Sie sind auf Seite 1von 542

W A L KS IN F L O RE N C E

AN D I TS EN VI R ON S

S U SA N AND JO A N N A H O R N ER

WI T H I L L U S T RAT IO N S

VO L I I . .

N E W E D I TI O N , R E VI S E D AN D EN L A R

LO N D O N

S M IT H , ELD ER, CO .
, 1 5 WAT ER LO O F LAC E
l

1 8 84

!A 1 ! r ig h t s r es e r v ed ]
C O N T EN T S

THE S EC O N D VO LU M E .

U F FIZ I G ALLERY —F I RST C O RR I D O R


U FFIZ I G ALLERY —R OO M O F T H E EARLY M AS T ERS
U FFI ZI G ALLERY — LATER T U S C AN AR T
U F F IZ I G ALLERY R OO M O F S M ALL P I CT U RES B Y T U S C AN
-

M AS T ERS
U FFI Z I G ALLERY —T H E T R I B U NE P I C T U RES B EL O N G I N G
-

T O O TH ER S C H OO LS
U FFI Z I G ALLERY— VENE TI AN P I CT U RES
U FF I Z I G ALLERY—SALA D I L O REN Z O M O NA C O
U FF IZ I G ALLERY — T H E P O R T RA I T B AR O CC I O AND
, ,

N I O B E R OO M S
U FFI ZI G ALLERY —O R IG I NAL DRAW I N G S B Y TH E O LD
M AS T ERS
U FFI ZI G ALLERY— EN G RAV I N G S
U FFI ZI G ALLERY — I N T A G L I AND C A M EI .

U FF I Z I GA LLERY—C O I NS AND M EDALS


U F F I Z I G ALLERY —B R O N Z ES AN D S C U L P TU RE .

TH E A C ADE M Y AN D S C AL Z O
T H E P I T T I G ALLERY —LAR G E R OO M S
TA B ERNA C LES —C ENA C O L O O F RA FF AELLE AND TA P E S
,

TR I ES
TH E AR C H /EO L OG I C AL M U SE U M —E G Y P T I AN ANT I QU ITI E S
TH E AR C H E O L O G I C AL M U SE U M —ETR U S C AN ANT I Q U I T I E S
M U SE U M O F TH E B AR GE LL O
CONTENTS OF TH E SE CO ND VOL UI VE .

PAG E

T H E U N I V ERS I TY O F F L O REN C E —M U SE U M O F NA TU RAL


S C I EN C E — T H E T R I B U N E O F G AL I LE O
XXI . TH E ENV I R O NS O F F L O REN C E —T H E C O NV EN T O F SAN
D O M EN I C O —B AD I A O F F I ES O LE
F I E S O LE
TH E V I LLA P AL M I ER I —T H E O LD B O L O G N ESE R O AD
P RA T O L I N O — M O N TE SENAR I O
V I LLA ST I B B ERT — M ED I C E AN V I LLA O F C ARE GG I
P ETRA I A — C A ST E LL O—C I N O R I P O R C E LA I N M A N U F AC°

T O RY
XX V I . SA N SALV I —TH E C ASTL E O F V I N C I G L I ATA — RO V EZZ A N O

S E T T I G NAN O
ANT E LLA
SAN M I N I AT O AL M O N T E
T H E P O RTA R O M AN A —TH E C ERT O S A
TH E I M P R U N ET A — SAN F EL I C E I N EM A—S A NT A M A R
G H ERI T A I N R I P O L I —T O RRE D EL GA LL O— C H U RC H
O F SA N L E O N ARD O
B E LL O S G U AR D O —M A R I G N O LLE— P O RT A SAN F R E D I A N O .

V I LL A D E M I DO F F fl P O G G IO A C A I AN O
-

S I G NA —L A V ERN I A —C A M A L D O I I VA LI O M B RO SA
.
-
.

C H R O N O L O G Y O F ART I S T S

A P PEN D I X

I N D EX
[LL US TR A T I O N S TO TH E SE C ON D

AN GE L , BY F R A A N GE L I C O

SE A L O F TH E RE P U B L I C—G O LD F LO R I N —G EM O F
SAV O NAR O LA

C O ATS O F AR M S O F F L O REN C E TH E G U I LDS AN D


, ,

D I S T I N G U I SH E D F A M I L I E S
WA L KS IN F LO R EN C E .

C H A P T ER I .

TH E UF F I Z I GA LLER Y .

E
begin our review of the P u bl ic Galleries with th e
U fiiz i as it contains the w o rks of artists from the
,

eleventh to the seventeenth centuries and thus illustrates the ,

h istory of art from the revival to the decline


, T h e limits of .

thi s book oblige u s to confine our descriptions chiefly to


T uscan and especially F lorentine art
,
We hope thus to a ff ord
,
.

some assistance to the foreigner who may not have time to ,

acquire a profo u nd knowledge of the subj ect and who at first , ,

sight may find it di ffi cult to discover any merit still less


, ,

beauty in the early native style of painting


,
.

F irst Corridor .

The corridor extending along three sides of the Gallery is


, ,

lined with sarcophagi stat u es and busts as well as pictures


, , ,

deserving notice tho u gh with few exceptions inferior as works


, , , ,

of art to those contained in the adj oining rooms


,
We are .

obliged to omit the numbers on the frames as they are ,

repeatedly altered either upon the introduction o f new pictures


, ,

or in accordance with the plans of succeeding directors of the


vor 11 . B
UFFIZ I GA LLER Y .

Gallery We therefore refer the visitor for the numbers to


.
, , , ,

the latest printed catalogue and only select the most important
,

pictu res following as nearly as possible th e chronological


, , ,

order .

Th e earli est example of art is a M adonna and Child by ,

A n drea R ico of Candia who died abo u t 1 1 0 5 ,


H is works .

belong to what has been called By z antine art T h e treatment .

of the subj ect is conventional T h e Child seated on one hand .


,

of the Virgin clings with a natural movement to her other


,

hand though this picture is defective i n drawing th e action is ,



not devoid o f grace T h e outline of the Virgin s head is traced
.

with care the nose i s long the eyes half closed but sweet i n
, , ,

expression and there is a certai n digni ty i n the pose of the


,

head which i nclines to one side the colour however is brown


, , ,

and coppery and the outline hard,


.

T h e two pictures which bear the nam e of Cimab u e ( 1 2 4 0


1 302 are only feeble specimens of his school T h o ugh a .

reform er o f the art Cimabue retained much of the By z antine


,

ma n ner which prevailed i n Italy before he ventured to pass th e


bou ndary of traditional rules and endeavoured to i ntrod u ce ,

forms more analogous to nature as well as more classical ,

beauty .

A small picture follows o f the school of Giotto the pupil ,

of Cimabue the A scension of St J ohn the Evangelist a subj ec t .


,

treated i n nearly the sam e manner by Giotto him sel f in a chapel


of Santa Croce this pict u re formed the predella or lower par t ,

of an altar piece painted for the Guild of Sil k M erchants an d


-
, ,

bears their arms at either end— vi z a Gate the Porta di S .


, ,
.

M aria which once stood near the Ponte Vecch i o in the q uarte r
, ,

where th e silk merchants had their residence .

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane i s attributed to Giott o


( 1 2 66 I t was in the year 1 2 7 6 that Cimabu e took
Giotto —a boy of ten years of age— from tending sheep i n th e
fields to learn the art of painting T h e intercourse with Ger

m any caused by the influx of Germans i n the train of the em


,
FIRS T CO RRID O R .
3

p e ro rs,
as well as the residence of Italian merchants in Ger
m any had already begun to a ff ect the style o f architect u re
, .

i n I taly when a T eutonic in fl u ence became likewise appare nt


,

i n the art of p ai nting T h e approach to classical beau ty of.

form so u ght by Cimab u e becam e s u bordinate to a dramatic


representation of the story and a more idealistic treatment ,
.

Cimab u e had attempted to improve the external form Giotto ,

now endeavoured to impart greater life and movement and to ,

give expression t o tho u ght and feeling .

I n this pict u re the angel presenting the cup to the Saviou r


hardl y differs from the conventional type i n Rico s picture 5 bu t


the co u ntenance of Christ especially the mo u th is singu larl y , ,

beautiful and meek whilst H is whole action suggests the idea o f


,

fervent prayer St J ohn has almost a feminine bea u ty and he


. .
, ,

as well as St Peter and St Jam es is represented i n a nat u ral


. .
,
}

and easy posture of sleep Th e background is gold in accord .


,

ance with the taste of the period th e landscape is hard and ,

the trees and rocks stiff but the colour of the fig u res is soft ,

and agreeable A smal l grey headed old man kneeling in one


.
-

corner and wearing the simple dress of a F lorentine citi z en


, ,

represents the donator or the person at whose req u est the ,


pict u re was painted T h e predella below is divided into tw o


.

compartments in one J u das betrays the Saviour by a kiss i n ,

the other Christ prepares for H is cru cifixion In both th e action


, .
, .

is natural and full of life but the shadows are brown the nose , ,

and eyes still elongated ; and the want of perspective in th e


heads produces flatness and false drawing especially in th e ,

1
three qu arter face
-
.

A Piet a or Lamentation over the Body of the Saviour is


, ,
:

by T ommaso di S tefano sum am ed G io ttin o or La Scimia della , ,


N atura the A pe of N ature from his close imitation of all h e -

saw .Great u ncertain ty prevails regarding the histo ry o f


G io ttin o but he undoubtedly belonged to the school o f
Th ough of th e sch o o of l G i o tt o, it is doub te d wh eth e r t h i s pictu re is
b y th e m ast e r h i mse l f .
4 UFFIZ I GA LL ER Y .

G iotto, and flourished about the commencemen t o f the fou r



t eenth century T his distemper picture has great merits th e
.

d ead Christ is very noble i n expression and its calm m otionles s , ,

f orm gives greater force by contrast to the passionate gri ef o f , ,

a l l around T h e drawing o f th e body a f fords no i ndication of


.

anatomical science though as described by C aval casell e th e , , ,


S aviour youth ful well for me d and simply rendered is a genuin e


,
-

, ,

piece of Giottesqu e nude T h e most beauti ful figures are .
,

o n e o f the M arys who with her back turn ed to the spec tator , , ,

k isses the hand o f Christ with reverence as well as sorrow and ,

S t J ohn who contemplates the S aviour with clasped hands


.
, .

T h e actions o f the hands and heads correspond well an d ,

e xpress the abandonment of grie f St B enedict and S t . . .

Z en ob ius with their hands laid on the heads o f the pe rsons


,

before them are fi ne ; b u t the countenances o f most o f th e


,

fi gures are exaggerated especially that o f the M agdalene at , ,

t h e feet o f the Saviour T h e background is gilt the colou r .

warm and powerful though with a want of harm ony arising , ,

f rom the violent red o f the vermilion which has apparently ,

s tood the test of time better than the other colours or has been ,

r etouche d G io ttino was noted for the brilliancy of his lights


a nd the depth of his shadows .

A life si z e figure o f St John th e Evangelist which follo ws


-
.

is also o f the school o f Giotto .

Art in T uscany was early divided into two great schools the ,

F lorentine and the S iennese T here is greater action and life .

i n the F lorentine a deeper sentimen t with less varie ty i n th e


S iennese I n the words o f the Germ an art critic K ugler Th e
.
, ,

fi rs t takes the lead i n composition and character the second ,

”I
i n the spiritual charm o f individual figu re s .

D i st emp er gl ut i n o us ve h i cl e su ch a s w h ite o f egg o r th e j u i ce o f


-
a , ,

th e fi g tre e u se d b e f o re a n o il med i um w as i nv e nt e d
-
,
.

H a n dbu ch a er Ku m tgesc/z z clz te v o n F ra nz K ugl er—D z e l ta l z emlrcfi


’ ’
’ ’

2
,

M a l erez die R oma n tz scfi m P erz oa e p 5 03 ; D ie M a l erez dc:


’ '

’ ’

.
,

G erma m sc/z en S ty l es p 6 40
'

. .
,
FIRST CORRID OR .
5

An A nnunciation ,the j oi nt work of Simone M emmi ( 1 2 8 5


1 3 4 4 and Lip o M e m mi —r
) p ( 3
P is an example of S iennes e

treatment It was painted for the alt a r o f Sant A nsano i n the
.

cathedral o f Siena T h e fame o f these artists was equal to that


.

of Giotto ; the pict u re itself was probably wholly by S imone ,

and Lippo was employed for the decoration It is thu s .

described by C av al ca sell e T h e Virgi n in the act of receivin g ,

the A ngel and shrinking with a side long action and wit h
,
-

a ff ected softness of motion from him is rendered with an extra ,

ordinary exaggeration o f tenderness in the closed lids a nd


hardly apparent iris of the eyes T h e A ngel is presente d
.

kneeling i n a dress and stole all engraved with embroidery in


,

relief and the words issuing from his mouth are given in a
, .

simi l ar manner T his is a picture whose aff ected tendernes s


.

might well have had i nfluence on the school of mystic painters .

S t A nsan o and Santa G iu l itta on either side belong to thi s


.
'

picture In the medallions above th e A nnunciation are prophets


. .

T h e panel is vertically split and restored so that the figure o f ,

1
th e A ngel is inj ured .

A M adonna and Child with A ngels is by another S iennes e


artist Pietro Laura ti also known as Pietro Loren z etti (a ir3 5 6 )
, ,

a contemporary of the two M emmi and of the F lorentin e ,

G io ttino T his picture was executed i n 1 3 4 0 but is not a goo d


.
,

specimen o f the master A nother picture representing di ff eren t


.
,

incidents in the lives of celebrated hermits is attributed to th e ,

same artist who has treated the subj ect in a large fresco on th e
,

walls of the Campo Santo at Pisa i n both of which he shows a ,

dramatic power approaching more nearly to Gio tt othan to hi s


,

own countryman Simone M e mmi .

l
We return to F lorentine art in the A nnunciation by N eri

de Bicci which tho u gh not o f superlative merit deserves a
, , ,

passing notice as the work of an artist belonging to a family o f


,

pai nters of some reputation who lived towards the end of th e


,

f ourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century N eri .

See C ro w e a nd C a val ca sel l e vol 11 p 7 9 , . . . .


6
« UFFIZ I GA LLE R Y .

b elonged to the third generation whose works mark a d ecline ,

i n art for the B icci were among th e last followers of Giotto .

H is pictures are flat pale and inh a rrn o n io u s i n colour


, ,
Th e .

eacock s feathers

i n the angels wings are symboli cal o m m

p f i o r

t ality . I n the A nnunciation by A gnolo Gaddi we


return to the flourishing period o f the Giottesqu e school T his .


a rtist is a painter of great power who preceded N eri de ,

B icci by half a centu ry T h e predella to the picture is ve ry


.

i nteresting the subj ects included in it are the Worship o f the


S hepherds the A dorati on of the M agi and the Presentation i n
, ,

t h e T emple T here i s great tenderness and beauty i n the


.

f emale heads .

Th e Coronation o f the Virgin with S t F rancis and St ,


. .

Joh n the Baptist on one side St D ominic and St I ves on ,


. .

the other h as been attributed to S pinello of A re zz o but it is


, ,

hardly worthy of so distinguished an artist and may have been ,

by the hand of his pupil G e rin i I t is de fective i n drawing .


,

e specially i n the hands and feet but there is truth of expressi on , ,

a nd the Virgi n has a certain loveliness and grace .

T h e C ru ci fi xion by S pinello of A re zz o ( c 1 3 3 3
,
.

p ainted on a gold ground and composed o f s mall figures


,
has ,

g reat varie ty of expression and there is beauty i n the f


,
ainting
V irgin .T h e soldiers to the right i nten t on casting lots for the ,

g arment are animated and characteristic


, .

T h e next A nnunciation is by an artist of the school of


O rca gn a one of the most celebrated o f Giotto s followers who


, , ,

with a still greater art ist M asaccio helped to bring the art o f , ,

p ainting to the perfection which it attai ned a centu ry later .

A n altar piece of the school of Giotto represents the Virgi n


-

s eated on a throne she holds a rose an d the C h il d h a s a '


,

g o l d fi n c h in its hand the bird of sacrifice called so from the ,

blood red feathers on its head T here is a certain digni ty in


-
.

t hese stiff figures : a lily and two angels are below I n the .

compartments o n either side of the picture are St J oh n th e


~
,
.

B aptist and St F rancis St M atthew and the M agdalen e


.
,
. .
FIRS T CO RRID OR .
l

A bove the altar piece are representations in mi niat u re of a


-

Calvary and the apostles Peter and Paul Below this altar
, .

piece are three small pictures : a Crucifixion the M adonna , ,

and St J ohn the two last seated mo u rning on a rock T hey


. .

are by D o n Loren z o M onaco (5 1 3 7 0 —1 4 2 .

S t Lawrence is by Z enobio Stro zz i ( 1 4 1 2


. the predella
represents the martyrdom of the saint and St Lawrence saving ,
.

the so u l of the Emperor H enry I I from demons l


H e carries . .

a white bann er with a red cross Z enobio Stro zz i was a .

miniat u re painter and scholar of F ra A ngelico


-
.

S t Cosimo and St D amian the patron saints of the


. .
,

M edici family and of the Guild of Physicians is by Bicci di


, ,

Loren z o ( c 1 3 5 0 the father of N eri de Bicci ’


. .

In the predella to these pictures is represented a miracle by


these holy physicians A ccording to the legend a certain
.
,

man a l icted with a cancer in his leg was performing his


, ,

devotions in the Church of St Cosimo and St D amian i n . .

R ome when he fell asleep


,
T h e two saints appeared to him .

i n a dream and cut ting o ff the diseased leg replaced it by


, , ,

that of a M oor lately dead anointing the new leg with celestial ,

2
ointment so that the man became whole from that time
, .

T his picture was at one time attached to a pilaster of the


F lorentine cathedral in whose decorations Bicci di Loren z o
,

was m u ch employed T h e saints of the Guild of Physicians


.

are represented with their bo x of ointment and their pincers .

T h e A doration of the M agi is by Loren z o M onaco though


professedly a miniature painter and illuminator of manuscripts
-

this C a ma l dol ine friar executed important works both inde


,

pendently and assisted by F ra A ngelico who was his j unior


, , .

H e was a pupil of A gnolo Gaddi and his pai ntings have a ,

certain a i n ity with those of his contemporary Parri S pinelli ,

the son of Spinello of A re zz o T h e outlines of both are hard .


,

and there is less skill i n the composition than individuality


S ee P oetry f
o S a cred a nd Legen da ry A rt, by M rs . J a meson .

2
[Mt] .
8 UFFIZ I GA L L ER Y .

and vari ety o f expression T h e colouring o f M onaco s pic .


tures is bright and full rather than harmonious ,


.

T h e picture below is by an artist who was the first to



introduce historical subj ects Gi u liano d Arrigo s u rnamed .
,

P e sell o ( 1 3 6 7 worked with his grandson I l P e sel l in o ,

( 1 42 2 and as the younger man imbibed the spirit as


well as manner of the elder artist and only survived him eleven ,

years their works can hardly be disting u ished from one another
,
.

T h e P e sel li preceded Botticelli and C redi and the grandfather ,

began his studies u nder painters of the school o f Giotto Th e .

A doration of the M agi is m entioned by Vasari as havi ng been


executed by order of the S ignory or Government o f F lorence , ,

for the Chapel o f Santa Lucia de M a gno l i which still exists in ’


,

the Vi a de B ardi T his picture contains a portrait o f D onato



.

A cciaj ol i celebrated i n his days as an orator ph ilosopher


, , ,

and mathema tician who died i n 1 4 7 8 T h e figure with a


,
.

black cap on His head and his hand on his breast i n th e , ,

centre may be supposed t o represent D onato T here is much


,
.

indivi duali ty life and variety o f action i n the thirty figures


, ,

composing this picture T h e weakest part is the H oly F amily .

— a de fect not unusual with those artists whose genius lay i n


portrait a landscape background and foreground filled i n by
dogs hawks & c are all finished with minute attention t o
, ,
.
,

detail Th e tawny brown colour is unpleasant but i s probably


.
,

caused in part by time and restorations .

A n altar piece follows by Loren z o di Pietro surnamed I l


-

Vecchietta ( c 1 4 1 2 so called probably from his delight


.
-

, ,

i n representing old age H e was more highly esteemed by hi s .

contemporaries than in later times T his picture painted in .


,

1 44 7 ,
has been much restored ; i t represents the M adonna and
Child with St B artholomew and St James and one of the
. .
,

M agi kneeling to th e left of the Virgin ; St A ndre w St Law .


, .

rence and St D ominic are on her right ; the last also kn eel
,
.


i ng I t was executed for one Giacomo d A ndreuccio a silk
.
,

merchant as recorde d in the inscription B elow this altar piece


,
.
-
[O UFFIZ I GA LL E R Y '


what affected paltry and pinched T hese remarks are equally
, , .

a pplicable to the two other pictures by Piero di Cosimo which ,

a lso represent s u bj ects taken from classic fable : the S acrifice

t o J ove for th e safety of A ndromed a and A ndromeda liberated ,

b y Perse us from the sea monster .

T h e Coronation of the Virgi n by Cosimo R osselli ( 1 4 3 9



the assistant of N eri de Bicci and the master of Piero ,

d i Cosimo and F ra Bartolommeo is pai nted i n full warm colours , , ,

a n d i s carefu lly drawn ; there is beauty an d grace as well as ,

v ariety of expression in th e surrou nding cherubs


,
Cosimo .

R osselli may be considered the link be tween the last of the de


g enerate Giottesque school and the n e w and superior class o f

a rt growing into maturity in the fi fteenth century .

A battle piece is by Paolo U ccello ( 1 3 9 7 —


-
1 47 whose
greatest work i s the portrait o f Sir J ohn H awkwood i n the
c athedral . T his composition is an interesting example o f the
T he

a rtist s earliest attempts at perspective and foreshortening .

f ailures are m ore obvious from the attem pt being somewhat


a mbitious but nevertheless there are proo fs o f a great step
; , ,

h aving been m ade i n advance of even contemporary artists .

T his picture was one of four which adorned the garden of the
Bartolini at G ua l f o n da near F lorence I t is well described by
,
.

C a v a l c a sell e : A daring boldness of action marks the knights


a n d barbed steeds i n tilt ; but the conception is more praise

worthy than successful ; and the effect of certai n movemen t s


s uch as that of the kicking horse is lu dicrous and grotes q u e ,
.

A gain the foreshortened position of a prostrate steed present


, ,

i n g his belly and heels as well as the legs of his fallen rider to
, ,

t h e spectator s u ggests the wish rather than the power to over


,

c ome a di f ficulty of no mean kind Perspective of broken .

l ances shields and helmets is laboriously carried o u t and dis


, , , ,

t ant episodes of archers men a t arms and dogs show that


,
- -

, ,

U ccello already possessed the art of perspective but the spec


t ator has before him the lifeless and wooden models of divers
fi gures their geom etrical substance without the fi nal dressing
, ,
FIRS T CORRID O R . I I

that would give life to the form and its action A dded to this .
,

s harp outlines cut out the fig u res and the inj ury done by time ,

a n d restoration to the colo u rs renders the whole prod u ction of


1 ’
less interest to the lover of good pict u res than to the critic .

A M adonna and Child is by Al essio B al do v in e tti ( 1 4 2 7


supposed to have been a pupil of Paolo U ccello H e .

was one of those artists engaged in improving the vehicle used


in painting and endeavouring to substitute oil for distemper
,
.

T o the right of the Virgi n are placed St John the Baptist S t .


,
.

Cosimo and St D amian with St F rancis on his knees to her


,
.
, .

l eft St Lawrence his gridiron embroidered on the border of


,
.
,

h is deacon s dress S t A nthony and a warrior saint St



. .

D ominic kneels in the foreground T h e heads are feeble and


.
,

t h e colour pale ; but the drawing is careful and the expression ,

o f th e co u ntenan ces serious and pleasing .

N ext to this is a very fine picture by Cosimo R osselli the


M ado nna enthroned with the Child at her breast and seated
,

on her knee ; her right hand rests tenderly on the head of the
youthfu l St J ohn the Baptist ; on either side are St James with
. .
,

h is pilgrim s staff and book and St Peter A ngels hold a



.
, .

c rown shaped like a mitre over the head of the Virgin ; flames
, ,

rest on the back of her throne to which are also attached ,

c ornucopi ae of fr u it T h e details are finished with the utmost


.

c are and the figures take their place well on the light back
,

grou nd T here is a tho u ghtful expression in the Virgin s face ;


.

her golden hair is bound with a transparent veil and she wears ,

a pale blue dress and red mantle .

Th e M adonna and Child by Sandro B otticelli ( 1 4 4 7 — 1 51 0


)
i s a feeble specimen of the master .

A nother M adonna and Child a circ u lar composition i s by , ,

Luca S ignorell i of Cortona ( 1 44 1 —1


5 2 3 ) four shepherds are in
t he background and above the picture are three medallions i n
,

d ead colour which represent the S aviour and two prophets


, .

T h e expression of the Virgin is sad but tender and her atti ,


~

S ee C ro w e a nd C a v al casell e vo l 11 p 2 8 7
1
, . . . .
12 UFFIZI GAL L ER Y .

tude is ve ry graceful though the drawing i s not wholly correc t


, .

T his artist belongs to a later peri od than the P o ll aj o l i his firs t


i mpressions of art were taken from the U mbrian schoo l s whi ch ,

s oftened the severe and bold character of his genius He .

studied anatomy in F lorence and the impulse h e gave to a rt , .

may be traced from Paolo U ccello to M ichael A ngelo S ignor .

elli is said to have painted this picture for Loren z o de M e ’

d ici . It was formerly i n the Villa o f Castello near F lorence , .

T h e first of two portra its below is attributed to Piero di


Cosimo but rather resembles the manner o f A ndrea del Sarto
, .

I t is fi ne i n expression and C hiaroscuro bu t has been muc h ,

repai nted the secon d though attributed to an u nknow n ,

artist may possibly be by Credi it is an excellent picture re


, ,

markable for correct drawing life careful finish and fi ne , , ,

colour .

A large picture is by Gerino o f Pistoi a of the M adonna a nd ,

Child with S t James St Cosimo and M ary M agdalene o n


. .
, , ,

their right and St Catharine St Louis St Ives and St R och


,
.
, .
,
.
, .

on their le ft Gerino lived early in the sixteenth century a nd


.
,

s tudied i n the school o f Pe rugi no the master o f R a ell e T hi s


'

.
,

picture was painted i n 1 5 2 9 when the artist s powers were de ,

c l in ing It i s a feeble production and only deserves notic e


.
,

because by th e hand of one who i n his best days was con , ,

s idere d a w o rth y representative o f the school and who possesse d ,

the qualities of a diligent colourist and a fair copyist of h is


master ( Peru gino ) as regards type and proportion drawing an d
, ,

colour .

Christ appearing in the Garden to M ary M agdalene is a


y outhful production o f A ndrea del S arto ( 1 48 8 th e

picture was brought to the Gal lery from the Church o f Sa n


J acopo tra F ossi T h e j oy and surprise of the M agdalene i s
.

well expressed on her face and in the action of her hands .

T hough feeble the colour i s very agreeable


,
T h e predella h a s .

S t H ele na with the Cross St J erome and Santa R osa wit h


.
, .
,

a baske t o f whi te roses .


FIRS T CO RRID O R . 1 3


A M adonna and Chi d with St Eli z abeth by M arian o
l .
,

G raz ia dei of Pescia a pupil of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio who


, ,

ourished about the middle of the sixteenth century : this is


b elieved to be his only remaining picture and was once the ,

a ltar piece in the Chapel of S t Bernard i n the Pala zz o Vecchio


-
. .

Th e A ngel of the A nnunciation and M adonna which follow


a little further down the corridor are by Agnolo Bron z ino ( 1 5 0 2

a master of the second revival T hey are pure in draw .

i n g and colo u r but insipid ,


.

A sp a sz mo or Christ bearing his Cross by Passignano an


'

, , ,

a rtist wh o died i n 1 6 3 8 has grandeur of expression and cor


,

rect drawing ; it was executed for the Church o f S a n G iova n

n ino in F lorence
, .

T h e Creation of A dam is by Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli ,

a n artist belonging to the latter half of the sixteenth and the

beginning of the seventeenth century .

Th e M artyrdom of St Lawrence by Cigoli ( 1 5 5 9 .


,

a nd the M agdalene by Cristofano A llori with the


( 1 577

s ame subj ect by Cigoli are all pictures of the R evival


,
.

A large Crucifixion by Loren z o Lippi a F lorenti ne belongs , ,

t o the seventeenth century ; Lippi is better known as a poet

t han pai nter as he composed a poem which obtained some re


,

p utation with his contemporaries called the M almantile de , ,

s cribing the defence of this small fortified town near S igna ,

d uring the war conducted against F lorence by the Prince of


O range i n 1 5 2 9 .

Th e remaining pictures in the corridor are not of su f ficient


importance to detain the visitor 1
.

Th e ch ro no o l gy ists wh o a re ment i on e d in th e ga ll eri es o r


of th e art
m useu ms w ill b e f o und a lp h a b et i ca lly a rra nge d a t th e end o f th i s v o l um e .
C H A P T ER II .

UFFIZI GA L LER Y— R O OM O F TH E EA RL Y M A S TE R S .

H E farthest
room of the suite parallel with the fi rst cb r
rido r contai ns the works of some of the earliest painter s

o f th e T uscan school .

T o the right of the entrance is an altar piece by F ra F ilippo -

Lippi ( 1 4 0 6 which i s supposed to have been painte d


for the chapel of the Pala zz o R iccardi origi nally M edici , ,

and b u ilt by the first Cosimo for himself and his family T h e .

Virgin is seated in a window from whence there is a pleasin g


,

landscape of rocks and trees a winding river and the seashore ;


,

two boy angels bri ng the I nfant Christ to his mother ; she is
seen in profile and her fac e is that o f a fair young girl wh o
, ,

gaz es down at th e angels whilst the Child extends H is arms to


,


her one of th e angels looks back laughing F ra F ilippo w a s .

early left an orphan and was adopted into the M onastery o f th e


,

Carmine at F lorence where h e becam e a monk H e was a


, .

painter of ve ry original genius and th e best colourist of hi s


,

day b esides being remarkable for his carefu l drawing h is


,

pictures like those of his contemporaries are however o fte n


, , , ,

wanting i n relie f A lthough th e heads here have no idealist i c


.

beauty th e artist has given such a tender expression and youth


,

ful freshness to his representation of the Virgin that the com


position has a charm o f itself apart from perfection of form .

1
A p e t i ti on o f th i s pi cture by F ra Filipp o
re , b u t di ff eri n g in so me

re sp ec t s a n d e v e n m o re b ea ut i f u l is in th e C o u n c il
, ,
C ha m b er of th e I nno

c e n ti a t Fl o renc e .
EARL Y MA S TERS . 1 5

Above this altar piece is a circular picture by Loren z o Credi


-

( 59 5
1 4 —1 the M adonna worshipping the Child T h e figure s .

are large i n proportion the Child ro u n d and pl u mp the com


,

position is Leonardes q u e in treatment the colo u ring soft b u t ,

1
somewhat feeble owing to the absence of relief
,
A n angel .

s u staining the kneeling St John is very gracefu l and the atti


.
,

tude and co u ntenance most reverential .

N ext to this is another circular pict u re of the M adonna a n d


Child s u rro u nded by angels the work of S andro B otticelli
, ,

( T here is a n a zz ete and grace as well as religio u s


'

1 44 7 v

feeling i n this painting pec u liar to the master and the ex


, ,

tre m itie s are more elegantly formed than is u s u al with B otti


celli T h e eager face of an angel telling the glad tidings to a
.

listening companion and the rapt reverential look in the rest


, , ,

who appear to sing hymns of praise form a bea u tifu l contras t ,

with the still sad countenance of her whose heart is pi erced ‘

there is a lassitude of hopeless grief i n her features which ,

seems to anticipate sorrow but which hardly belongs to th e ,

j oyful M other of the new born Saviour Sh e holds the Child


-
.

tenderly i n H im the innocence of infancy is blended with th e ‘

dignity of the prophet T h e colour is clear but paler than is


.
,

us u al with Botticelli .

B elow is an A nnunciation bro ught from th e M onastery ,

of M onte O liveto near F lorence some attribute this pic


ture to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio the nephew o f D omenico ,

others with more probability assign it to Loren z o Credi a nd


, , ,

others again to Leonardo da Vinci But so feeble a production


, .

is hardly worthy of any of these great masters T h e chie f .

m erit lies in the pleasing landscape background and i n th e ,



expression of the angel s face the whole picture especially th e ,

head of the Virgin has undergone such severe treatment by th e


,

hand of the restorer that it is hardly possible to j udge of wha t


,

its merits may have been .

A circular picture of the H oly F amily beside the Botticell i

S ee C ro w e a nd C a v a l ca sell e, v ol . iii p
. .
41 2 .
1 6 UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

is by Luca Signorelli ( 1 44 1 the pupil o f Piero della


F rancesca T h e M adonna i s reading ; the Chri st seen i n
.
,

p rofile with,
averted head appears to listen whilst
, looking at ,

S t J oseph who kneels before the M adonna and Child


.
, T he .

s ubj ect is grandly and powerfully treated and the composition ,

o riginal ; the picture has however been much inj ured and
, , ,

t h e gla z es on the flesh have been destroyed .

A fi ne Coronation of the Virgin by F ra A ngelico da F i esole

( 3 7
1 8 — 14
5 5) i s genera l ly removed from i ts place by the copyist .

T h e singular delicacy o f colour and pure atmosphere through


o u t arrest the attenti on o f every visitor Th e artist F ra .
,

A ngelico painted this picture for the H ospital of S anta M aria


,

N uova o f F lorence and it was only brought to th e U iz i i n


,

1 825 T h e figures are pai nted on a gold ground with engraved


.
,

l ines to represent rays or the e ff ulgence o f a supern atural


, ,

light T h e Virgin bends to receive the crown the head of the


.

C hrist is feeble and these tw o fi gu res though di gnified and


, ,

grace fu l are the least success fu l part of the picture ; the


,

p rincipal charm consists i n the exquisite beauty the pure and ,

tranquil j oy which seems almost to breathe in the slender and


,

delica te form s of the angels who float rather than walk through ,

the ma z es o f the mystic dance I f musi c and pai nting were .

ever allied their union is expressed i n this lovely and barm o


,

n io u s painting ; th e celestial beauty above and around is in

s om e measure shed on th e crowd o f spectators saints and , ,

holy personages whose grand and noble cou ntenances still


,

b ear the impress of their earthly bodies among them are seen
k neeling angels belonging to the h eavenly choir ; some with
h arps and others swinging censers .

F ra A ngelico or more properly F ra Giovanni da F iesole


, ,

was born i n a T uscan village of the province of M ugello .

H e was christened Guido but took the name of Giovanni ,

when he entered a D ominican monaste r y still existing half , ,

w a y between F lorence and F iesole where his piety and wonder ,

f u l skill i n the delineation of celestial beings obtained for hi m


8 UFFIZI GAL L E R Y .

th e left of the spectator St Peter is led out o f prison by an ,


.

angel to the right is his cr u cifixion T here i s great variety in .

the heads and in the action o f th e figures though according to , ,

C ava l ca sel l e the value of this piece lies chiefly i n a lively



,

colour and flowi ng drapery which reveal the master of Spinello , .


A t either end in small compartments apostles are i ntroduced


, , .

Jacopo was a native o f the Casentino a w ide valley enclosed ,

be tween the mounta i ns which lie behind Vallombrosa H ere .

T addeo Gaddi when employed to paint the chapels of


,

Cristoforo Landino ( the ancestor of the celebrated Greek


scholar of the same name ) discovered the talent of Jacopo and , ,

bringing him to F lorence i nstructed him i n hi s art Jacopo ,

afterwards founded the Guild o f Painters who placed them ,

selves under th e patronage of the Virgin S t Z e no b iu s St J ohn ,


.
, .

the Baptist an d St Luk e ,


T h e two last are introduced
. .

together i n one compartment o f Giovanni da M ilano s altar ’

piece Jacopo shared with Gherardo Sta m ina the honour o f


.

i nstructing the great A retine painter Spinello , .

T h e A nnunciation by Sandro B otticelli is painted i n


, ,

distemper with the same pale colour observable i n the circular


picture by him i n this room T h e Virgin looks rou nd from .

the prayer book be fore which she had been kneeling and with
-

eyes cast down and her hands raised i n a gesture of wonder


, ,

she appears to deprecate the honou r i ntended for her T h e .

angel j u st alighted kneels i n a reverential attitude before the


, ,

H andmaid of the Lor d




A cool an d pleasant landscape ,

with a river fi elds a city and a tall tree in the foreground are
, , , ,

seen from the open window I n the predella is a painting of .

the Saviour rising from the tomb with the handkerchief of St ,


.

Veronica bearing the impress o f H is face A t either corner are


,
.

shields with a greyhou nd rampant the arms of the Castiglione ,

family for whom the picture was probably painted


,
.

A grand and fi n el y coloured pict u re n ex t th e window of


-
.
,

three saints is by S ebastiano M ainardi a scholar of D omenico


, ,

Ghirlandaio who was living in 1 4 8 7 T h e central figure is St


,
. .

S tephen the first martyr holding the palm branch


,
the expres ,
EA RL Y MA S TERS . 1 9

sion of his head is very fine and the hands are beautifu lly ,

painted H e stands i n a niche and on each side are other


.
,

niches with St Peter and St James bearing his pil grim sta ff T h e
,
. . .

predella below by F ra A ngelico was i ntended for a large a ltar


, ,

piece which was executed for the Guild of F lax M erchants


,
1
.

I n the centre of the predella is the A doration of the M agi ,

i n which the Virgin is especially lovely to the left is St Peter .

preaching and St M ark looking u p in devout admiration


.
,

whilst writing his Gospel to the dictation of his brother apostle


to the right is the death of St M ark A ccording to the legend . .

M ark was converted by S t Peter and became his favourite.


,

disciple he founded the Church of A lexandria but the ,

heathen reviled him as a magician and d u ring the feast of , ,

S erapis they sei z ed and dragged him thro u gh the streets till
, ,

he perished miserably ; a dreadful tempest of hail and light


ning fell u pon his murderers by which they were dispersed and
,

2
destroyed T h e heathen are distinguished by the Gentile
.

banner bearing the scorpion T h e sad and wondering expres .

sion of two of the disciples who contemplate the body of St


,
.

M ark is admirably given


,
the colour as usual with F ra ,

A ngelico is exquisitely delicate and p u re


,
.

Prudence near the door by A ntonio Po l laj o l o ( 1 4 2 9


,

i s one of a series of pi ctures representing the Virtues which ,

this artist with the help of Botticelli painted for the T ribunal
, ,

of the M ercan z ia in the Pia zz a della Signoria : Prudence a


, ,

noble figure is seated under an arch of colo u red marbles with


, ,

a serpent i n one hand a mirror in the other ; a pale green


,
-

drapery arranged in formal tho u gh majestic folds is spread


, , ,

over her knees ; her attit u de is calm and unconstrained T h e .

drawing is simple and firm with a careful attention to the ,

finish of the dress and ornaments the hands are finely executed
the shadows clear and delicate — light upon light T h e draperies .

are among the best executed by the P ol l aj ol i and cleverly ,

N o w in th e S a l a di Lo re nz o M o na co .

2
S ee Legen da ry A rt, by M rs . J a meson p , . 88 .
20 UFFIZI GA LLE R Y .

define the forms T h e drawing is bold and strongly marked


.
,

the flesh tints bright and clear T h e whole is evidently coloured .

1 ’
with tones m oistened with an oil m edium .

A more remarkable work by A ntonio P o ll aj o l o is a large


picture representing three saints S t James between S t .
, .

Eustace and St Vincent . T hey stand on a floor of variegated


.

marbles the hat of S t James encircled with j ewels is on the


.
, ,

ground the outline of the figures is sharply defin ed against a


pale sky and landscape T h e drawing is vigorous and correct
.

the heads are painted i n distemper whilst an oi l m edium has ,

been used for the dress ; the rich stuff and j ewels be ing i n
relief from the thick z mpa sto of the colours T h e minute fi nish
'

.
,

of detail recalls the goldsmith s work for which the P o ll aj ol i
were famous T his picture was painted in 1 4 7 0 for the altar of
.

the Chapel of the Cardinal o f Portugal i n Sa n M iniato al M onte .

