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 Surface crack detection : PT, MT - Density : relates to degree of darkness

 Volumetric inspection : RT, UT : measured with densitometer
Radiographic Testing - Contrast : relate to degree of difference
 Principle: - Definition : relate to degree of sharpness
- Sensitivity : relate to the overall quality of
- involve passing a beam of penetrating radiation through
the test object. :measure with wire type IQI or
-thinner area and material of a less density appear as Step/Hole type IQI
darker area on radiograph  Techniques:
-while thicker area is lighter
-Applicable to metal, non-metal and composites
 Sources:
i. X-ray (high-energy electron beams)
- Electrically generated
- Penetrating power : the kilo-voltage applied (between
anode and cathode)
- Used for welds generally have photon energies in the
range 30keV up to 20MeV.
- Up to 400keV they are generated by conventional X-ray
- Above 400keV X-rays are produced using devices such
as betatrons and linear accelerators
ii. Gamma Rays (nuclear disintegrations - atomic fission)
- Source are from naturally occurring radium or decay of
unstable atom
Isotopes Energy & Typical Thickness Range
Thulium 90 -energy is similar to that of 90keV
-up to 7mm
Ytterbium 169 -energy is similar to that of
120keV X-rays
up to approximately -12mm thick
Iridium 192 -energy is approximately
(mostly used) equivalent to that of 500keV X-
Cobalt 60 -energy approximating to that of
1.2MeV X-rays,
- Penetrating power :Type of isotopes (wavelength of
gamma ray)
- in the increased portability;
- need for a power source
- lower initial equipment cost
 Radiographic Advantages and Disadvantages cont. UT
Advantages Limitations  Advantages
Permanent record Health hazard. Safety - Portable (no mains power) battery
(Important) - Direct location of defect (3
Good for sixing Classified workers, - dimensional
non-planar medicals required - Good for complex geometry
defects/flaws - Safe operation and instant results
Can be used on all Sensitive to defect - High penetrating capability
materials orientation - Can be done from one side only
Direct image of Not good for planar defect - Good for finding planar defects
defect/flaws detection  Limitations
Real-time imaging Limited ability to detect - No permanent record
fine cracks - Only ferritic materials (mainly)
Can be positioned Access to both sides - High level of operator skill required
inside pipe required - Calibration of equipment required
(productivity) - Special calibration blocks required
Very good thickness Skilled interpretation
- No good for pin pointing porosity
penetration required
- Critical of surface conditions (clean smooth)
No power required with Relatively slow
- Will not detect surface defects
- Material thickness >8mm due to dead zone
Easily detect volumetric Lack of sensitivity to planar
weld defects such as slag defects
inclusions and various Dye Penetrant Testing
forms of gas porosity  Detection of surface breaking defects only
 Uses the forces of capillary action
Ultrasonic Testing  Applicable on any material type(non-porous)
 Surface and sub-surface detection  Penetrants type:
 Uses high frequency sound waves (typically above -water washable contrast
2MHZ) -solvent removable contrast
 Equipment: -water washable fluorescent
a) A flaw detector: -solvent removable fluorescent
-Pulse generator.  Fluorescent penetrant is not applicable at extreme
-Adjustable time base generator with an adjustable temperature as at below 5°C, above 60°C the
delay control. penetrant will dry out
-Cathode ray tube with fully rectified display.  Advantages
-Calibrated amplifier with a graduated gain control or - All materials (non-porous)
attenuator. - Portable
b) An ultrasonic probe: - Applicable to small parts with complex geometry
-Piezo-electric crystal element capable of converting - Simple, Inexpensive, Sensitive
electrical vibrations into mechanical vibrations and - Relatively low skill level (easy to interpret)
vice-versa.  Limitation
-Probe shoe, normally a Perspex block to which the - Will only detect defects open to the surface
crystal is firmly attached using a suitable adhesive. - Requires careful space preparation
-Electrical and/or mechanical crystal damping facilities - Not applicable to porous surfaces
to prevent excessive ringing. - Temperature dependent
- Cannot retest indefinitely
- Potentially hazardous chemicals
Magnetic Particle Testing
 Surface and sub-surface detection
 Relies on magnetization of component tested
 Only ferro-magnetic material can be tested at a
temperature below Curie point (about 650°C)
 Methods of applying magnetic field, yoke, permanent
magnet, prods and flexible cable with fine iron powder
applied on test area
 Defect will create leakage field which attract iron
 Defect will show up as dark indication or
 In case of fluorescent particles under UV-A light,
green/yellow indication. Greater sensitivity
 Advantages
- Inexpensive equipment
- Direct location of defect
- Not critical of surface conditions
- Could be applied without power
- Low skill level
- Sub-defects surface 1-2mm
- Quick, instant results
- Hot testing (using dry powder)
- Can be used in the dark (UV light)
 Limitation
- Only magnetic materials
- May need to demagnetize components
- Access may be a problem for the yoke
- Need power if using a yoke
- No permanent record
- Calibration of equipment
- Testing in two directions required
- Need good lighting - 500 Lux minimum