to the Incident Contact Centre within ten days of the accident. . including the time. After initially reporting the incident the manager should complete an accident report form.

Finally I will draw a conclusion about the impact of the accidents on everyday life. lifting or carrying have both risen since 1996/7 but the number of major injuries that have occurred due to falls from height and being struck by a moving/falling object have reduced. The number of deaths caused by being struck by a moving vehicle seems to be fluctuating each year but there seems to be no overall trend. During the following I will attempt to produce a summary of the trends in the data provided. Figure 1 illustrates the number of fatal injuries to workers by kinds of accident over a ten year period from 1996/7 to 2006/7. The most common kinds of fatal injury to workers in recent years have been falling from a height. Figure 2 presents the number of major injuries to employees by kinds of accident during the period 1996/97 to 2006/07. A construction worker falling off scaffolding to his death would be an example of this kind of fatal injury. Overall the number of major injuries to employees has been varied. Falling from a height continues to be the most common type of accident to workers in 2005/06 however being struck by a moving vehicle. the same as 2004/05. The number of workers fatally injured due to falling from a height decreased substantially in 2004/2005 and 2005/06. for example if work tools were knocked off the top of the scaffolding tower striking another worker below and killing them. in 2000/01 and in 2003/04 as per the table in appendix 1. The number of deaths due to being struck by a moving vehicle in 2005/06 was 35. and explain them by giving typical causes. see appendix 1. This represents the lowest figure on in the 10 year period and continues the general downward trend over the past ten years. number of major injuries and the number of over three day injuries to workers from the year 1996/7 to 2006/7.Figures 1 to 3 provide data on the number of accidents to workers that are reportable under RIDDOR 1995. . the number of slips. for example if materials were being delivered to site and the wagon driver reversed into a worker crushing against the wall resulting in the worker being killed and being struck by a moving or falling object. These include the number of fatal injuries. are the next most common kinds of fatal injury. The number of workers fatally injured due to falling from a height decreased in 2005/06 from 53 to 46. trips or falls and injuries sustained while handling. The number of workers fatally injured by being struck by moving/falling objects has also decreased over the 10 years it does seem to fluctuate with no obvious trend. work and economy. The number of deaths caused by being trapped by something collapsing/overturning for example a construction worker digging next to a wall and the wall collapses killing the worker does have a general downward trend decreasing from 16 fatalities in 96/97 to 11 fatalities in 05/06 however the predicted figure for 06/07 shows a dramatic rise back to a similar level of 04/05. During the 1990s there was a general downward trend in the rate of fatalities to workers however it has risen twice since then.

for example a construction worker falling down an excavation causing a strained back resulting in the worker being unable to complete his work duties for more than three days had remained largely unchanged until 2001/02 where the number of incidents began to rise quite dramatically until 2003/04 where the numbers peaked. As with major injuries the number of over-3-day injuries as a result of slipping and tripping. Slipping and tripping remains the most common kind of major injury. The period from 1996/97 to 2000/01 remained fairly constant but there was a steady rise in the number of incidents until it reached its peak in 2004/05 where is has started to reduce slightly for two years running. for example an employee trying to lift a piece of work equipment resulting in a strained back making it impossible to carry out their work duties for 3 days or more has decreased since the peak number of injuries in 2003/04. Since 2003/04 the figures have reduced very slightly but have began to plateau between 2005/06 and 2006/07 . Since 2003/04 the figures have reduced very slightly but have began to plateau at a figure of about 1000 more injuries than in 1996/97. The number of over-3-day injuries to employees sustained while handling. between the years 2000/01 and 2001/02 the numbers of injuries dropped significantly and has since had a gradual fall until 2006/07. for example a worker tripping on a piece of work equipment and breaking their leg had remained largely unchanged until 2001/02 where the number of incidents began to rise quite dramatically until 2003/04 where the numbers peaked. Handling.The number of major injuries to employees occurring as a result of slipping and tripping. Lifting and carrying injuries for example a worker carrying a heavy load and the worker collapses resulting in a broken leg have increased significantly over the 10 years from approximately 2200 per annum to over 4000 per annum. The number of workers suffering a major injury by being struck by moving/falling objects for example if work tools were knocked off the top of the scaffolding tower striking another worker below and breaking their arm has decreased slightly over the 10 years however it has remained at a fairly constant level no obvious trend. lifting or carrying. Figure 3 exhibits details on the number of over 3 day injuries to employees by kind of accidents in the period from 1996/97 to 2006/07. accounting for roughly 6000 more incidents than any other in 2006/07. The number of major injuries caused by falls from height. Injuries sustained while handling. a construction worker falling off scaffolding and breaking their leg has reduced over the 10 year period however between the years 1996/97 and 2000/1 the numbers of injuries remained around the same levels. All over 3 day injuries to employees have remained at similar levels throughout the 10 year period. lifting or carrying are still the most common kind of over-3-day injury in 2006/07. for example.