F ortitude by B otticelli was i ntended to complete the series


, ,

o f the Virtues on which the P o l laj o l i were engage d T here i s


,

less si mplicity and maj esty i n this composition than i n the


Prudence of A ntonio P o l l aj o l o but the colour and the
C hiaroscuro are rich and f i ne T h e extremities of the figure are
.

too coarse but there is dignity and thoughtfulness in the face


,

the mouth i s firm the eyes clear and the action of the hands
, , ,

grasping th e mace correspond well with the i dea conveyed


,

by the countenance ; the union o f feminine gen tleness and


masculine strength recalls the Christian type o f F ortitu de ,

clothed in the armour o f righteousness .


A M adonna also by B otticelli was painted at a period when


, ,

he was endeavouring to i mitate the manner as well as apply the


technical treatment of the brothers P o ll aj o l i T h e Virgin is .

seated beneath an arch through which i s seen a rose garden , .

Th e Child is i n a natural posture H e raises to H is mouth the


seeds of the pomegranate fruit which H e holds in his other ,

hand whilst ga z ing i n H is mother s face who looks down on


,

,

H im wi th a sweet sad smile the drapery and accessori es are


drawn with care and the colour is fu ll and rich
, .

1
S ee C ro w e a n d C a v a l ca se l l e v o l 1 1 pp 3 9 0 39 1 , . . .
, .
EA RL Y MA STERS . 21

The portraits of F ederigo di M ontefeltro D u ke of U rbino , ,

and of his wife Battista S forz a are by Piero della F rancesc a


, ,

( 1 41 6 Piero was from Borgo S a n Sepolcro but studied ,

under the P ol l aj o l i and having earned a repu ta tio n in F lorence


, ,

he was invited to the Court of U rbino in 1 4 6 9 Giovanni Santi ,

the father of Raffaelle defrayed the cost of the j ourney T h e


, .

genius as well as scientific attainm ents of Piero della F rancesca


exercised a beneficial influence on the youthfu l Ra ff aelle and ,

Piero became also the instructor of Luca Signorelli of Cortona , .

H is portraits of the D uke a n d D uchess of U rbino are com


mended by Ca va l ca sell e N othing can exceed the L eon
a rdesq u e precision of the drawing or the softness and fusion o f ,

the imp a sto l


. T h e painting has however suffered from

, ,

cleaning as on a nearer inspection it can be perceived that


,

the hair of the D uchess is in some parts almost rubbed away I t .

is in the form o f a diptych and within the two doors are allegories
, ,

representing on one side F ederigo in a triumphal car o n th e ,

other Battista with similar accompaniments a charming land


,

scape forms the backgro u nd in both T his painting is th e .

more interesting from the history of the persons represented .

Th e ancestors of F ederigo were the two M o nte f el tri father and ,

son who are mentione d by D ante i n his Inferno and Purga


,

torio and whose descendants still possess land i n the R oman


,

states
C/t ia f

a i
’ ’
ae M on ti Id in tra Urbin o
,

E l giogo a i eke

Tev er si d isserra
’ ’
.

I nf ern o, t
ca n o x x vn .

If

u i ( ii M o ntef el tro, io f u i B u on con te .

P u rga tomo, v
'

ca n to .

F o r I w a s f rom th e m o u n ta i ns th e re b e tw een
U rbi n o and th e yo k e w h e n ce T ib e r b u rsts ’
.

as as

I w as of M on tef e l tro , a nd a m B uo n co n te .

L ongf ell ow Tra n sl a tion



s .

1
S e e C ro w e a nd C a va l ca sel l e

s f I istory f
o P a in ting, v ol . 11. pp .
5 29 ,
22 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

F ederigo
was distinguished as a soldier and as a patron o f
art and letters T h e depression i n his nose was caused by a
.

wou nd received i n battle H e was created D u ke of U rbino by.


S ixtus IV when the Pope s nephew Giovanni della R overe
.
, , ,

married F e de rigo s second daughter H is wife Battista Sforz a



.
, ,

was celebrated for her learning as well as beauty but died at ,

the early age of twenty six leaving an infant son Guidobaldo


-

, , ,

who succeeded to the dukedom on the death of his father T w o .

striking portra its o f F e de rigo and Battista i n marble relief are , ,

now in the M useum of the B arg ello as well as a bust of Battista ,

taken after death both of these give a higher idea of her beauty
than the picture by Piero della F rancesca .

,

A predella by Luca S ignorelli 1 4 4 1 1 5 2 represents the
A nnunciation the Worship of the S hepherds and the A dora
, ,

tion of the M agi A beautiful landscape background connects


.

the three T h e A ngel of the A nnunciation with wings closed


.
, ,

bu t his drapery still agitat ed by his flight appears to have ,

j ust descended upon earth ; his countenance is radiant with


j oy as he bears the lily to the Virgin who with her head bent
, , ,

and her hands clasped listen s attentively Each scene tells its
,
.

own story and the face of the Virgin is the same throughou t
, ,

varying only with the different emotions caused by the event .

I n the A doratio n of the M agi she i s very beautiful the


youths in attendance on the kings wear the party coloured ,
-

tight fi tting garmen ts of the F lorentine young men of fashion


-

at the time Luca Signorelli painted a warm green tone prevails


throughout the picture .

We have thus before u s the works of three painters who


succeeded one another ; P o l l aj ol o Piero della F rancesca who , ,

studied u nder the P o ll aj oli and S ignorell i the pupil of Piero , ,

della F rancesca and we can trace the same precision and care
i n the drawing b u t with i ncreased freedom in the yo unger
,

painter H is colours are less ga u dy and he d wells more on


.
,

the expression of his subj ect than on display of skill i n re pre


senting j ewellery and fine clothing .

T h e S aviour appearing to the M agdalene is by Loren z o


EARL Y MA S TERS . 23

Credi ( 1 4 5 9 T h e head of Christ is feeble the ex ,

pression of the M agdalene sweet and earnest ; the details as ,

well as the landscape background are highly finished T h e ,


.

S aviour and the M agdalene or the Woman of Samaria ( sup ,

posed by some to be the same person ) is also by Loren z o , .

Credi T h e Saviour seated on the wall looks down compas


.
, ,

sio n a te l y and points to H imself ; H is h ands are beautifully


,

drawn and colo u red tho u gh the head again is feeble


, .

B etween these two pict u res is Perseus liberating A ndromeda


from the S ea M onster by Piero di Cosimo ( 1 4 6 2 , of
whose pictures we have already seen examples in the c orridor .

T his painting was exec u ted for F ilippo S tro zz i the founder o f ,

the S tro zz i family H is descendant Giovanni Stro zz i presented


.
, ,
.

it to Sfor z a Al m e ni the C hamberlain of D uke Cosimo I who


, .
,

held it in high estimation A ccording to Vasari Pi ero d i .


,

Cosimo never painted anything better for it is impossible to ,

conceive a sea monster more whimsically imagined than this


-

nor a more resol u te attitude than that of Perseus who strikes ,

at him in the air with his sword H ere i s A ndromeda bo u nd .


,

divided between fear and hope of a most fair co u ntenance ; ,

and here in the foreground are many people collected in various


, ,

and strange cost u mes playing on instruments and singing


, ,

among whom some lau gh and rej oice at the liberation of A n


dro m e da whose faces are tr u ly divine T h e landscape is beau
,
.

tifu l and agreeable in colo u r, and the gradation of tints and


,

soft effects in this work is conducted with great care .

A nother predella is attrib u ted to F rancesco di Giorgio ( 1 4 3 9


a Siennese artist better known as an engineer and archi
,

te c t
. C a v al ca se l l e observes that he seems to have combined
,

most of the S iennese characteristics of his time with a fancy akin ,

to that of B otticelli and a fashion o f drapery like that of the


,

P o ll aj o l i .H e inherited defects already conspic u ous in Vec


c h ie tta ( see Corridor ) such as slender withered
, and angular , ,

figures the action of which is rendered i n an awkward and


,

S ee C ro w e a n d C a v a l c a sel l e v o l iii p 1 1 9
1
, . . . .
24 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

1
often pompou sly a ff ected manner-
T h e s u bj ect of thi s pre .

della which was painted about 1 4 8 0 is taken from the life of


, ,

St B enedi ct the architectural backgro u n d i s drawn with neat


.

ness and there is a careful attention to detail displayed i n


,

the hooks behind the windows for holding back the outer
blinds the ring on the wall the cat, th e dog barking 81 0 St
, , , .

B enedict as a boy is on his way to th e desert an d is fol


, , ,

lowed by his nurse Cyrilla who borrowed from a neighbour


, , .

a wooden trencher which she accidentally broke ; not being


,

able to replace it she was i n great distress u ntil St Benedict


, ,
.

?
restored i t by his prayers I n the compartment on the left ,

S t B enedict is tempted by devils i n the desert ; o n th e right


.
,

h e is visited i n his M onastery of M onte Cassino by T otila ,

th e king of the Goths .

T h e A nn u nciation is by Loren z o Credi Th e Virgin i s .

kneeling at her prayers when the A ngel appears beckoning ,

with one fi nger and holding th e lily her co u ntenance i s full


,

of soul ; the head figure and drapery of the angel are drawn
, ,

with the utmost precision .

T h e A dorati on of the M agi is by D omenico Ghirlandai o

( 1 44 9 the greatest master of his age in whose school ,

M ich ael A ngelo and other celebrat ed art ists were formed .

Ghirlandaio began life as a goldsmith and his skill in the manu ,

facture of golden garlands obtained for him this cognomen as ,

his real name was Bigordi H e always painted in distemper .


,

and though the style of colo u r peculiar to F lorentine artists o f


,

the period is conspicu o u s i n hi s works he did not adopt the ,

new method of an oil medium Ghirlandaio followed in th e .

steps of B al do v in etti I n this A doration of the M agi he h a s


.

introduced a light landscape background with the view of a ,

seaport ; the distance well preserved is seen thro u gh arches , ,

resting on pilasters with rich decorations Beneath a roof con .

1
S ee C ro w e a nd C a v a l ca se l l e, v ol . iii p . . 65 .

2
S ee M rs .J ameson s L egends of ’
til e M on a stic O rders, p . 21 ; a n d La tin

Ch ristia n ity, by M il ma n v o l ii , . .
C H A P T ER III .

UF F I Z Y GA LLER Y—L A TE R TUSCA N A R T .

EAV I N G the room assi gned to the works of th e early


masters we commence another epoch in A rt O il i s
, .

taking the place of distemper ; perspective which Paolo U ccello ,

and his contemporaries were groping to discover i s no longer ,

a hidden science ; anatomy enables the artist to draw with


greater acc u racy and C hiarosc u ro and colour have their esta
,

b l ish e d laws .

T h e earliest painting in this room is a circular picture by


S andro Botticelli ( 1 44 7 which still belongs to the T rans
i tio n school ; it repre se n ts a M adonna and Child with angels .

T h e Virgi n s head and figure are grandl y drawn and her coun

te na n c e tho u gh humble is full of dignity ; j oy and love beam


, ,

i n th e trustfu l eyes o f th e Child and a sweet smile is on H is ,

parted lips th e extremities are large but firmly and correctly ,

drawn T w o angels one of whom is looking eagerly at the


.
,

Virgin whilst holding the ink bottle i nto which she dips her
,
-

pen to i nscribe the hymn We magnify T hee O Lord are


, ,

, ,

s u pposed to be portraits of the brothers Giuliano and Loren z o


de M edici the grandsons of Cosi mo Pater Patri ae Gi u liano

, , ,

who fell in the Pa zz i conspiracy is probably the angel next the ,

spectator whilst Loren z o who lived to be the generous patron


, ,

o f art and literature is l ooking at his brother


,
A third angel .
,

with one arm gracefully encircling both yo u ths bends over them , ,

and two others whose heads are seen behi nd hold a crown
, ,

o ver the M adonna a lovely and peacefu l landscape forms th e


LA TER TUS CA N ART . 27

backgro u nd T h e colour of this pict u re is rich full and har


.
, ,

m o nio u s the shadows are delicate and every part is finished ,

with care ; it is painted in distemper the dress with an oil ,

medium and the hair and ornaments touched in with gol d ;


,

the circular form of composition is treated with great skill .

O n the opposite wall the Virgin rising from the T omb is


, ,

by Piero di Cosimo ( 1 4 6 2 S h e ga z es u pwards with a


rapt expression as the H oly Spirit descends upon her T h e .

hands are well composed tho u gh the right is badly drawn St


, . .

J ohn the Evangelist S t D ominic S t Peter and St Piero


,
.
,
.
,
.

M artire are on either side S t M argaret and St Catharine . . .

kneel in the foregro u nd ; all the fig u res are more or less dis
agreeable and coarse b u t the landscape background is pleasing
, .

T h e A doration of the M agi o n the same wall is an u m , ,

finished picture by Leonardo da Vinci a man of extraordinary , ,

al most u niversal geni u s ,


B orn in 1 4 5 2 he was thirty years of
.
,

age when R affaelle entered the world and he only preceded ,

him one year in his death which took place i n 1 5 1 9 Vasari , .

thus all u des to this picture A n A doration of the M agi i n ,

m any respects especially i n the heads very fine it was in the


, ,

house of A merigo B e n c i opposite the Loggia dei Per u zz i but


, ,

was left imperfect like many of his works T his sketch rather
,
.
,

than painti ng is peculiarly i nteresting as an example of Le o


,

nardo s manner of beginning his pict u res the design i s care


fu lly drawn and the gro u nd painted solidly in chiaroscuro of


, ,

brown and white formed a preparation for the colo u r and


,

gla z es T h e Virgin is very gracefu l the Child fu ll of dignity


.
, ,

and both are of that type which from having been introduced ,

by D a Vinci is known as Leonardesqu e ; there is an infinite


,

variety in the heads many of them are very beautifu l and each
, ,

is a st u dy from nature a landscape with houses and trees is , ,

f aintly traced in the backgro u nd .

O f the same period and near this picture is the same sub
, ,

j e c t by F ilippino Lippi ( 1 45 7 T h e Virgin a modest ,

and gracefu l girl looks down on the Child with a placid smile
, ,
28 SUF F JZ J GA LLER Y .

while H e shrinks half playfu lly from H is worshippers Joseph


-

who i s represented as an ordinary peasant stands behi nd T h e , .

group rises diagonally the kings and their attendants on th e


,

left as well as the group of shepherds o n the right incline


, ,

towards the H oly F amily T h e heads have the character of .

portraits T here is a striki ng group to the right where a man


.
,

in a black cap tells the news to one who listens eagerly whilst ,

behind them another leans back apparently abs orbed i n seri


, ,

ous meditation T h e M oor beh ind the old man in the fore
.

ground is characteristic o f hi s rac e A nother old man with a .

b ald head on the left grasping an astrolabe i s Pier F rancesco


, ,

de M edici the son o f Cosimo s brother Loren z o T here are



,

.

portraits here of Giovanni the son of F rancesco born i n 1 4 6 7 , , ,

and of his co u si n Piero the father of Loren z o the M agnificent ;


,

also o f a secon d Piero F rancesco grandson of the first and , ,

father of Loren z ino the murderer of D uke Alexander T h e


, .

landscape background is intersperse d with figures i n natural


grou ps T h e colour of this picture is clear warm and fresh
.
, ,

throughou t composed of simple full reds yellows and blacks


, , ,

the artist has successfully contended with the di ffi culty of intro


duc ing so great a number of figures i n a comparatively small
space whilst preservi ng yet not rendering too obvious the
, , ,

form of the composition T h e lines are pleasing the action of .


,

every figure is natural whilst each contributes to the expression


,

of the one idea or subj ect of the picture


, ,
.

A noth er maste rpiece of F ilippin o Lippi is above the c irc u


lar picture by B otticelli I t was painted i n 1 4 8 5 for the Sala
.

degli O tto or Prior s Chamber in the Pala zz o Vecchio T h e


,

,
.

M adonna is seated in a shrin e three scallop shells th e em ,

blem of the pil grim adorn the steps of her throne ; angels
,

sustain a crown over her head and scatter roses T h e Virgi n .

i s simple and girlish almost to i nsipidity she looks meekly


down ; her golden hair falls on her shoulders which are covered ,

with the us u al blue mantle ; the Child a lovely infant hold s , ,

an open book and turns towards St Victor who has a singu


, . .
,
LA TER TUS CAN ART . 29

l arl yfine head ; he ga z es at the Christ his hands crossed on ,

his breast St John the Baptist looks o u t of the picture at the


. .

spectator T h e Baptist stands firmly ; his emaciated f eet and


.

legs are well drawn O n the other side are St B enedict with
. .
,

open book an d S t Z e n o b iu s distinguished by th e red F loren


,
.
,

tine lily on the clasp of his mantle : his cro z ier the a rc h ite c ,

tural background adorned with arab esques and all the acces ,

so rie s are carefully exec u ted


,
A book with a crimson velvet .

cover is on the floor and helps to break the hori z ontal line in
,

the foreground ; the colo u r I S rich and harmonio u s .

B eside the A doration of the M agi by F ilippino Lippi I S the


Visitation of M ary to Eli z abeth by M ariotto Al b e rtin elli , .

Al b ert inel l i was born i n 1 4 7 4 and was a p u pil of Cosimo ,

R osselli and fellow pupil of the still more celebrated F ra


,
-

Bartolommeo whose manner he endeavoured to imitate T his


, .

picture painted i n 1 5 0 3 for the priests of the Congregation of


,

S a n M artino — near whose ch u rch Al b ertin el li kept a wine shop -

—is his best production Th e figure of Eli z abeth is sing u larly .

beautiful ; the earnest reverential absorbed ga z e and gentle , , ,

embrace as she bends forward to salute her who was to be the


,

mother of the S aviour is ful l of tender love yet sober and , ,

passionless and loses none of the dignity appropriate to age


, .

M ary stands to receive her i n her calm countenance we read


the handmaid of the Lord accepting the homage thus offered her , .

T h e composition drawing and colour are alike admirable and


, , ,

raise the feelings of the spectator to the conception of the artist .

A n arch whose pilasters are finely decorated with arabes q ues


, ,

encloses the group the sky is low i n tone clear and beautifu lly , ,

grad u ated T h e drapery of the figures falls i n ample folds ;


.

the white handkerchief on the head of Eli z abeth is managed


with great skill so as not to attract the eye or divert attention
, ,

f rom her face which is in shade the plants i n the foregro u nd


,

and other details are highly finished and copied from nature , .

Th e predella below representi ng the A nnunciation the N ativity


, , ,

and the Presentation in the T emple is sweet in colour and ,


30 UFFIZI GALLER Y .

drawing ; the landscape in the centre i s ve ry beauti ful but , ,

from the gla z ings having been i nj ured by time the effect is pale ,

and dead beside that of the pri ncipal pict u re .

O pposite the pictu re of th e A doration o f the M agi by ,

Leonardo da Vinci i s a noble chiarosc u ro composition by F ra


,

Bartolommeo one of th e most important artists of the latter


,

half of the fi fteenth cent ry ( 4 7 5 1


u 1 — T h e Virgin seated ,

on a throne with the Child on her knees and the infant St


, ,
.

John kneeli ng form th e central group behind the Virgin St


, ,
.

A nna with outstretched arms and eyes raised to heaven


, , ,

adores the H oly T rinity the dove descends U pon her T o th e .

right a lovely young girl kneeling beside the throne of the


,

Virgin represents Santa R eparata she holds a palm branch i n


,

her right hand while her left rests on a book B ehind her as well
, .
,

as on the other side of the throne are ranged eight D ominican ,

friars four and fo u r among whom — probably one o f those to


, ,

th e left who stands facing the spectator— is the portrait of the


,

artis t St Z e n o b ius and St M ark


. kneel i n front ; above.

hover beauti ful boy angels with musical i n struments appearing ,

to float i n the air whils t two have descended on earth and are ,

seated at the foot of the throne singing from a scroll which i n ,

the u n fi nished state of the pict u re i s only indicate d T h e rapt


look of St A nna and the dignified composure and grandeur
.
,

of the D ominicans and the saints i n the foreground heighten , ,

by contrast the charm of the sweet girlish simplicity of the


,

Virgin and of Santa R eparata as well as th e playfu l grace of ,

the I nfant Christ of St John and of the lovely angels which


,
.
, ,

have hardly been excelled by R affaelle him sel f St A nna the . .


,

mother of the Virgin i s s u pposed by her good offices to have


, , ,

saved F lorence from the tyranny of the D u ke of A thens she


is here therefore s u rro u nded by th e patron saints of the city .

T h e picture was painted for the Co u ncil Chamber of the Pala zz o


della Signoria the money in payment was advanced by the
government to the artist and the reason of its being left i n ,

the presen t unfinished state is u nexplai ned F ra B artolommeo .


LA TER T US CAN A R T .
31

studied first in the school of Cosimo R osselli and afterwards ,


:

endeavo u red to master the pri nciples laid down by Leonardo


da Vinci for drawing and colour and to reduce them to practice , .

H is comrade and friend was M ariotti A l b ertin el l i who wa s ,

deeply mortified when Bartolommeo converted by the preaching ,

of Savonarola entered the D ominican monastery of St M ark


, . .

Like Leonardo da Vinci he commenced hi s pictures in chiaro


,

scuro or simple light and shade and painting over these h e


, ,

fi nished by thin gla z es of colour which gave richness variety , , ,

and depth to the shadows and brilliancy to the lights , .

Th e next pictures i n order of time are by R idolfo Ghir


l a n da io ( 1 4 8 3 the son of D omenico he was a pupil o f
Piero di Cosimo and the friend of the youthful R a ff aelle H e
, .

has here represented the miracles of the favourite F lorentine


saint Z e nob iu s ; they were painted for the Company of St
, .

Z e no b iu s who had their residence next to that of the Canons


,

of Santa M aria del F iore i n the Pia zz a del D uomo Both


, .

pictures have been much repainted an d are not therefore fair , , ,

specimens of the master T h e restorer has even inj u red the


.

drawing as for example the hand of the lady whose child is


, , ,

bro u ght to life I n the backgro u nd of this picture are seen th e


.

ho u ses of a F lorentine street and the bell tower of th e old ,

Church of San Piero M aggi ore afterwards demolished T h e , .

child is just re awakening and draws u p one small foot whil e


-

, ,

the arm s are extended and the eyes raised to heaven T h e


, .

colour of death is still u pon the hands and lips T h e gesture .

of the weeping mother who implores the bishop to j oin hi s


,

prayers to hers is very natural and to u ching and in contras t


, ,

with the calm and trustfu l countenance of St Z en ob iu s O n e . .

of the priests who supports his stole ga z es at him with admiring


, ,

confidence ; the other is attracted by the movement of th e


child T h e variety of expression i n the spectators behind is
.

naturally given the interest in th e event visibly diminishing as


,

they are farther removed from the scene of the miracle T h e .

other picture represents the M iracle of the T ree Th e body of .


32 UFFIZI GALLER Y .

St Z e n o b iu s
. is borne from S t Loren z o and is on its way to the.
,

Cathedral part of the f a ea de with the Campanile of Giotto , ,

and the T ower of the Pala zz o Vecchio may be perceived to the ,

left the Baptistery to the right ; the withered tree which the
,

corpse happened to touch is putti ng forth leaves T h e same .

variety of expression is n oticeable i n the spectators here as i n ,

the former picture : a pillar erected o n the spot s till com


m e m o ra te s this miracle of the F lorenti ne saint T h e figures of .

the bearers are dignified their drapery falling i n l arge folds


,
1
.

T h e painting after this is St S ebastian by R a zz i o f S ienna .


,

( I l S odoma 1 47 7 , and one of the most bea u tiful treat

ments of the subj ect ever t ransferred to canvas T h e saint is .

tied to a tree an arrow piercing his neck whilst an angel ( the


, ,

least successful part of the picture ) descends with a crown o f


,

T h e colou r har d y ; p asses chiaroscuro ; it is


martyrdom .
l
delicate and harmonious with wonderful breadth a beautiful ,

distant landscape forms the background Th e drawing of .

the figure especially i n the extr emities is noble and classical


, ,

the writhing of the body and the contortion of th e limbs indi


cate great su f fering yet thi s is given without exaggeration or
,

inj uring the grace ful outline of the composition whilst the ,

whole attention of the spectator is centred in the h eavenly



beauty o f the saint s glorified face ; m ortal pain seems there
overcom e by faith and we behold the expression of the most
,

tender lo v e u nited with the courage of the m artyr O n the .

back of the canvas i s a representation o f the Virgin with the


I nfant J esus St R och and St S igismun d T h e picture was
, . . .

painted in 1 5 2 5 as a standard for the Confraternity of St .

S ebastian .

F rancesco G ra n a cc i ( 1 4 7 7 the friend of M ichael


A ngelo and the adviser of R idolfo Ghirlandaio is the artist
, ,

who painted the altar piece representing S t T homas receiving


-
.

the girdle of the Virgin which is one of his best productions


, .

T h e Virgin is insipid her figure is hard in outline on a heavy


, ,

1
S e e ch a p te r o n Sa n Lo renz o .
UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

over the picture do not produce spotti ness and there is an ,

excellent e ff ect o f open air daylight i n a hot sunny climate A


-
.

likeness of Cosimo the Pater Patri ae and a portrait —probably


, ,

from the life — o f the Grand D uke Cosimo I are by the sam e .

master .

Christian art in drawing colour composition and expression


, , , ,

had reached their highest per fection during the life of M i chael
A ngelo an d had begu n their decline during the m iddle or
,

latter half o f the sixteenth centu ry Exaggerated forms were .

produced by those who without the genius could i mitate the


, ,

peculiarities o f the grea t scu l pto r an d who found it easier to repre


,

sent si z e than strength and to follow artificial r ules rather than


,

the laws o f nature T he religious sentiment of an early pe riod


.
,

and the pseudo paganism o f the M edicean school had been


-

succeeded by bigotry and superstition the m oral sense was


blunted by th e most horrible crimes i n those who should have
been the leaders o f the people and when liberty fell with the
accession of the Grand D ukes art was de graded to flatter their ,

vanity or became subordinate to m erely ornamental pu rposes .

Agnolo B ron z ino ( 1 5 0 2 so called from hi s swarthy


complexi on was among the best of th e i n ferior class o f artists
,

of thi s period H e was a better painter of portraits than o f


.

history Lan z i describes h is colouring as sometimes leaden


.

,

sometimes chalky A large picture by this master represents
.

Christ s D escent into Limbo T h e figure o f J udith to the



.

right is the portrait o f B ianca Cappello the mistress and after , ,

wards the wife o f the Grand D uke F rancis I the son of


,
.
,

Cosim o I H er beau ty made her the subj ect of a romantic


.

s tory and her talent and good qualities i n spite of her crimes
, , ,

deserved a happier fate T h e flattery intended here must have


.

failed in accomplishing its purpose since Judith has no great ,

pretension to beauty .

T h e portrait of a sculptor by B ron z ino has the head care


fully drawn and the expression is animated O ver a door are .

portrai ts o f the children of D uke Cosimo I T h e boy .


L A TE R T US CA N A R T .
35

F erdinand was his second son who after having taken orders
, , ,

and received the cardinal s hat ; was absolved from his vows in
order that he might succeed his brother on the ducal throne .

T h e little girl M arie de M edici died j ust as she had reached



, ,

womanh ood and such was the character of Cosi mo that she
, ,

was said to have received a slow poison from her own father .

H er h and is bea u tifu lly painted .

T h e nephe w and p u pil of Bron z ino was A lessandro A llori

( 5 35
1 who contin u ed his adherence to the maxims of

the school formed by the servile followers of M ichael Angelo ,

even after his own son Cristofano with his friend and rival , ,

Ludovico Cigoli had emancipated themselves and were e n


, ,

dea v o u ring to revive the st u dy of chiaroscuro and colour .

With Giorgio Vasari ( 1 5 1 1 —1 5 7 4) —in spite of his invaluable


history of art and artists — the real decline of art commenced .

A n ideal portrait by him of Loren z o de M edici is accompanied


by fancifu l accessories with a symbolical meaning in c o mpli


, ,

ment to the reigning house H e has also pain ted the portrait
.

of D uke Alexander i n armour with a view of Florence in the


,

backgro u nd T h e head and hands are well executed T his


. .

picture is above the Virgin and St T homas by G ra nacci .


, .

A D eposition by R a ff aello B o ttic in i Vanni wh o lived ,

early i n the sixteenth century is fine in colour clear and brigh t


, , ,

but hard the composition and drawing are feeble Th e two .

M arys behind the Virgin an d the M agdalene at the feet are


, ,

the finest parts of the pict u re .

Erminia H ealing the Wounds of T ancred i s by O ttavio


Vannini ( 1 5 8 5
T h e S toning of St Stephen is the fi nest work of Cigoli
.

( 1 5 59 the great reformer i n art but whose school ,

su rvived him only a few years T h e expression of the dying


.


saint is very to u ching and beautiful his eyes a re half closed ,

his brow contracted from bodily su ff ering and his hands ,

extended i n prayer whilst he si nks from exhaustion


, T he .

f igures of the men stoning him are coarse but power ful T he , .

D 2
36 UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

light from above falls fi nely on th e head of St Stephen and on .

the braw ny arm of the man i n the foreground who stamps on ,

the fainting martyr T h e backgrou nd is composed of archi


.

tecture and trees and is kept low i n tone T h e small group to


,
.

th e left beside St Paul i nclu des a portrait o f the artist T h e


,
.
, .

picture has u nfortunately su ff ered from restorati ons .

O ver the door leading to th e other rooms of th is suite is an


A doration o f the M agi by Cristofano A llori ( 1 5 77
, the
son o f A l essandro A llori and th e friend and follower o f Cigoli
, .

T h e picture is u nfin ished but it i s the only work by thi s ,

master i n th e room T here i s nothing elevated in the fi gure s


.

which compose the group T hey are ordinary peasants and .


,

i nstead o f a H oly F amily they m ight be better described as a


,

handsom e count ry girl with a child on her lap and an old


peasant by her side T h e picture i s painted with broad touche s
.

and full dark colours .

N ear the entrance o f the room o f early T uscan masters


i s a picture by Jacopo Chimenti of Empoli ( 1 5 5 4 It
represents St Ives a sai nt claimed though without any ce rt ai nty
.
, , ,

by the F ranciscans H e was j udge advocate over a diocese i n


.
-

F rance and died i n 1 3 0 3


,
H e appears here i n th e costume o f
.

a j udge with a glory round his head and is listening to th e


,

pleadings of th e w idows and o rphans o f whom h e i nstituted ,

himsel f the protector T h e picture i s power fu lly coloured and


.

i n fi ne chiaroscuro T h e figures i n the foreground stand in


.

easy nat u ral postures an d some of th e heads have a consider


, ,

able share of b eau ty .

H igh u p to the left of the A doration o f the M agi by Cristo ,

fano Allori is a portrait by Baldassare F ranceschini of Volterra


, ,

( 1 61 1 T his portrait is supposed to represent th e


Venetian F ra Paolo S arpi ( who died i n though with little

probability unless th e date given for Baldassare s birth be
,

incorrec t .
C H A P T ER I V .

UFFIZI GA LL E R K —R O OIII OF SM A LL PI C TURES B Y


TUSCA N M A S TE R S .

N a passage leading from that containing the larger pictures


of th e T u scan school to the T rib u ne i s a valuable col
lection of smaller paintings many of which were executed by
,

the same artists whose pictures we have already described .

T h e work o f greatest importance is on the wall to the l e ft



on entering and is one o f S andro B otticelli s most celebrated
,

compositions H e has called the subj ect Calumny as he took


.
,

1
his idea from a description of a painting by the Greek A pelles .

A pelles had been slandered by a bro ther artist j ealous of his ,

fame and the false acc u ser had been listened to by his patron
, ,

King Ptolemy of Egypt ; although fi nally acqu itted A pelles ,

co u ld not forget the o ff ence and he took his revenge by pain t


,

ing Ptolemy as King M idas with ass s ears seated i n j udgm ent ’
, ,

and with Susp i c i on and Ignorance on either side M idas .

extended his hand to Calumny who approached with a glowing ,

co u ntenance bearing a torch in her left hand whilst dragging a


, ,

youth along with her right the youth raised his hand to ask
aid from heaven Envy decked Cal u mny with flowers as i f
.

to render her more attractive R epentance followed represented ,

as a female attired in black who turned her head towards,

T ruth and wept with shame and remorse


,
S uch was the .

subj ect as treated by A pelles b u t B otticelli although a dh er


, ,

ing to most of the fig u res has not followed this descriptio n


,

1
S e e Luci a n, D e Co l u mn . ix pp. . 2 -
6, v o l. iii pp
. . 1 22 -
1 27.
3s UFFIZI GA L LER Y .

closely T h e study of the anti q ue is shown throughout espe


.
,

c ia l l y in the nude figure of T r u th looking upwards as i f a p ,

pealing to heaven T h e male fi gure addressing the ki ng was


.

probably meant to signi fy R age the lovely female who drags


the youth on the grou nd by th e hair o f his head is Calum ny ,

o n whom Envy scatters flowers Th e fi gu res on either side .

o f K ing M idas which in the picture by A pelles represented


,

S uspicion and Ignorance may here be supposed to represent


,

Cruelty and M ercy alternately swaying th e weak j udgment of


,

the Pri nce wh o looks pu zz led by opposite opinions T h e


, .

grand old hag at the fa rther end w ith hands crossed and ,

with a wicked scowl as she looks back at T ruth probably ,

represents F alsehood th e mother of Calumny A beautiful


, .

architectural backgrou nd unites the separate groups and


figu r es ; the pale blue sky and the sea shore appear between -

the open arches rich frie z es reliefs and statues adorn , ,

th e palace ; the sculpture is taken from classical and sacred


subj ects ; a bright pure atmosphere prevails throughout th e
,

pic ture in which the outlines of every form appear sharply de


,

fi ned the brilliancy o f the light the high fi nish o f every deta i l
, ,

an d the accurate distances are especially to be remarked T he .

fem ale heads are all from one model even to their golden hair ; ,

but there is variety of expression to compensate for monotony


o f features which are drawn with delicacy and precision
,
.

O n either side of this picture are most lovely m iniatures by


F ra A ngelico which once formed the predella to an altar piece
,
-
.

T h e subj ects are the M arriage and D eath o f the Virgi n I n the .

fi rst th e youths who had aspired to her han d break their rods
, ,

on beholding her u nion with J oseph A ccording to the legend .


,

the high priest to whose charge she had been consigned


-
, ,

desire d that each candidate should bring a rod to the T emple ,

and that he whose rod sent forth buds should be the chosen
husband o f M ary J oseph s rod decided in his favour and he
.

,

i s here represented bearing the blows dealt him by th e dis


appointed suitors with wonderful equanimity T h e fem ale .
SMAL L T US CAN PIC TURE S .
39

figures are drawn with great elegance and have all the refi ne ,

ment characteristic of the painter A dove rests on the branch .

J oseph holds in his hand .

I n the companion picture the Virgin appears in sleep rather


than death T h e Saviour holds her n ew born soul in his arms ;
.
-

the colour i s clear and delicate —a p u re blue prevails through


out.

N ear the window is another exquisite little picture also by ,

F ra A ngelico T h e infant St John is brought to his father


. .

Z acharias who is writing his name the maiden who stoops to


,

present the i nkstand to him and the other with the child are,

very gracefu l the two heads behind are not less lovely .

Eli z abeth i s s u pported by a female attendant T h e scen e is


'

lai d in a garden before a house with orange trees on the wall ,

grass and fl owers are in the foregro u nd .

A most beautifu l picture by Cigoli represents St F rancis .

receiving the S tigmata H is sinking frame and the exha u stion


.

expressed i n every feature are given with marvellous truth the


painting is highly finished and the drawing and colouring ,

are excellent
A portrait by Andrea del Sart o ( 1 4 8 8 1 5 3 0 ) o f hi m
.

self -

when young is a good pict u re below it is that of a child by


,

S anto di T iti ( 1 5 3 6
St A ug u stine in his S tudy is an exquisitely fi nish e d minia
.
-

t u re attributed to F ilippo L ippi b u t doubtfu l T h e saint is


, , .

seated i n a niche writing the head is very fine a green ,

c u rtai n is drawn aside and papers are scattered on the ground


, .

Judith with the head of H olofernes by Cristofano Allori is


, , ,

a repetition i n miniature of his celebrated picture in the Pitti .

A portrait in fresco of Bianca Cappello the second wi f e o f ,

th e Grand D u ke F rancis I is by Alessandro A llori ( 1 5 3 5


.
,

Alessandro s pictures are in general feeble and devoid o f


interest T his fresco was discovered in a villa not far from


.

Careggi beyond the Porta Sa n Gallo At the farther end


,
.

of this room facing the window is another portrait o f Bianca


, , ,
40 UFFIZI GA L LE R Y .

by Agnolo B ron z ino at the back of wh ich is an allegory ,

the dream of human life N eith er pict u re gives any idea of a . .

beauty which was so celebrated among her contemporaries ,

and which has only been preserved i n a cameo likeness i n the


room of gems .

T h e martyrdom of St M aurice and the T heban Legion is .

by Jacopo Pontormo ( 1 4 9 4— 1
5 the master o f the A llori he
has introduced the portrait of his patron Carlo N eroni as , ,

receiving baptism from an angel on a hill to the left of the ,

picture .

T h e portrait o f Elea nora of T oledo the u nhappy wife o f ,

th e Grand D uke C osimo I i s by Agnolo Bro nz ino Christ .


,

with the disciples at Emmaus by Cristofano Allori ; and St , .

F rancis kneeling be fore the Cross by A lessandro


, , .

O n the opposite wall near the window is a man i n armou r ,

by Agnolo B ron z ino and below this i s the portrait of Pico ,

della M irandola by an unknown artist T h e interest of this


, .

picture only consists in its being the likeness o f a remarkable


man the friend of M arsilio F i cino who presided over Cosimo
, ,

de M edici s Platonic A ca demy Pico was likewise a member


’ ’
.


of this society but his commentaries on Plato s writings are
,

sai d to be m ore obscure than the text H e died at the age o f .

thi rty two and was buried i n the Church of S t M ark i n


-

,
.

F lorence H e is here represented holding i n his hand the


.

e ffigy o f Cosimo de M edici ’


.

T h e portraits of M ari e de M edici the eldest daughter of



,

the Grand D uke Cosimo I and of her brother D o n Gar z ia .


, ,
.

are by Agnolo Bron z ino M arie fell in love with a page at .

her father s Court the son of M alatesta Lord of R imini and



, , ,

Cosimo to prevent the m arriage i s supposed to have a dm inis


, ,

tere d poison to his own daughter and caused her early death ,
.

T h e merry faced boy holding a go l dfi n c h is very unlike the


-

hero of another domestic tragedy ; b u t when a man while ,

hunting at Pisa he acci denta lly killed his brother i n a q u arrel


,
.

O n presenting himself after the deed to his father Cosimo ,


42 UFFIZI GA LLE R Y .

breadth i n chiaroscuro and colour i s carefu lly maintained .

1
A n A nnu nciation i n chiaroscuro i s on the back of the picture .

N ear this are two mi niat u res by B otticelli — the F riends o f


H olofernes discovering his headless corpse i n the tent ; an d
J udith followed by her n u rse who be ars away the head Both , .

pictures are remarkable for grandeu r o f composition and fi nish .

T h e first subj ect is treated with painfu l reality though fi ne and ,

rich i n colour ; the expression of horror at the discovery is given


with the utmost truth T h e second tho u gh m uch repainted
.
, ,

i s th e m ore attractive of th e two A cool morn ing light is dawn .


i ng over th e di st a nt landscape where the hostile army is seen ,

i n confusion at th e murder of their leader J u dith walks on .

calmly and with a smile of tri u mph on her face tempered by


,

seriou s thought Sh e carries a sword i n one hand an olive


.
,

branch in th e other and turns her head towards her attendant


, ,

who cast in a coarser mould is bendi ng beneath her bu rden


, , ,

and appears to move with hasty steps as if i n fear of pursuit , .

T h e head o f H olo fernes has the appearance of sleep still upon


the dead features .