What has to be taken into account is the number of incidents that are actually being reported. Unfortunately the information provided in figures 1-3 does not identify the number of incidents reported but due to the change in attitude towards health and safety I would suggest in 2006/07 the number of incidents reported is likely to be higher yet there is still a reduction in the numbers of accidents occurring. The trends demonstrated in figure 1-3 generally show a reduction in the numbers of incidents occurring over the 10 year period which would suggest that the policies and investment in health and safety seem to be having an impact. appropriate methods for incident prevention can be developed.The number of injuries caused by moving/falling objects for example paperwork being stored on top of a cupboard and falling causing an injury to an employee meaning they cannot complete their work duties for more than three days has been the only accident that has a significant fall in numbers. employees and the public have changed dramatically with significant amount of time and money being invested to raising awareness of health and safety in order to reduce incidents and accidents occurring. Overall the data presented in figures 1-3 has generally reduced over the 10 year period. Further to this the workforce in the UK had been growing since its lowest level in 1994 so by the end of the data series the numbers of workers will have increased substantially. In 1996/97 the number of non reported incidents compared to the number of reported incidents is likely to be high. for example a worker walking through a work shop and bangs their head on a piece of machinery causing an injury that results in the worker not being able to complete their work duties for more than three days has remained fairly uniform over the 10 years it does seem to fluctuate with no obvious trend. and this may have increased reporting. Over the last couple of decades the opinions on health and safety from the government. Most of the figures increase slightly in 97/98 this could be a result of more people having a better understanding of RIDDOR 1995 and reporting more incidents properly. A number of the reduction in the rates of fatal. It is probable that awareness of and attitudes to health and safety changed during the 1990s. Taking these two factors into account the . The number of employees suffering an over 3 day injury by a strike against something fixed or stationary. employers. The number of accidents has fallen at steady rate from approximately 19. Through developing an understanding of why and how incidents occur. the data begins in 96/97 which is a direct relationship with the introduction of RIDDOR 1995 in April the 1st 2006.000 accidents in 2006/07. When incidents occur in the workplace it is important to understand what factors may have contributed to the outcome in order to avoid similar incidents in the future.000 accidents in 1996/97 to approximately 11. Over the last couple of decades a lot of attention has focused on the causes of incidents. major and over 3 day injury in the 10 year period can be attributed to a shift in employment away from manufacturing and heavy industry to lower risk service industries such as the financial sector.

As might be expected. Encouragingly. are more likely to identify a hazard than those working in the financial sector. However. There is now a move to apply the concept of safety culture to individual employees. I would suggest that the HSE and government used this data in order to identify the most significant trend that are forming and take appropriate action with the introduction of regulations. not only will there be the emotional side to deal with but also there will be the need to change their way of living. as over recent years the momentum has been increased in health and safety initiatives which could contribute to the data trends in figures 1-3. I would suggest that the majority of employees still see the employers as the party with principle responsibility towards health and safety responsibility. During the period from 1996 through to 2006 there were 14 regulations under HASAWA 1974 added or updated. If someone suffered a major injury at work not only will the injured member have . concerns over health and safety vary by industry. work and the economy. Introductions to the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 have happened regularly over the last few decades. Workers who witness an accident can be affected psychologically and may become unable to resume their work duties. Unfortunately no direct correlation can be made from the introduction of the laws to the reduction in incidents as the relevant regulations were introduced towards the beginning or end of the data series. the data in figures 1-3 suggests that employers are taking health and safety issues seriously and that employers are seen to be doing so. For example if an accident occurs in the workplace the impact on everyday life would affect not only the person injured but also people indirectly connected to the accident. For example. The spouse of the person who was killed may have relied on the income of that person in order to live to their means without this income the spouse may have to change their whole way of living in order to survive financially. The regulations most relevant to the data provided are: • The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 • The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 • The Work at Height Regulations 2005 • Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 The introduction of new regulations may have had an impact on the data show in figures 1-3. those in the manufacturing and construction industries. as worker’s behaviours are influenced by the safety culture of the organisation.reduction in number of incidents and accidents is proportionally higher than the data actually represents. Large incidents such as Chernobyl and the Piper Alpha disaster have raised awareness of the effect of cut corners. The belief that safety culture within the workplace is a factor that significantly affects the outcome of an incident is the view taken by government and senior advisors. If the accident resulted in a fatality the family members will be affected on a number of levels. The results of accidents in the work place can have significant impact on everyday life.

Some people have suggested that health and safety laws and regulations have gone too far by effecting everyday life resulting in children being “wrapped up in a cotton wool culture”. the cost of accident investigation and filing accident and investigation reports and the expense of accident investigation. legal expenses. The past safety record may be investigated and evaluated to ensure that no legislation was ignored which could result in legal proceeding being taken against a company. lost production due to the reduction in staff members. If a company has a serious accident occur that is brought to the publics knowledge supplier or customer opinions may change regarding that particular company and potentially suppliers may refuse to supply them if the company is associating themselves with their brand and customers may change to a different supplier with a more ethical safety record. Management are then involved with the lengthy accident report and investigation. There are further costs of an accident take into account such as costs that are not directly involved in the accident such as. Once the company deals with the initial disruption to production they also have to deal with the fact that their work force is reduced meaning that they may have to pay overtime to ensure the production runs to maximum efficiency. Workers that were witnesses to the accident may have had to stop their work to watch or offer assistance or talk about the accident. Every accident that occurs in the work place has significant cost associated to it which can in turn affect the overall economy. wages for lost time of uninjured co-workers. the desire to reduce these accidents from happening can also have an effect on everyday life. All accidents that occur are now reported and recorded. For example. over-time payments to cover lost production. The costs of remedial and compliance costs for equipment needed to ensure the company now adheres to health . this is a major burden on family members changing the way of life they had come accustomed to. The affect of accidents at work will have numerous consequences for a company for example if someone is killed by equipment at work the production may be stopped until the damaged equipment was cleared and replaced with new machinery. fines/court costs and increased insurance premiums. There are many costs involved with accidents at work all of which can have significant impact on the change their lifestyle as they may be left with the prospect of having to live the rest of their lives with missing limbs but again the family members will be affected. This investigation can be hanging over an organisation for years putting extreme pressure on senior managers. Recently it has been reported that children playing an everyday game such as conkers now have to ensure they are wearing eye protection in the playground. the HSE website presents a scenario of a small company and if it was to have an accident resulting in a major injury it could cost the company in excess of £45k. The worst case scenario is if a company is forced to stop trading due to the HSE deeming the workplace unsafe or the company not being able to pay fines or upgrades to safety mechanisms needed resulting in the company going bankrupt. lost time of manager. The person who was injured may be injured to a level that requires 24hr assistance. This cost is made up from the wages paid out during the injured workers time off. wages for a replacement worker.

These responses can be costly. . The economy will benefit from the increase in health and safety culture as there will be a reduction in accidents in the workplace as a result companies will become more profitable and the HSE will not have to carry out as many prosecutions which are effectively funded by the taxpayer.and safety regulations. All these costs that a company faces will affect overall profitability. the UK economy is directly affected by the profitability of UK companies. including special safety training and constant monitoring of work practices directly related to the accident. Following an accident a company must respond to regulatory hearings and equipment modifications for compliance.

.APPENDIX Table 3 Fatal injuries to workers by kind of accident 1996/97 to 2005/06p as reported to all enforcing authorities Kind of 96/9 97/9 98/9 99/0 00/0 01/0 02/0 03/0 04/0 05/06 accident 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 p Falls from 88 92 80 68 74 69 50 68 53 46 a height Struck by 43 45 48 34 64 39 39 44 35 35 moving vehicle Struck by 57 41 41 35 51 46 30 28 47 33 moving or falling objects Trapped by 16 25 15 16 40 8 11 7 19 11 something collapsing/ overturnin g Total 204 203 184 153 229 162 130 147 154 125 Note: The number of fatal injuries due to overturning is counted in the struck by a moving vehicle kind of accident from 2001/02. This will account for part of the drop in the collapse and overturn kind of accident in 2001/02.