H ercules fighting wi th th e H ydra and the same hero throw ,

i ng A nt aeus over the rock are by A ntonio P o l l aj ol o T hey, .

are marvellous for the representation of strength and a proo f ,

that grandeur of drawing and composition does not depend on


si z e T h e M edusa s head is supposed to be the celebrated
.

picture by Leo nardo da Vinci of which Vasari writes He ,

took a fancy to paint a picture of a M edusa with a head gear -

of serpents the strangest and m ost extravagant invention


,

i maginable ; but as it was a work which required time it re ,

2
T h e original picture of which thi s

mained incomplete .
,

appears to be a copy was long i n the palace of the Grand ,

D u ke Cosi m o I T h e exaggerated chiaroscuro makes it diffi


.

cult to distinguish any of the det ai ls T h e eyes are turned .

backwards and a film o f vapour from the lips implies that life is
,

1
S ee C ro w e and C a v a l c a se l l e , v ol . iii p
. .
44 2 .

2
S ee Va sa ri , Vite de P ittori

.
S IWA LL TUS CA N PIC TURES .
43

not yet extinct T h e serpents are a tangled mass which glide


.
,

and twist aro u nd the head ; mice toads and other reptiles , ,

crawl about the dark cavern in which the M ed u sa is laid .

A n A nnunciation by Loren z o Credi with a predella in dead ,

colour represents the Creation of Ev e the F all and the Ex


, , ,

pulsion from Paradise a garden walk is seen here in long per


sp ec tiv e T h e Virgin is in a room with three open arches she
.


raises her head i n glad su rprise the angel s head is very fi ne
and expres sive his hands are folded on his bosom
,
Both .

figures are however deficient i n grace and elegance


, , .

A lovely head of S anta Lu cia is by Carlo D olce ( 1 6 1 6


near which is a powerful portrait by Loren z o Credi o f
his master A ndrea V ero c ch io T h e small eyes are full of life
,
.

and intelligence ; the fi rm set mouth and the muscles around -

are indicated so as to suggest movement the spacio u s round


forehead and the quiet nostrils —all denote resol u tion and
'

power We have the portrait of a simple citi z en yet a great


.
,

m a ster T h e hands rest easily on the ledge in front ; to the


.

right a landscape is seen thro u gh an open window


,
.

A nother portrait by Credi represents M esser A lessandro


B ra sc e si S ecretary to the F lorentine R epublic in 1 4 9 7 : an
,

i nteresting head T h e pict u re approaches so nearly in style


.

and colo u r the portrait by an unknown artist mentioned i n th e


fi rst corridor that we can hardly hesitate to assign them to the
,

same hand T h e portrait of an old man painted on a tile has


.

marvello u s character and animation and is carefu lly drawn , .

Some suppose it to be the work of T ommaso Guidi di Gio


vanni commonly known as M asaccio ( 4
,
1 0 1 —1 428
) others a ttri
b u te it to Botticelli .

T h e head of a youth by A ndrea del S arto i s supposed to


be a portrait of a friend of the artist who was a novice or ,

student with the monks of Vallombrosa .

A t the end of this room farthest from the window and near ,

the entrance from the room of T uscan pictures i s a bowl for ,

carrying gifts on which Jacopo Pontormo has painted the


,
44 UFFIZI GA L L E R Y .

B irth of St J ohn the B aptist on this same wall is also a small


.

sketch by F ra Bartolommeo of the Eternal descending on


, ,

clouds and borne up by Cherubim whilst angels blow trumpets


, , .

T h e feeble light here makes it impossible to j udge of the merits


of pictures so far removed from the wi ndow and few if any , , ,

of them are of superlative merit I n one co m er i s the portrait .

of a lady taken i n profile by A lessandro Allori It is sti ff and .

formal but the pleasant smile on the face the arched nose full
, , ,

chin and flori d complexion may have gi ven th e lady some


, ,

claim to admiration i n her day


.

T h e head o f a youth by Leonardo da Vinci ( 1 4 5 2 —1 5 1 9 )


furnishes an admirable study for the portrait painter T h e eyes -
.

are liquid the lips mobile th e smooth forehead the esh in ess
, ,

o f the cheeks and rou nded chin have all the qualitie s of youth , ,

yet retain the i ndi cation of bone and muscle beneath T h e pe r .

spe c tiv e of the head is c arefully O bserved the hair fi nely treated , ,

and gradually lost in the dark green backgrou nd T h e young -


.

man wears a black cap and dress wi th a white collar fitting ,

closely round his neck T h e shadows of the flesh are care fully
.

graduated and though inj ured by the cleaner the tints of n ature
, , ,

are produced with won derful truth an d delicacy .

T h e T emple o f H ercules by F ra n c ia b igio ( 1 4 8 2 1 5 2 — th e


friend and as sis tant of A ndrea del Sarto form ed one side of a ,

bridal chest : the colouri ng is harmonious the draperi es very ,

fi nely drawn and th e heads are varied in expression ; there is


,

an agreeable landscape background C a val ca sell e observes on .

this composition O f F ra nc ia bigio s late period broad — ’


,

brown animated and quickly done S om e fi gures taken appa


, , .

1
from lbert i b i merits in his e a rl y
’ ’
re n tl A D ii re r F r a n c i
y a
.
g o s

days consisted according to Vasari i n a careful attention to


, ,

the rules of proportion ; he adopted the method followed by .

F ra Bartolommeo but later in life he aimed at produci ng many


,

pictures rather than any one of high excellence


,
.

A predella in three compartments by R aff aello B o ttic ini or

S ee C ro w e a nd C a v a l case l l e v o l iii p 5 1 2
'

1 . . . .
,
SMALL T US CAN PIC TURES .
45

Vanni was painted for the altar — piece of the D eposition from
the Cross in the room of T uscan masters T h e subj ects of
.

this picture are— Christ D riving the S ellers from the T emple ;
H is Entrance into J erusalem ; and the Woman of Samaria .

A lovely little M adonna and Child with S t John is an u n


fi nished work by F ra Bartolommeo .

An A ngel with S carlet and White Wings bending over a


,

guitar i s by R osso il F iorentino ( 1 4 9 4


,
T here are
several other pictures here but none of su f ficient importance to
,

deserve mentioning although they bear the names of Vasari


, ,

Jacopo da Empoli F ederigo Z ucchero & c


, , .
C H A P T ER V .

UFFIZI GA LLER Y TH E TRIB ON E —P I C TURES B E L ON G


[N C TO O TH ER S CH O OL S .

H E T ri bune is an octagonal room built by the Gran d


D uke F erdinand I to contain his collection of ca m e i
.

a nd i ntagli T h e cupola above was inlai d with m other o f pearl


.
- -

a n d the room was at first surrounded by carved ebony cabinets

w hilst i n the c en tre stood a splendid table o f pietra dura ,

around which were placed the fi nest antique statues T he .

c abinets and gems have been removed and the walls hung with ,

a choice selection o f pictures which are not however seen to


, , ,

a dvantage from th e confi ned space and imperfect light


,
.

F acing the door leadi ng t o the corri dor i s the celebrated


Venu s de M edici Sh e is thu s described i n th e notes o f M r

. .


J ohn B ell from whose T ravels in Italy we have already
,

quoted i n other part s of thi s work : T h e Venus de M edici ‘ ’


,

t ruly a subj ect for th e little and beautiful measuring only four ,

feet eleven inches exqu isite i n all its forms and proportions ,

but much i nj ured in the restored parts ; found i n the Villa


H adrian i n T ivoli

T h e Venus was brought to F lorence with
.

the Apoll ino opposite which i s a rare example of a statu e dis


,

covered entire I t was however unfortunately broken by the


.
, ,

fall of o ne of the pict u res and the T uscan sc u lptor Bartolini


, , ,

who u ndertook the repairs concealed them by a worse inj ury


, ,

a s he pai nted the whole statu e and thu s destroyed the trans ,

p a re n c y of th e marble ; but the easy attitude the dignity and ,

grace of th e figure with the beauty of the face and limbs are
, ,

u naltered and constitute one o f the most charming o f antiqu e


,
TH E TRIB UNE .

s tatues T h e D ancing F aun opposite is i n strange contrast


.

with the elegance of the A poll in o T hough the F aun was re .

paired by M ichael A ngelo the original part o f the statue con ,

tinu e s the fi nest M r Bell s admiration of this work makes him



. .

severely critical on the additions by the modern artist T his .


s tatue he proceeds is perhaps the most exquisite piece of art


’ ‘
, ,

of all that remains O f the ancient the T orso is the finest that
can be imagined I t is adventuro u s to di ff er from
.

so great a master as M ichael A ngelo who when he restored it , , ,

must have st u died the s u bj ect well and who is even said to ,

have taken the idea of the head and arms from an antique gem ;
( )
but he has given ro u nd and fl eshy forms to a shrunk and

somewhat aged figu re evidently intended for the caricature of


,

dru nkenn ess and folly T h e limbs are all in a strained and.

staggering attitude T h e whole body inclines forward and


.
,

there m u st have been a proportioned bend backwards of the


head to counterbalance the inclination of the trunk Buonarroti
,
.

has g iven too fresh and full a face for his shrunk meagre and , ,

dried u p body
-
T h e remark that this st atue is the caricature
.
’ ‘


of drunkenness and folly appears somewhat exaggerated for
it has rather the wild movements of a being half animal hal f ,

human —the fau n of the ancients — engrossed with the pleasure


O f the moment and i n the delirium of a Bacchanalian dance .

A s a learned anatomist and art critic M r Bell s observa



.
,

tions on the remaining statues are no less i nteresting and im


portant : T h e K nife Grin der not exempt from faults but most

, ,

n tere sting; the whole posture and the whole composition being

s ingularly j ust and eff ective T h e knife blade in the right hand .

touches the grinder ; the body slightly bent forward is balanced , ,

by the resting of the fingers of the left hand on the block ,

whilst the head for which the whole forms of the trunk are ex
,

q u isite l y prepared is turned round ,


Th e figure i s neither lean .

ing nor resting but is yet full of nature ; the attitude being evi
,

de ntl y that of momentary action T h e e yes of the slave are .

not fixed on the work H is bony s q uare form the strength .


, ,
48 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

of the neck the squali d countenance the short neglected hair


, , ,

th e character of a slave still more plainly written on his coars e


hard hands and wrinkl ed brow ; yet it is a slave presented wi th ,

all the fine broad expression of nature bearing all the striki n g ,

features of strength and labour T h e Wrestlers a beautiful .


,

little group ; the figures too much under si z e delicately and ,

ex q uisitely fi nish ed for the subj ect T h e slender li mbs seem .

exiles from the body and owing to an a ff ectation of anatomy


, ,

and science have too much fibre ; the heels and toes are too
,

small ; the legs of th e conqu eror are stringy and quite out of
drawing T h e whole may be described as being a nice well
.
,

fi nished little group but wanting i n grandeur action and


, ,

expression .

B ehind the statue of the Venu s is placed the el zej i d ce na re ’

o n panel of A ndrea del Sarto the greatest colourist o f the ,

F lorentine school T h e M adonna with her eyes cast down


.
, ,

stands on a pedestal ; sh e holds a book on which the Child ,

steps as with infantine grace and playfu lness H e climbs to her


,

neck the girlish features of the M adonna have a nobility and


grandeur o f expression rarely fou nd in the works of A n drea .

St F rancis and St J ohn stand on either side ; St F rancis is


. . .

an ordinary peasant with a mournful cou ntenance ; St J ohn .


,

gentle earnest and very beautiful ; most lovely angels support


, ,

th e Virgi n T h e composition O f this picture is pyramidal the


.
,

extremities o f the figures are drawn admirably and everything ,

is i n j ust balance ; there i s great breadth o f chiaroscuro the


colour is rich and harmonio u s and a deep religious feeling and
,

dignity pervades the whole .

B elow this pict u re is one of the gems o f the collection a ,

triptych by A ndrea M antegna ( 1 4 3 0 F inished with


exquisite delicacy an d care it has at the same time all the
,

grandeur o f drawing and composition o f a picture of larger


dimensions T h e subj ects are : the A doration of the M agi
.
,

with the Circumcision and the R esurrection on either side .

I t once adorned the Chapel of the D ucal Palace at M antua ,


UFFI ZI GA LLER Y

was under the i nfluence of Leonardo da Vinci whose style it ,

closely resembles Lan z i remarks o f this pictu re I am


.

i nclined to believe that the sam e characteristic of an a ff able ,

generous disposition diligent in th e search after perfect beauty


, ,

must have made them ( Ra a ell e and Leonardo ) known to one



another even i f they had not been u nited by fri endship
, A .

certain resemblance to the painter him self and the dress being ,

that o f a citi z en who did not belong to F lorence ( which


Ra ff aelle had visited at that peri od ) make it probable that this ,

is the portrait of his a u nt Santa who was married to a rich ,

tailor but who when left a you ng widow resided with hi s


, , ,

father Giovanni ; Ra ff a e l l e s mother h a d died when he was a


,

child T his picture w as brought from the Villa of Poggio


.

a Caiano i n
A bove the door leading from the rooms of T usca n masters
is a M adonna and Child with St Joh n and St S ebastian by . .
,

Pietro Perugi no ( 1 44 6 T o the left of the door i s


another portrai t by Ra ff aelle d U rbino called the F ornarina ’
,
'
,

or Baker s Wife ; but so little re se mb l ing th e picture o f th e


same name i n the Barberin i Palace i n R om e that this is ,

probably a m isnomer and the port rait is believed to represent


,

B eatrice of F errara the mistress of Loren z o d U rbino th e


,

,

father of Cath arine de M edici ’


Passavant the biographe r .
,

of R a ff aelle places the date of this pict u re at 1 5 1 2 T h e artist


,
.

rises here to a fulness and depth of colour which can only be


compared to Giorgione who had died the previo u s year ,
.

T h e M adonna del Po zz o or Virgin at the Well is attributed , ,

to R a ff aelle but is probably by F ra nc ia bigio It i s painted


.
,

with much sweetness the children are very lovely and playful
but neither the Virgin nor other parts of th e composition have
the grace and dignity o f Ra a ell e s paintings ’

St J ohn in the Wilderness is th e only painting on canva s


.

by Ra ff aelle Al though a noble picture the subj ect is treated


.
,

as a stu dy and Passavant traces in the finished picture th e


,

S ee J D Pa ssa v a n t s R af a el v on Url irw v o l i p 1 8 4


1 ’
f . . .
. . , .
TH E TRIB UNE .
5 1

hand of a p u pil it has the refore rather served as a valuable


, ,

lesson for the young artist than awakened much interest in the
1
visitor to the gallery .

T h e M adonna del Cardellino the M adonna of the Gold -

fi nc h — next the picture of S t John is one of R a ff a ell e s most



.
,

charming compositions and belongs to his F lorentine period


, .

T his great artist s works are divided into three styles the

first ac q uired when a diligent p u pil under Perugino and


F rancia and when his genius was kept in strict s u bordination
,

to the rules and mannerism of these schools the second begin


ning with hi s first visit to F lorence and interco u rse with the ,

great artists there who awakened new i deas of the wider bo un


,

da ries of A rt his third and last style belonging to his R oman


period when he had st u died from R oman models and Venetian
,

pict u res and had gained that grandeur of o u tline and c o m


,

position and richness of colour which found their culmination


, ,

in his latest works the T ransfiguration and the M adonna di


,

S a n S isto T h e M adonna del Cardellino was painted i n 1 5 0 5


.
,

when R affaelle was twenty two years of age for Loren z o N asi -

, ,

a F lorentine who presented it to his bride T h e picture was


,
.

inj ured in 1 5 4 8 when N asi s house was shaken by an earth


,

q u ake but it was carefu lly repaired


,
It is as Passavant .

,

observes fu ll of lovely simplici ty and heavenly grace and the


,

,

2 ’
possessor held it in great honour all his life T h e fresh and .

pure feeling in the composition and colo u r has a charm which


no copy can wholly convey and however familiar we may be ,

with repetitions and engravings this pict u re can neither disap ,

point a t first sight nor ca u se satiety by being frequently visited


, .

T o the right of the door i s R a ff a ell e s maj estic portrait of


Pope Julius I I painted i n his latest R oman manner for the


.
, ,

family of the ponti ff the D ella R overe Julius I I was connected


,
. .

by marriage with the D u ke of U rbino the patron of the painter , ,

who had likewise a friend in the youth ful heir to the duchy ,

1
S ee J . D . P assa v a nt s Raf ael

v on Urbino, v ol . i p
. .
92 .

2
M id .
52 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

the nephew of the duke F rancesco della R overe T here is a


, .

repetition o f this picture i n the Pitti Palace and both are ,

probably by the hand of Ra ff aelle a third is i n the N ational


Gallery of London T h e original design in chalk is i n th e
.

Pala zz o Corsini o f F lorence T h e character of the irascible.

and resolute old man who u nited the genius o f a ruler and
,

warrior with taste for art and th e refinement of a high bred -

gentleman is expressed i n the features attitude and dress of


, , ,

the Pope .

A bove the M adonna del Po zz o is a fi ne picture of I saiah ,

by F ra Bartolommeo and further on is th e com panion picture


,

o f Job T hey are both very powerful i n drawing and expres


.

sion and are painted in full deep colou r T hey were executed
,
.

for a F lorentine m erchant and made part of the great picture ,

o f the R esurrection o f our Saviour which i s in the Galle ry of ,

th e Pitti Palace .

B etween the Prophets is a portrait of the Emperor Charles


V m ounted on a splendid white charger A n eagle holding a
. .
,

crown of laurel soars above him T his pictu re is an imaginary


,
.

portra it by Vandyke ( 1 5 9 9 since the Emperor died i n


1 55 8 .

A bove
the portrait of Pope J uliu s I I is a beautifully painted .
-

head of J ohn the B aptist by Correggio which was formerly i n


, ,

the villa of Poggio a Caiano ; on the other side of the door


leading to the Corridor i s the daughter of H erodias beari ng ,

the head o f the Baptist i n a charger with the executioner by , ,

B ernardino Luini of M ilan ( 1 4 6 0 H igher u p a very ,

lovely H oly F amily is by Paolo Veronese ( 1 5 2 8 St


~
.

J ohn kisses the foot of the I nfant Christ ; S t Catharine a .


,

beautiful Veneti an woman with her palm branch stands beside ,


-

the Child St J oseph is to the left of th e picture


. .

A most exq u isi te small painting by Correggio of the Virgin ,

K neeling i n A doration of the Child was a royal gift by the ,

D uke of M antua to the Grand D u ke Cosimo I I A sleeping .

Endy m ion by Guercino ( 1 5 9 0


,
i s a good specimen of
L OMB ARD S CH O O L .
53

the Bolognese school of art T w o pictures of A dam and Ev e.

are by Lu cas Kranach ( 4 7 1 5


1 2 — and beneath is a H oly
F am ily by M ichael A ngelo Buonarroti ( 1 4 7 5
,
T h e his
tory of this last picture given by Vasari establishes its a u
, ,

th e n tic ity otherwise it wo u ld be diffic u lt to believe the great


,

master co u ld have been capable of s u ch distorted and de fective


drawing as i n the arm and part of the figure of the Virgin
,
.

H e r constrained attitude is characteristic of this artist s love of


grappling with di f ficulties .

T h e A doration of the M agi by A lbert D u rer ( 1 4 7 1 ,

is interesting as an example of the work of the greatest of


German m asters Christ R ising from the T omb is by Lucas van
.


Leyden ( 4 9 4 1 5 3
1 T here are other pictures of merit in the
T rib u ne but in too O bscure positions to be seen to advantage
,
.

F rom the T rib u ne the visitor passes through a series o f


small roo m s containing pictures by artists from di ff erent
,

Italian S tates as well as D utch F lemish German and F rench


, , , , .

I n the first room of paintings of the Ven etian and Lombard


schools and on the wall to the left of the entrance from the
, ,

T ribune is a most exquisite pict u re by A ndrea M antegna


, ,

e Virgin i s seated with the Child on her


( 1 43 0 Th
knees u nder a rock i n the wilderness a lan dscape in the back
,

ground T h e colour is sober but harmonious the drawing


.
,

and composition have much grande u r and every detail is deli ,

ca tely finished N o t far from this picture is a lovely little


.

sketch of St A gnes crowned by A ngels by Paolo Veronese


.
,

also St A nna presenting cherries to the Child with St John


.
, .

the Baptist and Joachim by M azz olino di F errara 1 4 8 1 —


, , 1 5

O n the wall farthest from the window to the right of the ,

entrance there is a very beautiful picture of children sporting


,

under trees by F rancesco A lbano ( 1 5 7 8


,

O n the opposite wall to the left a most lovely little painting ,

F R
of a H oly amily is by Guido eni ( 5 7 5 1 1 — the infant St .

J ohn kisses the foot of the Child Above it is another H oly .

F amily of m u ch bea u ty by A nnibale Caracci ( 1 5 6 0


, A
54 UFFIZI GALLER Y .

larger picture towards the centre of the wall by Pa rm iggia n o ,

( 5
1 0 4 represents a H oly F amily with S t J erom e and , .

the M agdalene T h e Virgin caressing the Child by Carlo .


,

C igna n i ( 1 6 2 8 a B olognese painter of the school of


A lbano is greatly admired
,
C igna n i was according to Lan z i .
, ,

one of the most reno w ned painters of his time ?


T h e two rooms which follow contain many very i nteresting
pictures of the D utch and German schools
, R embrandt .

M ieris O sta de N e tsc h e r and T eniers are well represented i n


, , ,

the first room i n their small pictures ,


A H oly F amily by .
,

Rembrandt ( 1 6 0 6 to the right of the entrance is highly ,

fi nished and a most beautiful example of his treatment o f


,

chiaroscuro .

I n the next room to the left near the window is the portrait ,

of an old man s head by H olbei n ( 1 4 9 8 ’


,
one o f that
artist s fi n est works
’ ‘
I n the catalogue it is given as a portrait
.

o f Zw ingl ius ; but as the great reformer died in battle at the


age of forty seven in 1 5 3 1 this portrait of a feeble old man was
-

p robably that o f some burgomaster o f the town of B asle It , .

i s pai nted with hardly any shadow y et the relie f and the mor ,

Ozdez z a o r tenderness of flesh are perfect whilst the expression


, , ,
.

i s most life like T here are several other portraits in this room
-
.
,

al so by H olbein ; but one if authentic would be of especial , ,

interest to the English visitor as it i s supposed to represent S ir ,

T hom as M ore when young T his portrait if really his likeness


,
.
, ,

must have been painted soon after the artist s arrival in England ’

in 1 5 2 6 when M ore was forty si x years of age


,
:
H olbei n -
.

worked for three years in S ir T homas M ore s house at Chelsea ’


,

where H enry VI I I visited the Chancellor and expressed his .


,

pleasure i n the painter s works T h e picture hangs on the wall ’


.

to the left an d near the door and whether of Sir T homas ,


M ore or whe ther by H olbein o r as some s u ppose by an —
, ,

I talian artist it is a good painting O n the opposite side of


,
.

the room near the door of exit is another very interesting


, ,

Lanz i S toria P z ttor ea del l a I ta l ia v o l v S cu o l a B o l o g nese p 1 45


' '

1
z ,
. .
, , . .
,
FLEMISH AND FR ENCH S CH O OL . (5 5

portrait by H olbein of one R ichard Southwell ; small tablets


,

of bron z e on the frame bear inscriptions describing him as ,

a Councillor of S tate u nder King H enry VI I I A portrai t o f . .

Lu ther at the farther end O pposite the w indow is by Kranach


, ,

Luther s wife Catharine Bora by H olbein is a superior paint



, , ,

i ng to that of Kranach N ear these are two interesting small


.

portraits in one frame also by Kranach of the Protestan t


, ,

Electors John and F rederick A bove the portrait of S outh .

well is a fine portrait by Albert D iirer of his father and beside ,


'

it another excellent portrait of a man at his prayers by H ans


,

H emling or M emling ( 1 4 40 living ,

N o t far from these is one of Cla u de Lorraine s charming


landscapes which has been engraved in his Liber Verita tis


, .

T wo pictures here are by A drian Brauer the rival of T eniers ,


( 1 6 0 8 1 6 40 )
rooms that follow are devoted to the F lemish and
The
F rench schools A very lovely portrait of the Princess Claudia
.
,

daughter of the Grand D u ke F erdinand I and wife o f the .


,

A rchd u ke Leopold of A ustria is by J ustus Su ste rma ns ( 1 5 9 7 ,

T here are two other good portraits by the same art ist ,

of a gentleman of the P ul ic ia ni family and of a lady H e ha s , .

also a picture here of S t M argaret and the D ragon


. .

I n the last room containing paintings by F rench artists t o ,

the right of the entrance is the portrait of the celebrated beauty ,

M adam e de Grignan the dau ghter of M adame de S evign e by


, ,

Peter M ignard ( 1 6 1 0 A sm all portrai t of M adame de


Sevign e by the same painter is at the farther end of the
, ,

room facing the window A l fi e ri and his wife Countess of .


,

A lbany and widow of the young Pretender are painted by


, ,

S averio F abre ( 1 7 6 6 A very fi ne portrait of Bossuet i s


by Rigaud ( 1 6 5 9 T here are two portraits of gentlemen
attired i n black by Philippe Champagne T h e portrait of J ean
,
.

Jac q ues R ousse au is by N icolas La rgilliere of Paris ( 1 6 5 6 ,

T his artist was esteemed for his fresh and transparent


method of colour and his correct drawing A young girl and
,
.
56 UFFIZI GA L L ER Y .

boy placed opposite on e another near the entrance to this room ,

and c al led Pilgrims are by A lexis G rim o n who died i n 1 7 40


, , .

H is vigorous style and good colour gave promise of great


emi nence in his art but an i dle dissipated life obliged him to
, ,

work only for the payment of hi s debts .


5 8 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

walk is seen in perspective through an arch and there is a ,

pavement o f variegated marbles i n the foreground S ix fluted .

columns on either side of the arch give the idea of a portico


i n which the Virgin is at prayer ; but the accessories belong
rather to a pri ncess i n her palace than to the simple maiden
of N a z areth A small picture u nder glass by Vittore Car
.
,

p a c c io ,
who flourished in 1
5 00 of a n u mber o f figures
,
is a ,

new and valuable addition to the gallery .

T h e D ead Chri st i n th e m idst of the A postles i s a very


bea u ti ful and delicately executed drawing by Gian B ellini
( e . 1 4 2 8 and near the door is a ve ry fi ne full length -

figure o f a gentleman dressed i n black by M orone ( 1 5 1 0


1
57 )
8
Avery lovely little picture o f the M artyrdom of S t J ustina .
,

by Paolo Veronese to the left o f the door i s followed by a


, ,

M adonna and Child surrou nded by heads of Cherubim by ,

T itian ; th e tone of this pic ture i s heavy probably the fault of ,

the res torer and the Virgin a lovely Venetian woman wants
, , ,

expression .

Venus lamenting the death of A donis by Alessandro ,

B o nv ic in o or I I M oretto of Brescia ( 1 5 1 4 is a splendid


piece of p a i nting ; and M oses with the flocks o f his father in -

law by Leandro Ponte da Bassano ( 1 5 5 8


,
is also very
fi ne and of a deep full colour .

O n e of the most i mportant pictures i n this room is by


T intoretto ( 1 5 1 2 though attributed to on e o f his school
the Entrance of ou r S aviour i nto Jerusalem It is original .

i n treatment full of life and varie ty and true to nature


, ,
.

H igh on the fo u rth wall i s a fine portrait of A dmiral Venier ,

b y T intoretto H e wears a crimson silk mantle over his armour


.
,

one hand rests on a helmet ; the sea is seen through th e open


w indow .

T h e portrait of the D uchess of U rbino by T itian i s most , ,

interesting for compositio n and colo u r tho u gh this la st has,

su ff ered greatly from the cleaner and the soft Venetian glaz es
,
VENE TIAN S CH O OL .
59

have been destroyed leaving the face hard and sharp in out
,

line H er portrait when yo u ng is i n the Pitti Gallery where it


.
,

was long known under the misnomer O f the B ella di T i z iano ‘
.

N ear the entrance to the room is the husband of the


D uchess also by T itian a very fine picture and in better
, , ,

preservation F rancesco della R overe I wa s the grandfather


. .

of F rancesco M aria whose portrait by Baroccio is in the


T ribune T his D uke was one of the most successful generals
.

of his time H e was the nephew and adopted heir of Guido


.

baldo da M ontefeltro D u ke of U rbino and great nephew of, ,

Pope Sixtus IV Educated under the auspices of men of


.

genius and learning who formed the Court of Guidobaldo and


,

his D uchess Elisabetta Gon z aga F rancesco was the friend of ,

the yo u thful Ra ff aelle who is said to have painted him whe n


, ,

a fair young man in his fresco of the S chool of A thens


,
.

D uring the reign of Pope A lexander VI ( Borgia) G u idobaldo .


,

was deprived of his d u chy and F rancesco of his heredi tary ,

possessions ; but when another u ncle of F rancesco became


Pope under the name O f Juli u s I I he was restored to his
, .
,

rights and after the death of Guidobaldo succeeded to the


,

D uchy of U rbino When hardly eighteen years of age he was


.
,

entru sted with the command of the Papal forces ; but when
Le o X succeeded Juli u s as ponti ff the D uchy of U rbino was
.
,

too tempting a morsel and the new Pope sei z ed on various ,

pretexts to deprive F rancesco of his dominions he at length


succeeded i n banishing F rancesco and he then created his ,

own nephew Loren z o the father of Catha rine de M edici


, ,

,

D uke of U rbino ; the new d u ke was however as much hated , ,

as F rancesco was beloved a n d when on the early death of , ,

Loren z o Leo proposed to include U rbino in the Papal S tates


, ,

F rancesco aided by his own people recovered his domi nions


, , ,

and assumed the command of the allied armies of Italy H e .

was present at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V at .

Bologna i n 1 5 30 and died in 1 5 3 8 at the age of for ty seven


, , ,
-
.

H is D uchess Eleonora Gon z aga w as related to his aunt


'

, ,
UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

Elisabetta, the wife o f Guidobaldo di M ontefeltro ,


D uke of

U rbino .

Between the portraits of the D uke and D u chess of U rbino


i s a large painting by Carlo Cagliari ( 1 5 7 0 the son of
Paolo Veronese it represents the Virgin in glory with Saints
b elow .

St M argaret bearing the Palm o f M artyrdom above the


.
,

door is by Palma Giovane ( 1 5 44


,

Enteri ng th e farther room to the right is a battle piece by


,
-

T i tian th e sketch for a large picture o f the Battle of the B ridg e


,

at Cadore in which th e Condottiere or Captain o f F ree


, ,

Companies B artolommeo A lviano is seen on one side i n front


, , ,

with his hand on his b aton o f command T h e p i cture itsel f


.

was painted for one o f the rooms o f the D ucal Palace at


Venice and was destroyed by fire i n 1 5 7 0 T h e landscape
,
.

i s a faith ful representation o f the neighbourhood of Cadore ,



T itian s birthplace .

T here is a striking por trait on the n ext wall i n glowing ,

colours of a man with a red beard and h a ir by Paris B ordone


, ,

( and above i t I S th e portrait o f Giovanni d t


1 51 3 e

M edici of the Bande N ere by T itian Giovanni was the fathe r


.

o f Cosimo the fi rst Grand D uke o f Fl orence H e served as


,
.

a captain of a F ree Company in th e wars against th e Papal


general F rancesco della R overe o f U rbino whose picture we
, ,

have j ust not iced Giovanni also fought against the F rench
.
,

an d was killed at the battle of M antua in 1 5 2 6 .

Th e M arriage at Cana o f Galilee by T intoretto is the sketch


for his celebrated pai ntin g o n th e ceiling o f the Sacristy o f
S an ta M aria della S alute at Venice .

B elow i s th e sketch by T itian of th e Virgi n and Child f o r


h is beauti ful picture in Santa M aria de F rari at Venice ; h is ’

me thod o f work may here b e stu died B o sch in i a contem .


,

p o ra r
y and friend of Palma Giovane thus describes
,
T itian s
practice H e grou nded his picture with such a layer o f
colou r that i t served as a bed or foundation on which to build
,
VENE TIA N S CH O O L . 61

the expression ; an d I have myself seen the bold touches given


by a br u sh laden with colour sometimes a stripe of p u re terra ,

rosso which he used as a half tint sometimes with white lead


, , ,

whilst with the same bru sh he painted in red black and yello w , , ,
1 ’
a nd thus formed the relief for a light .

T w o interesting pictures here are attributed to Giorgione .

T h e first represents the Infant M oses o ff ered his choice between


b u rning coals and gold in the presence of King Pharaoh the ,

second the Judgment of S olomon


,
.

A picture of the M adonna and Child i n which the Child , ,

wears a coral necklace and presents a pomegranate to St , .

C atharine is by T itian and extremely lovely


, ,
.

T h e m uc h a dm ire d F lora by T it ian is painted with wonder


~

f u l gradation in the flesh tints ; the l u xuriant loveliness and

golden hair of the female represented are the only merits which
constitute this pict u re such a favourite as there is an utter want ,

of so u l or expression i n the face N ear it is a most splendid .

portrait by Giovanni Battista M oroni ( 1 5 1 0 —1 5 7 8 ) of G io va n


A ntonio Pantera the author of the M onarchy of Christ which ‘ ’
, ,

was published in 1 5 3 5 H e is i n a black dress a white parch


.

m ent volume is before him .

O n the third wall the Virgin and Child to w hom St John , .

is presenting fl owers with St A nthony beside them is a most .


,

lovely composition by T itian .

Beyond this pict u re is a splendid painting of the Crucifixion


by Paolo Veronese evidently a sketch for a larger work T h e
,
.

centurion to the right is on a noble white charger which is


, , ,

1
i su o i q u a dri c o n u na ta l m a ssa di co l o ri ch e serviva no p er
A b a ssa v a
f a r l e tto 0 b ase a ll e esp re ssi o n i c h e so p ra po i li do v e va f a bb ri ca re e ne ho

ve du ti a nch io de co lpi reso l u ti co n p e nn e ll a te m a ssiccie di co l o ri a ll e


,

,

,

v o l te d un strisc i o di te rra ro ssa sch i e tta egli se rviva pe r m ez a ti nta a l tre



-
z
,

v o l t e co n u na pe nne ll a ta di bi a cca co n l o st esso p enne ll o ti nto di ro sso di


n e ro e di gi a ll o f o rm a v a il rili e v o d u n ch i a ro —
,

Lo M in iere dell a P ittu ra


’ ’
.
,

con a ggiu n ti di B osofi in i .

Th i s k e t ch
s h as , h o w e v e r, be en supp o sed to b e a co py by S ir J osh ua
Rey n o l ds, w h en h e w a s stu dyi ng T i ti a n s ma nn e r a t Ve n i ce

.
62 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

dashing forwards and nearer the foreground are the soldiers


,
.

who draw lots for the garment St Joh n is seen to the left.
,

leading the Virgi n away T h e picture i s rich in colour and has


.
,

truth and variety of expression .

A good portrait by T intoretto represents the sculptor


S ansovino .

N ear the door i s th e portrait by T itian of Catharine Cornaro ,

Queen of Cypru s as St Catharine with her whe el o f martyr


,
.
,

dom which might here be eq u ally typical o f the wheel o f


,

fortune T h e great grand daughter of M arco Cornaro D oge


.
-

of Venice this lady was married to the son of Lusi gnan King
, ,

of Cyprus on which occasion sh e wa s formally adopted a


,

daughter of the Republic When left a widow in 1 4 7 5 sh e


.
,

was obliged by the S enate to resign to them her right over the
island and to return to Venice where however she was allowed
, , , ,

to pass the rest o f her days in regal state .


C H A P T ER VII .

UFFIZI GA LLER Y— SA L A D I L OREN Z O III O N A C O .

N A R R O W passage
leads to the Sala di Lo renz o M onaco
'

T h e walls of this passage are covered te mporarily with


portraits of vario u s artists for which there is no space in the
,

two large rooms assigned for the purpose Th e artists best .


known are N orthcote when young a good picture Hayter a ,

f eeb l e pa in ting ; a small but interesting portrait O f Gavin


H amilton who spent most of his life in R ome where he
, ,

became eminent as an antiqu arian as well as pai nter and th e


,

A merican H ealey ,
N ante u il represents the F rench school
.
,

and the rest of the space is occ u pied by portraits of artists


German Italian and of other nations of whom only a f e w
, , ,

are known even by nam e to the English visitor .

Some of the most important pict u res belonging to the Gal


lery are collected in the room at the end of this passage Th e .

two principal are by Loren z o M onaco ( 1 3 7 0—1 4 2 5 P) and by ,

F ra A ngelico T hough alike in simplicity of thought and in


.

religious feeling these two friars differed essentially as men and


,

as pai nters T here is more force and more gorgeous colouring


.

i n Loren z o greater purity and elevation in A ngelico T h e


, .

altar piece by M onaco who is first m entioned as a painter in


-

1 41 0 ,was executed for his own M onastery of Santa M aria


degli A ngeli in F lorence I t was removed to the A bbey Church
.

of Sa n Pietro a Cerreto near Certaldo in the Val d Elsa in


, ,

,

the sixteenth century where it remained until 1 8 4 0


, Th e .

frame is richly decorated and gilt having three pinnacles at ,


64 UFFIZI GALL ER Y . .

the top within which are enshrined representations of t h e


,

Eternal between S eraphim the Virgin and the A ngel of the , ,

A nn u nciation on either side of the frame are small figures of the


Prophets of the O l d T estament T h e subj ect o f the picture i s .

the Coronation of the Virgin ; she is attired in w hite and with , ,

hands clasped i n adoration bends her head to receive the crown , ,

which the Savio u r i s placing on her head M ost lovely angel .

heads appear behind and beneath the canopy of th e throne


two i n white garments with their arms folded kneel at the feet
, ,

o f the Saviour and the Virgin ; two others swi ng censers i n the
f oreground and a third i n the centre plays the organ
,
T he
, ,
.

s aints who are assembled as spec tators are all male and though , ,

e arnest in expression have coarse and comm on faces they


,

rest or float on the blu e star lit arch of heaven T h e colour


,
-
.

i ng is clear vivid and powerful T h e predella below is the


, ,
.

m ost beautifu l part of the picture both from the dramatic man ,

ner in which th e story is told and from the delicacy o f colou r ,

a n d beautiful expression o f many of the heads T h e compart .

ment farthest to th e right represents St B enedict restoring a .

brother monk to life who has been crushed by a wall falli ng on


,

h im ; a mischievou s little devil i s occ u pied tryi ng to loosen th e


s tones N ext follows St B enedict paying a visit to h is sister
. .

S cholastica and her community o f nuns according to the


l ege nd after conversing on spirit u al matters he was prepari ng
, ,

to depart when Scholastica prayed that he m ight be detained


, ,

and i mmediately such a storm arose that S t B enedict had to


. .

remain some hours longer? In the same compartment S t .

B enedict i s saving a monk from drowni ng T h e two central .

compartments which divide the story of the saint contain the


Visit of the M agi and the Virgin and Joseph worshipping the
,

Child Beyond these St B enedict i s seen leaving his mon as tery


. .

for the wilderness as he passes out his countenance is that of ,

o n e lost in anxious tho u ght a little devil p u lls him along I n .

th e same compartment he is represented amidst the rocks


1
S ee IlI on a stie Orde rs , by M rs . J a meson .
66 UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

A n Adora tion of the M agi by Sandro B otticelli whils t re ,

tai ning the strong individuality of the master is after the manner ,

of F ra F ilippo and o f the P o ll aj o l i H e painted this picture .

shortly after th e d eath o f Cosimo de M edici th e Pater Patri ae ’


, ,
i

an d has represented him attired i n a robe of black and gold ,

kneeling before the M adonna and kissing the feet of the holy ,

Child A young man to the left in the foreground who looks


.
, ,

down with a haughty air may represent Loren z o the M agnificent


, ,

th e grandson of Cosimo T w o youths to the right one o f whom


.
,

wears a robe o f white and gold the other dressed i n black and ,

red and with dark hair are supposed to be po rt raits o f Giuliano


, ,

( the grandson of Cosimo and brother o f L oren z o the M agni


fi ce n t) who was murdered in the Pa zz i conspiracy and o f
, ,

his uncle Giovanni th e son of Cosimo who died j ust before


, ,

his father N either survived their youth and this picture was
.
,

probably painted to commemorate those o f th e family recently


deceased T h e elderly ma n i n a scarlet mantle kneeling beside
.

them may b e supposed to represent Loren z o the brother o f ,

Cosimo and the ancestor o f the Grand D ucal branch of the


,

M edici T h e H oly F amily is the weakest p art o f the picture


.

but the fi gure o f Joseph stands gracefu lly in earnest contem ,

p l a tio n of the Virgin and Child T h e group o f attendants are .

evidently portraits Vasari mentions this painting as one of


.

th e best of the period ?


A bove is a M adonna adoring the Child by Loren z o Credi ;
, ,

an angel crowns the Child with olive ; the landscap e back


ground though conventional is in good perspective the
, ,

outlines are hard but correct the colour p al e the Child is i n a


,

natural attitude and the limbs delicately ro u nded and in fantine


, .

Credi was a conscientious and diligent artist : the companion


of Leon ardo da Vinci in the school of A nd rea V eroc c h io he ,

endeavoured to vi e with him i n the hard smooth surface h e


gave to his pictures and as he lived at a period when artis ts ,

1 See Vite de P ittori,



by Vasa ri p , . 1 1 5
.
S A LA D ] L ORENZ O M O NA C O . 67

were gradually s u bstituting an oil medi u m for distemper Cre di ,

himself carefu lly prepared his vehicle and pigments .

A painting by D omenico Ghirlandaio represents the


M adonna seated in a shrine her feet resting on a rich carpet ,

laid over steps of variegated marbles and with a vase of lilies ,

below I n the backgro u nd is a trellis with cypresses and roses


.
,

appearing above T h e archangels M ichael and R aphael


.
, ,

stand on either side of the H oly F amily whilst inferior angels ; ,

like a troop of little schoolgirls are gathered in playfu l attit u des ,

behind two of their yo u ng faces peep between the bars of the


trellis T hey none of them possess a high or refined type of
.

beau ty but like the Virgin their faces are round fresh and
, , , , ,

innocent St M ichael a bea u tifu l yo u th stands with his sword


. .
, ,

in his hand Raphael the gu ardian o f h u man so u ls clothed in


, ,

long garments has a casket in his hand s u pposed to contain


, ,

the charm against evil spirits St Z e no b iu s and St J u stu s . . .

kneel in front ; both heads are fin e St Z en ob iu s may be . .

recognised by the F lorentine lily on the clasp of his mantle .

T h e drawing of this pict u re is firm and free the colour clear


and simple Ghirlandaio painted it in his youth for a ch u rch
.

of St J u stus in F lorence which was destroyed during the siege


.
,

of 1 5 2 9 at which time this work was carried to the Ch u rch of


,

La Cal z a near the Porta R omana whence it was removed to


, ,

the Gallery of the U iz i in 1 8 5 7 .

A large and important work by the most individual artist of


the F lorentine school follows vi z a T abernacle i n the form o f .

a diptych or panel enclosed within two doors executed by F r


, ,

A ngelico for the Guild of F lax M erchants in 1 4 3 3 t it was i n


their residence near the M ercato Vecchio u ntil 1 7 7 7 when it
, , ,

was removed to this gallery O n the panel are the Virgin and .

Child life si z e with a curtain of cloth of gold behind whilst


,
-

, ,

on the surrounding arch are angels of surpassing loveliness , ,

playing musical i nstruments the trumpet organ cymbals , , , ,

psaltery & c I nside the doors are represented St John the


, . .

Baptist and S t M ark outside St M ark as the patron saint of


.
, .

2
68 UFFIZI GA LLE R Y .

the Gu ild of F lax and St Peter? T h e predella to this pictu re


,
.

is in the room of O l d M asters i n the U ffiz i ,


.

Th e B irth of Venu s is a fi ne example o f B otticelli T hough .

i n ferior to F ra A ngelico in the qual ities o f spiritualised beauty


and refinement of form B otticelli h as greater s trength with ear
, ,

n estne ss purity
,
and even grace it is in the re al m o f profane
,

story and allegory that he delights to indulge his luxuriant fancy .

T h e goddess has newly risen from the sea and stands on a ,

shell ; a nymph typical of spring prepares to throw a re d


, ,

mantle over her whilst Z ephy ru s and A u rora waft her towards
,

the shore T h e hands and feet o f Venus have evidently been


.

studied from classical sculpture they are dra wn with care and
elegance and she stands gracefu lly with an air o f timid
,

bewilderm ent at first awakening to existence ; the tenderness


o f her expression gives an interest to features which are without
any claim to a high order of charms and invests them with a ,

certain beauty S pring as she bo unds forward hardly seeming


.
, ,

to touch the grou nd is wonderfu lly buoyant for a figure so


,

clumsy ; the movem ent produced by the wind on her dre ss ,

and on the mantle she holds towards Venus is well given , .

T h e male and female fig u res Zephyru s and A urora scatter , ,

roses and breathe on the goddess their garments are blown ,

back in a contrary direction by the current o f air caused by


the rapidity O f their descent T h e sky is grey as in early
.

morning ; the ripple on the sea is m arked by a succession of


even conventional curves the golden light of dawn touches
the edge of the shell and the rushes in the foreground and ,

sparkles on the sea shore but the general tone of the picture
-

is sober I t is painted in distemper and was executed by


.
,

order of Loren z o de M edici for the Villa of Castello for which



,

v illa Botticelli also painted an Allegory on Spring now i n the ,

F lorentine A cademy .

B eneath is a predella by F rancesco d U bertino surnamed ’


,

1
Se eB a rge ll o ,
ro o m co n ta n n i i g th e w o r k s o f Lu ca de ll a Ro bbi a , f or
b ea uti f u l f ra me wh i ch o n ce co n ta n ed i h is pi ctu re .
SA L A D I L O RE NZ O MO NA CO . 69

1 1 B a cch iac c a ( 1 494 a pupil of Perugino and o f the best ,

F lorentine colourist A ndrea del S arto ,


H e painted this .

predella for the Church of Sa n Loren z o T ho u gh the drawing .

a n d composition are feeble the colour is agreeable ,


the subj ect
is taken from the life of St Aca siu s in the centre the Emperor
.

H adrian subdues a rebellion by the help of angels on the left ,

A c a siu s and his comrades are baptised on the right they are ,

cr u cified on M ount A rarat a lovely T u scan landscape forms


the background Th e commander on horseback in the co rn
.
,

p a rt m e n t to the right is drawn with much spirit and the angel


, ,

gathering laurel leaves i s very lovely .

O ver the door is a picture of the M adonna and Child w ith


S t Joseph by R idolfo Ghirlandaio the nephew of D omenico
.
, ,

( 1 48 3 O n the wall beyond is an altar piece by Gentile -

da F abriano 3 7 0 41 1 - —
representing four saints St John the .

Baptist S t N icholas with his three golden balls M ary M agda


,
.
,

lene and St George O n the vestment of St N icholas are


, . . .

m i n i atures of the Birth of Christ the Worship of the M agi the , ,

F light into Egypt the M assacre of the Innocents the Presenta


, ,

tion in the T emple and the Entombment , O n e of the .

disciples visiting the sep u lchre is ga z ing at the angels who


watch beside it T h e predella below is by Beno zz o G oz z ol i
.

( 1 420 the p u pil of F ra A ngelico who witho u t possessing ,

the highest order of geni u s had great versatility with a , ,

red u ndant fancy ; the pleasing as well as animated character ,

of h is works both landscape and figu re earned for him a name


, ,

among the best artists of his time T h e painting before us



.

does not give a j ust idea of his powers which can a l o n e b e ,

appreciated in his frescoes in the Campo Santo of Pisa and in ,

his other beau tifu l frescoes of the R iccardi Palace in F lorence .

I n the centre of this predella Christ is rising from the tomb ,

with extended arms displaying the wo u nds in H is hands from


, ,

which the blood trickles towards the sho u lder th u s showing the ,

position on which H e hung on the cross ; H e looks down with a


O n one side St

peaceful smile for all is accomplished
,

. .
70 UFFIZI GA L LER Y .

J ohn ga z es at H im with c o nfi ding love ; on the other th e ,

M agdalene the type of repentant sinners weeps bitterly


, , In a.

compartment to the right of the spectator are represented S t .

A nthony and S t Benedict ; to the left the M arriage of St


.
, .

Cathari ne S h e stands timidly at a little distance from the I n


.

fant Christ whilst exte nding her hand to receive the ring the
,

Child looks down with a sweet smile and raises H is hand to


,

bless whilst H is mother ga z es fondly on H im It has been


.
,

s u ggested that this predella belonged to the Chapel of the


R iccardi Palace and that the picture to which it was attached
,

i s lost i f this be true the pict u re by F ra F ilippo i n the room


,

of O l d M asters may have been painted earlier for the same


chapel and been replaced by that of B eno zz o G o z z o l i
, .
C H A P T ER VI I I .

GA LL E R Y—TH E P ORTRA IT, B A R O CCIO AN D


N IOB E R O OM S .

HE two next rooms were built by Cardinal Leopold de ’

M edici for his collection of portraits of distingu ished


artists from all co u ntries beginning from an early period a n d
, , ,

whenever it was possible painted by themselves F ollowing


,
.

the example of the Cardinal succeeding rulers in T u scany have


,

invited celebrated painters and sc u lptors to send their portraits


to the U ffiz i Gallery .

O n the w al l to the right of the window i n the larger room i s


a highly fi n ish e d portrait of Leonardo da Vinci who was no less
-

distinguished for the in fl u ence he exercised on contemporary


art and artists than for the bea u ty and finish of his style of
,

painting and the u niversal ity O f his geni u s in other branches of


,

knowledge N ear his portrait is that of M asaccio painted i n


.
,

tempera he is in his w orking day dress the face is youthfu l


-

and interesting in expression tho u gh hardl y giving an idea of


,

the power displayed in his frescoes A bove him are portraits .

of the Spaniard D iego Velas qu e z ( 1 5 9 4 of Gi u lio


R omano ( 1 4 9 2 and of R affaelle T h e portrait of A ndrea
.

del Sarto painted on a tile represents him in mid dle life ;


beyond is a good portrait of Cristofano Allori I n each portrait
, .

is traced more or less the character of the artist ; the power


united with refinement of Leonardo da Vinci the idealism of ,

M asaccio the grace of R aff aelle and the realistic mind of


, ,

A ndrea apparent in all his pictures however they may receive


, ,
72 UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

a touch o f poetry from grace o f movement and his delight i n ,

rich and harmonious colour .

F acing the windows is a very interesting portrait of H ans


H olbein the serious thoughtfu l and indom itably patient
, ,

German artist is here well depicted N ear him is a good .

portrait o f his contemporary Quintin M atsys the A ntwerp , ,

blacksmith and painter ( 1 4 5 0 A bove is a very fi ne


portrait of R ubens ( 1 5 7 7 as well as another of Vandyke
( 1 599 and near the entrance a beauti fu l portrai t o f
Perugino O n the other side of the entrance and still facing
.

the windows are portraits of F ran z M iers ( 1 6 3 5 and


a very excellent highly fi nish e d likeness of Ge rard D o w -

( 1 61
3 as well as a singular portrait of A lbert D u rer
( 1 47 1 —1 5 2 8 )
Onthe wall to the left o f the window are portraits of
celebrated Venetian artists among whom the most remarkable ,

are J acopo B assano ( 1 5 1 0 Leandro Bassano ( 1 5 5 8


T itian T intoretto and Jacopo Palma il Vecchio ( 1 4 8 0
, , ,

A bove the portrait o f T itian is that of Paolo Veronese ,

and of the F rench pai nter and engraver Callot ( 1 5 9 3 1 6 3 —


A fter these the most interesting portraits are those of Cigoli
, ,

F ederigo Baroccio Jacopo d Empoli Giovanni di Sa n Giovanni



, , ,

Pordenone P o cc e tti Santo di T iti and Vasari B esides T u scan


, , , .

artists there are portraits o f the great B olognese Caracci


,

A gostino A nnibale Lu dovico and A ntonio il Gobbo or


, , , ,

the D eformed of the sixteenth and seventeenth cent u ries ;


,

likewise of Guido R eni Guercino D omenichino and Carlo


:

, , ,

D olce Luca C a mb ia si ( 1 5 2 7 —1 5 8 5 ) represents the Genoese


.

school and D osso D ossi ( 1 4 7 9 —1 5 4 2 ) the F errarese the por


,

trait of Pa rmiggia n o ( 1 5 0 4—1 5 4 6 ) is also interesting there is no


portrait of Correggio .

I n the smaller room are portraits of A ngelica Kau ff man


( 1 742 and of M adame L e Br (
u n living in this
last portrait is so great a favo u rite that it is generally with th e
copyist i n the large room A s a painting it is excellent and the .
,
74 UFFIZI GA LLER Y
'
.

artist o f the period o f the decline but who with Cigoli and , ,

others attempted the revival of art in F lorence T h e larg e


, .

pict u re on the wall to the right by Baroccio represents the , ,

M adonna del Popolo the Virgi n interceding with her S o n for


the benediction of certain charitable persons who have bestowed
alms on the poor and on widows T his picture i s painted in .


the artist s u sual florid style ; the principal figures are feeble ,

and the M adonna commonplace A n angel to the right of th e .

S avio u r looking down at the spectator i s however very lovely


, , , , ,

and there is an interesting gro u p below painted with nature


and grace of a mother bidding her two children look upwards
, .

A good Gherardo della N otte of a group of angels worship ,

ping the Child from whom the light proceeds is on the wall to ,

the left o f the door Gerard H o n th o rst o f U trecht was born


.
, ,

i n 1 5 9 2 and died abo u t 1 6 8 0 O n either side of this picture


,
.

are portraits of Bartolommeo P a n c ia tic hi and his wife Lucre z ia ,

de P u lci by A gnolo Bron z ino T h e picture of Lucre z ia is



,
.

hard i n outli ne but clear i n colour and the hands are drawn ,

with care T h e fam ily of the Pulci stand recorded as far back
.

as the days of Charlemagne when they were among the F loren


,

tine nobles who lived within the first circ u it of walls but the
name is best known by Luigi Pulci born i n 1 4 3 1 the author , ,

of the M organte M aggi ore ’


T h e Pistoiese family of Pancia
.

tich i boast of a still m ore remote origin and trace their ancestors ,

to a R oman consul T h e husband of this Lu cretia B a rto l o m


.
,

meo was a man of som e literary fame he imbibed Protestant


,

opinions when residing at the F rench Court and in 1 5 5 2 was ,

imprisoned by the I nquisition .

A good picture above the portrait of Bartolommeo Pancia


tichi of the Virgin holding the Infant Christ wrapped in swad
dl ing clothes i s by Luca C a mb ia si of Genoa ( 1 5 2 7
, ,

T h e portrait of the celebrated Galileo Galilei the founder ,

of the S chool of Experimental Philosophy born at Pisa 1 5 6 4 , , ,

is by Ju st u s Su sterm an s Galileo died 1 6 4 2 .

T o the left is another good portrait by a F leming F ran z ,


TH E B AR OCCIO R O OM .
75

P o rb u s ( 51 7 0 of the sc u lptor F rancavilla who executed ,

the gro u ps o u tside the ch u rch of the SS T rinit a at F lorence . .

T h e large pict u re of the Virgin and Child appearing to St .

Lo u is of T o u lo u se when kneeling at the altar is a fi ne work


, ,

of Carlo D olce ( 1 6 1 6 Th e earnest prayerfu l expression


of the saint a n d the playfu l expression of the Infa n t Christ are
,

beautifu lly rendered .

A H oly F amily by Goi v a n


,
A ntonio S o gl ia n i ( 1 4 8 1 —1
53
i s very agreeable in colo u r and resembles in its general treat
, ,

ment the works of Loren z o Credi and F ra Bartolommeo of


, ,

whom the artist was a faithfu l imitator ; he was held in s u ch


high estimation by his contemporaries that he was con
side re d a rival to A ndrea del S arto N ear this is a good portrait .

of a lady holding a cameo in her hand by A gnolo Bron z ino ,

behind her is a kneeling stat u e Th e marriage of Cana in .

Galilee by A lessandro Bron z ino is a feeble prod u ction


, ,
.

I n the centre of the wall facing the entrance is a large


pict u re by H o n th o rst the Worship of the Shepherds A .

M ag dalene by Carlo D olce on one side and th e Virgin by


, , , ,

Sassoferrato on the other are both favo u rite pict u res T here
, ,
.

is a bright portrait of H elen F orman Ru bens first wife in the ,



,

corner to the right Large and important b u t dark pict u res by


.
,

Caravaggio 1 4 9 5 —1 Jes u s Disp u ting with the D octors and ,

the Pharisee with the Piece of M oney oc cu py the space between ,

and above them are two fu ll length portraits : the first by -

F ran z D o u en ( 1 6 5 6 o f a la dy named in the catalog u e

Eli z abeth H o u rey probably H ervey and English


,
to the left ,

the portrait of M argaret of Lorraine by Vandyke Sh e Wa s sister , .

of a D u ke of Lorraine and married to Gaston of O rleans the


, ,

yo u nger brother of Lo u is X I V of F rance by whom she becam e .


,

the mother of M argaret of O rleans the unhappy wife of the ,

Grand D u ke Cosimo I I I .

A large eq u estrian portrait of Philip IV of Spain by .


,

Velas q u e z ( 1 5 9 4 faces the Baroccio pict u re It is the .

finest pict u re in this room and the F lorentine sc u lptor T acca


, , ,
76 UFFIZI GA L L E R Y .

is said to have modelled his likeness o f the king for his statue
i n M a drid from this painting .


A pretty bright young girl s head to the right o f the
Velas q ue z is by Baroccio T h e portrait of Claudia F elicia the
.
,

second wife of the Emperor Leopold is one o f the best works ,

o f Carlo D olce ; the Princess has overturned an idol and ,

places a cruci fix i n its stead the date i s on the book before


her 1 6 7 5
,
.

H igh on the wal l beside the entrance is a picture by A lbani , ,

the I nfant Jesus surrounded by angels O ffering H im the in stru


ments o f the Passion B elow it is a B oar H unt by S nyders
.
,

( 1
579
—1 6 57)
I n this room are some very fi ne tables in pietra dura or ,

F lorentine mosaic design ed by the m ost celebrated artists of


,


the seventeenth centu ry Ligo z z i P o c c etti &c T h e table
, , .

beneath the Worship of the S hepherds by H o n th o rst is of ,

inferior workmanship to the others though supposed to be that ,

ordered by th e Grand D uke F rancis I in 1 5 6 8 for the altar o f .

the M edici M ausole u m i n Sa n Loren z o It was one of the .

fi rst works o f the ki nd but was afterwards set aside for a


,

superior table I n the centre is a landscape with ill executed


.
-

fi gures boats are on the water and trees and r u stic houses
,

scattered over the country near the corners are smaller views .

T h e next room O ff this corridor was built by the Grand


D uke Pietro Leopoldo for the reception o f the statues of
,

N iobe and her children which he brought from the M edicean


,

Palace in R ome to F lorence in 1 7 7 5 T hey are arranged


, , .

singly aro u nd . T h e mother is vainly trying to shield her


you ngest da u ghter from the envious shafts of A pollo and D iana
they are at the farther end of the room and probably formed ,

the centre of the gro u p which i s supposed to have filled the


,

pediment of a temple T h e head of N iobe is extremely fi ne


.
,

as well as her action and that of the young girl clinging to her
, .

T h e right hand of the mother and the left foot of the da u ghter
,

are late restorations the arms of N iobe as well as her drapery , ,


TH E NIOB E R O OM 77

are clumsy and coarse probably intended to be seen at a ,

distance perhaps also beca u se the work was executed i n a


,

period when Greek art was declining and when the combina ,

tion of grandeur of form and finish of detail with that wonderfu l ,

comprehension of fitness or propriety belonging to the age of


Phidias was no longer practised T h e daughter looking down
,
.

sorrowfu lly is very lovely she i s supposed to be contemplating


the beautifu l corpse of the yo u th — which is now placed facing
the entrance of this room and which is perhaps the fi nest of ,

the whole series T h e most gracefu l fig u res are those of the


.

girl who has been wo u nded in the back of her neck and two
of her sisters who with fl ying drapery are ru nning away and
, , , ,

which are farthest removed from the statue of N iobe Th e .

Pedagogue is heavy and u gly and the stat u es in general differ ,

so much i n degrees of excellence that even s u pposing they ,

formed one gro u p it would be difficult to assign them to the


,

sam e master .

Behind these statues are h u ng large pict u res of great merit ,

especially that by R ubens representing H enry IV of F rance at ,


.

the battle of Ivry It is unfinished and belongs to th e series of


.
,

pai ntings now in the Lo u vre commemorating events in the


, ,

life of the great king ; happily this pict u re has escaped injury
from the cleaner T h e action of the horses that in particular
.
,

on which H enry is mounted and the attitude of the king ( in ,

spite of the absurd fl attery which has placed the thunderbolt of


Jove in his hand) are fu ll of life and spirit ; and there is
wonderfu l skill displayed in combining distinctness with the
confu sion of a battle T h e opposite picture is likewise by
.

Ru bens and represents H enry s triumphant entry into


Pari s
.

A large picture by S u sterma n s of the F lorentine S enate


.
,

taking the oath of allegiance to the Grand D uke F erdinand


though in a very bad condition from the q u antity of black
paint used by the artist has some interest i n containing the ,

portraits of F erdinand a heavy looking youth w h o is haughtily


,
-

,
78 UFFIZI GA L LE R Y

receiving the homage of his s u bj ects and of his widowed ,

mother and his grandmother Christi na o f Lorraine who had , ,

been R egents during his minority .

T h e last room o ff this corridor contains pictures bequeathed


to the Gallery by the M archese Leopoldo P eroni A s no .

catalogue has been published of these pict u res many of which ,

deserve a fuller notice we can only allude to a few of the


,

best. A butcher s shop by T eniers tho u gh a disagreeable
, ,

subj ect is a good Specimen of the master : near it are very


,

sweet little landsca pes by Poussin and a small bu t charm ing ,

picture of the I nfant Christ and St John learning to read .


,

whilst the Virgin and J oseph are looking on F acing the door .

is a most beautiful Virgi n adoring the Child a painting of the ,

F lorentine school T h e gem of this collection however is an


.
, ,

A ngel of the A nnunciation by C arlo D olce — one of his fi nest


,

works and the Virgin belonging to the A ngel of the A nnuncia


tion which is also very lovely A ngels watching beside the dead
,
.


Christ and a sweet girl s head with several good landscapes
, , ,

are among the most attractive pai ntings here .

T h e only pictures o f importance in th e corridor adj oi ning


these rooms are : the portrait of Ge neral Paoli the hero of ,

Corsica by R ichard C o swa y and the landscapes of A gostino


, ,

T assi the master of Claude Lorraine whose pictures are very


, ,

rare but of which there are two fi ner examples in the Pitti
,
.

U pwards of thirty more pictures have been recently ac q uired


for the Gallery and additional rooms beyond the S ala di
,

Loren z o M onaco are preparing for their reception A mong .

these is the collection belonging to the H ospital of Santa M aria


,

N uova already described ; the most important being the Last


,

Judgment a fresco by F ra Bartolommeo and M ariotto Albert


,

in el li a lovely M adon n a and three boy angels supporting the


I nfant Christ i n tempera by F ra F ilippo Lippi a fi ne picture
, ,

by So gl ia n i and a large trip tych by H ugo Van der Goes a


, ,

F leming who lived towards the end of the fourteenth or be


,

gi nning o f the fi fteenth century T his picture is remarkable .


UFFIZI GALLER Y .
79

for beau ty of colour and composition vigour and animation


, ,

especially in the shepherds who worship th e Child in the


,

centra l compartment and the delicate finish of detail o bserv


,

able in the flowers in vases in the foreground I n the wings


.

are portraits of the family of the Portinari the donators b u t


, ,

the little girl kneeling behind her mother to the right though
,

sometimes called the Beatrice of D ante co u ld not possibly have


,

been her portrait since Van der Goes lived a century and a h a lf
,

later
.
C H A P T ER I X .

UFFIZI GA LLER Y—ORIGIN A L D R A WIN GS B Y THE OLD


M A S TE R S .

T the further end of the third corridor are three rooms i n ,

which are exhibited a selection from the val u able c oll ec


tion o f u pwards of three th ousand drawings belonging to the
M u seum T h e Conservator Signor N erino F erri has arranged
.
, ,

another series i n his private rooms i n th e gallery and courte ,

o u sl y a ffords every facility to those who desire to study more of

the drawings .

Th e letter T m eaning tergo—back — o n any of the fram es


,

or cases in these rooms infers that there are drawings on the


,

back of the paper which may be seen by application to the


,

guards .

T o the right o f the entrance on the wall o f the first room


, ,

i s the dr awing o f a Sai nt baptising by Parri Spinello ( 1 3 8 7 ,

the son of the m ore celebrated S pinello of Are zz o .

T his design appears to have been intended for part of th e


frescoes of St Cecilia and the Conversion o f M ax imia n and
.

Valerian i n the Sacristy o f the Carm ine where he probably ,

assisted his father .

I n the case below N o 3 is a design by T addeo Gaddi


,
.
,

( 1 3 00 the Visitation of M ary to Eli z abeth for one of ,

the series of small pict u res i n the A cademy A lso a seated .

figure of Christ by A gnolo Gaddi ( 1 3 3 3 T h e outline


i s pricked through to transfer the drawing to the panel
,
.

O n the second line of th e wall above is Christ in glory ,

giving the key to St Peter by Loren z o de B icci ( 3 5


.
,
1 0 P—1 42
7)

82 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

R

F rame N o 7 contains
. 1 part
1 of a ff a e ll e s design for th e
D ispute of the S acrament in the Stan z e of the Vatican above
are several grand drawings by F ra Bartolommeo ( 1 4 7 5
b u t these are hung too high to be well seen I n case .

N o 3 6 is a drawing by F ilippino Lippi


.
— Sr Cecilia before the .

Proconsul .

Immediately over cases N o s 3 8 3 6 and 8 1 are drawi ngs .


, ,

by D omenico Ghirlandaio ( 1 4 4 9 for his frescoes i n the


Choir of S anta M aria N ovell a v iz the Visitation ; his fi rst , .

idea for this subj ect marked 2 9 1 a graceful fig u re of a woman


,

po u ring water i nto a basi n wh ich is introduced in the fresco of


,

the B irth of the Virgin a man kneeling and two women one ,

facing the spectator the other t u rning her back wh ich are in
, ,

the fresco of the B irth of St J ohn the Baptist ; lastly th e .


,

M arriage of the Virgin ; there are various other drawings by


the same master in this frame O ver case N o 2 6 against the . .
,

third wall is an other st u dy by Ghirlandaio for his pic tu re of


, ,

the Visitation in the Louvre Case 4 1 has the sketch by .

B otticelli for T r u th in his pict u re of Calumny i n the room of


, , ,

small T u scan paintings i n this Gallery .

I n fram e N o 1 4 2 is a drawing by R a ff aelle of J esus bearing


.
,

H is Cross on H is way to Calvary


,
O ver case N O 1 9 w h ich . .
,

contains drawings by M asaccio ( 1 4 0 1 is the frame N o .


1 3
9 with
,
the Baptism of Christ by Perugino ( 1 44 6 1
5 2, o f

which there are two pictures one i n F u l igno and the other ,

in Perugia I n the same frame is a beautiful representation of


.

the A ngel Gabriel by Loren z o Credi ( 1 4 5 9


,

F ram e N o 1 0 1 on the third line above contains a drawing


.
, ,

by R affaelle of Christ i n the Garden o f Gethsemane for the ,

pict u re in the F lorentine A cademy which is there attrib u ted to ,

his master Perugino ,


.

Below this in cases N o s 2 3 and 2 6 are drawings by F ra


,
.
,

A ngelico or his scholars as well as by B eno zz o G oz z o l i and


, ,

A ndrea V ero c ch io 1 4 3 5
I n frame N o 8 0 above the cases N o s 4 1 and 44 are fine
.
,
.
,

drawings by Pier di Cosimo ( 1 4 6 2


D RA WI TVGS B Y TH E OL D MA S TERS
. .

On the fourth wall frame N O 1 8 8 F ort u ne is attrib u ted to


,
.
, ,

M ichael A ngelo ( 1 4 7 5 possibly the design for his pict u re


in the Corsini Gallery in F lorence I n case N o 4 8 below are . .
, ,

drawings by Botticelli a Ven u s draped reposing with C u pid , , , ,

is especially lovely .

F rame N o 9 2 contains fi ne examples of the firm and care


.

f u l drawing of Gi u liano P esel l o ( 1 3 6 7


In frame N o 1 5 2 is Ra ff a e ll e s sketch for the Liberation of
.

S t Peter in the S tan z e of the Vatican


. the left side of this
drawing differs i n some respects from the fresco .

T h e cases beneath this window have st u dies by Camillo


Pr o caccino of M ilan ( 1 5 4 6 by Palma Giovane ( 1 5 44 ,

and others .

In the case N O 4 8 4 is a design by D aniele da Volterra


.

( 5 9
1 0 for part of the D eposition from the Cross in the
Ch u rch O f the T rinit a de M onti at R ome which is esteemed

,

one of the seven fi nest pict u res in the world


O ver this on the second line in frame N o 1 5 1 is Ra ff a ell e s
,
.
,

design for the I nfant Christ springing from the cradle into H is
mother s arms in the pict u re which the artist painted for

,

F rancis I of F rance and which is now in the Lo u v re


.
,
.

J u st below i n frame N O 3 9 on the first line is the design


,
.
, ,

by F ra F ilippo Lippi ( 1 4 0 6—1 4 6 9 ) for h is pict u re O f the Virgin


receiving the Child from angels which is i n the room of O l d ,

M asters in the U ffiz i as well as for the same s u bject which


, , ,

with some slight diff erence he painted for the Sala del ,

Commissario in the H ospita l of the I nnocenti .

In frame N o 1 4 1 the third line above are two sai nts by


.
, , ,

F ra Bart o lommeo ; and in frame N o 1 3 4 close to the door .


, ,

are designs by the same artist for the St M ark in the Pitti .
,

and for one of his figu res in the picture of St A nna in the .

U tfi z i.

Between these i s a large drawing by R affaelle frame ,



N o 1 4 3 for one of the scenes in Pint u ricchio s frescoes in the
.
,

Library at S ienna T his drawing represents a cavalcade esco rt


. ,

G 2
84 UFFIZI GA L L E R Y .

ng E
neas Silvius Piccolomini afterwards Pope Pius I I to , .
,

the Council of Basle .

I n the corner beside the door frame N o 9 9 has a gro u p of


, ,
.

five apostles a st u dy by Per u gino for his pict u re of the


,

A ssumption i n the Church of the S S A nnun z iata and below .


it i n frame N o 1 0 4 i s the same arti st s design for the Virgin
,
.
, ,

i n h is bea u tiful fresco of the Crucifixion i n the Convent of


S anta M addalena de Pa zz i of F lorence

A lso his design for .

Elij ah in the T ransfi gu ration in the Sala del Cambio at Perugia


, .

T h e sepia pai nting on the third line above frame N o 2 0 2 i s , .


,

a copy from A ndrea del Sa rto s F aith and H ope in the cloister ’

of the Scal z o of F lorence .

Th e drawings i n the centre of each room are among th e


best of the collection and face the windows i n order to be
,

seen to greater advantage F ram e N o 6 6 has studies by


. .

D omenico Ghirlandaio F ram e N o 2 8 St B ernard a study


. . .
,

by F ilippino Lippi for his pict u re o f the Vision of the M adonna


i n the Badi a or A bbey of F lorence .

Case N o 4 8 9 has the Virgin A doring the Child in a Garden


.

of Roses by F rancesco F rancia ( 1 4 5 0


,
the picture is
in M u nich .

T h e cases on this side incl u ding from N o 4 8 9 to N o 4 9 3 . .


,

contain drawings by F ranci a Gian B ellini Pier della F ran , ,

cesca Gi u lio R omano P a rmiggia n o Vittore Carpaccio and


, , , ,

others which we do not specify because no well known painting


, ,
-

by any of these artists is represented .

Entering the second room to the right frame N O 1 5 4 has , ,


.

the sketch by R aff aelle for th e D eposition from the Cross i n


,

the B orghese Gallery at R ome T h e expression of each .

cou ntenance is full of life individ u ality and deep feeling , , ,

and the drawing of the figures is very powerfu l T h e sam e .

fram e contains the Virgin on h er knees with the I nfant ,

Christ and St J ohn by R a ff aelle a study for a small


.
,

picture i n the Esterha z y collection at Pesth F rame .


N o 1 5 8 has Ra ff a ell e s sketch of St John preaching i n the
. .
DRA WING S B Y TH E O LD MA S TERS . 85

Wilderness in the T rib u ne of th e U ffiz i ; also the Prophet


D aniel bet ween two angels a st u dy by R aff aelle for his fresco,

in Santa M aria della Pace at R ome .

F rame N o 1 5 7 has two female fig u res part of a study by


.
,

R affaelle for the Spasimo di S icilia at M adrid


,
F rame N O 1 5 5 . .
,

Pa u l Preaching at A thens by R aff aelle is the sketch for the ,

Cartoon in the S o u th Kensington M u se u m in London .

T h e cases below N os 4 6 6 and 4 6 5 contain very spirited


,
.
,

drawings by Vittore Carpaccio who was living in 1 5 0 0 I n case , .

N O 4 6 7 is a drawing by Gian B ellini ( 1 4 2 8 —1 5 1 6 ) the s u bj ect is


.

a procession entering a church the ho u ses in the backgro u nd


are drawn with so much attention to detail that the artist has ,

even introduced the sca ff oldings on the roofs used to this day ,

in Venice to hang o u t linen to dry there are other admirable


drawings in other frames by the same artist especially the ,

heads of an old man and of a yo u th .

F rame N o 2 2 0 in the corner of this room has a sketch in


.
, ,

red chalk for the Epiphany by A ndrea del Sarto one of his , ,

frescoes in the Co u rt of the SS A nn u n z iata O n the second wall . .


,

frame N o 1 8 3 the profile of a woman with a pec u liar head


.
,

dress by M ichael Angelo is sometimes called a portrait of


, ,

Vittoria Colonna .

F rames N o s 1 8 5 1 8 6 1 8 7 contain st u dies by M ich a el


.
, ,

A ngelo ; that m arked 6 0 1 is known as l a n ima da n n a ta —the


condemned so u l ; the yo u th marked 6 0 4 beneath this is the ,

study for on e of the C a rya tid ae in the va u lting of the ceiling


i n the S istine Chapel ; there is likewise the Lyb ia n Sibyl f o r
the same I n frame N O 1 8 7 is the design for the M edicean
. .

mon u ments in the Sagrestia N u ova of Sa n Loren z o at F lorence .

In frame N o 1 9 2 are st u dies of vario u s n u de figu res by M ichael


.

A n gelo for his Cartoon of the Pisan War in which he competed ,

with Leonardo da Vinci b u t which was never fi nished ,


.

F ra m e N o 1 9 3 on the second line has another study for


.
,

the pilasters of the va u lting in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel


and a D emon f o r the Last Judgment I n frame N o 1 9 4 is an . .
86 UFFIZI GA LLER Y

old man with a bald head and other st u dies likewise by , ,

M ichael A ngelo .

F rame N o 1 9 6 contains st u dies of the anatomy of the leg


.
,

also by M ichael A ngelo S ir Charles B ell allu ding to this .


,

drawing in his A natomy of Expression observes



I recog ,

n ise d the u tmost accuracy of anatomy in the great artist s


studies in his pen and ink sketches o f the knee for example , ,

every point of bone m u scle tendon and ligament are marked


, , , ,

1 ’
and perhaps a little exaggerated .

F rame N o 2 0 1 has the st u dy for the head of the Infant S t


. .

J ohn in the H oly F amily of the Pitti by A ndrea del S arto I n .

frame N o 1 9 9 is the drawing o f a hand resting on a book th e


.
,

design for that o f the Virgin in the T ribune by A ndrea del


Sarto .

F rame N o 2 0 7 has the sketch for the D eposition from the


.

Cross by A ndrea del Sarto in the Pitti .

F rame N o 2 0 9 contains St John the Baptist preaching to


. .

the M u ltitude a study by A ndrea for his fresco in the Scal z o


,

also a port rait of Lucre z ia his wife , .

I n fram e N o 2 0 3 are studies by A ndrea for part o f the


.

N ativity of th e Virgi n in the vestibule of the SS A nnun z iata . .

F rame N o 2 1 7 has most interesting studies by the sam e


.

artist o f Christ and several of the A postles in his fresco of the


Last S upper at Sa n Salvi near F lorence ,
.

I n frame N O 2 3 0 there are several ve ry animated gro u ps


.

of women by Giorgione ( 1 4 7 8 and i n frame N O 1 1 7 .

the H oly F amily by F ra B artolommeo for his picture in the


Pitti B eside this in case N o 1 1 8 is St John the Baptist“
.
,
.
, .

also by F ra Bartolommeo for his picture in Sa n M arco ,


.

O n the fourth wall in frame N o 2 4 9 is Christ in the H ouse


,
.
,

of th e Pharisee by Paolo Veronese ( 1 5 2 8 for the pict u re


i n th e R oyal Palace at Genoa .


F ram e No 2
59 has
. the sketch by T intoretto ( 5
1 1 2 1
5 9 4)

1
S ee A n a tomy f
o Express ion , by S ir C h a rl es B e ll p , . 2 04.
DRA WING S B Y TH E O LD MA STER S . 87

of the M iracle of St M ark for his celebrated p ic ture in the .

A cademy of Venice I n case N o 4 5 8 i s the D eposition from


. .

the Cross by F ra Bartolommeo .

T h e frame N o 9 8 in the centre facing the window to the


.
, , ,

right has a splendid drawing by A ndrea M antegna ( 1 4 3 0


,

u dith with the head of H olofernes one of the finest


1 506
) of J ,

compositions exhibited here .

N ext this drawing in frame N o 9 6 are several other excel ,


.
,

lent M a n tegn a s : H erc u les and A nt aeu s and a kneeling Virgin , .

F rames N o s 1 0 7 1 0 9 and 1 1 0 contain very fine heads by


.
, ,

Leonardo da Vinci of old m en and of women and st u dies of, ,

drapery .

I n frame N o 1 2 9 is a fine drawing by F ra Bartolommeo of


.

St S tep h en a draped fig u re holding a palm branch


.
,
.

T h e cases below contain — N o 5 2 9 a fine composition of .


,

Cigoli the D eath of St Jerome N o 5 2 8 beau tiful drawings


,
. .
,

by Vanni ( 1 5 6 3 fu ll of feeling ; N o s 5 2 7 and 5 2 6 .


,

designs by G u ercino N o 5 2 5 figures and landscapes by .


,

A nnibale Caracci ( 1 5 6 0—1 6 0 9 ) and N O 5 2 4 several drawings .


,

by T itian incl u ding a very clever portrait O f a man (marked


,

1 66 1 )
Tothe left the frame N O 1 0 0 contains a drawing by Per u
, .

gino of S t F rancis for a pict u re in the Choir of the SS A nn u n


. .

z iat a F rame N o 9 7 has other drawings by the same master


.

for the Sala del Cambio at Peru gia I n frame N o 1 4 4 is the . .

Woman i n the I ncendio del Borgo by Raff aelle ; she holds a


vase on her head and her garments are agitated by the ,

draught occasioned by the fire .

F rame N o 1 4 8 St George and the D ragon by R aff aelle


.
, .
, ,

for his small picture at S t Petersb u rg and the same s u bj ect by .


,

him for his pict u re i n the Lo u vre .

F rame N o 1 3 6 has a study by R aff aelle for th e M adonna


.

with the Veil at Paris also for the M adonna del Gran D uca
in the Pitti .

F rame N o 1 3 5 contains sketches by Ra ff aelle for th e


.
«
88 UFFIZI GA LLE R Y .

Virgi n and Child of the O rleans collection now i n the pos ,

session of the Earl of Ellesmere i n B ridgewater H ou se , ,

London .

F rame N o 1 4 6 has th e sketch of th e M adonna del Pesce


.
,

by R affaelle for the picture at M adrid I n frame N o 1 4 0 i s


,
. .

Philosophy a female fi gure with two boy genii by Ra ff aelle


, , ,

wh ich he introduced as Pallas i nto his S chool of A thens in the


S tan z e at Rome .

F ram e N O 1 3 8 contains M oses S triking the R ock an d the


.

Worship of the Golden Calf for the Loggia in the Vati can and
i n fram e N o 1 4 7 i s a sketch also for the Loggia of the Eternal
.
,

commanding N oah to b u ild th e A rk by R aff aelle , .

F rame N O 1 4 9 . B acchus a nu de figure with a vase on the


, ,

head called L I do l in o is by the sam e master


,

, .

I n frame N o 1 66 is a beautifu l composition by Ra zz i ( il


.
,

S odoma) of S ienna ( 1 4 7 7 of the Virgi n supporting on


her knees the body of the S avio u r .

B elow fram e N o 1 0 0 i n case 4 9 4 are drawings by Ra ff aelle


.
,

and his scholars that o f the combat of H ercules and a Centa u r


i s beautifu lly drawn and full of spirit .

I n cases N o s 4 9 6 and 4 9 7 are drawings by Giulio R omano


.

and Peri no del Vaga .

I n case N o 5 0 0 are design s by D omenico B e cca f u m i


.

1 4 8 6 —1 5
( for the pavement of the Cathedral at S ienna .

Case N O 5 0 1 contains lovely sketches by P a rm iggia n o


. .

A t the entrance of the third room turning to the right i n ,

frame N o 1 2 4 is a drawing by F ra Bartolommeo of the


.
, ,

M adonn a della M isericordia for his picture at Lucca .

I n frame N o 2 7 7 on the third line above there is a study


.
,

by A nnibale Caracci for t h e tri u mph of Bacch u s and A riadne


, ,

a fresco in the Pala zz o F arnese at R om e .

I n case N o 4 3 6 are st u dies by R affaellino del Garbo ( 1 4 6 6


.

1 5 2 4 ) of the Vision of S t B ernard for his picture now in


.
,

B erlin and above it in frame N o 3 5 0 is a care f u l little drawing


,
.
,

by P o cce tti ( 1 5 4 8 for the interior of the cupola o f the


90 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

O ver case N o 4 4 2 i n frame N o 3 3 9 is a drawing by


.
,
.
,

N icholas Po u ssin of the M u rder of the I nnocents


,
.

Cases N o s 4 4 8 44 7 and 4 4 6 against the third wall have


.
, ,

drawings by Giorgio Vasari among which in case N o 44 6 is ,


.
,

his sketch for his imaginary portrait of Loren z o de M edici i n ’

the T u scan room of this gallery .

O n the fourth wall i n fram e N o 4 1 1 i s a brilliant drawing .


,

by R u bens of his first wife H elen F orman


, ,
.

Case N o 4 5 1 has studies by Loren z o Credi one of which is


.
,

for the A nnunciation i n the U fiiz i ‘


.

Case N o 4 5 2 contains stu dies by F ra Bartolommeo for th e


.
, ,

M adonna enthroned with St A nna and other saints i n the .

T uscan room of this Galle ry .

O ver case N o 4 5 3 i n frame N o 3 9 9 is a carefu l and minute


. .

drawi ng by Jac q ues Callot ( 1 5 9 2


,
for his celebrated
engraving of the F air at the I mpruneta a village seven miles ,

from F lorence .

Case N o 4 5 4 contains designs by Raffaelle for five of hi s


.

cartoons now in the S o u th Kensington M u se u m


,
Pa u l
preaching at Athens F eed my S heep Paul and Barnab as at
Lystra the M iraculous D raught of F ishes ; and part of the
composition for the D eath of A nanias and Sapphira B esides .

these there are drawings o f two fig u res for the S chool of


,

A thens and for one of the M uses in the Parnassus which are
, ,

i ntrod u ced in the frescoes of the Stan z e i n the Vatican


also M oses i n the B u rning Bush one of the subj ects of the
, ,

Logg i a .

F rames N o s 3 9 6 and 3 9 8 have spirited drawings by Velas


.

que z ( 1 5 9 4—1 66 0 ) of Cavaliers on H orseback ; and between


them in fram e N o 4 0 5 is a soldier and other clever and free
,
.
,

sketches by J ac q u es Callot .

I n case N o 4 5 6 i s a drawing from M ichael A ngelo s Virgin


.

and Child in the Sacristy of Sa n Loren z o by R aff aello da ,

M ontelupo .

F rame N o 4 2 0 has an extremely clever and life like draw


.
-
D RA I/VI IVG S B Y TH E O LD III A S TE R S 91

—1 6 4 0 of a Village D octor extract


ing by Adrian (
B ra u w e r 1 60 8 )

ing the corn from a Peasant s F oot .

I n the centre to the right are very fi ne drawings by the


German masters beginning with frame N O 4 2 8 a half fi gu re
,
.
,
-

of the Savio u r by M artin S c h Onga u e r ( 1 4 2 0


,

F rame N o 4 5 has a drawing by


2 . A D r r 1 1 —
l bert ii e ( 4 7 1 5 2 8 )
of the D eposition from the Cross I n the same frame is the .

drawing for D iirer s celebrated etching of D eath on a H orse


as well as the design for the F alconer O ther fine drawings by .

D iire r are i n frame N O 4 1 9 and in frame N O 4 2 7 is a very


.
, .

grand composition by him O f the Savio u r Bearing H is Cross .

In frame N O 2 9 3 St J erome Worshipping the Cru cifix is by


. .

Guercino .

F rom cases N o s 5 2 0 to 5 1 2 are decorative and architect u ral


.

drawings by F il ippino Lippi Salviati Vasari Celli ni and , , , ,

Perino del Vaga .

F rame N o 1 1 9 to the left conta i ns most bea u tifu l heads


.
, ,

of a child and a young girl with the A ngel and Virgin O f the
,

A nnunciation by F ra Bartolommeo by whom there are othe r


, ,

drawings i n these frames from 1 2 0 to 1 3 0 I n frame N o 1 2 2 . .

are st u dies for the Virgin and Child in the pict u re of St A nna .

i n the U i z i and for the Garden of Gethsemane I n fram e N O


,
. .

1 1 6 are the designs for Job and Isaiah in the T rib u ne and i n ,

frame N o 1 2 8 are beautifu l st u dies for H oly F amilies F rame


. .

N o 1 6 5 contains drawings by M ariotto A l b e rtin el l i of A ngels i n


.

the Last J u dgment for the fresco which has been removed from
the H ospital of Santa M aria N u ova and which will probably be ,

shortly transferred to this Gallery I n frame N O 1 6 2 is . .

A l b e rtin e ll i s design f o r his bea u tifu l pict u re of the Visitation


of M ary to Eli z abeth in the T u scan room of the U ffi z i .

F rame N o 2 8 7 has drawings by Guido R eni ; and fram e


..

N o 2 8 9 a st u dy by D omenichino ( 1 5 8 1 —1 6 4 1 ) of fl ying
.
,

angels which he introd u ced into his pict u re of the Communion


,

of S t J erome in the Vatican


. .

Cases N o s 5 0 3 to 5 1 1 contain designs for vases and every


.
92 UFFI ZI GALLE R Y .

variety of decorative art by Caravaggio F ontana Pierino del , ,

Vaga & c I n case 5 0 7 are drawings by P o c c e tti for the decora


,
.

tion O f the portico of the I nnocenti in the Pia zz a della S S .

A nnun z iata at F lorence .

I n case N o 5 1 1 are drawings by the sculptor B enedetto da


.

Rov ez z a n o .

A mong the drawings not exhibited to the public b u t which ,

can be seen in the rooms o f S ignor F erri is a rare copy of ,


.

Ill u strations of the I nferno P u rgatorio and Paradiso of D ante


, , ,

by F e de rigo Z u ccaro ( 1 5 3 9 which he executed when he


was painting in the Escurial of Spai n It is entitled D ante .

h isto ria to da F ederico Z uccaro l anno M D X C I I I



T he .

drawings are made in red and black c halk or penned i n ,

with bistre T hey are the only record of this period of Z u c


.

caro s life as the paintings with w h ich he adorned the Escurial


for Philip I I so little pleased the King that after paying the
.
,

artist mu nifi c e ntl y he dismissed him and ordered all hi s work


, ,

t o be expunged and replaced by other paintings by Pellegrino


T ibaldi .
4 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

p u pil of U go da Carpi H is works are very scarce T hose . .

exhibited here co nsist principally of processions which extend ,

nearly the whole length of the room and i ncl u de a m u ltit u de ,

of figu res drawn in clear sharp o u tline and full of li fe an d


, , ,

spirit T h e subj ects are the T riumph of F aith the Grand T u rk


.
,

going to M osq u e and the entrance of the Emperor Charles V , .

i nto Bologna .

O n the wall opposite the staircase i n fram e N O 2 4 is a , .


,

woodc u t by U go da Carpi after R aff aelle of Ai n ea s carry , ,

ing his father A nchises and the Palladiu m followed by his ,

son A ccording to B ryan T hough slight Ugo s woodc u ts


.
,

,

are excellent and exhibit a close resemblance to the designs of


,

1 ’
th e artists from wh ich they are taken .

N o 2 5 S t J ohn Preaching i n the Wilderness is also by


.
,
.
,

U go da Carpi as well as N O 2 6 the M iraculo u s D ra u ght of


,
.
,

F ishes T h e M artyrdom of S t Peter and S t Pa u l in the sam e


. . .

frame with S t J ohn i n the Wildern ess is from a design by


,
.
,

Pa rm iggia no engraved by A ntonio da T rento who flo u rish ed


, ,

from 1 5 3 0 to 1 5 4 5 Born at T rent he st u died u nder Parmig .


,

giano but learnt his art of engraving from Ugo da Carpi H e


,
.

generally used three blocks the first for the o u tline the second , ,

?
for the dark shadows and th e third for the half tints ,
-

N o 2 9 near the window A nanias and S apphira is by Ugo


.
, , ,

da Carpi .

S everal engravings after the works of Parmigiano follow ,

by N ic o l e B o l drin i called Il Vicentino ; and i n the farthest ,

corner of the sam e wall is the B ea u ti ful Gate of the T emple ,

by Ra ff aelle engraved by Parmigiano himsel f


,
.

T h e next room contains impressions taken from plat e s of


n iello and early copper —
,
plate engravings in Italy T h e art of .

niello already known to the ancients was re vived i n Italy by ,

M aso F in igu erra a F lorentine of th e fifteenth cent u ry


, The .

design was traced upon a silver plate and the lines cut with ,

a sharp tool after wh ich the interstices were filled i n with a


:

1
S ee B ry a n 5 D iction a ry o
f P a in t rs a n d E ngra v ers I bid e .
2
.
E N GRA VI N G S .
5

mixt u re of melted lead and silver ; before this hardened im ,

pressions were made on paper to try the eff ect a n d th u s led ,

the way to the discovery of copper a nd steel engra v ing .

In frame N o 4 4 are impressions from a niello by Pere .


,

grino da Cesio or Cesena a goldsmith and engraver who , , ,

lived towards the latter part of the fifteenth and commence ,

ment of the sixteenth cent u ry .

N o 4 5 is a very rare engraving after a composition by


.

B otticelli the Planet Ven u s by Baccio Baldini a F lorentine


, , ,

goldsmith born abo u t 1 4 3 6 T his is one of a series of the


,
.

S even Planets of which there is a complete set in the British


,

M u se u m and in the Biblioth eq ue at Paris


,
C u pid s Vintage .

in the same fram e is also a scarce Italian engraving , .

O n the wall facing the entra n ce to this room is N o 4 7 the .


,

D eath of Goliath also by Baccio Baldini a n d Botticelli , T his .

engraving was known to Bartsch the writer on the art of ,

engraving and is val u able from its rarity Baldim was a


,
.

F lorentine gol dsmith the frien d of Botticelli F o u r Prophets ,


.
,

by Baldini after Botticelli belong to a series T h e initials


, , .

A B have cau sed this engraving to be attributed to Botticelli


. .
,

w h o however always signed with the i nitials of his real name


, , ,

A lessandro F il ipe pi .

Th e impressions taken from niello the invention of M aso ,

F inigu e rra were speedily followed by copper plates in which


, ,

the artist s attention was directed to the effect prod u ced by the

impressions instead of as in niello e ngraving consideri n g the


, , ,

impressions only as experiments to test the excellence of the


defi gn .

N o 4 8 , a Combat
. of Giants is a splendid co mposition by
,

A ntonio P o l l aj ol o .

F rom N o s 4 9to 6 0 on the upper line are frames contain


.
,

i ng fi fty engravi ngs of the so called Playing Cards generally -

attrib u ted to A ndrea M antegna ( 1 4 3 0 they form here


a complete set b u t as they were not fastened on card they
, ,

co u ld never have been used as a game .


9 6 UFFIZI GALLER Y .

N o 50
. i s an u nfinished engraving also by A ndrea M a n ,

tegna of the H oly F amily in a grotto s u rrounded by a choi r


,

of angels I t is an early impression and almost u niq u e T h e


.
, .

artist adopted this composition for part O f his pict u re of the


Worship of the M agi n o w in the T rib u ne of the U ffiz i Gallery
, .

B elow this engraving is a Bacchanalian scene by M antegna .

N o 5 6 three female fig u res danci ng after th e design


.
, ,

for a picture by M antegna in the Louvre at Paris by Z oan , ,

A ndrea the ass u med name o f an engraver who signed his


, ,

plates Z A probably a corruption of Gian A ndrea in the


. .
, ,

Venetian dialect H e lived i n the early part of th e sixteenth


.

century and appears to have belonged to the Lombard School


,

of engraving .

N o 5 7 J udith with the H ead of H olofernes after M a n


.
, ,

tegna is also by Z oan A ndrea


,
.

N o 5 3 a large engraving by Botticelli of the A ssumption


.
, ,

of the Virgin Sh e gives her girdle to St T homas ; the


. .

A postles below seek for her in the tomb from whence she has ,

newly risen a Landscape backgro u nd completes the picture


this engraving is ve ry scarce as there are only four impressions ,

known to exist .

N O 5 9 the Calumny of A pelles by M o c etto of Verona


.
, ,

1 4 4—P
( 5 ) is taken from
,
the description by L u cian and ,

i nteresting to compare with the sam e s u bj ect by Botticelli i n , ,

the room of small T u scan pict u res of this gallery M idas is .

between Ignorance and S u spicion ; Calumny led by Envy , ,

drags along Innocence ; she is attended by A mbition an d


F raud R epentance with T ruth follow last .

N o 7 0 the Worship of the M agi by R obetta a F lorentine


.
, , , ,

born about 1 4 6 0 H is prints are scarce ; this engraving i s .

after the design of F ilippino Lippi for his large pict u re painted ,

in 1 4 9 6 and now i n this Gal lery


,
.

D escending a flight of steps we arrive at the commence ,

m ent o f the passage leading to th e Pitti T h e names of the .

engravers or schools of engraving w h ose works are exhibited


, ,
9 8 UFFIZI GA LL ER Y .

having engraved the second plate of this subj ect c o ntra iy to ,

an engagem ent he had entered i nto with him I n the sam e .

frame with the M urder of the I nnocents is the M adonna of the


Cradle and the M adonna of the Palm T ree .

N o 8 1 the M ater D olorosa


.
,
M ary stands behind the body
of the Savio u r and looks up to heaven ; th e sleeve of the right
arm fits so closely that though the edge is marked at th e wrist
, ,

the arm has been often supposed bare ? Passavan t considered


this engraving in tenderness delicacy of feeling and i n the
, , ,

noble expression of the heads to surpass all h e knew of M arc ,

A ntonio . Below it is the Last Supper : Christ i n the centre


, ,

and six disciples o n either side .

N o 7 8 the Eternal commanding N oah to build the A rk


.
, , ,

and the M adonna o f the Coscia Lu nga the Virgin sits near a
cradle with the I nfant Christ i n her lap near them kneels the
, ,

little St John with a strip o f parchment i n hi s hand J oseph


.

behind a young man i s seen to the right in the backgro u nd .

I n this sam e frame is St Cecilia which di f fers i n details from


.
,

R a ff a ell e s picture at Bologna



.

N O 8 7 on the wall i n the corner near the window is part of


.
, ,

the history of Psyche painted by R a ff aelle when he assisted


, ,

Gi u lio R omano i n the frescoes O f the F arnesina Pa lace at


R ome . T h e F lying M ercury to th e right i s full o f life and
movement .

N O 9 2 contains A dam and Ev e engraved by M arc


.
,

A ntonio after M ichael A ngelo and an i nteresting portrait of


, ,

Raff aelle in his st u dio ; he has no beard his hair hangs on ,

his shoulders and he wears a cap and mantle th rown across


,

his chest Besides these this frame contains the Eternal


.
,

appearing to I saac and the Sacrifice of N oah by M arco of ,

R avenna M arco D ente da R avenna born i n 1 4 9 6 went to


.
, ,

R ome to s tu dy u nder M arc A ntonio and imitated the bold ,

style of his master with s u ch success as to rank next him as an


engraver ; b u t he has neither his neatness nor fi nish and is ,

1
Se e Pa ssa v a nt Ra f ael o on Uré in o v o l 1 1 p 6 3 0
,
f
, . . . .
E N GRA VI N GS .
99

very unequal in his work H e was killed at the siege of ?

R ome in 1 5 2 7
,
.

N o 9 4 H erc u les and A nt aeus after a design by R a ff aelle is


.
, , ,

one of the fi nest engravings of M arc A ntonio I t has also been .

engraved by Agostino Ve ne z iano ( 1 4 9 0 who came to


R ome to study u nder the great master of his art and was ,

only second to M arco D ente da R avenna I n the same frame .

are Ven u s M ars and C u pid also two lovely Sibyls


, ,
.

N o 9 5 a most lovely Ven u s and C u pid R a ff a ell e s M use 0



.
, ,

Poetry i n the Parnass u s and Ven u s at the Bath by M arc , ,

A ntonio also a gro u p of children dancing by him an d below , ,

it the same s u bj ect by M arco da R avenna ,


.

T h e next series of engravings are most of them by M arco


da R avenna N O 1 0 1 the Graces copied from M arc A ntonio ;
. .
, ,

the composition s u ggested by the anti q ue gro u p in the M u se u m


at Per u gia .

N o 1 0 2 the Statue of M arcus Au reli u s at R ome : in this frame


.
,

and those which follow are s u bj ects taken from classical art , .

N o 1 0 9 an engraving by Gi u lio R omano of the M adonna


.
,

del Collo Lu ngo by Parmigiano i n the Pitti .

T h e next series of engravings are by Giulio B o naso n e and


N icolas B e a triz e t .

B o n a so n e was a very disting u ished engra v er from Bologna


u died with M arc A ntonio H
( 5
1 10 who st e entirely .

worked with the graver his o u tlines are clear and his e m , ,

gravings have great elegance N icolas B ea triz et was F rench .


,

born at T hionville 1 5 0 7 but he went early to study in R ome


, , ,

where he died i n 1 5 6 2 h e was probably also a scholar of


M arc A ntonio s p u pil Agostino Vene z iano

.
,

N O 1 1 7 St J erome in Prayer a fine composition by T itian


.
,
.
, ,

is likewise engra ved by B e a triz et .

N o 1 1 9 Children at Play after Raff aelle is by an engraver


.
, , ,


known as 1 1 M aestro del D ado t h e master of the Die — who
1
S ee B ry a n ,
D iction a ry o f E ngra v ers, a nd P a ssa v a nt , Raf a el v on

UrOino, v ol . i .
, p .
5 90 .
1 00 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

worked at R ome from 1 5 3 2 to 1 5 3 5 H e was one of the imme .

diate fo llowers of M arc A ntonio and engraved excl u sively ,

after R a ff a el l e s designs thu s preserving the record of some


which have been lost .

S everal engravings follow by Giorgio Ghisi o f M antu a


1
5 20 whose works are very rare .

N o 1 3 0 is the D ispute of the S acram ent in the S tan z e of


.
,

the Vatican and a very fi ne engraving N O 1 3 3 the Woman


, .
,

taken in A d u ltery a beautifu l composition by Gi u lio Romano


, ,

engraved by D iana Ghisi ( 1 5 3 0 the sister of Giorgio


Ghisi and o f Rido l fi Ghisi the painter ; who was instr u cted ,

i n her art by her brother Giorgio A composition by R a ff aelle .


,

N o 1 2 8 called La Sa e tta is powerfully rendered by Giorgio Ghisi


.
, ,
.

N O 1 4 0 a Bacchanalian scen e and the Combat of the


.
, ,

H oratii and Curiatii is by f En e a s Vico of Parma ( 1 5 1 9 ,

who Visited Rome to study under M arc A ntonio .

We now arrive at the works of a great master and founder


of another school of engraving Cornelius Cort born in H olland , ,

1
53 6 and
,
who died i n R om e 1
5 7 8 H e went to Italy in .

his youth and resided in T itian s house in Venice where b e ’


,

engraved some of the fi nest works of the great painter and ,

then proceeded to R ome where he established his school T h e ,


.


art of engraving according to Bryan had hitherto been nearly
, ,

c onfi ned to small plates and it was Corneli u s Cort that opene d
,

the way to a more important walk i n the art It was under this .

able artist that Agostino Caracci acqu ired his admirable use of
the graver T h e plates of Corneli u s Cort are entirely exec u ted
.


with this instrument in a bold open and masterly style , ,
.

F rom N o 1 4 3 to N o 1 5 1 are engravings by this ar tist


. .
,
.

T hose of a later school follow comprising Cavalieri an imitator , ,

of M arc A ntonio and Sal v ator Rosa Villamene of A ssisi born , ,

1 5 6 6 s u ppo sed to be a fellow —


,
student with A gostino Caracci ,

under Cort his style is bold and open .

N o 1 6 7 is a D eposition from the Cross engraved by him


.
,

after Baroccio .
02 UFFIZI GA L LER Y .

No . Christ S hown to th e People


29 1, .

N o 2 9 5 the A nnouncement to the Shepherds


.
,
.

N O 2 9 7 Christ Preachi ng to the M u ltitude


.
,
.

N o 3 0 0 the D eposition from the Cross


.
,
and
N o 3 0 5 a splendid landscape called T h e T hree T rees
.
, , .

A fter R embrandt follows a series o f engravings by D utch ,

and F lemish masters N o 2 1 1 the Broken D yke by Peter . .


, ,

N olpe is very striking


, N o l pe was born in the H agu e 1 6 0 1.
, .

H is plates are usually exec u ted with the point and fi nished
wi th the graver ; his landscapes are engraved in a bold free ,

masterly s tyle ?
No 3 5
.2 a Calva ry after A lbert
, D u rer is by Jacob , ,

M a th a m ,
Of H a e rl e m, 1 57 1 .

R ubens and his followers begin a new school of art brilliant ,

in light and fu ll of life and movement


, .

N o 3 8 2 a H oly F amily after R ubens is engraved by


.
, , ,

Sch el tiu s B o l sw e rt of F riesland who st u died with his more


, ,

celebrated brother A dam B o l swe rt abo u t the end of the six ,

te e n th cent u ry .

N o 3 38
. the D eposition from the Cross by Ru ben s
, , ,

engraved by Lucas V o rste rma n who was born at A ntwerp 1 5 7 8 , ,

and having st u died under R ubens rendered the compositions ,

of the master with more spirit than any other engraver .

N O 3 6 0 Christ Crowned with T horns after Vandyke is


.
, , ,

engraved by Sch el tiu s B o l sw ert .

T h e F leming Gerard Ede l inck is incl u ded among F rench


engravers tho u gh born in A ntwerp 1 6 4 0 bu t he was invited
,

to Paris by Colbert in 1 6 6 5 and was taken into the service of ,

L o u is X I V .

N O 3 6 7 is an engraving of Edelin c k after a picture by


.
, ,

Charles Le Brun N ext it N O 3 6 8 is Callot s famo u s engraving


.
,
.
,

O f the F air of the I mpruneta Jac q u es Callot was born at N ancy .


,

in Lorraine 1 5 9 2 he led a singu larly adventuro u s life and


, ,

worked for a considerable time i n Italy he was a favourite of


S e e B ry a n s D iction a f y of P a in ters a n d E ngr a v ers
1 ’
.
E N GRA VI N G S . 1 03

the Grand D u ke Cosimo I I at F lorence and only ret u rned to .


,

Lorrai ne on the death of his patron thence he proceeded to


Paris where he was employed by Lo u is X I I I to engrave some
,
.

of the pri ncipal sieges and battles of the F rench .

N o 3 7 0 a H oly F amily after R affaelle is by Edel in ck as


.
, , , ,

well as N o 3 7 3 the portrait of Charles d H oyser and the


.
,

,

still finer portrait N O 3 7 4 of the celebrated painter Philippe .


, ,

de Champagne .

N O 3 8 8 a Piet a after A nnibale Caracci


.
,
Th e pict u re ,
.

was formerly in the O rleans collection b u t now belongs to the ,

Earl of Carlisle the engraving is by J ean Lo u is R o ullet ,

born 1 6 4 5 at A rles i n Provence this is one of his most ,

esteemed works .

N o 3 8 9 a portrait of Boss u et by Pierre D rev e t the Yo u nger


.
, , ,

of Paris born i n 1 6 9 7 H e is renowned for fi nish and clear


,
.

ness of to u ch T his portrait is one of the finest examples of


.

his method of engravi ng N ext it is a portrait of Lo u is X I V by . .

the father Pierre D re v e t the Elder who was inferior to his son
, , .

N o 3 9 4 a T empest after Joseph Vernet by Jean Jac q ues


.
, , ,

B al e c h o u born 1 7 1 0 at A rles a well known engraver remark


,
-

able f o r clearness and brilliancy his plates after Vernet are


among his finest prod u ctions .

N O 4 0 0 Paternal A dmonitions after T erb u rg and other


.
, , ,

engra v ings in N O 4 0 2 are by H ans Georg Wille of KOn igsb erg


.
,

born i n 1 7 1 5 .

Th e best English engravers begi n with R obert Strange born ,

in the O rkney Isles 1 7 2 1 and who died after receiving knight , ,

hood in 1 7 9 2
,
H is engravings are chie fl y after the works o f
.

the most eminent Italian artists b u t the principal here are N o .

4 0 7 Charles I of England after Vandyke


,
. N o 4 0 9 Charles , .
,

I his e q u erry holding his horse also after Vandyke and N O


.
, .

4 1 4 Ven u s blinding C u pid after T itian


, , .

William Wo o l l e tt of M aidstone Kent ( 1 7 3 5 chiefly


, ,

engraved landscape N o 4 1 1 a M orning Scene is by S wane . .


, ,

veldt .
1 04 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

Of the modern German engravers the D eposit i on from the ,

Cross after F ra Bartolommeo by M orit z Ste inl a and N o 4 2 9 , ,


.
,

the Ma donna di Sa n S isto by F riedrich M uller are among the ,

most interesting .

R eturning to Italian and F rench engravers of this and th e


latter part of the preceding century we have N o s 4 3 5 and 4 2 6 ,
.
,

portraits of Lord M ansfield and th e Chancellor T h u rlow by


F rancesco Bartolo zz i and N o 4 3 9 the I ncendio del Borgo and .
,

the Parnass u s O f Ra ff aelle engraved by Volpato ,


.

N o 4 4 3 a very fine engraving of the R epose i n Egypt a fter


.
,

N icolas Poussin is by R affaelle M o rgh e n


,
.

N o 4 44 i s an e q u ally fi ne engraving by the sam e artist


.
,

after Guido Reni .

B esides these there are engravings by M o rgh e n N O 44 6 of


, ,
.
,

the M adonna della Seggiola N O 4 40 the T ransfig u ration ; .


,

N o 4 5 0 the M adonna del S acco of A ndrea del S arto ; N o


.
,
.

45 1 ,
the L ast S u pper of L eonardo da Vi nci ; and N O 4 5 2 the .
,

M adonna del Cardellino of R affaelle N o 4 5 4 is an engraving . .

by Gi u seppe Longhi of the Sposali z io of R affae l le at M ilan


also N O 4 5 5 a H oly F amily of Ra ff aelle N O 4 6 8 the I nfant
.
,
. .
,

J es u s of Carlo M aratti is engraved by Giovita Garavaglia who ,

has also engraved N o 4 6 7 the M adonna della Seggiola .


,
.

N O 4 7 0 is a M adonna and Child by R affaelle engraved by


.
,

Sam u ele T esi .

T h e rest of this passage leading to the Pitti is lined w ith


s u pposed and some real portraits O f royal and disting u ished
, ,

personages the only pict u res of m erit are by Sir Peter Lely
v iz
. the portraits of N ell Gwyn n e Lady M iddleton the , ,

D u chess of Cleveland and the D u chess of R ochester ,


T here .

are also some curio u s views of T u scan cities .


a ge 1 0 5 .

Pa g e 1 25 .

8 1 1 5 .

S ea l of th e R ep u bl ic — Gol d f l orin — Gem


of S a v on a rol a .

P a ge 1 05 .
C H A P T ER XI .

GA LLE R Y IN -
TA GLI AND

HE cabinet of gems which contains the collections of I n


tagli a n d C a m e i is entered from the Sala dell Erm a f ro ’

d ito
. A t the end of th e room u nder glass is a colo u re d t erra
, ,

cotta b u st of D ante taken from the mask after death it was


,

be q u eathed to the Gallery in 1 8 6 5 by the M archese Carlo


T orrigiani O n either side of the b u st are cases with Etr u scan gol d
.

ornaments be q u eathed by M r C u rry a n d two cases containing


.
,

specimens of ancient glass belonging to early Christian A rt as ,

well as the original wax model by M ichael A ngelo for his , ,

stat u e O f Gi u lian o de M e dici i n the sacristy of S a n Loren z o



.

T here is likewise in the same case a large cameo portrait c u t


i n agate of Charles V ( P) receiving the O rder of the Golden
.

F leece from the hand of a chil d w h o is presented to him by ,

a female in rich attire and j ewels male fig u res behind F am e


a bove blows a tr u mpet .A nother large cameo appears to be
R oman w ork .

\Vith in the case contain i ng Etr u scan remai ns is the o l d seal


of the F lorentine R ep u blic H erc ules engraved on a green
,

j a de T his gem was at one time s u pposed to be a gen u ine


.

anti q u e b u t the defecti v e drawing of the arms and vario u s


,

i ne q u alities in the workmanship not to be fo u nd i n fi ne ,

Greek or Roman intagli have decided connoisse u rs to assign


,

this stone to an artist of the m edi aeval period H e was how .


,

ever probably a gem —c u tter of some rep u tation and perhaps


, ,
1 06 UFFIZI GA L LER Y .

the artist patronised by Cosimo th e Pater Patri ae who has h is ,

nameless tomb i n Santa M aria N ovella?


A fi ne R oman m osaic framed and hung on the wall near ,

the window represents the lit tle owl of the co u ntry the same
, ,

as the A thenian owl of M inerva but used i n Italy to attract ,

small birds T h e owl is trained to j u mp from on e piece of


.

stick to another in a ma nner which appears so strange to the


,

feathered tribe that little birds gather ro u nd hi m screaming


, ,

and as they alight on the nearest branches which are already ,

prep ared with bird lime they are easily caught T h e sam e
-

, .

subj ect has been painted by Al bano in a small pict u re ,

formerly i n the possession o f the poet th e late M r Sam u el , .

R ogers . Beyond this m osaic are copies of variou s pict u res i n


enamel an d above i s a series of small pictures by Bron z ino
, , ,

intended to represent the M edici family probably taken from ,

old portraits which were painted for the Grand D uke Cosimo
,

I and placed in the private apartment of his palace O pposite


. .

are portraits in pastel o f Lo u is X IV M arshal T urenne and .


, ,

other distinguished persons by R obert N anteuil R osalba , ,

Carriera of Venice &c ,


.

T h e collectio n of c a m e i and intagli begu n by Loren z o de ,

M edici besides being the oldest of the ki nd i n Eu rope


, ,

consisted of at least three thousand pieces before the ,

recent addition of M r C u rry s gems T h e period d u ring which


.

.

the art of engraving precio u s stones was bro u ght to greatest


perfection by the Greeks and R omans extends from B C 3 0 0 to . .

A D 2 00
. . . T h e best gems belong to the reigns of Alexander of
M acedon , 3 0 0 ; of M ithridates in Pont u s R C 1 2 0 ; of ,
.

A u g u stus C aesar 63 and O f H adrian A D 1 1 7 T h e art


, ,
. . .

was revived i n Italy i n the sixteenth cent u ry and attained high ,

excellence among Italian English and Ger m an arti sts in the , ,

eighteenth We can form no m ore perfect idea of Greek art


.

than that presented i n these engraved gems which from their ,

min u te si z e the d u rability of the material and fre q u ently from


, ,

1
Th i s se a l h a s b ee n re ce ntly re m o v e d to th e M u se u m o f th e B a rge ll o .
1 08 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

stolen by U lysses and D iomedes to enable them to gain posses


sion of T roy the two heroes are represented on the pedestal of
,

thi s gem committing the theft Pallas A then ae carries her spear
i n her left hand the shield in her right — a proof that th e gem
,

was i ntended for a seal as the reverse would appear on the ,

wax impression .

No
. 1 2 a paste or glass gem of an amethyst colo u r
, ,

A ph ro drite or Venus seated po u ring water over h er feet


. this
,

paste is so transparent that Gori mistook it for a real amethyst .

N o 2 0 a fi ne carnelian : C u pid seated with his hands


.
,

tied behind his back while N emesi s the avenging goddess , , ,

stands before him N emesis rai ses the lower part of her a rm
.
,

ex hibiting it to hi m from the elbow to the wrist — the c u bit


meas u re — which the Egyptians considered the symbol of
j u stice : th u s signifying that the measu re of his ini q u ities to
wards Psyche was full .

N O 2 8 a very fine dark onyx : A pollo playing the lyre ;


.
,

his feet hardly to u ching the gro u nd to denote extreme lightness , ,

as the repose of his limbs and his u ndist u rbed drapery prove
that he is not i n motion T h e artist has combi ned p u rity of .

o u tline with rot u ndity I t i s i n very flat reli ef and is am ong


.
,

the fine st Greek works i n exi stence .

N O 2 9 a carnelian : A pollo as a shepherd with the N ym ph


.

, ,

o f a fo u ntai n Th e same s u bj ect is represented i n a sta t u e


.

of the Villa Lu do v isi in R ome and has been described by ,

Win c ke l ma n the shepherd s crook may signi fy that the god i s ’

leading the fl ocks of A dmet u s to past u re he leans his arm on


the basin of the fo u ntain i n an attitude of repose .

N o 3 5 a paste the colo u r of the yellow chrysolite : a


.
, ,

N ymph is playing on a lyre T here are three gems with this .

s u bj ect each of which has i nscribed on it the name of a


,

different well known engraver — C h ro n iu s A llion and O n e sia s


-

, ,
.

T his paste bears that of O n e sia s T hey are all three probably .

copies of some celebrated statue which has been lost A gostini .


,

a writer on gems states that Pa u sanias mentions Sparta fig u red


,
INTA GL1 AND CA M E ] . 1 09

as a woman playing on a lyre and that the s u bj ect th u s re pre ,

sented was to be seen in his days T h e style of w ork on this .

paste is excellent tho u gh probably only an ancient copy of a


,

gem by O ne sia s .

N o 4 1 a red jasper : M erc u ry has his foot resting on a


.
,

wine skin and two ears of corn spring u p beside him ; th e


-

wine and bread were at all times symbolical of immortality and ,

were t hus appropriately placed near the go d who was s u ppose d


to cond u ct h u man so u ls to their la st abode H is chlamys or .
,

cloak is twisted ro u nd h is arm ; the cad u ce u s is in his han d


, ,

and the petas u s — winged cap — o n his head as i f preparatory ,

to his j ourney .

N o 4 7 a carnelian H erc u les with the B u ll O f Crete T his


.
,
.

work is exec u ted with a few touches b u t is wonderfu lly ,

effective ; the style is grand O n a fine ancient altar in the .

C apitoline M u se u m of R ome H erc u les is th u s represented , ,

though beardless here the demigod wears his beard .

N o 5 1 a chalcedony : H ercules fo u nd by C u pid who is


.
, ,

seated on his sho u lder .

N O 5 2 a carnelian : H ercules shooting the Stymph a l ic


.
,

birds a work of great antiq u ity and in the gran d style , .

N O 5 4 an amethyst : H erc u les on O lymp u s with H ebe ;


.
,

the work of a celebrate d Greek gem c u tter T e u c ro n -

,
.

N O 6 8 a carnelian
. a seated Bacchante giving drink to a
, ,

panther .

N o 69 . a very fi ne carnelian : a Bacchante in a wild


,

dance this gem resembles a figu re on a coin of Syracuse a n d ,

is i n very excellent style .

N o 7 0 a red jasper : Bacch u s and A riadne seated on a


.
,

panther a work O f few to u ches inscribed with the artist s


, ,

name — Carp u s .

N o 7 4 an amethyst : C u pid on a lion with a h u man face as


.
, ,

seen on medals of S icily a n d Campania and which according , ,

to the German critic Eckh el represented Bacchus Th e , .

allegorical meaning is love subduing the strongest , .


1 10 UFFIZI GA L L E R Y .

N o 7 6,. an amethyst : a family of T ritons fi ne Greek work .

C a se X N O 9 3 a carnelian : A chilles fighting with th e


. .
,

A ma z ons also fin e Greek work .

N o 1 0 3 a chalcedony
.
,
a kneeling soldier .

N o 1 0 9 a carnelian : a tragic poet ; an old man seated


.
, ,

with a mask behind him .

N o 1 1 4 a sardonyx : a soldier on horseback ; the name


.
,

A u l u s inscribed on it the shield is R oman and is cut on the ,

bl u e lay er of the stone this gem is supposed to all u de to the


games of the circ u s fi ne R oman work .

N o 1 1 6 a carnelian : a Greek warrior descending from his


.
,

horse the shield i s i n too high relief for the best work but it ,

i s a graceful composition .

N O 1 1 7 a sardonyx : an Etruscan gem o f great i nterest ?


.
,

T w o m en bear the sacred shields or a n t il ia ,


A ccording to .

tradition a shield was found in the Palace o f N u ma which


, ,

was supposed to have been sent down from H eaven and the ,

H aruspices declared that th e R oman State would end u re so


long as this shield remained i n R ome N uma accordingly .
, ,

ordered eleven similar shields to be made and h e appointed ,

twelve S alii ( as those priests were called who solemnised the ,

worship of the gods by armed dances and song ) to keep guard


over them O nce a year on the Calends o f M arch they were
.
, ,

taken from the T emple of M ars on the Palatine M ount ,

where they were kept and borne i n procession through the


,

city ; the S ali i striking them with rods sang the praises of ,

M ars N uma and of M amurius V e ttu rius the armourer who cast
, , ,

the eleven shields I n this gem two of the Salii carry six a n t il ia
.

attached to a pole resting on their shoulders I n a work on .

B ritish anti q uities by Joh n Kemble will be found an engraving


, ,

and description of a shield now in the British M u se u m which ,

was found in the R iver T hames and closely resembles the ,

a n cil e O f this gem A ccording to the a u thor of the description


.
,

the ornaments are attached i n a manner peculiar to Etr u ria .

1
T h i s m ost v a l u a bl e gem is n e a rly h i dden in th e co rn er o f th e case .
1 2f
o
UFFIZI GA LL E R Y .

simple and grand and probably belonge d to the period of ,

Phidias T h e garland of wheat ears and the hair are worked


.
-

with the most ex q u isite finish I v y leaves adorn the border of .

th e dress the eyes are wide open and the pupil indicated .

N o 1 9 7 a carnelian : a splendid portrait ; supposed to


.
,

represent S ext u s P o m peiu s M agn u s the son of Pompey th e ,

Great H e accompanied his father into Egy pt and was


.
,

present when he was m u rdered H e fled into S pain and was , ,

fi nally pu t to death by order of T itus .

N o 2 0 4 a chalcedony : Portrait of A u gu stus C aesar


.
, an
exq u isite gem and a very pure stone .

N O 2 0 8 a carnelian
. B u sts of N ero and Luci u s sons o f
,

and on the reverse F a u stulus discovering R o m


,

A grippina ul u s
and R em u s with the wolf under a tree , ,
.

N o 2 1 7 a carnelian B ust of A ntonia wi fe of D r u sus and


.
, , ,

daughter of M arcu s A ntonin u s .

Case XI I N O 2 4 8 an amethyst the portrait of M assinissa


.
,
.
, ,

Prince of Cyrene i n A frica whence val u able marbles have ,

been brought to the British M u se u m M assinissa wa s ed u cated .

in Carthage and fo u ght i n Spain where he was defeated


, ,

by S cipio H e m ade terms with the R omans and promised


.

them his services i n A frica T his gem i s half Greek half .


,

A frican the helmet bears the fig u re of Victory finely engraved , .

N o 2 5 2 a carnelian
. M odesty a beautifu l head
, , .

N O 2 6 0 a carnelian : the head o f an O l d man


.
,
th e work
of a celebrated gem c u tter H yll u s -

,
.

N O 2 7 6 a carnelian
. the b u st of Apollo of D elos a fine
,

work perhaps by D ioscori des or S olon


,
.

N O 2 8 4 a j acynth : the portrait of a Comic A ct or i n a M ask


.
, .

N o 3 1 3 a sardonyx the Chim aera mortally wo u nded


. .

A fter this gem follow several representations of animals ,

cows oxen horses lions cranes & c with sphinges griffi ns


, , , , ,
.
, , ,

and other fab u lo u s creatures among which the most interesti n g ,

is a winged sphinx the signet of A u g u st u s C msa r discovered , ,

in his tomb and presented to the Gallery in 1 8 2 9


, .
INTA GL I AN D CA IWEI . 1 13

A mong the best of the antique ca me i, or the onyx cut i n


r elief are
,

Case I near the door N o I Venus caressing Ganymede


.
, ,
. .
,

o n M o u nt O lympus and looking back at J u piter , .

N o 2 a fragment : M inerva with the infant H ercules


.
,

s trangling the serpents


.
.

N o 3 A ntonius Pi u s sacrifici ng to H ope ; more remark


.
,

a ble for the si z e and bea u ty of the stone than for the work .

T h e little winged fig u re near the altar represents the geni u s of


.the emperor .

N o 4 Venus Victrix or the Con q u eror ; J u li u s C aesar


.
, , ,

who pretended to trace his descent from Venus first ca u sed ,

the goddess to be represented arme d T h e arrangement of ,

th e hair and the ignoble feat u res have s uggested that this may
have been a portrait .

N o 6 Ven u s attired by the Graces a cameo of good


.
, ,

style .

N o 7 C u pid mo u nted on a lion an d playing a lyre thi s


.
,

gem is quoted i n man y works on antiq u ities Th e inscription .


,

P rota rel z ns f a eieba t is i n relief ; it is most delicate i n exec u tion


,

and a very fine stone .

N o 8 four A morini trying to raise th e club of H erc u les


.
, ,

whilst one b u ries his head in the hero s cup ’


.

N O 9 Cupid dragging Psyche along by her hair


.
,
very
ex q uisite workmanship .

N o 1 3 A pollo in gold on a gro u nd of sardonyx is one of the


.
,

most val u able ornaments of this collection It belonge d to the .

Piccolomini family and from them came into the posession of


,

the Electress A nna M aria the dau ghter of Gaston the last , ,

M edici Grand D u ke .

N o 1 4 M ars Victor ( M ars the Conq u eror )


.
,
a work
among the best of the first cent u ry of the R oman Empire .

N O 1 7 H ercules bi nding Cerberus ; a favourite s u bj ect ;


.
,

of which the fi nest example is the engraved gem by D ioscorides ,

in the Berlin collection .

VO L . 11 .
1 14 UFFIZI GA LL E R Y

No . B acchus and O mphale ; excellent style executed


2 4, ,

.

on a fi n e stone .

Case N o 3 3 a female figu re seated near a temple with


.
, ,

an image on her left arm and surrounded by three other ,

fi gures T h e work is fi ne but the subj ect di ffi cult to explain


. , .

I t may possibly refer to the sto ry o f I phigenia i n T aurus whe n ,

she recogn ises her brothers .

N o 3 4 a male figure suspending a sword on a column


.
,

in excellent style and fi nely executed .

No 40
. a fragment restored in gold by B envenut o
,
~

Cellini .

N o 6 6 the bust of O m phale ; her head covered with th e


.
,

lion s skin of H ercules



.

T here are several heads o f M edu sa and portraits , .

Case I I I N o 8 5 M ithridates V I King o f Pontu s


.
,
.
,
.
,

several likenesses of A ugust u s C aesar .

N o s 9 5 and 9 6 portraits of A grippa


.
, .

N O 9 8 T iberius with his mother


.
,
.

N o 1 2 4 Livia
.
,
.

N o 1 0 5 Caligula
.
,
.

N o 1 0 6 N ero
.
,
.

N o 1 0 7 T h e younger Britannicus
.
,
.

N o 1 0 8 Galba
.
,
.

N o 1 0 9 Vespasian
.
, .

S om e oth er portraits and a few representations o f animals ; ,

complete the collection o f ancient cameos .

T h e most important modern i ntagli are on the opposit e


side .

N o 3 4 5 the copy of the celebrated gem by P a mph il us


.
, ,.

now i n Paris representing A chilles seated on a rock by th e


,

sea

No . the copy of th e D ioscorides gem belonging to


3 4 6, ,

the D uke of D evonshire D iomedes with the Palladium .

N o 3 5 4 a chalcedony : an allegorical representation of a


.
,

m arriage before a tem ple by Valerio Vicentino , .


1 16 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

a superior idea o f her beauty to any portrait by B ron z ino it i s


supposed to be the work of B ernardo di Castel B olognese for ,

Cardinal F arnese there is also the likeness o f M argaret o f


A ustria Governess of the N etherlands and aunt of Charles
, ,

V B ernardo di ed in 1 5 5 5
. .

A splendi d collection of c a m e i and intagli form erly belong ,

i ng to M r William Curry of East H orsley Su rrey who resided


.
, , ,

many years in Italy and died at N ice i n 1 8 6 3 w ere b e q u ea th e d


, ,

by him to the T uscan capital T here I S as yet no published .

catalogue ; and the gems are placed i n cases so far removed


from th e wi ndow that it is impossible to form any O pinion o f
their excellence ?
A mong the valuable cameos Case XV I I I N o 3 re pre ,
. .
,

senting Luna i n a B iga is an excellent work ,


.

N o 6 a woman filling a vase at a fountain is also a very


.
, ,

beautiful gem .

N o 1 0 a Bacchante a fi ne antiqu e fragment and supposed


.
, , ,

to be the copy of a work by Scopas .

N o 1 8 a very fi ne antiqu e cameo of a youthful H ercules


.
, ,

set i n diamonds the ears are cru shed like those of the B oxers
in th e Circus and the demigod thus represented was called
,

H erakles Pa nc ra tiaste s or H ercules the B oxer ,


.

N O 3 1 a female mask on a turquoise


.
,
.

N o 3 4 a fragment restored in gold


.
,
a very fi ne work and
admirably fi nished of a N ereid o n a Sea h orse ,
-
.

N O 4 2 the bust of a female probably a portrait


.
, , .

A mong the intagli of the Curry collection are many


Etruscan scarabei or gems cut i n the form of a beetle
, .

N O 2 0 8 a carnelian mask of very fine work


.
,
.

N o 2 3 3 a pale ruby with the head of a beardless warrior


.
, ,

simple i n form b u t fi ne in character , .

N o 3 3 7 an amethyst A tropos a Greek work


.
, ,
.

1
T h e C a va li e re M igli a ri n i h a d fi n i sh ed th e t l g
ca a o u e in M S . j ust
b ef o re his death in 1 865 .
R OCK CR YS TA L A N D PIE TRA D URA . 1 7

N o 47,
a beautifu l carnelian ; the head of a barbarian ;
.

very fi ne work .

N o 2 4 9 a sardonyx
. a yo u thfu l H ercules
, .

N O 2 5 4 an amethyst
. a bearded Indian Bacchus
, .

N O 2 5 5 a sardonyx
. a female bust su pposed to represent
,

Io the most important and valuable gem i n the collection it


,

i s very beautiful with a melancholy expression ; her luxuriant


,

hair waves over her shoulders ; on the edge of the ston e is


i nscribed the nam e D ioscorides in Greek letters D ioscorides , .

was the favourite gem c u tter of Au gustus C ae sar and was -

alone permitted to take the portrait o f the emperor ; h e was


born i n A sia M inor and was thus Greek by birth and educa
,

tion S everal of his gems are scattered throughout the c ol l ec


.

tions o f Europe ; they are marked by a star to express his


name ? T h e gem o f I o has been copied by the best modern
engravers but it is here concealed i n a case behind the door
, .

R ook C rysta l a nd P ietra D a ra .

small room at the end of the first and second corridors


A
contains various articles of v irtii in pietra dura rock crystal , ,

and precious stones M any of these were intended to decorate


.

the altar of the M edicean M ausole u m i n Sa n Loren z o ; others


once held relics and were then placed in a re l iq u a rium con
,

structed by M ichael A ngelo over the principal entrance of the


sam e church T h e Ciborium for the host or consecrated wa fer
.

was designed by B u o ntal e nti in 1 6 0 1 but never finished and ,

the several parts of w hich it was to have been composed were .


,

deposite d here vi z eight col u mns o f Siennese agate lapis


,
.
.
,

laz uli and Bohemian verde and eight channelled columns of


, ,

rock crystal set i n garnets tur q uoises oriental chalcedony


, , , ,

top az pearls amethysts rubies and diamonds the work o f two


, , , , ,

M ilanese artists named G a ff u ri T h e seven stat u ettes of the


,
.

apos tles and the angel were designed by Giovanni Bil iv ert the ,

T h e D i oscori des, C a st or a nd P o ll ux ll usi on t ll a ti on



1
,
in a to th e co ns e

of th e T w n s i —G em i n i .
1 1 8 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

pupil o f Cigoli and were modelled by O ra z io and F rancesco


,

M ochi father and son T h e y a re composed of jaspers from.


, ’

Volterra Caselli and S icily ; o f lapis la z uli chalcedony oriental


, , , ,

alabaster am ethysts agates and silver gilt


, , , .

I n the centre of the room i s a table of pietra dura executed ,

i n 1 6 0 0 for the altar of th e M edicean M ausoleu m to replace ,

the table o f an earlier date and inferior workmanship now i n ,

the Sala di Baroccio I n the centre is a representation of the .

port at Leghorn as itf a ppe a re d after the construction o f the


,

fortifications T h e Grand l D uke Cosimo I was extremely


. .

desirous to prom ote the commerce of Leghorn but his favou rite ,

scheme of building an e ff icient harbour was only fulfilled by


his sons F ra ncis I and F erdinand I When other states were
,
. .

i nvolved i n wars T uscany was happily exempt and thus the


,

new port was filled with ships from all nations Vessels of .

every shape and si z e are here represented floating on a sea o f ,

Persian lapis la z uli and among them a squadron o f six galleys


,

o f St Stephen which drag two T urkish ships captive T h e


.
,
.

O rder o f St S tephen was instituted by Cosim o I i n imitation


. .
,

o f that of M alta to protect the coast from the i nfidel and to


, ,

secure the permanent service o f a fleet without the expense of ,

its maintenance .

T h e urns and vases wh ich once contained relics taken from ,

San Loren z o were manufactured by order of Pope Clement


,

V I I the nephew of Loren z o the M agn ificent about 1 5 3 3


.
, , .

T hey were removed to this Gallery by the A ustrian Grand


D uke Pie tro Leopoldo i n 1 7 8 1 S everal of them were m anu .

f ac tured by the most celebrated gem cutters o f the tim e and -

fi rst among these was Valerio Vicentino who executed for Pope ,

Clement a oa ssetta or casket to contain the pisside pyx or box


, , , ,

in which the consecrated wafer was placed on T hursday of


H oly Week T h e pyx itsel f was a work of great delicacy
. It .

was o f fi ne enamel set with rubies bu t was unfortunately stolen


, ,

i n 1 8 6 0 Clement bestowed two thousand golden crown s on


.

Valerio Vicentino for th e casket which was presented to F rancis ,


1 20 UFFIZI GA LLER Y .

R i n the centre was not unintentional and is supposed to hav e ,

i mplied the word R ex and this conj ecture is confirmed by the


small crown on the covers of th e 7neseiroba or mixing cups , ,

Case VI i n one of which is a vase o f oriental sardonyx T h e


.
, .

M edici ball rests on a royal crown O f the eighteen Laurentian .

vases five are of ori ental sardonyx four of red S icilian j asper
, , ,

one o f yellow Sicilian j asper one of carnelian two amethysts


, , ,

one red j a sper one i n flowered j asper o f Sicily one i n green


, ,

j asper and the last i n fossil wood T hey were all made i n
,
-
.

the gardens o f th e Cas ino di Sa n M arco where Loren z o ,

maintai ned a school for artists .

I n Case V is a small column of rock crystal which wa s


.
,

executed for the Grand D uke Cosimo I to celebrate his .


,

destr u ction o f the S ien nese R epublic I t rests on lions in agate .

and has a hexagonal golden stand T hough not a good s tyle .

of work it i s remarkable for the multitude of fig u res introd u ced


,

withi n so small a space and has an historical i nterest O n th e


, .

pedestal an al legory sets forth the greatness o f F lorence u nder


the M edici rule a male figure seated beneath a porch of the ,

T uscan order i n architecture has the attributes of commerce


,

by sea and land a philosopher and a warrior dispute n e ar the


walls o f a city g u arded by the Lion of F lorence ; Peace i s
symbolised by an olive and a female with wheat in one han d
,

and fr u it in the other a husbandman drives oxen in a plough ,

a n d a shepherd guards his flocks to represent agric u ltural and ,

pastoral life ; a battle is taking place between cavalry and


i nfantry probably that of M ontemurlo gained by the Grand
, ,

D uke Cosimo i n 1 5 3 7 when h e captured his greatest enemy


,

and former friend F ili ppo Stro zz i Victory waves her palm
, .

branch and F ame holds a royal crown over a city typical o f


'

, ,

F lorence w hilst she blows her tr u mpet and a horseman gallops


, ,
.

towards the gate I n the upper part of this column are six
.

medallions with portraits i n ancient costume above i s seated


a sovereign surro u nded by a numerous Court he is in the act .

of bestowing the b é ton of comman d on one o f his courtiers ,


R O CK CR YS TA L AN D PIE TRA D URA . 121

p robably General M arignano to whom Cosimo confided th e,

cond u ct of the S iennese campaign T h e Pope is also repre .

sented surro u nded by his cardinals and blessing a bishop a nd ,

a lay personage supposed to be Cosimo s ambassador to R ome


,

,

who obtained Pope J u liu s I I I s sanction for his master s .

sei z ure of S ienna still higher u p on the column is the siege


and lastly a warrior closing the temple of Jan u s T h e Vic
, ,
.

to riou s soldiers ascend spirally followed by prisoners ; they ,

bear the enemy s banners reversed and other trophies two of



,

the leaders —M arignano and D o n F rancesco di T oledo ( P)


make a tri u mphal e ntry in to F lorence D o n F rancesco was the .

ambassador of the Emperor Charles V who was received by .


,

Cosimo and his son F rancis after the con q uest of S ienna O n , .

the top is a globe with a second figure of F ame i n gold , ,

bl o w mg her tr u mpet .

Behind this col u mn is a small View O f th e Pia zz a della Sig


noria i n pietra d u ra and gold th e w ork of M aestro Giorgio
, ,

G a ff u ri the M ilanese before mentioned it was intended for one


,

of the ornaments of the trib u ne of the M a u sole u m de M edici i n ’

S a n Loren z o as were also four small lunettes in gold now als o


, ,

i n this collection T h e View was taken from that end of the


.

pia zz a once called the Canto della F arina Giovanni da Bologna s .


e q uestrian stat u e of the Grand D u ke Cosimo I is the most pro .

m inent obj ect and w ith the M ar z occo the stat u es of D avid and
, , ,
’ i

of H ercules by M ichael A ngelo and Baccio B a n din el l i is o f


, ,

gold ; the architrave of the palace is in rock crystal j oined with


silver or copper gilt ; a porter carrying a l o a d i s iss u ing fro m .

the door of the old C u stom H ouse the sky is in lapis la z u l i


and agate heliotrope and j asper are u sed for the houses and
, ,

pavement T h e lunettes i n gold are distrib u ted i n the O pposite


.
, ,

cases T hey represent events in the reign of the G rand D uke


. .

F rancis I O n on e l u nette two engineers present the G rand


.
,
.

D uke F rancis the plan for the fortifications o f Porto F erraio ,

which i s seen bathed by the T yrrh ene a n and M editerranean .

S eas personified i n the foreground there are two other person s


,
1 22 UFFIZI GA LL E R Y .

in attendance o ne of whom i s seated leaning on a sta ff behind


,

th e Prince I n another lunette F rancis is represented receiving


.

t h e plan for the decoration of his villa o f P ra to l in o I n a third .

F rancis is approving the plan for draining the M a rshes a f av ourite ,

s cheme never fulfilled O f the T uscan sovereigns


,
I n a fou rth
, .
,

F rancis is giving orders for the embellishment of a fortress in


a fi fth
. F rancis desires that the Port o f Leghorn should be
,

fortified and lastly F ranci s i s represented occupied with a ffairs


,

o f state .

A bove the casket of Valerio Vicentino i n Case is a fi ne ,

s pecimen O f pietra dura though a proo f of the barbarou s taste ,

for mere display o f riches i n the decline o f A rt T h e person .

represented i s Cosimo I I the fourth M edicean Grand D uke .


,

and the labour and co st for this portrait has hardly been as suc ’

c e ssf u l as the result o f a colo u red print T h e ground of the .

p icture represents a room magnificently fu rnished from whose ,

windows there i s a View of the cupola and bell tower o f th e -

C athedral T h e head of the prince the hands legs and lining


.
, , ,

o f the mantle and erm ine are in Volterra jasper the hair i n ,

Egyptian flints th e rest o f th e dress i n oriental chalcedony red


, ,

j asper from S icily gold and enamel ; and the whole sprinkled
,

with diamonds o f which there are upwards o f three hu ndre d


,

I n Case IV there is a statuette of Venu s and Cupid i n por


.

ph yry the work of Pier M aria da Pescia the great merit o f


, ,

which consists i n the di ff i culties overcome from the hard material


th e artist had to deal with Pier M ari a da Pescia is most cele .

b ra te d for an engraved gem which i s known as the S eal o f ,

M ichael A ngelo preserved i n the Paris collection ,


.

I n Case V are two little vases of aqua marina and one of a


.
-

s ingle emerald ; another i s formed from the agate called the



c at s eye of extraordinary si z e su rmou nted by a pearl
,
a tur ,

q u o ise mask also remarkable for its si z e has diamond eyes a


.

, ,

very fi ne vase of j asper with the h ead of the hydra and a small ,

golden figure o f H ercules on the cover is th e work of Giovan n i ,

d a Bologna .
C H A P T ER X I I .

UFFIZI GA LLER Y— COIN S A N D M ED A LS .

V ALU AB LE collectio n of coins and medals i s likewis e


kept i n a room within the o ffices of the D irector o f the
M useum .

T h e early Etruscan coin an d weights were represented by


the sam e pieces o f bron z e called sgra vi ; and these were divide d
,

according to their value i nto q ua dra ntes nneia l es & c a wheel , , .


,

such as may have been observed frequ ently occurring on Etru s


can monuments i s found upon these coins T h e sgra vi a re
, .

ru dely m anufactured and i n strange contrast with the delicate


workmanshi p bestowed o n Etruscan ornaments T hey prob .

ably date from a very early period as the gold and silver coin
,

of Etruria in the Etruscan M useum are equal to Gre ek .

T w o of the largest sgra vi are round the other oblong they ,

appear to have belonged to a seaport town as besides th e , ,

wheel one has an anchor and another the trident of N eptune


, , ,

as well as the caduceus of M ercury T h e head of Janus with


.

the prow of a ship is common and is appropriate for a com


,

m erc ia l people M inerva i s occasionally s u bstituted for Janu s


.

M erc u ry and the th u nderbolt o f J ove composed of th e thre e


, ,

metals and first devised i n F iesole are likewise foun d o n


, ,

these coins : a vase a horse a m an on horseback a cockle


, , ,

shell and an ear o f wheat are very usual symbols O n a later


,
.

Etruscan coin and from another part of Italy th e elephant is


, ,

admirably represented with a M oor s head on th e reverse


,

COINS AN D ME DALS . 1 25

T he first gold fl orin was coined A D 1 2 5 2 It continued in . . .

c irculation and maintained its credit in Eu rope u ntil the fall of

the R epublic O n one side is the lily on the other S t John


.
,
.

the Baptist Its nominal val u e at that tim e was e q u al to five


.

.francs of the present day but five francs were then worth twelve
,

francs of our money S O high was the rep u tation of the F loren
.

tine gold florin that various sovereig ns forged and circulated


,

counterfeits among these were the popes when at A vignon ,

the princes of D auphin e and the kings of H ungary T h e , .

F lorentine Government appointed six persons at a time to


s u perintend th e coinage at the Z ecca or M int changing them , ,

e very six months A certain amount of bullion was confided


.

to them for which they were responsible I n 1 3 5 2 the presi


,
.

dents O f these Z ecch ieri or o f ficers o f the M int were granted


, ,

the privilege of adding the marks or badges of their families to


the coin and these were placed to the left of the head of S t


.
,

J ohn the B aptist T h e pear of th e Per u zz i the sail of the


.
,

R u c ell a i & c may be seen on the old o rin s of the R ep u blic


,
.
, .

B efore the iss u e of the gold o rin silver alone had been used ,

a s a medi u m T h e earliest silver coi n bears the head of Charle


.

magne the next has a half length figure of S t J ohn the Bap -
.

tist
. I n 1 3 1 6 the F lorentines elected one Lando da G u bbio
with the title of Bargello to whom they confided the govern ,

ment Lando soon proved himself u nworthy and was dis


.
,

missed in 1 3 1 7 b u t d u ring his administration he had c ircu


lated an adulterated coin which he placed at the nominal ,

val ue of five denari and which were popularly known as Bar


,

g e l l in i
. A fter L ando s fall these were called i n and a new coin ,

s truck valued a t thirty denari and called a Guelfo after the


, , ,

party which then r u led the S tate In 1 4 0 0 small copper coins .

were i n circulation called p ieoiol i ,


.

T h e first head represented on a coi n since the days of


Charlemagn e was that of D uke A lexander de M edici when ’

th e flori n was called testone I t was designed by Benven u to


.

C ellini and has on the reverse the fi gu res of St Cosimo and


,
.

1 26 UFFIZI GA LL E R Y .

S t D am ian ,
. the patro n saints o f the M edici i n plac e o f S t , .

J ohn the Baptist A four orin piece of the year 1 5 3 1 re


.
-

presents the Baptism o f Christ and the same device was adopted
,

for the silver coin .

T h e first gold coin o f th e reign of the Grand D uke Cosimo


I has his head and on the reverse the Last J udgment I t
.
, , , .

was called a lira and was struck i n 1 5 5 9 T h e nam e lira



.
,

l iOra was derived from the R oman weight and had be fore ,

this been applied to an imagi nary coi n of the sam e valu e but
it now for the first time was used for a gold piece I n 1 5 5 0 .

th e device was changed to St Cosimo and St J oh n the Bap . .

O n some of Cosimo s coins the Wolf of S ienna i s repre



tist .

sented marking th e perio d o f his conque st o f the city which


,

is supposed to have been founded by th e sons of R emu s a fte r


their father had been slai n by R omulus I n 1 5 8 5 during the .
,

reign o f the Grand D uke F rancis I and perhaps i n compliment .


,

to that sovereign St F rancis takes th e place of St Cosimo and


,
. .

St John the Baptist


. .

A mong the silver coins i n this collection two o f those which ,

bear the head o f the Grand D uke F erdinand I have been .

recently discovered to be h ollow an d to open as boxes In ,


'
.

one of these wa s foun d the m iniature of a gentl ema n in th e


dress of a courtier o f Louis X IV of F rance pai nted on .
,


copper in oil the usual F lorentine practice and resem
bling an i ndiff erent copy o f a portrait of Prince Ch arles the
Great of Lo rraine i n this Gallery though the larger picture
, ,
:

represents a man at a more advanced peri od o f life Th e .

inference is that this miniature was the likeness of the


,

sam e prince i n his youth taken i n F lorence , T h e Grand .

D uch ess M argaret of O rleans the wife of the bigoted ,

Cosim o I I I was attached be fore her marriage to Prince


.
,

Charles H e followed her to the T uscan Court where they


.
,

continued secret lovers and after he left F lorence the con , ,

duct of the Grand D uchess became so eccentric that her hus


band sent her back to F rance where she ended her days Sh e ,
.
1 28 UFFIZI GA LL E R Y
'

m edal re presents Cosim o attired as a R oman con


A nother
u e ro r in a quadriga before S i enna Victory is crowning him
q , , .

This m edal was designed by D omenico R omano .

A large gilt m edal with ships belongs to Li guria or Genoa ,

and is of the time Of D uke Cosimo I .

A silver medal bears the portrait O f Eleanora o f T oledo the ,

wife of Cosimo and has a peacock on the reverse on another


,

silver m edal Cosimo i s represented i n armour receiving his ,

generals ; there is a still more interesti ng medal of Cosim o


w hen young by Benvenuto Cellini
,
.

Leone Leoni o f A re zz o designed the medal which bears


, ,

the likeness o f the unfortunate D o n Carlos the son of Philip I I , .

o f S pain
.
h e is represented as a boy o f twelve years of age .

A nother medal has the portrait of Camilla Peretti the sister of ,

Pope S ixtus V and is by D omenico Poggi called by


.
,

Vasari Poggino and mentioned in his Li fe of Valerio Vic en


, ,

tino as being also a sculptor i n marble A glass medal has .

upon it i n silver the heads of the Grand D uke F rancis I and


, , .
,

o f his first wi fe Joan na of A ustria


,
.

A very interesting set o f dies and punches by B envenuto ,

C ellini and other celebrated artists completes this collection , .


C H A P T ER XIII .

UFFIZI GA LLER Y—B R O N ZE S AND SC ULP TURE .

WO rooms decorated with inlaid marbles the third , O ff

corridor are assigned to a small b u t interesting c o l l ec


,

tion of anti q u e bron z es presented to the M use u m by the Grand


,

D u ke Pietro L eopoldo T h e magnificent horse s head of



.

bron z e with gilt ornaments was discovered in 1 5 8 5 at Civit a


Vecchia and was sent to F lorence I t was first u sed to adorn
,
.

a fo u ntain of the Pala zz o R iccardi b u t in the beginning O f this


,

cent u ry it was bro u ght to the Gallery T h e grande u r as well .

as animation of this head is not exceede d by the horses of


Phi dias from the Parthenon A torso or fragment of a stat u e
.
,

in the Greek style was fo u nd in the sea near Leghorn as well


, ,

as the tripod with veiled heads at the corners ; the stat u e is


s u ppose d to have represented a priestess of A pollo ; besi d es
these several fine b u sts and a val u able inscription on a bron z e
, ,

tablet constit u te the treasures of the o u ter room


,
.

I n the room beyond is a stat u e of a youth holding out his


,

hand as if to receive o ff erings I t is called M erc u ry and was


.
,

at o n e time tho u ght to represent Bacch u s bu t is more po pu ,

l a rl y known as the I dol ino Little Idol ,


T his most bea u ti .

f ul stat u e resembles the same s u bj ect rather diff erently treated


, ,

and called the Praying Boy now in Berlin It was fo u nd at


, .

Pesaro in 1 5 3 0 the pedestal on which the stat u e is placed is a


bron z e of the fi fteenth cent u ry and is adorned with delicate
,

foliage and other compositions in relie f A ro u nd this room .

are cabinets containing small bron z es In the first are v otive .

VO L . 11 . K
3 0 UFFIZI GALLER Y .

o ff erings arms legs & c also a splendid head o f an eagle


, , ,
.
,

and another of a horse .

T h e next cabi net contains images of Sat u rn and J upiter one


of these last with the arm extended is peculiarly fi n e S everal of .

the fig u res hold the sacrificial c u p with the hollo w in the centre
for the fi nger there is a bea u tifu l little stat u ette of M erc u ry in
th e act of running ; another of the sam e subj ect shades his , ,

eyes with his cad u ce u s I n the third cabinet are also vario u s
.

small images of Ven u s and Cupid a warrior bearing the pec u liar ,

shield usually belonging to the A ma z ons and an Etruscan fig u re ,

of M ars which was found at Volterra


,
.

I n the fo u rth cabinet is a very beautiful image of an A ma z on ,

as well as several fig u res o f H erc u les ; Bacch u s seated with ,

grapes in his hand and another of the same god crowned with
,

grapes of wh ich he holds bunches in both hands


,
.

I n th e cabi net at the end o f the room is a curio u s life like


'

fi gure of an actor in a mask h e raises his hand to his forehead as , ,

if gesticulating ; likewise several small portrait b u sts and images


of animals — serpents fi sh leopards lions & c two lamps are
, , , , .

remarkable on e resti ng on the back of a flying eagle the other


, ,

on a lion T h e remainder of the ca b ine ts c o nta in sacrifi cial in


.

strum e n ts and vases T here are several bron z es of the period of


.

D ecadence in Art and others which belong to the Christian


,

era .

R et u rning to the corridor near the entrance to the room s ,

of original drawings and the window over the roof of the


Loggia de Lan z i is a fi ne copy of the Laocoon of the Vatican

, ,

b y Baccio Bandinelli
'

A child with w ings re po sing on a tomb


.

an d holdi ng poppies is an image of Sleep , .

N ear it i s a bea u tifu l little altar hollow at the top to receive ,

the sacrifice and dedicated to the Lares or household gods of


,

A u gustus I n the centre of th e principal relief stands an


.

a u gu r holding the L itu us or crooked sta ff of divination ; a


,

partridge is at his feet on one side a priest on the other a ,

priestess has the c u p for libations below is an inscription on


,
1 32 UFFIZI GA LL E R Y .

opposite is also partly antique but the head a rms and shoulders , , ,

were restored by A ndrea V e ro cc h io A crouch ing Venus is a .

repetition of a statu e in R ome the head arms and left leg , ,

are mode rn M inerva or Pallas A thene a Greek statue


.
, ,

nearly opposite is believed to be a copy of the T rojan Palladi u m ;


,

the head though antique does not belong to the body the
, , ,

right arm and part of the neck are modern .

A l ittl e altar with three female figu res in flat relief is i n


, ,

very e l egant sculpture and below is a pedestal or candelabra ,

dedicated to M ars .

T h e yo u th drawing a thorn from his foot is a good repeti


t ion of the celebrated bron z e of the Capitol at R om e near it
is a bea u tifu l small bu st o f A n n iu s Verus when a boy and
beyond is a large sarcophag u s with the F all of Phaeton
,

i n high re lie f Phaeton is represented falling into the river


.

E ridanus — the modern P o — and his sisters the H eliades are , ,

metamorphosed i nto poplars .

N ear the door of the T ri b une is a fi ne statue o f H ercules ,

though in short proportions thick an d m u sc u lar it is a repetition , ,

of one in R ome there is also a good bust of the Emperor T raj an .

A sarcophagus farther down this corridor has a relief representing ,

the history of M eleager a favo u rite subject on early Etruscan ,

tombs M eleager is represented killing the Calydonian boar which ,

had been wounded by A talanta to whom he resigned the ski n ,

when he married her T h e hero having slain his mother s .


brothers she i n revenge caused his death A gracefu l stat u e


, , ,
.

follo ws of a V estal Virgi n h er figure is half concealed by a


veil and the stat u e except the left hand and the fi ngers of the
, ,

right which are restorations is in a perfect state O pposite is


, ,
.

Ganymede the cup bearer of J u piter with the eagle a good


,
-

stat u e but u nfort u nately the marble has stains T h e b u st of the


,
.

Emperor T it u s son of Vespasian is a rare portrait


,
N ear this ,
.

is the M use U rania ; the drapery of this stat u e is remarkably well


treated J u lia the dau ghter of T it u s is a w ell preserved and
.
, ,
-

exc ellently wrought bust T h e bust O f the R oman Emperor


-
.
S C UL P T URE . 1 33

O tho was considered by Win ckel m a n one of the best in exist


ence and th e bust near it represents N ero when a c h ild ; beyond
, ,

this is the portrait of Popp aea Sabina the wife of N ero cele
, ,

b ra ted for her bea u ty and who instigated him to m u rder his
,

mother and his first wife A very good b u st follows of Caligula


.

yo u ng ; the expression is characteristic of the man T here are .

several good stat u es of athlete s and a Wingless Victory .

A t the farthest end of this corridor is an interesting sarco


h
p g a u s with a high relief ,
representing the life of a hero th e
sacrifice in the centre was probably st u died by R a ff aelle for his ,

cartoon of Paul and B ar n abas at Lystra u nless both this,

R oman work and th e design of R a ff aelle were derived from a


still nobler fragment of the sam e s u bj ect i n R om e .

Th e vestib u le at the h ead of th e stairs leading to the Gal


lery contains several antique stat u es of merit —the celebrated
B oar which was copied i n bron z e by the F lorentine Pietro
,

T acca for the fou ntain of the M ercato N u ovo a H orse R ear
ing s u pposed to have belonged to the N iobe gro u p and two
,

splendid dogs .

O u tside this vestib u le are b u sts of the M edici family from


Cosimo Pater Patri ae to Gian Gastone
, , S everal statues of
.

inferior merit are on the staircase .


C H A P T ER XIV .

TH E A C A D E M I .

HE en trance to the A cademy once a hospital for the ,

sick is by a long vestibule with a waggon roof which


, ,

adds to its u nusual height A t the farther end i s the stat u e o f


.

D avid by M ichael A ngelo


, .

T hough it is to be regretted that this statue has been


rem oved from the Pala zz o Vecchio where it was placed ,

by the artist himself and where it has stood sentinel thro u gh


,

the wi nt er s cold and s u mmer s heat for more than three


’ ’

hundred years its present place withi n the walls of a museum


, , ,

enables the p u blic better to j udge of its merits .

T h e light from above shows the statue to the best a dv a n ~

tage T h e stern resol u te yo u ng face u nder the shadow o f


.
,

thick curling locks ; the slender fig u re bea u ti fully modelled ; ,

the fi rm dignified yet easy attit u de resting on one leg and


, , ,

leaning slightly backwards that he may ga z e o n the fallen gia nt ,

tell the story well T h e head i s large b u t M ichael A ngelo had


.
,

probably calc u lated that the statue wo u ld be placed at s u ch a


height as to give it its du e proportion ; the hands also are coarse
and O f great si z e b u t so grand a work mu st be measured by
a different standard from that of the perfect works of Greek
sculptors Th e genius which has gi ven s u ch life to m arble
.

converts criticism into wonder and admiration O ur distin .

g u ish e d sculptor the late J


,
ohn Gibson w hose i ntense reverence ,

for the highest Greek art i s proved by his own works exclaimed , ,

when beholding this fig u re What a fi ne statue is the D avid !


,

1 3 6 TH E A CA DEM Y
B eside this altar piece there is a much damaged picture by F ra
-


A ngelico ( 1 3 8 7 1 4 5 of the Virgin and Child enthroned with
Saints trees are in the background .

R et u rning to the entrance on the wall to the left is a l arge ,

altar piece attrib u ted to Pietro Cavallini a R oman artist th e


-

, , ,

contemporary of Giotto who painted the supposed miraculous ,

picture in the S S A nnun z iata and died abo u t 1 3 6 4 I n the


.
,
.

centre is an A nn u nciation ; saints on either side Incidents .

i n the life of our Savio u r are i ntroduced in th e frame in the


predella is an Entombment F arther on this wall is Sa n .

Bernardino of Sienna who fo u nded the R eformed O rder o f


,

F ranciscans and died in th e A bru zz i


,
H e was canonised by .

Pope N icholas V 1 4 5 0 When preaching he always held a


.
,
.

tablet before him withi n which was the name of J es u s e n


,

circled by golden rays .

T h e H oly T rinity St A ndrew and St A nthony i s a t


,
.
,
.

tribu ted to N ic o l O G ori ni of the school of T addeo Gaddi ,


.

I n the predella are represented scenes from the life of St .

A nthony .

N ext to this pict u re is an altar piece o f the Virgin a n d -

Child with a Goldfi nch St Lo u is of F rance the Baptist and ,


.
, ,

two other Saints by S pinello A retino who died i n 1 4 1 0 A , .

large damaged picture of Christ on the Cross s u pported by ,

the Eternal and surrounded by A ngels i s by A lessio B aldo ,

Vinetti
( 1 42 7

A door to the right opens on a suite of four small rooms ,

containing som e of the greatest treas u res of the Gallery N ear .

the entrance is the predella to an altar piece by Lu ca Sig ~

n o rel l i 1 4 4 1 —1 2
( 5 T h e s u bj ects are : the Last Supper the ,

Garden of Gethsemane and th e F lagellation I t is a late ,


.

work of the master b u t the subj ects are treated with great
,

freedom and power .

A bove the Luca Signorelli is a large picture of the Virgin


and Child by F ra A ngelico ( 1 3 8 7
, to the right are
St M atthew St F rancis and St Lawrence whose garment
.
, .
, .
,
TH E 2 M MD E M Y m7
i s adorned with peacock s feathers emblematical of im m o r ’
,

tality to the left St D ominic with St Cosimo and St D a


,
. . .

mian .

T h e most interesting pictures here are those by F ra


A ngelico facing the window ; and divided by the proj ection
, ,

of the chimney are small panel pict u res which once adorned
,

the doors of the c u pboards containing the sacred plate in the


monastery of the SS A nn u n z iata T h e s u bj ects are all taken
. .

from the life of the Savio u r except one mystical representation ,

of the Wheel in the visio n of the prophet Ez ekiel T hey were .

exec u ted by order of Piero de M edici the son of Cosimo ’


, ,

Pater Patri ae abo u t 1 4 3 3 T h e animation and dramatic power


,
.
,

as well as traditional type Of these compositions recall the , ,

Giottes q u e school whilst there is a superior refinement bea u ty


, , ,

and tenderness with greater vigour than u sually characterises


,

F ra A n gelico .

A mong those to the right of the chimney are the A dora


tion of the Child the Visit of the M agi the Presentation i n
the T emple ; the F light into Egypt ; and the Last Su pper ;
this last tho u gh not s u pposed to be by the hand of A ngelico
, ,

is represented in an original and beautifu l manner T h e Virgin .

i n the Visit to the M agi is one of the most lovely conceptions


of the M other of o u r Lord A bove these works of F ra A ngelico
.

are two pict u res of A ngels attrib u ted to F rancesco G ra n a cc i


,


4 7 7 1 5 43 )
( 1

O n the proj ecting


wall is a predella also by Angelico with , ,

six scenes from the lives of St Cosimo and St D amian ; the . .


s u bj ect was selected in compliment to the artist s patrons the ,

M edici painted for the S S A nnun z iata


,
. .

O n the highest line is a M adon n a with the Child standing


on her kriee by A ngelico ,
.

O n the second line are two splendid heads of V a ll o mb ro sia n


monks seen in profile T hey are attributed to Per u gino but
.
,

are m ore probably by R aff aelle T hat to the right is a portrait .

of D o n Blasio Ge ner al of the O rder the other is D o n Bal


,
1 38 TH E A CA DE M Y .

thasar, Abbot of Vallombrosa R a ff aelle may have painted .

these pict u res when visiting Vallombrosa on his way from


U rbino to F lorence T h e heads are sharply defi ned on a
.

d a rk backgro u nd and modelled with the u tmost care i n good


,

relie f ; every feature including the ears is drawn with i ndivi d


, ,

u a l ity and yet this close attention to exact for m is kept d u ly


subordinate or made to assist the higher ai m of the artist i n
,

tr u th o f expression Light shade and colo u r have here each


.
, ,

their relative importance T h e lovely M adonna del Cardellino .


,

now i n th e T ribune of the U ffiz i Galle ry is said to have been ,

painted for this A bbot of Vallombrosa


B eyond these at the side of the proj ecting wall i s Christ
, ,

R ising from the T omb the A doration o f the M agi and two , ,

exq u isitely pai nted circular pictures O f the Coronation of the


Vi rgi n and the Crucifixion by F ra A ngelico , .

F acing the w indow are the remaining pictures of the series


for the SS A nnu n z iata already described by F ra A ngelico
.
, , .

Th e R aising o f La z arus and Christ Bearing H is Cross to ,

Calvary are the fi nest in this last the M other of o u r Lord is


,

p u shed back by the R oman soldiers who have the Gentile ,

sign of the scorpion on their mantles .

A bove these small pict u res is a fi n e l y coloured D eposition -

from the Cross N ear the door are two oth er miniatu res by
.

A ngelico the M iracle of St Cosimo and St D amian healing . .

the man s Le g also fi ve martyrs beheaded



,
.

B eside these is a powerfu l head of Girolamo Savonarola ,

represented as Piero M artire by his disciple F ra Bartolommeo , .

T ho u gh th e feat u res are plain the sweet patient and devout , , ,

expression of the ey e an d mo u th is sing u larly beautifu l .

T o the left of the door are two very lovely female and two
male Saints by F ra F ilippo Lippi ( 1 4 0 6
,
O ver the
door i n a l u nette are th e A nn u nciation and the A scension
, ,

of the S avio u r i n small fig u res attrib u ted to Giotto


, ,
.

A damaged altar piece of a Virgin enthroned with tw o-

A ngels and Sai nts by F ra A ngelico ha ngs high on the wall


, ,
1 4 0 TH E A CA D E Il I Y .

possible at such a moment S ome look u p with gratefu l love.

to the Saviour ; others em brace one another or are embraced ,

by their g u ardian angels one overcome with j oy and wonder ,

at the glorious vision opening before him can advance n o ,

farther b u t kneels with eyes entranced fixed on the gates of


, , ,

Paradise to which the celestial being at his side points the way
,
.

A ngels crowned with roses and with glittering wings m ove ,

i n a mystic dance amidst flowers whilst others float onwards ,

i n a stream of golden light and enter th e heavenly J er u salem


,
.

I n one of the windows are pictures by F rancesco G ra na cc i ,

the p u pil of D omenico Ghirlandaio and the friend and admirer ,

o f M ichael A ngelo and Ra ffaelle T hey represent the life and .

martyrdom O f St A pollonia T h e fig u res are too tal l and


. .

slender b u t neverthele ss they have grace m ovement and


, , ,

dramatic appropriateness the saint herself i s very lovely .

T h e adj oining room contains a collection o f drawings and


cartoons by some of the best masters F acing the e ntrance .

are three by R a ff aelle ; the cartoon for the famo u s pict u re of


the Pearl which i s at M adrid omitting the figure of J oseph
, ,

a chalk drawing o f the M adonna with the S leeping Child '

she rai ses a veil and shows him to the little S t J ohn ; the .

original pict u re is lost and according t o Passavant all so


, , ,

considered are copies and di f fer i n the background from this


,

cartoon a picture i n the Corsi ni Gallery is a copy by M ariotto ,

A l b e rtin ell i of the lost picture of R a a e l l e


,
A third drawing is .

a M adonna the Child standi ng on H is m other s knee his foot


,

resting on her hand .

F acing the window are three large cartoons o f apostles by ,

F ra Bartolommeo ( 1 4 7 5 A bove them a colossal head


of the Virgi n by Correggio and the cartoons for the H oly
, ,

F amily of A ndrea del Sarto in the Pitti as well as another


H oly F amily by F ra Bartolommeo .

T o the left of the wi n dow are two female and one m ale
saint also by F ra Bartolommeo and a very lovely M adonna
, ,

and Child by Loren z o Credi ( 1 4 5 9


,
TH E A CADEM Y . 1 41

Enteri n g the third room opposite the spe ctator is an alle , ,



gory of S pring one o f Sa n dro Botticelli s most celebrated "


,

works ( 1 4 4 7 It was painted for Cosimo de M edici s ’ ’

Villa O f Castello near F lorence at the same time with the


, ,

Venus now in the Sala di Loren z o M onaco in the U i z i Gallery


,
.

B oth the s u bj ects and their treatment are in accordance with


the taste of the period when Greek classics were in fashion, ,

altho u gh Greek art was imperfectly u nderstood T h e in fl u ence .

of F ra F ilippo Lippi may be traced in Botticelli s fig u res ’


,

and the in fl u ence of the Pollaioli in his love of ornament


in the midst of a grove Spring is seen attired in a white ,

garment sprinkled over with b u nches of fl owers Sh e gathers


,
.

u p h e r dress to receive the fl owers po u red into it from the lips

of a n ymph who flies from a geni u s of the wood I n the


, .

m idst of the grove Ven u s is standing clothed in white with a


,

red mantle lined with bl ue and gold B otticelli has been more .

s u ccessfu l in pr od u cing his idea of bea u ty in the Goddess than


i n the fig u re of Spring H e r attitude i s gracefu l her h ead
.
,

slightly bent ; C u pid hovers above and aims his arrow ,

at th e Graces who dance i n a circle their hands entwined


, , ,

whilst M erc u ry with his cad u ce u s shakes down roses Th e .

Graces are draped in white and their movements appear slow ,

and la ngu id T h e colo u r of this pict u re has been m u ch


.

inj ured .

T obias led by the angel Gabriel is an interesti ng tho ugh


, ,

damaged pict u re also by Sandro Botticelli t h o u gh the form s


,

are ang ular the movements are free a nd the composition has
, ,

m u ch grande u r Beyond there are two saints by Pollaiolo


.
, , ,

and a Visitation O f M ary to Eli z abeth by Giacomo P a c h ia ro tti O f ,

S ienn a born in 1 4 7 4 H e was according to Vasari much esteemed


,
.
, ,

in his native city tho u gh almost all the n u mero u s pict u res
,

he exec u ted have long since disappeared H e j oined in re v o l u .

tio n a ry dist u rbances within S ienna and was conse q u ently ,

banished T his pict u re is one of three which are all that


.
,

remain to show his powers as an artist T ho u gh light and .



1 42 TH E A CA D E /II Y .


feeble i n colour and som ewhat insipid there is a pleasing
, ,

simplicity in the composition : a tri umphal arch and long paved ,

way form the backgro u nd and the H oly S pirit as a clove is ,

hovering in the clear blue sky above the pri ncipal group .

A t the farther end of this room is a Crucifixion by Lu ca ,

Signorelli o f Cortona T h e attitude of the M agdalene is fin e


.

tho u gh somewh at theatrical T h e picture is painted in dis .

temper .

O ver the door is a very interesting Pieta also in distemper ,

on a tile attributed though without any certai n ty to A ndrea


, , ,

Castagno T h e artist has made a pentimento or a change in


.
,

his original intention in the attitu de of the Saviour s arms
, .

F acing th e window is a very fi ne picture by F rancia o f


B ologna the M adonna and Child St F rancis with a Crucifix ,
.
,

and St A nthony bearing the lily


. .

A M adonna and Child enthroned with Saints by D omenico


Ghirlandaio ( 1 44 9 is powerfu l i n dra w ing and expression ,

and is painted in full bright colours T h e head of the Virgin


is very lovely T h e four splendid figures of saints are —St
.

. .

T homas A q uinas ; St D enis the A reopagite S t Clem ent wh o


. .
,

was the third Bishop of R ome and therefore represented as ,

Pope ; and S t D ominic St T homas one o f the greatest


. . .
,

theologians of the R oman Catholic Ch u rch has a countenance ,

expressive of conscious power ; acute yet dignifi ed : h e was ,

descended from the sister of F rederick B arbarossa who married ,

a Cou nt of A qu ino : their grandson was educated i n the


school O f th e B enedictine friars of M onte Cassi no but he took ,

the D ominican habit in N aples H e was remarkable for self .

com mand for h is calm deportment and for his hum ility as
, ,

well as learning ; he refused all Church preferment and died ,

i n 1 2 7 4 in a Cistercian abbey at F ossa N ova near R ome


, , ,

on his way to Lyons to complai n aga i nst Charles of ,

A nj ou ? St D enis is here represented on the other side of


.

the Virgin with a red collar ro u n d his neck to signi fy his


, ,

Se e Mrs J a m eson s IV
I ona stic Orders

1
.
1 44 TH E A CA D E M Y .

Of th e Convent o f St Sixtus i n R ome when news was brought


.
, ,

that the Cardinal s nephew had been th rown from hi s horse and
killed T h e body was carried into the Chapter house where
.
-

the prayers O f St D om inic restored the youth to life T h e


. .

last scene in the predella represents the execution of St D enis .


,

who is walki ng o ff with hi s own head in his hand .

AH oly F amily by Loren z o Credi ( 1 4,5 9


—1
5 was executed
for the Church of the SS A nnu n z iata ; it is painted in the .

clear hard colour pec u liar to the artist T h e child is pu ffy and .

heavy as are also the forms of that still more original a rt ist
, ,

F ra F ilippo Lippi to whom is attri buted the other H oly F amily


, ,

next that o f Loren z o Credi ; this defect does not however , ,

exist in the picture beyon d also by F ili ppo Lippi ( 1 4 0 6 —1 4 6 9 ) i n


,

his early style H e was at that tim e u nder the infl u ence o f
.

F ra A ngelico T h e Virgin kneels in adoration o f the I n fa nt


.

Saviour ; the H oly S pirit descends and two hands above are ,

typical of the Creator from whom the D ove has flown S t , . .

John the Baptist as a boy is seen to th e right pointi ng to the


, , ,

Christ and looking back as if calli ng others to follow below i s


,

a Camaldolese monk T h e wilderness represented by rocks .


, ,

trees and rivers cover the whole backgro u nd leavi ng no space


, , ,

for the sky T h e M adonna has the high forehead the pale
.
, ,

delicate complexion and serious yet girlish expression u sual


,

with these early F lorentine representations of the mother of the


S aviour ; two angels kneel i n the upper part of the pict u re .

B eyond this are four small B otticellis A c u rious painting by .

an u nknown artist represents the marriage of Boccaccio A dimari


and Lisa R icasoli i n 1 4 2 0 T h e family o f the A dimari whose
,
.
,

palaces occ u pie d a considerable part of the present Via


Cal z aioli towards the Pia zz a del Battisterio were then at the
, ,

height of their power and one A lemanno probably the uncle , ,

of the bridegroom was Cardinal and A rchbishop of Pisa he


,

died i n 1 4 2 2 T h e lady was of no less ill u strio u s parentage ;


.

her family settled in F lorence about 1 3 0 6 several of them had


served under the Emperors F rederick Barbarossa H enry VI , .
,
TH E A CA DEM Y . 1 45

a nd O tho IV T h e costumes of th e peri o d are here exh ibited


.

the procession is movi ng from the Loggia degli A dimari towards


th e Cathedral which is represented as a red brick building
, ,

with a bel fry seen above the awning Santa M aria del F iore .

was not fi nished earlier than 1 4 1 9 and we may there fore ,

suppose it possible that this marriage may have ta ken place a


f e w years sooner than th e date assigned for the artist appears ,

to have given a faithful representation o f the su rrounding


buildings —viz the Baptistery before which ladies are seated
, ,

to witness the show and a gate beyond probably the poste m


, ,

of the S padai or sword makers A c a rpet is spread over the


,
-
.

old pavement of F lorence ; beneath the Loggi a servants are ,

carrying golden dishes for the banquet and musicians are seated ,

near ; one plays the trombone the res t are the trumpeters o f ,

th e R epublic and have banners with the red lily of F lorence


,

attached to their trumpets .

I n a dark corner near the window is another small picture ,

by Botticelli of a saint kneeling before a cross to which he is


,

to be nailed .

R eturning to the Vestibule th e v isitor passes between the ,

two fi ne casts of M ichael A ngelo s monuments to the M edici in ’

Sa n Loren z o Within the wings of the building on either side


.

o f the statue of D avid are other fi ne casts from his works


, ,

and on the walls excellent photographs by Braun the F rench ,

photographer from A lsace who has selected from the drawings


,

of the great master in Paris Weimar &c , , .

T o the left of D avid are those taken from M ichael A ngelo s


paintings in the S istine Chapel at R om e .

T h e room parallel to the fi rst Vestibule was at one time the


female ward of the hospital and is now the principal picture ,

gallery Be ginning at the farther end where are the earliest


.
,

paintings to the right is a curious example of very early Italian


,

art the life of M ary M agdalene ; it retai ns the conventional


,

type of By zantium the ancient Constantinople whose school


, ,

of art was imported into Italy through Venice N ear this , .

VO L . 11 . L
1 46 TH E A CA DEM Y .

picture is S anta U milta by an unknown author possibly B u ffal


, ,

macco who was living in 1 3 5 1 Santa U milt a was the foundress


,
.

o f a convent which stood on the site since occupied by the ,

F orte zz a del Basso ; the picture i ncludes various i ncidents in


the life of the sai nt an d tells the story well
, .

A bove these painti ngs is the M adonna ent hroned by Gio


vanni Cimabu e ( 4 c 1 2 0 — . I n many respects this picture
resembles his more celebrated and better preserved painting o f
the same subj ect in the Ru cel la i Chapel of Santa M aria N ovella .

T here is little variety of expression or action ; th e heads lea n


towards the right or left shoulder bu t there is a certain maj esty
,

i n the tranquil form of the Virgin here represented as the,

Queen of H eaven and Ci mabue has given her more animatio n


,

than i n pictures of the B y z antine school i n the heads of the


prophets below the spectator is reminded that Cimabue was
,

the master o f Giotto T h e una ff ected earnestness with which


.

the sacred subj ect is treated gives this work a higher i nterest
than it deserves for mere techni cal skill C a val ca sell e observes
'
,


that it may rank high er than that of the R uc e lla i as regards
composition and the study o f n ature ; b u t the old types are
more obstinately maintai ned and above all the colou r has
, ,

been so altered by time and restoring that the excellent qualities


of Cimabu e in this respect can hardly be traced any longer .

Cimabue here gave the Virgin a more natural attitude and a


less rotund head but a weightie r frame stronger outlines and
, , ,

1 ’
a less care ful execution than be fore . T h e prophet s below are
pai nted with energy of expression .

T o the left o f the door is another large altar piece painted by -

Cimabue s pupil Giotto ( 1 2 6 6 —1 3



,
T hough not a favourable
specimen of this great F lorentine artist i t exhibits the progress ,

made i n a few years there is a nearer approach to nature and ,

less of the old conventional type T h e drawing is carefu lly


.

studied a feeling for beauty i s shown i n th e head of the Vi r


gin as well as in some of the surrounding angels and the Child
, ,

is fuller and rounder i n form but the type throughout has less
1
S e e C ro w e a nd C a va l ca se ll e vo l 1 p 2 06
, . . . .
1 48 TH E A CA DE M Y

A bove these the Virgi n appeari ng to S t B ernard by a n


, .
,
.

e arly unknown artist is clear i n colou r and sweet and tru e in


, ,

expression T h e two heads behi nd St Be rnard looking ove r


. .
,

him are full o f character and in excellent contrast


,
.

T h e predella has four subj ects : a K night with a White ,


:

H orse kn e eling in prayer before the cross handle o f his sword


,
-

which is placed on a rock ; the Beheadal o f a Saint whos e ,

s oul as a dove flies out of his mouth S t Be rnard preaching


, ,
.
,

and St Bernard with his D isciples


. .

A damaged picture i n the corne r o f the adj oining wall o f a


dead Ch rist i n the arm s o f the Virgin and M agdalene is by ,
'

Giovanni da M ilano ; i n t his may be obse rved a closer attention .

to natural form s and expression with further abando nment o f


,

conventional types .

B elow is th e Life o f our S aviour another series of pane l ,


pictures belonging to the sacri sty o f Santa Croce and likewis e ,

attributed to Giotto m ore probably the work of T addeo Gaddi :


,

these are in some respects in feri or to the Li fe o f St F rancis .

they are harder in outline and less beauti ful i f we except th e ,

A doration o f the K ings and the Presen tation i n the T emple ,

which i n treatment resembles the sam e subj ect by A ndrea .

Pisano o n the bron z e gates of the Baptiste ry T h e Presentation .

i n th e T emp l e is by A mbrogio Loren z etti of S ienna above this


i s a feeble picture much repainte d but the archi tectural draw
ing and the perspective of the T emple are executed with grea t .

care and fi nish restorations and varnish have however nearl y , ,



obliterated all traces of the master s hand .

T o the left is an A nnunciation by Loren z o M onaco ( c 1 3 7 0


, .

T h e Virgin timidly shrinks back at the approach o f the


angel Vasari describes this new and original treatment of th e
.

subj ect by Giotto in the Badi a T h e picture he alludes to .


,

however h a s long disappeared with all Giotto s paintings i n
, ,

that church b u t this A nnunciation which was removed from ,

the Badia in 1 8 1 2 so exactly corresponds with Vasari s descrip


,

~

t ion that it is probably the same altho u gh he has mistaken th e


, , .
TH E A CADEM Y . 1 49

uthor T h e attitude of the Virgi n is repeated i n the picture


a .

b y Lippo M e m m i of Sienna in the corridor of the Uffiz i Gal


.
,

l ery O n each side of the A nn u nciation are St Catharine and


. .

S t A nthony S t P ro cu l u s and St F rancis


.
, . T h e angel of . .

t h e A nn u nciation with his wings of many colours his hands ,

. f olded on his breast and a fl ame on his head is very graceful, ,


.

A bove this pict u re is a D eposition a large composition of ,


many fig u res attributed to T addeo Gaddi but it is more prob


,

. ably the work of N ico l b di Pietro G erin i one of his scholars , ,

who occasionally painted with T addeo but was greatly his ,

inferior as the date of this picture is 1 4 0 1 after the death o f


, ,

T addeo Gaddi .

A n interesting picture o f the A doration of the Kin gs i s by


G entile da F a b ria n o ( 1 3 7 0 1 4 0 P an U mbrian painter who
5 )
-

, ,

exercised considerable influence on the school of early Venetian


A rt H is works have been compared with those of F ra
.

A ngelico but Gentile used gold only to add ornament to his


,

pictures and not as F ra A ngelico to suggest an idea of


, , ,

heavenly glory ; he imitated embroidery and rich stu f fs thus ,

d estroying the poetry or illusion of his picture Gentile was .

first employed in Bergamo and Venice from whence he came ,

to F lorence in 1 4 2 2 T his picture was painted in 1 4 2 3 Th e


. .

attempts at foreshortening and the po rtra itdike character of the


heads as well as the m u ltitude of figu res men horses dogs
, , , , ,

birds and apes recall Paolo U ccello and the P e sel lini whilst
, ,

the U mbrian tenderness of treatment and Venetian rich colour


ing and love of ornament i ndicate the vari ous schools i n which
the artist had studied T h e H oly F am ily is insipid but the .
,

t hree kings are in natural attitudes and have much beauty of ,

e xpression .

I n the predella are two lovely miniatures of the Virgin Wor


s hipping the Child and the F light into Egypt .

Th e M adonna and Child above surrounded by angels and ,

saints in adoration is by A gnolo Gaddi ( 1 3 3 0 ,


the son of
T addeo and the pupil of Giovanni da M ilano from whom he
, ,
1 50 TH E A CA D E III Y .

derived a certain realistic tendency or the endeavour to imitat e ,

nature closely w itho u t selection he sometimes even descended


,

to caricature in his attempt to pourtray violent emotion ; a s


A gnolo advanced in the knowledge and practice of his art h e ,
:

ceased to follow his m aster in this respect and even developed ,

greater powers in composition than his father T addeo T his .

picture was pai nted for the Chu rch of Sa n Pancraz io in ,

F lorence .

A D eposition by F ra A ngelico is executed with the u tm ost


, ,

care and fi nish T h e brilliancy of the colour without shade o r


.
,
'

chiaroscuro becomes flat and gaudy i n a picture of thes e


,

dimensions and is not as well adapted for the representatio n


,

of an earthly scene as when meant to symbolise celestial purity .

T h e w orshipping angels i n the sky are here n ot devoi d of


gri mace T h e body of the S aviour is covered with dark l ines
.
,

to denote the strokes of th e rod w ith which H e had been


scourged and is feeble i n drawing and colour ; the grou p o f
,

females on the left is the most i nteresting part of this picture ,

especially the woman withou t a glo ry dressed i n black and Wit in ,

a white veil who holds one end of the sh eet in which the body
,

o f the Saviou r i s to li e T h e best male heads are a man i n a


.
,

black cap in the centre evidently a portrait N ic o de m u s


, ,

standing below and the two who are detaching the body from
,

the cross St J ohn is a very graceful fi gure and is full of feel


. .
,

i ng T h e hands are all delicately execute d T h e miniat u re s


.

of saints set i n the fram e of this picture are admirable both in


, ,

expression and colour T hose above are by Loren z o M onaco


.
,

but not equal to the rest by F ra A ngelico I t i s with som e .

hesitation we venture to di ffer i n our estimation of this pictur e


from so high an authority as C a va l ca sel l e who writes ,


N othing can be better than the nude in its fleshy flexible ,

forms which show the scars of the previou s a gel l atio n noth ing
, ,

truer than the movement T h e grou p to the right is remark


.

able the heads revealing a point of contact between A ngelico


and the w orks of M asolino di Castiglione as regard s characte r ,
1 5 2 TH E A CA DEM Y .

i n which are assembled angelic beings who witness the corona


tion of the Virgin represented as a you ng and modest girl not
, ,

daring to raise her eyes to the Eternal who is crownin g her , ,

but looking towards one of th e slender angels who support the


band or scroll that descends from the Saviour Grou ps of .

angels crowned with roses among whom are several aged ,

saints sing hymns on either side of the throne below them


, ,

and nearer the spectator are groups of lovely women and ,

small children T h e type is the same throughout ; heavy


.

featured round faces with light hair b u t th ey have the charm


, , ,

of a sweet simplicity united with grave earnestn ess o f de


m ea n o u r and their attitudes are graceful
,
T h e draperies are .

drawn and composed with care and j udgment A n aged monk .

i n white in the foreground to the left of St A nthony has a fin e


,
.
,

portrait like head -


T h e picture has been much dam age d
.
,

and has been repaired i n most parts T h e predella below .

belonged to th e B a rb a do ri altar piece which was exec u ted -

for the Church of Santo Spirito and is now i n the Louvre ,

at Pari s the colour of this predella has bee n i nj ured


by tim e but it has far greater claim to admiration than the
,

altar piece above I t was also pai nted by F ra F ilippo when


-
.

he was only twenty six years of age ; and as the B a rb a do ri


-

picture is said to be on e of the greatest e f fort s of his genius so ,

this predella has a refi nement of feeling and grandeur O f com


position which we miss i n the large picture Th e A nnunciation .

is treated in a novel manner T h e angel kneels gracefu lly .


,

the curve o f his wings follows the i nclination of his body and ,

forms an arch over his head : he prese nts a lighted candle


to the Virgin whose dignified and noble presence is u nlike the
,

simple peasant girl the pai nter u sually represen ts her .

T o the le ft is the B aptism of Christ by A ndrea V ero c c h io


.
,

( 14
3 5 T h e a erial distance the sky and landscape are , , ,

very beautiful T h e outline o f the figures is extremely fi ne


.
,

though hard and the anatomy in that of the Baptist is too


,

much defined this probably i s occasioned by the unfinished


, ,
TH E A CADEM Y . 1 53

s
. tate i n which V ero c c h io l ef t th e pict u re T h e feat u res of the
.
.

B aptist as well as of the Savio u r are rather coarse and v u lgar


, , ,

b u t the expression noble ; the soft and delicate beauty of the


kneeling angels is du e to Leonardo da Vinci the pupil of ,

V e ro c c h io and the master was so disgusted at his own in


,

f e rio rity to his scholar that he is said from that time forth to
have reno u nced painting .

St J erome Kneeling i n Prayer is attrib u ted to F ra F ilippo


.
,

b u t is more probably by his son F ilippino Lippi i n his decline , .

A Virgin and Child enthroned with Saints is a very fine , ,

picture by Sandro Botticelli painted at the period when his


, ,

works display the in fl u ence of the Po ll aj o li T h e hands of the .

Virgin especially the left are executed with tr u th and fi nish


, ,

t h e Child i s most lovely and gracefu l tho u gh both M other ,

a n d Child have the angu larity characteristic of Botticelli St . .

Cosimo and S t D amian kneel in the foregro u nd ; the first


.

t u rns to the spectator the last looks u p at the Virgin ; both


,

a re noble heads St F rancis who is behind St Catharine is


. .
, .
,

extremely fine ; the other saints are more remarkable for the
.beauty of their draperies than their persons T h e colo u r is .

f u ll and powerfu l ; the predella below is by the yo u nger


P esel lino and represents the Birth of the S avio u r the M artyr
, ,

dom O f St Cosimo and St D amian and St A nthony of Padua


. .
,
.

discovering the heart of a dead u s u rer in hi s money chest ;


this last is the fi nest of the three compartments A ccording .

:to C a v a l ca sell e — a gentle and natural animation pervades all


t h e figures T h e females i n the foreground are in good pro


.

p ortions and ,
the whole is drawn and exec u ted with neatness ,

p recision and freshness and without vulgarity



.
, ,

A large pict u re above is the Coronation of the Virgin one ,

of Botticelli s fi nest works A ngels hand in hand dance in a



.
, ,

circle ro u nd the glory which s u rrounds her they are light and
gracefu l with floating hair and draperies which quiver in many
, ,

folds in the bree z y air ; other angels scatter roses F lame .

c oloured and blue cherubim form an arch under which are


1 54 TH E A CA DEM Y .

seated the Eternal and the Virgin O f the four saints below .
,

St J ohn the Evangelist holding his Gospel in o ne hand an d


.
,

raising th e other i n ecstas y is i n an awkward attit u de ; St ,


.

A ugustine who writes i n a book is very grand


, the two others ,

are S t J erome and St Eloy or St LO T h e extremities a re


. . . .

admirably drawn Th e predella to this picture on the lowest


.

line is also by S andro Botticelli B eginn ing at the left hand .


,

St J ohn the Evangelist is seated on the island o f Patmos


. St .

A ugustine in hi s study the A n nunciation S t J erome at hi s .

devotions i n the Wilderness and last an d fi nest St LO as a , ,


.

blacksmith shoeing the leg he has cut off from a white horse
,

beside him whilst Satan disgu ised as a lovely female stands


, , ,

by watching the O peration


,
.

T h e Visit of the S hepherds and the adoration o f the M agi ,

by D omenico Ghirlandaio is a highly fi nished picture T h e ,


.

Virgin is especially beauti ful she kneels with a sweet sm ile


her hands j oined as i n prayer and her whole soul absorbe d ,

i n th e contemplation of her Child who lies on the hem of H is ,

M other s garment with H is fi nger to H is lips ; the traditional gold



,

fi nch the scarlet o f whose head is the symbol of sacrifice stands


, ,

perched on a stone near A group of peasants the shepherd s .


,

of sacred story one o f whom carri es a lamb converse together


, ,

J oseph shades his eyes from the light above the shed ; an
angel is descendi ng with the good tidi ngs to an o ther grou p o f
shepherds who are seen on a distant hill tending their flocks
, .

A gay processio n of riders every horseman attended by h is ,

f a n te or footman winds along the road below and pass through


, , ,

a triumphal arch dedicated to Pompey the Great ; these a re


the M agi or Kings from the East N ear th e H oly F amily th e
,
.
,

ox and ass drink from a sarcophagus on which is an inscrip ,

tion to another Pompey an augur T h e landscape is very , .

beautifu l ; the background is composed of a river town an d , ,

church with a spire ; and the pale quiet colour throughou t ,

resembles that i n G h irl a n da io s equally fi ne picture o f the same ’

s u bj ect i n the Church of the I nnocenti .


1 5 6 TH E A CA DE M Y .

h eads , and their hands are i n natural and easy gestures Th e .

p icture is painted i n simple full colou r .

A n A ssumption of the Virgi n is by Perugino : a choir o f


a ngels play on di ff erent music al instru ments B elow are th e .

Cardinal B ernardo degli U b erti Sa n Giovann i Gualberto S t , ,


.

B enedict and the archangel M ichael


,
T h e artist has in .

s cribed his nam e below with the date A D M C C C C C ,


T he ,
. . .

gorgeous and spotty colouring is disagreeable at first sight but ,

the picture grows on the spectator as the wonderful beauty and


life in the countenances reveal themselves especially those o f S t , .

B enedict and Sa n Giovanni Gualberto the hands are executed


with the utmost fi nish and the landscape i s very lovely fading
, ,

away i n the light hori z on . T h e Virgi n gaz ing upwards is on e , ,



o f Peru gino s fi nest conceptions of the subject T h e picture .

was painted for the monks of Val lombrosa when Perugino ,

e xecuted th e frescoes i n the Sala del Cambio at Perugia and ,

a few years later than the picture of Christ in th e Garden of


G ethsemane .

T h e Crucifixion with the Virgin and St J erome on either


, .

s ide of the cross i s likewise by Perugino ,


T h e su n has set .
,

a nd to e nhance the solemn ity of the hour a low tone o f colour

pervades the picture T h e figures are execute d somewhat care


.

l essly T h e M adonna is the sam e which Perugino painted i n


.

his masterpiece the Crucifixion of Santa M addalena de Pazz i


,

,

?
only inferior i n expression
B eneath is an entombment by Peru gino S t J ohn M ary , .
,

M agdalene and the S aviour are the most beautiful parts of the
, ,

picture which was executed for the Gesuati beyon d th e Po rt a


, ,

Pi nti and tra n sferred to the convent of the Cal z a duri ng the
,

s iege o f F lorence .

1
P a ssa v a ntb se rv e s o n th i s pi cture Th ey a re o n th e wh o l e b ea ut i f ul
o ,

figu res w h i ch in m a n y resp ec t s reca ll th o se in th e Sa l a de l C a m bi o ( o f


,

P eru gi a ) ; b u t w e di sco v er th e fi rst tra ce o f t h a t hasty trea tme nt w h i ch


u n f o rtu n a te ly a l w a y s a c t s di sa dv a n t a g e o u sly o n h is l a t e r w o rk s

See .

P a ssa v a nt Raf a el v on Urbin o v o l i p 4 9 6


, , . .
, . .
TH E A CADE M Y . 1 57

A D escent from the Cross by Per u gino and F ilippin o Lippi


, ,

was painted for the SS A nnun z iata F ilippino had only finished
. .

the u pper h alf of the picture when he died in 1 5 0 4 and ,

Perugino was requested to finish it T h e earnest upward ga z e .

of the kneeling M agdalene is very beautiful as well as F ilip ,

pino s work the head of Christ and the N icodemus above


, , ,

disengaging the body from the cross .

Below are four saints life si z e St M ichael ; Sa n Giovanni


,
-
.

Gualberto the founder of the V a l l o mbro sia n M onaste ry St


, .

John the Baptist and Cardinal B ernardo degli U b erti thi s


,

picture formed part o f an altar piece on panel painted by -

A ndrea del Sarto for the Church of the H ermitage at Va ll o m ,

brosa in 1 5 2 8 T h e head and attitude of St John with his


,
. .
,

arm raised in the act of preaching is very grand the lines o f ,

composition are severe and there is great breadth of chiar


,

oscuro and a deep rich colour low i n tone and in harmony


, , ,

with the solemn and maj estic figures of the picture .

T h e predella belonging to this altar piece is to the left on -

the lowest line T h e subj ects are St M ichael weighing souls


. .
,

whilst an e xpectant demon is endeavouring to wrest his sword


from his side Sa n Giovanni Gualberto passing unscathed ,

through the fire a mirac u lo u s event which is said to have taken


,

place i n front of the Badia at S ettimo two miles from F lorence ,

the D ecapitation of John the Baptist —both ve ry fine composi


tions and Cardinal Bernardo degli U b e rti sei z ed When at th e
altar
.

A bove this predella are two charming little boy angels fu ll


of vivacity also by A ndrea del Sarto which once formed part
, ,

of the picture o f the four saints above mentioned to which thi s


predella belonged F our circular panels with heads painted in
.
,

tempera by F ra Bartolommeo are fi nely sketched


, , .

A bove is a grand fresco by A ndrea del S arto Christ seated ,

on H is tomb life si z e a noble figure fine in drawing and i n


, ,

position the relaxation of all the limbs and the prostration o f ,

extreme debility is given the colour is soft and transparent .


1 58 TH E A CA DEM Y .

large picture to the left the Virgi n enthroned is attributed


A , ,

1 —
t o F ra Bartolomm eo ( 4 7 5 1 5 T h e I nfant Christ exchanges
his heart with that of S t Catharine ; H e stands beside H is .

m other and is singularly graceful and beautiful i n form and


,

action T his is however the repetition of a picture sent to


.
, ,

F rance and is probably th e work o f B a rto l o m meo s pupil F ra


, ,

Paolino .

T h e Virgin and C hild appearing to St Bernard below i s .

also by F ra Bartolommeo St Bernard on his knees is fi nely . .


, ,

c omposed and executed ; the head is full of deep feeli ng the ,

dra pery falling i n maj estic folds and drawn with care and ,

precision T h e rest of the picture is soft and feeble from the


.
,

a bsence o f the last gla z es or transparent colours but its merits ,


,

i n com position grace and elegance are worthy of high estima


, ,

tion .

T h e R esurrection i s by Ra ff aellino del Garbo the pupil of ,

F ilippino Lippi who as described by C a va l c a sell e has a ff ec


, , ,

ta tio n in forms mannerism in drawing and flatness but who
, , ,

has also the merit especially i n some of hi s M adonnas and ,

S ai nts o f grace correctness and clear brilliant colour


, , T hi s , , .

picture is not a good specimen of the master either i n composi ,

tion or colou r Behind it is a small fresco i n term verde


.
,

by A ndrea del Sarto pai nted when this room was a hospital ,

for women .

A n altar piece painted by M ariotto Al b ertin el l i ( 1 4 7 4—1 5


-

for the M onastery of St J ulian represents the M adonna e n .


,

throned with St D ominic St N icholas, St J u lian and St


.
,
. .
, .

J erome .

B etween these two pict u res i s an Entombment designed by ,

F ra B artolommeo and coloured by F ra Paolino ,


the body of
the Savio u r is supported on the knees of his mother ; M ary
M agdalene St John St D ominic and another friar are
,
.
, .
,

beside her .

T o the left is a feeble representation of the T rinity by ,

M ariotto Al b ertin ell i T h e Outline and e ffect of the fig u res .


1 60 TH E S CA L Z O .

both employed by this con fraternity to adorn the walls with


frescoes in chiaroscuro Th e subj ect chosen was the Li fe o f
.

S t John the Baptist to which saint the S cal z i were dedicated


.
,

T h e only j oint work of the artists was the B aptism o f Christ


-

which though full of feeling and a wonderful pro ductio n f o r


, ,

two young men i s the least well executed of the series T h e


,
-
.

rest of the frescoes were painted with a certai n rival ry whi ch ,

gave a stimulus to the work A ndrea was often called away by .

other engagements and therefore these paintings are spread


,

over a space o f eleven years .

I n 1 5 1 7 h e executed the borders round the fresco o f the


B aptism of Christ but all the rest o f the frie z es were the work
,

of F ra nc ia b igio who also painted S t J oh n taking leave o f h is


, .

father Z acharias when departing for the D esert and the M eet ,

ing o f the Saviour and St J ohn I n 1 5 1 7 A ndrea fi nished th e


. .

compartment of S t J ohn Baptising i n the D esert I n 1 5 2 0


. .

he painted the figures of F aith and Charity and soon a fter


wards H erodias D anci ng before H erod the M artyrdom o f S t , .

J ohn the Baptist and Salom e presenting his head to h e r


,

mother H erodias the A ngel appeari ng to Z acharias and th e


figure o f H ope H e fi nished the fresco of Z acharias i n 1 5 2 3
.
,

when h e was painting the panel picture of the H istory of J oseph


for the B o rgh erin i now i n the Pitti I n 1 5 2 4 A ndrea resumed
,
.

hi s work at the S cal z o and painted the Visit o f M ary to,

Eli z abeth ; and in 1 5 2 6 he executed his latest fresco the B i rth of ,

S t John
. .


We have here an opportunity o f tracing A ndrea del Sa rto s
progress i n his art during the eleven years that he painted in
thi s cloister I n the Preaching of S t J ohn we see the influence
. .

of Ghirlandaio ; in the Baptism of St J ohn and St Joh n .


,
.

before H erod that o f Albert D iirer T h e A ngel appearing to


,
.

Z acharias was pai nted j ust before the M adonna del S acco i n ,

the SS A nnun z iata and the two latest and largest frescoe s
.
.

preceded A ndrea s Last S upper i n the M onas tery of the



,

S alvi .
TH E S CALZ O . 16 1

T hese frescoes were all m u ch inj u red by damp and ex


po su re to weather before the cloister was protected by glass
, .

In 1 7 3 5 the confraternity of the S cal z i was s u ppressed by the


Gran d D u ke Pietro Leopoldo who sold all the b u ilding except
,

the cloister which from that time was attached to the Academy
, , ,

of F ine Arts .
CH A P T ER X V .

TH E PI TTI GA LLER Y .

LARG E R OO M S .

HE
collection o f pictures in the Pitti was made wholly by
the M edici who about the year 1 6 4 0 after they had
, , ,

become sovereign princes brought them to this palace which , ,

was then converted i nto a royal residence Pietro da Co rtona .


,

and another artist Cyrus F erri were employed to decorate the


, ,

magni ficent s u ite of rooms which were destined to contain the



z e s d a nv res of the greatest masters in pai nting l these

c/ A l
y
-
.

pictures belong to the best period of T uscan art and to the ,

s econd R evival ; but i n the smaller rooms parallel with the ,

s u ite towards the Pia zz a are excellent specimens of works by


,

earlier artists .

T h e numbers begin with the pict u res of the latest school


an d i n the fu rthest room which is called the Sala di Venus
, ,

Pietro da Cortona wishing to flatter the reigning M edici


, ,

painted on the ceiling allegorical scenes and personages sym


b o lic a l of the virtues of their ancestor the Grand D u ke Cosimo ,

I who appears as a yo u th protected and specially favoured by


.
, ,

the gods .


T w o splendid sea pieces by Salvator R osa ( 1 6 1 5 1 6 7 3 ) are
-

placed opposite one another T h e sea and sky have the glow .

and melting softness of Claude Lorraine b u t the fig u res are ,

more carefu lly drawn and are grouped nat u rally i n easy atti
t u des those especially of the pict u re to the right are admirably
placed the drawing is spirited and the colo u r forcible , .

D uplicity composed of two figures is by the same master


, , .
1 64 PIT T] GA LL ER Y .

On the same wall is a gr a cefu l T uscan picture by F rancesco


C u rra di ( 1 5 7 0—1 66 1
) N arcissus represented j
as a peasant l a d a t

the F ountain B etween the windows i s a picture by Cigoli


.

— 1 6 1 3 ) of the S aviour appearing to St Peter Walking on


( 559
1 .

the Water T hough hung in an obscure place this is one of


.
,

the best pictures o f the master and is a work O f considerable,

power with more nat u re and expression than is usual with the
,

school whose principal m erit is correct drawing and stri ct


,

obedience to rule .

T h e ceiling o f the next room the Sala di A pollo w as chiefly , ,

painted by Cyrus F erri N ear the windo w is the portrait o f


.

the Archbishop B artolini Sa l imb e n i by Girolamo da Carpi o f , ,

th e F e rrarese school ( 1 5 0 1 1 5 — T h e archbishop was of th e


F lorentine family whose palace now form ing part of the H Ote l ,

de l Eu ro pe i n the Via Po rta R ossa is still di stingu ish ed by



, ,

th e Sal imb e n i poppy H e was appointed administrator o f th e


.

Pisan Church by Pope Leo X and Archbishop of M alaga by .


,

Charles V and he was bu ried in th e Campo Santo of Pisa


.
,
.

O ver th e door is a picture by J acopo Palma il Vecchio of ,

Venice ( 1 4 8 0 of the S upper at Emmau s i t is an excel


lent example o f the master very rich i n colour and with a
, ,

lovely lan dscape backgrou nd A H oly F am ily i s by Agnolo .

Bron z in o ( 1 5 0 2 and near it below i s the portrait of , ,

Pope Leo X by R a ff aell e ( 1 4 8 3


. to th e right of th e
Pope is his cousi n Cardinal Giulio de M edici afterwards
,

,

Clement VI I to h is left Cardinal Luigi de R ossi the Pope s


.

,

secretary Le o has been described as having a large head


.

with coarse features and complexion and with prominent short ,

sighted eyes b u t the painter has in this picture also conveye d


the idea of the man of cultivated tastes and luxurious habits for
which he was celebrated H e is seated at a table with an
.

ill u minated m issal before him an d a silver bell his attitude i s


dignified and his hands of which he was extremely vain are
, , ,

beautifu l T h e picture was painted about 1 5 1 8 there is a copy


.

by A ndrea del Sarto at N aples so exact that it deceived ,


SALA DI A P OLL O .
1 65

R a ff a ell e

scholar Gi u lio Romano who supposed it was the
s , ,

original wh i ch O ttaviano de M edici by order of Pope Clement ’


,

VI I had promised to bestow on the D uke of M ant u a


.
,
.

T h e H ospitality of S t J u lian is by Cristofano Al lori ( 1 5 7 7


.

T h e legend of S t J u lian is as follows —A s an act of


.

penance the saint became a ferryman and one night he ,

bro u ght a youth across the river whom he discovered to be a


leper T h e wife of St J ulian however received the sick man
. .
, ,

i nto their house and they laid him on th eir bed T h e next
,
.

morning the leper was tra n sfi gu re d be fore them and appeared ,

as an angel bringing pardon for past sins ? T his pict u re is


,

considered as the c/zef d cenvre of A llori T h e original drawing


-

.

for the man with the oar in his hand is i n the Gallery of the ,

U ffiz i .

Beneath this is a H ead of M ary M agdalene by Pietro ,

Perugi no ( 1 44 6 ve ry sweet in expression drawn and ,

painted with great softness altho u gh rather the portrait of a ,

lovely woman than the ide al representation of a penitent sinner ;


and a portrait by F ra n c ia b igio ( 1 4 8 2 the friend an d
brother artist of A ndrea del Sarto : the black under tint has
- -

come to the s u rface and inj u red the picture which is finely
, ,

exec u ted and has an agreeable landscape background


, .

S t F rancis in Prayer by Lu dovico Cardi or Cigoli ( 1 5 5 9


.
,

1 61 3
) is fu ll of deep feeling the rocky scenery of L a Vernia
forms the backgro u n d T his is one O f the most to u ching and
.

bea u tifu l pict u res by the artist A bove it is a H oly F amily by .

Vent u ra Sa l imb e ni of S ienna ( 1 5 5 7 O n the second wall


the I nfant Prince Leopold de M edici after wards Cardinal is ’
, ,

by T iberio T iti ( 1 5 7 8 the son O f Santo di T iti T his .

Prince was the son of the Grand D u ke Cosimo I I by the .

Grand D uchess M aria M addalena of A ustria H e became a .

Cardinal and devoted his life to the study of literature and art
, .

H e made the collection of portraits in the U ffiz i Galle ry and ,

died in 1 6 7 5 .

S e e Mrs J a meso n s Legen da ry A rt



1
. .
1 66 PITTI GA LLER Y .

F acingthe wi ndow i s a large pict u re of the D eposition b y


Cigoli it is carefu lly drawn and composed and the fig u re of ,

the Virgin very beautifu l .

A fine portrai t of the poet Pietro A retino the illegitim ate ,

son of a gentleman of A re zz o ( born in is by T itian H e .

wrote a treatise against the system of Papal I nd u lgences which ,

ca u sed hi s banishment from his native city but Pope Clem ent ,

VI I allowed him to reside in R ome where his tal ents ens u red
.
,

hi m a favourable reception T hough hi s satirical writings were


.

directed against those i n power and obtained for him the name ,

of th e S courge of Princes he contrived to secure the favo u r

,

and patronage of the greatest monarch s O f the age F ranci s I .

la v ished gifts on him and Charles V presented him with a


, .

valuabl egold chain H e composed a paraphrase of th e Seven


.

Psalm s and several religious works S ome of his p u bli cations


,
.

had however an immoral tendency and caused so much scan


, , ,

dal that th e Pop e was at length obliged to banish him from


R om e H e was intim ate with the Grand D uke Cosimo I to
. .
,

w hom he sent this pict u re in which the gift of the Emperor i s


,

represented H e writes to Cosi m o S u rely I breathe here ;


.
,

the blood circulates and I see my living self in a painting ;


,

had I given the artist a few more crowns h e wo u ld have b e


stowed more pains on the material of the dress the silk th e , ,

velvet and brocade I say nothing of the chain for it is indeed


, ,

painted sic tra n sit gl oria mnn di .


I n the same letter A retino all u des to th e pict u re by ,

T itian now i n the room of Venetian masters in the U ffi z i


,

Gallery of Giovanni delle Bande N ere the father of Cosimo


, , ,

u nder whom A retin o had se rved and who had m ade his peace ,

with the Pope T h e two portraits appear to have been painted


.

about the same time but A retino declares the arti st had left
that of Giovann i u nfi nished beca u se he was tempted to R om e ,

by the offer of greater rem u neration from Pau l I I I ( A lexander .

F arnese ) .

Beneath this i s a portrait by F ederigo Baroccio ( 1 5 2 8 ,


1 68 PI TTI GA LLER Y

cou nt enances o f D oni and his wife are serious ; M addalena s ’

is expressive of goodness whilst there is more force and talent ,

i n the face of A ngelo I n both there is a defect i n the p e rspe c


.

t ive the farther eye being placed too high T hey were painted
,
.

during Ra ff a e ll e s second visit to F lorence wh en he was still



,

very young and had not yet attempted portraits


,
.

B etween these p ictures is a splendid portrait o f a young


man i n armour by R embrandt said to be of himself
, ,
.

H igh on the wall to the left i s a H oly F amily pai nted by ,

A ndrea in 1 5 2 1 for Z anobi B racci a t the time when the artist


, , ,

was employed by O ttaviano de M edici in the decorations of the ’

Palace o f Poggio a Caiano for Le o X T h e children especially .


,

S t John are easy and graceful


.
,
T h e Vi rgin ga z es at her So n .

with a sweet and happy countenance ; the colour is rich and


warm and the group natural without any attempt at scientific
, ,

display .

B eneath th i s 1 s a M adonna and Child by M urillo T h e ,


.

Child stands on H is M other s knee and rests H is right arm on ’

her bosom Sh e has th e refi nement and modest girl like sim
.
-

l ic it with which this S panish artist usually represents her


p y ,
.

A Piet a over the door is by F ra Bartolommeo ( 1 4 7 5 ,

T h e expression O f the dead Christ is touchingly beauti fu l mild , ,

dignified and sad T h e gentle resignati on of the sorrowing


,
.

Virgin and the passionate grief o f the M agdalene who clasps


, ,

H is feet are given with the simple truth of nature


,
Th e colour .

is p u re and correct .

N ear the window is a portrait o f A ndrea del Sarto by him ,

self and beneath it a M agdalene by T itian T his pict u re h as


, , ,
.

obtained a great rep u tation though it has suffered severely from ,

the hand o f the cleaner A still more beautifu l representation.

of the same s u bj ect by this great artist is in the D ura zz o ,

Gallery at Genoa and there was a third in Venice which has


,

been sold i nto Prussia I n both these last pictures the M agda
.

1ene has less reg u larity of features b u t greater nature and ,

beauty of expression than the M agdalene of the Pitti A large .


SA L A DI MAR TE . 69

alt a r piece between the windows represents Sa n F ilip po N eri


-

kneeling before the alt ar where the Virgin and Child appear ,

to him surro u nded by angels and with the A postles Peter ,

and Pau l accompanied by M ary M agdalene this fine pict u re


,

is by Carlo M aratta ( 1 6 2 5 who belonged to the R oman


sc h o o h

ceiling of the adj oining room the Sala di M arte was


Th e , ,

painted by Pietro da Cortona ( 1 5 9 6 d u ring the reign of


the M e dicean Grand D uke F erdinand I I T h e arms of the .

M edici are in the centre and M ars accompanied by H erc u les , ,

Victory & c symbolise the warlike achievements of the Grand


,
.
,

D ucal family .

I n a dark corner near the entrance i s the portrait of J ohn


, ,

Ch u rchill D u ke of M arlboro u gh by A drian van der Werff


, ,

1 6 —
( 5 9 1 7 2 2)
T h e portrait of Pope J u li u s I I by Ra ff aelle is a repetition .
, ,

of the fine portrait in the T rib u ne of the U ffiz i Gallery .

H igh on the w all is the portrai t of a B elgian anatomist ,

A ndrea Vesale by T itian Vesale was acc u sed of homicide


,
.
,

and condemned to death for having opened the body of a ,

Spanish gentleman ; Philip I I comm u ted his sentence into .

banishment ?
B eneath this pict u re is a most lovely H oly F amily by ,

A ndrea del Sarto the Virgin i s simple and dignified tho u gh ,

witho u t classical bea u ty ; and the children are animated and


drawn with grace and power T h e Christ sits astride on H is .

M oth e r s knee and looks back to listen to the eager words of



,

St John who leans over the lap of Eli z abeth


.
,
T h e colo u rs .

are agreeable and melt into one another the outline is almost
,

lost there is great breadth as well as softness i n the chiar


O SC UI O

1
In 1 876 a p o rtra i t in th e Lo u v re w a s di sco v e re d to b e Ve sa l e at th e
a ge o f t w e n ty six I t is by -
. C a l c a r, w h o de sig ne d his a n a to m i ca l
p l a te s .

V e sa l e is a l so i n tro du c ed in th e f a mou s S ch o o l of A n a to my
‘ ’
at

A mste rda m .
79 PIT TI GA L LER Y

portrait of Cardinal Gu ido B entivoglio next A ndrea s
The ,

H oly F amily is by Vandyke ( 1 5 9 9 ,


and may be com
pared with the port raits o f T itian not only i n the quiet dignity , ,

character and elegance of c om position for which Vandyke was


, ,

himself remarkable b u t i n t ruth o f flesh tints and warmth o f


, ,

colour Cardi nal B entivoglio wa s born at F errara o f an ancient


.

Bolognese family i n 1 6 1 9 When only ninetee n years o f age .

he was appoi nted secre tary to Pope Clement VI I and was sen t .
,

later by Pope Pa u l V as Papal N uncio to F landers T hough . .

one of the j udges o f Galileo at Rome he had not the power ,

to prevent h is condemnation H e wrote the H istory of the .


War in the N etherlands and h is own mem oirs , and died i n ,

1 6 44 .

B eneath this i s Lu igi Cornaro the splendid portrait o f a ,

Venetian nobleman by T itian Cornaro died at the age o f ,


.

ninety six H is youth was spent i n dissipation but he early


-
.
,

reformed his li fe and i n 1 5 5 8 h e wrote a treatise on sobriety


, .

H e was greatly and universally respected and was held i n high ,

hon our by his fellow — citi z ens T h e large penetrati ng dark .


, ,

eyes and the fi nel y cut moveable nostrils bespeak a qu ick and
,
-

fi ery nature whilst the high forehe a d thoughtful brow the


, , ,

firm lips and dignified deportment to which may be added


, ,

the well ordered dress are signifi cant of a wise and resol u te
-

character as well as of that taste and refinement which belong


,

to a tr u e gentleman T h e picture is full of life and it is im


.
,

possible to say what is most worthy of admiration — the correct


drawing the reality of the flesh tints or the great painter s
, ,

power in expressing the mind of the sitter .

F aci ng th e window is a H oly F amily by Palma Vecchio , .

T h e Child holds a globe which he is presenting to an u nknown ,

personage possibly som e Venetian navigator who kneels


, ,

before him T o th e right is St Eli z abeth S t John the Baptist


. . .

with clasped hands contemplates the I nfant Christ .

T h e fi ne picture below by R ubens ( 1 5 7 7 has ,

portraits of himself an d his brother an d o f the philosophers ,


1 72 P I T T] GA LLE R Y

ing breadth of light an d shade i n deep fu ll colour and warm ,

shadow intended to give full valu e to the dazz li ng brilliancy


,

of his lights on the fair skin s of women and children T here .

is nothing to interest or please i n th is picture and i ts sole ,

attracti on is the example it presents of the qu alities peculiar to


R ubens .T h e original sketch is i n the N ational Gallery o f
London bequeathed by the poet S amuel R ogers
, .

T w o oblong paintings containing many figures and both ,

charming in colour are by A ndrea del Sarto } they represent


,

the H istory of J oseph and may be considered as one picture


, .

I n the first is J acob and R achel with J oseph who is relating ,

his dreams to his parents J ac ob and R achel send J oseph to


his brethren the brethren put J oseph i nto the well they sell
him to the merchants and one of them i n the foreground is show
,

ing his blood stained garment to their father I n the second


-
.

painting Pharaoh i s seen asleep ; the curtains o f his bed are


sustained by two boy genii behind are seen the fat and lean
-

kine and i n front the ears of corn at the top o f the staircase
,

leading to Pharaoh s palace J oseph is led to prison and , ,

again below he is brought before Pharaoh Pharaoh listens to


J oseph s interpreta tion of his dreams ; Pharaoh names hi m

governor and bestows on him a gold chain two children are


,

playing with a dog in the foregro u nd and there i s a lovely ,

landscape background with architecture figures & c Both , , , .

these pictures as well as similar pictures i n the U ffi z i Gallery


, ,

by Jacopo Pontormo were painted for F rancesco B o rgh erini


,

upon his marriage .

A Repose in Egypt by Paris Bordone ( 1 5 1 3 , is a


good Venetian pict u re .

T h e last work of importance on this wall is the Ecce H omo


o f C igoli in which the noble dignity of the Saviour and his
,

pati ent endurance o f s u f fering is i n to u ching contrast with the


v u lgar c o u ntenances of his persec u tors ; the traces o f the
sco u rging are given with painfu l reality ; the picture is fi nely
drawn an d coloured , and is an excellent example of the master .
S A LA D ] M A R TE . 1 73

Th e fi ne portrait by T itian of a gentleman on the third ,

wall is one of the most interesting pict u res i n this collection


,

the finely c u t features o v al contour of the face firm set mo u th


, , ,

and the stern expression in his clear bl u e eyes with his dignified ,

demeanour give the impression of a man acc u stomed to com


,

mand and o f a cold tho u gh refine d nat u re


, , ,
.

S t F rancis in Prayer by R u bens is above the T itian ; it is


.
, ,

a good study of a peasant and inferior in poetic sentiment to ,

the same s u bj ect already mentioned by Cigoli


, , .

T h e H oly F amily known as the M adonna dell Impannata



, ,

from the white cloth — pa n n o— used i n stead of glass for the


window in th e background is by R a ff aelle ; the composition .

is wholly his as well as the painting of the head of the


,

Child whom Eli z abeth is restoring to the Virgin ; the rest


,

of the picture was probably painted by one of R a ff a ell e s ’

scholars the expression of Eli z abeth is fi ne and fu ll of feeling ; ,

the other female heads as well as that of St J ohn are feeble


,
.
,

1
and cold .

T h e S acrifice of A braham is a good picture by Cristofano


llori — in colo r resembling th e painting by M at eo
A ( 57
1 7 1 6 2 u t

R oss elli ; and J u dith with the H ead of H olofernes is also by


A llori J u dith is s u pposed to be a portrait of Bron z ino s mis ’
.

tress and the old woman to be her mother T h e arms of


,
.

J u dith extended and foreshortened are finely drawn and her


, , ,

head a n d fig u re are grand and powerfu l Th e golden silk of .

which her dress is composed is painted with marvello u s clear


ness an d vigo u r and the whole colo u r i s rich and harmonio u s
, .

T h e H ead of H olofernes is said to be a portrait of A llori him


self;
A n A nn u nciation by A ndrea del Sarto is good in colo u r
, , ,

b u t feeble i n composition ; Joseph stands beside the Virgin ,

who starts back as two angels approach one of whom bears ,

the lily T his pict u re has been m u ch repainted


. .

A good portrait of Galileo is by S uste rm a n s ( 1 5 2 4— 1


59 )
1

S ee P a ssa v a nt s Raf a el v an Urbin o v o l i p 1 8 6 ; v o l ii p 3 9 4



. . .
, , . . . .
1 74 P I T T] GA L LE R Y .

his telescope is seen below near the frame : this likeness o f th e


,

philosopher appears to have been take n later than the portrait


by the same master i n the U ffiz i Galle ry .

T h e ceiling of the S ala di Gio ve was also painted by Pietro


da Cortona H ercules and F ortu ne present the yo u thful Prince
Cosimo the son o f F erdinand I I to J ove as a future hero ;
,
.
, ,

he inscribes th e M edicean initial o n a shield and th e gods ,

m inister to h im .

A stat u e of Victory by the modern scul ptor C o nsa n i is in


, ,

the centre of the room T h e goddess i s seated on a rock and


.
,

is inscribing u pon her shi eld the words M ontebello Palestro , ,



C u rta to n e where the T uscan youth fell in the struggle for
,

Italian independence .

I n the corner between the entrance and th e wi ndow is the


portrait o f a lady i n a crimson sati n dress by Paris Bordo ne
( 51 1 3 said to be that o f a nurse of the M edici children ;
beneath it is a sketch by T itian for part o f the picture of Bac
chus and A riadne i n the N ational Galle ry of London .

O ver the door is a pict u re by S alvator R osa ( 1 6 1


5
—1 6 7 3)

of the Conspiracy of Catiline .

T o the right o f the entrance is the most celebrated picture


in this room ; the T hree F ates by M ichael A ngelo ( 1 4 7 5 ,

T hey are all taken from one old woman represented in dif ,

f e re nt attit u des Clotho holds the S pi ndle o ff which she spin s ,

the thread of life Lachesi s twists th e yarn i n her fi ngers and ,

A tropos prepares to cut it with her scissors A romantic tale is .

told relating to this p icture D u ring the siege of F lorence i n


.
,

1
5 29 ,
when M ichael A n gelo was cond u cting the defensive

operations an old woman is s u pposed to have presented her


,

self before the municipality and o ffered her son to fight for his
,

native city ; the great artist it i s fu rther said was so struck


, ,

wi th her cou ntenance that he has recorded it i n this pict u re .

T h e story is however probably a fiction and it is even u n c e r


, , ,

tain whether the picture itself is by the han d of M ichael A ngelo .



Severe keen and characteristic
, ,
as K ugler describes it he
, ,
1 76 P I T TI GA LLE R Y .


are unconstrained and free as in D e l Sa rto s o wn creation th e , ,

N ativity at the S ervi


,
T h e Virgin is m ost dignifi ed in air and
.

pose D ecorum an d grave beauty are almost as combi ned as


.

i n D ella Po rta without th e emptin ess which grew to a defect


,

with A ndrea s late r y ears the colour i s rich and in goo d ,

keeping with a landscape full o f atmosphere .

St M ark a colossal fi gu re by F ra Bartolommeo is a gigantic


.
, ,

and powe rful figure gra nd in drawing and com position H e is


, .

seated i n a niche holding his gospel and pe n with both hands


, ,

whilst looking back lost in contem plati on Th e picture was


,
.

placed over the entrance to the choir of S t M ark but a fter the .
,

demolition o f the choir which was i n the centre o f the church , ,

it was bought by Prince F erdinand de M edici and in 1 7 9 9 ’


,

was taken to Paris where it was trans ferred from wood to


,

canvas .

A man s po rtrait by Philippe de Cham pagne ( 1 6 0 2



,

and ano ther portrait by M orone a re both excellent pictures , .

A small but interesti ng picture below o f the Woman taken


M
i n A dulte ry i s by a zz olino da errara ( 4 1 1 5
,
F 1 8 —
I n the centre o f the thi rd wall i s a large battle piece by -

S alvator R osa and below it a smaller picture of the sam e


, ,

subj ect s u perior to the larger both are fu ll o f life and spirit
, ,

and are among the best works o f the master .

O ver th e door i s a M eet o f H untsmen by Giovanni di Sa n ,

Giovanni ( 1 5 9 0 a F lorenti ne painter o f the second


revival th e heads are ve ry S pirited .

Between the door and windows is the portrait of G u idobaldo


D uke of U rbino the grandfather of Vittoria della R overe
, ,

by F ederigo Z uccaro a pai nter of the R oman school ( 1 5 3 9 ,

B eside it is a H oly F amily by Rubens the colouring ,

of the children is very lovely .


Q

B elow is the portrait of a lady by Leonardo da Vinci ( 1 4 5 2 ,

A m ost exquisitely fi nished painting ; the drawing i s


careful though hard in outline caused by cleaning ; the lips
, ,

are j ust closed the eyes calm the nostril delicate her grave
, ,
S A LA D ] SA T URN O . 17 7

and gentle deportment th e head gracefu lly bent and the per , ,

fe e t simplicity and dignified compos u re mark a woman of noble ,

mind and training Sh e bears a missal in her left hand which


.

as well as the right is bea u tifully painted ,


I n the land .

scape seen between two open arches is a walled town and


, ,

distant hills
Between the windows is a picture by G iov a n Battista ,

F ranco ( 1 4 9 8 of the Battle of M ontem u rlo by which ,

the Grand D u ke Cosimo I destroyed his enemies and sec u red .


,

his seat on the throne of T u scany .

T h e S ala di S at u rno the ceiling of which is also painted by


,

Pietro da Cortona and represents Sat u rn with M ars and an ,

allegorical figure of Prudence has to the right of the door on ,

entering the celebrated pict u re of the M adonna della S eggiola


, ,

by Ra ff aelle painted entirely by his own hand probably i n the


, ,

year 1 5 1 0 when he was engaged with the fresco of th e School


,

of A thens in the Vatican T h e Virgi n is not divine b u t she is .


,

the perfection of womanly bea u ty and modesty as well as o f ,

maternal tenderness T h e Chil d is grand in form and expres


.

sion although the ro u nded limbs and features and the clinging
, ,

action are wholly infantine the earnest yet childlike worshi p


, ,

of the little S t John is no less appropriate and excellent T h e


. .

composition i s simple the colo u r rich a nd the heads of the


, ,

Virgin and Child are highly finished whilst the rest of the ,

picture is painted with great freedom yet softness produced ,

l
witho u t scumbling and leaving the o u tlines disti nct
, .

A bove thi s pict u re is a fi ne portrait of Cardi nal I ppolito de


M edici by Jacopo Pontormo ( 1 4 9 4


,
H is hand rests
on the head of a dog which is painted with m u ch life and ,

power I ppolito was the nat u ral so n of Gi u lio de M edici D u ke


.

of N emo u rs whose monument by M ichael A ngelo i s i n


,

the Sacristy o f Sa n Loren z o he was ed u cated by his uncle


Le o X and altho u gh his tastes led him to prefer a secular to
.

an ecclesiastical career he was forced to enter the Ch u rch and


,

S ee P as sa v ant s Raf ael v an Uréi no v o l i p 2 9 4 ; v o l ii p 2 94



. . .
, , . . . .

VO L . 11 .
1 78 TH E P I T T] GA LLE R Y .

accept a cardinal s hat H e died— it is supposed by poison ’


.

in 1 5 35 .

N ear it are very bea u tifu l portraits of Charles I of England .


,

and H enrietta M aria by Vandyke ,


.

T h e D eath o f A bel is a large and very powerfully painted


picture by A ndrea Schiavone ( 1 5 2 2
,
B eneath it is one
o f the most lovely com positions of Carlo D olce ( 1 6 1 6
John the Baptist when a child asleep watch ed over by ,

Eli z abeth T h e tranquil sleep of i nfancy is beautifully given


.
,

and th e colouring an d chiaroscuro have the fu lness and


power of Ludovico Caracci Santa R osa by the sam e .
,

artist has his usual q u alities of sweetness and fi nish with


, ,

i nsipidity .

B eyond the picture of Schiavone near the corner is the , ,

portrait of Cardinal B ernardo D o v iz i of Bibbiena by Ra ff aelle , .

I t i s a most wonderfu lly life like pict u re of an astute polished -

ecclesiastic m ild b u t determ in ed his hands are very elegantly


,

formed and rich with j ewels T h e picture is only in part by


,
.

R a ff aelle who executed another some years later which i s now


, ,

i n the M u se u m at M adrid T h e cardinal was the son of poor .

parents i n the Casenti no a valley behind the mou ntains of ,

Vallombrosa and he took the name of B ibbiena from his native


,

city H e began life as t u tor to the sons of Loren z o de M edici


.

,

who had already secured the services of his brother as secretary .

When Bibbiena s pupil became Pope Le o X ’


he was .

created a cardinal H e died suddenly at Rom e i n 1 5 2 0 . .

Paolo G io v io the historian whose mon u ment is i n the Cloister


, ,

of Sa n Loren z o attributes the death of the cardinal to poiso n


,

i n a dish of new —laid eggs .

A bove thi s picture i s the T hree A ges of M a n by Loren z o ,

L otto the Venetian


, ( 5 1 4 8 0 —1
5 .

O n the second wall is a picture by F ra Bartolommeo


, ,

Christ R ising from the T omb with the Evangelists on either side ,
.

T h e two prop h ets J ob and Isaiah now in the T ribune of the , ,

U iz i Gallery were paint ed as appendages to thi s altar pi ece


,
-

,
1 80 TH E P I T T] GA L LE R Y .

F lorentines ,such as had never before been seen in F lorence .

Vasari speaks of the brilliancy of the general tones and of the


backgrounds which are still preserved i n all the charm of f resh
,

ness in spite of time and repairs


,
T h e U mbrian S chool .

directed their attention especially to landscape and Per u gino ,

made the best of hi s opportunities in stud ying earlier and


contemporary masters i n th e same line T h e co u ntenance of .

the women varying in i ntensity of grief from that of the Virgin


, ,

to the other M aries is full of touching truth to nat ure withou t


, ,

exaggeration .

B eyond this is the M adonna del Baldacchi no by R affaelle , ,

executed on his ret u rn from R ome after he had painted his ,

first large composition of the Entombment of Christ H e had .

studied the grand treatment of drapery with F ra Bartolommeo ,

and i n return he had imparted to Bartolommeo the knowledge of


perspective which he had acq u ired in the school of Perugino in
,

this picture which R aff aelle painted for the F lorentine family of
,

D e i to be placed i n Santo Spirito he endeavo u red to imitate


, ,

F ra Bartolommeo ; and it may be compared with the M adonna


by that great artist in the Academy T h e Virgin seated on a .
,

throne holds the Child on her knee who looks back na ively at
, ,

the A postle Peter standing beside S t B runo ; St James the


,
. .

Less and St A ug u stus are on the oppos ite side


. T w o angels .

support the canopy above the Virgin and Child and two other ,

m ost lovely infants s tand below one having his arm ro u nd the


,

other s neck and sing praises T h e pict u re was left u nfi nished



,
.
,

which is evident from the weak face and fig u re of St J ames .


,

and was sold by R a a el l e s scholars Gi u lio R omano and G io v a n



'

F rancesco Penni to B aldassare T u rini who conveyed it to his


, ,

city o f Pescia from whence it was afterwards brought to the


,

Pitti T h e head and fig u re of the Virgin is extremely lovely


.

and graceful and quite i n Ra ff a el l e s own style and it is only in


,

,

the composition and draperies t h at we discover the infl u ence of


F ra B a rto l o m me o .
l

S ee P a ssa v an t Raf a el w n Urbin o, v ol . i p l p



s . . 1 25 vo . . 89 .
S A LA D ] S A T UR N O . 181

A pollo and the M u ses dancing in a circle on the top o f


M o u nt Parnass u s a golden s u nlight in the backgro u nd is by
, ,

Gi u lio R omano ( 1 4 9 2 this tru ly m a gical gro u p seems to


fl oat in the gracefu l movement of the dance In the portrait of .

T o mm a so de Ph aedra Inghirami R a ff a el l e s faithfu l adherence to



,

nat u re i s shown in the s q u int and the coarse feat u res as much ,

as i n the large fat yet delicately white hands of Inghirami all


, , ,

paint ed with the highest finish T h e clever expression of the .

face compe n sates for want of beauty ; the drawing is carefu l ,

and the composition and colo u r simple T h e dress is that .

worn by Inghirami when he acted as secretary to the conclave


of car dinals which electe d Giovanni de M edici Pope as Leo ’

X Inghirami belonged to an ancient family of Volterra and


.
,

when only an infant he lost his father and was bro u ght to ,

F lorence where he was placed u nder M edicean protection


, At .

thirteen he was sent to R ome where hi s remarkable powers ,

were developed and he was celebrated for his great learning O n


,
.

one occasion he performed in Seneca s tragedy of H ippolyt u s ’ ‘


,

before the Cardinal di S a n Giorgio the part assigned to I nghi


rami w a s Ph aedra ; the piece ha v ing been interru pted by an
accident to the ma chinery he came forward and am u sed the ,

company by improvising Latin verses he was appla u ded and


called for in his character of Ph aedra and th e n a me was ever ,

afterwards attache d to his own Passavant remarks the fu ll.

daylight effect of this pict u re and the fine modelling with the , ,

tenderest fu sion which strikingly recall H ans H olbei n s


,

method altho u gh R a ff aelle co u ld not have seen any work of


,

the German master since H olbein was at that time only


,

fifteen years of age T h e fl at treatment of the accessories leads


.

to the concl u sion that this part of the picture is by the hand
1
o f a scholar .

I n the centre of this wall is the D ispute of the H oly



T rinity o n e of A ndrea del Sa rto s most celebrated pictures
, ,

e q u ally fi ne i n composition drawing colour and expression , , , .

S e e P a ssa va nt s R af el z on Urbin o ol i p 212 vol ii p 1 6 4



' v
a ,
. .
, . . . . .
82 TH E P I T TI GA LL E R Y .

The head and action of the youth ful St Lawrence who stan ds .
,

i n the centre and carries h is gridiron i s extremely beautifu l ,

and dignifi e d St A u gustine and S a n Piero M artire pursu e


.

the discussion with animation ; St F rancis listens meekly ; .

he has one hand on his breast i n the other he carries his ,

Institutes S t Sebastian half clothed the back fi nely painted


.
, , ,

kneels at th e feet o f S t A ugustine M ary M agdalene a.


,

lovely portrait of A ndrea s wife holds her vase of oin tment ’


, ,

and with lips apart in the act of listening kneels beside


, , ,

S t F rancis ; the emblem o f the T ri nity descends upon th e


.

group .

T h e Vision o f Ez ekiel i s one o f Ra ff a e l l e s noblest com posi


tions though painted on so small a scale I t is not only ex


,
.

q u isite l y fi nished in all the details but composed drawn and , , ,

colou r ed with a grandeur which the artist has not surpassed i n


any o f his larger pai ntings T h e countenance and attitu de of .

J ehovah are truly m aj e stic and th e lion the ox and the eagle , , , ,

th e symbols of St M ark St Luke and St J ohn partake o f th e


.
,
.
, .
,

solemn grandeur which pe rvades the picture ; the yo u thful


angel i n adoration typical of S t M atthew is a noble as well
,
.
,

as lovely form and no less fi ne are the in fant angels who sup
, ,

port the arms o f the Eternal ; a glory composed o f fai ntly


traced angels heads descends i n rays from above ; and far

beneath th e world where Ez ekiel i s walki ng is seen at early


, , ,

dawn in a mysteriou s and beautiful twilight T h e pict u re was .

painted for Cou nt Vinc e nz io Ercolani of Bologna .

N ear the door is Cleopatra by G u ido R eni ( 1 5 7 5 —1 6 4 2 ) ,

a painting possessing wonderful breadth and delicacy i n the


shadows and half tints -
.

T h e ceiling of the Sala dell Iliade is painted by Luigi


Sabatelli an artist who died in the middle of this century


,
In .

the centre of the room is a very lovely statue of Charity by ,

the T uscan scu pto r Bartolini it is gracefully composed and


, ,

the flesh tenderly m odelled ; the drapery falls in large and


well arranged folds but the hair is sti f f and inferior in e xec u
-

,
1 84 TH E P I T T] GA LL ER Y .

from the heavens points upwards and tells the A postles that the
Virgin has risen T h e early morning is dawning in a p ale grey
.

sky St J ohn and two other A postles have heard th e news


.

thei r attitude expresses earnest devotion an d wonder Th e .

others who are looking into the tomb are less well pai nted ;
, ,

among them the arti st has i ntroduced his own po rtrait T h e cher .

nb s near the Virgin are very grace ful and lovely T h e i n feri .

o rity of the companion picture can easily be traced to the artis t

having exhausted his poetic i ns piration on this fi rst and the ,

second bei ng a laboured production not th e original design


,
.

N ear the window of this room is another po rtrait of


A ndrea by himself and below it is the only positively genuine
pictu re by Giorgione ( 1 4 7 8 1 5 1 1 ) i n this gallery and one of
-

the few i n exi stence it represents a group of musicians T he .

centre fi gure plays on a spinet or piano whilst looki ng back ,

at a man behi nd his fi ngers are pressed firmly on the keys ,

as i f pausing whilst listening to the friend who is laying on e ,

hand on his shoulder to arrest his attention though i n shade ,



the mild expression o f this man s cou ntenance is not lost Al l .

the force and brilliancy of the picture is however concentrated , ,

on the head of the central musician though th e light is carried on


to a third person standing on his right T here is great breadth .

of ch iaroscuro and no sudden transitions but a u n iform


, ,

golden or rich sunset glow thro u gho u t the composition .

O ver the nearest door is a very beautifu l Baptism of the


S aviou r by Paolo Veronese ( 1 5 2 8
,
T h e expression o f
J ohn the Baptist i s earnest and reverential the angel between
the two principal personages looking u p with his hands crossed ,

on his breast is very lovely


, .

H igh on the wall to the right is Eleanora daughter of th e ,

Grand D uke F ranci s I and of J oanna o f A ustria and married


.
,

to Vi ncen z o Gon z aga I D uke of M antua this portrait is by


.
,

S cipio Gaetano a painter of the R oman school ( 1 5 5 2 —


,
1
59
B eneath is Salvator R osa when young by himself ; and
, ,

below this is the portrait o f a son o f F rederick I I I of D enmark .


,
S A LA D E LL

1 L]A D E . 85
'

by J ust u s Suste rma n s he is dressed in armo u r and wears a ,

white and blue scarf T his picture is an excellent example of


- -
.

the master .

F arthest from the window beyond A ndrea del S a rto s large



,

pict u re on the fi rst wall is a H oly F amily by F rancesco , ,

G ra na cc i sweet i n expression especially the I nfant Christ


, ,
.

T here are several fi ne portraits by T itian in this room On .

the second wall high u p is Philip I I of S pain a pict u re pre


, ,
.
,

sente d by that monarch to the Grand D u ke Cosimo I with a .


,

portrait of Philip s father the Emperor Charles V also by



, .
,

T itian which is in another room of the Pitti


,
H is mean and .

v u lgar features and countenance have received a certain air of


dignity from T itian s pencil

.

A splendid portrait of I ppolito de M edici i s also by T itian


the young Cardinal is here represented as a H u ngarian mag


nate in the cost u me he wore when sent as papal legate to the
,

Emperor Charles V T h e face is pec u liarly Italian as well as


.
,

indicative of the passions fostered by the unhappy circum


stances of his life ; a yo u ng and chivalro u s spirit forced to
bend to the yoke of the priesthood : the q uick penetrating ,

eye beneath the raised eyebrow and the dilated nostril express , ,

ing a high temper whilst the fine and delicate smile on the
,

lips tells less of pleas u re than repressed feeling ,


.

O n the other side of the door leading to the back of the


palace is the M adonna enthroned with saints by Era Barto ,

l o mm eo T h e two angels at the foot of the throne with a violi n


.

and g u itar are most lo vely and fu ll of religio u s feeling N 0


,
.

thing can exceed the sweet infantine grace of the Child who ,

places a ring on the fi nger of S t Catharine T h e attit u de of . .

the Virgin is somewhat strained and aff ected she holds the
I nfant by the arm tenderly whilst turning her head towards ,

S anta R eparat a a modest yo u ng maiden clothed in red an d


,

green the colo u rs of Charity and H ope who kneels at her


, ,

feet T he saints on the right of the Christ are very fine


.
,

especially St George St Bartholomew to th e left carries a


. .
, ,
1 86 TH E P I T T] GA L LE R Y .

knife the instrument of his martyrdom and a book the three


, ,

A u g u stinian monks behi nd are probably portraits T h e fl ying .

angels who s u ppo rt the c a nopy are painted with great bea u ty ,

and the light falling on one of them is very e ff ective T h e .

spectators who converse together are i n nat u ral easy attitudes ,

the colour of the picture is dark and heavy C a v a l c a sel l e .

considers this the fi nest o f F ra B a rtol o m meo s creations during ’

the period that he was assisted by M ariotto A l be rtinel li It .

was painted in the year 1 5 1 2 .

T h e A ngel refu sing the Gifts of T obias by B iliv e rt ( 1 5 7 6 ,

i s one of the artist s best works good i n drawing though



, ,

too florid i n colour .

A fin e portrait by T itian represents D aniel Barbaro a ,

Venetian ambassador to England : the hands are splendidly


painted the attit u de easy ; the f u r of the dress is treated with
,

great breadth dashed in without attention to detail but all the


, ,

more e ff ective from the contrast with the high finish of the head
and hands .

A bove it i s a portrait of an u nknown gentleman by T itian ,

the dress consisting of a black velvet coat and short mantle


,

the wh ite at the throat and wrists is kept low in tone A lthough .

the architect u ral background is carefully defined it is subd u ed ,

i n colo u r and gives relief to the fig u re which stands easily ; the


, ,

hands are beauti fu lly composed easy gracefu l and drawn an d


, , ,

colo u red with tr u th the head i s fine but the picture is placed ,

too high to j udge of all its m erits .

O n the third wall i s a Warrior by S alvator R osa painted


, ,

with breadth and vigo u r A bove it is another picture by T itian


.
, ,

of Constance B entivoglio the daughter of H ercules B entivoglio


, ,

a captai n of F ree Companies who fo ught for F lorence T h e


,
.

lady was first married to Loren z o Stro zz i of F errara i n 1 5 1 4 , ,

and afterwards to F ilippo T o rric e ll o of N ovara ,


.

Below the Warrior is the Virgin adoring the I nfant Jesus ,

by Per u gino and Jesus adored by Saints by A nnibale Caracci ,


( 1
5 6 0 1 6 0 9)
1 88 TH E P I T TI GA L L E R Y .

R ich
tables of F lorentine mosaic and valuable vases of ,

black marble and gold adorn every room of this suite


, .

A sq u are room to the back of the palace is called the S tufa ,

or Stove Pietro da Cortona painted the walls in fresco with


.
,

allegories representing the A ges o f M a n from sketches by the ,

yo u nger M ichael A ngelo B uonarroti the nephew o f the great ,

sc u lptor M atteo R osselli added the Vi rt u es on th eceiling i n


.

1 62 2 .T w o celebrated bron z e stat u es of Cain an d A bel by ,

the late sc u lptor D u pr e are the treasures of this room


, .

T hey are fi nely composed and modelled and are no less re ,

markable as an example of modern F lorentine bron z e casting .

Cai n is placed in the centre of the room the body of A bel lies
prostrate as if from the violence of the fa l l I t is to be re
, .

re tte d that the two statues are not placed near o ne another
g ,

so as to form one group .

Th e adj oining room contai ns one of the most celebrated


pictures of the collection the M adon na del Gran D u ca by
, ,

R a ff aelle — so called beca u se it was alwa y s kept i n the private


apartments of the Grand D u ke and it is even said that the last
Grand D u chess directed h er prayers to this picture when she
desired the birth of a so n T h e Virgin i s singularly modest
.

and sweet ; the conto u r of her face and the delicate form of
the mo u th as well as the soft downcast eyes are pre eminently
, , ,
-

bea u tiful even among R a ff a el l e s M adonnas although this


,

,

picture belongs to the artist s F lorentine period and is neither


so classical as the M adonna della Seggiola nor so sublime as ,

hi s greatest creation the M adonna di Sa n S isto but for simple


,

dignity loveliness and p u rity this representation of the Virgi n


, ,

is unrivalled ; the light on her face seem s to pass into her


soft fair hair a nd in the bl u e grey of her mantle until -
,

lost i n the dark background ; her hands are rather large ;


she holds the Child tenderly who is less lovely than H is ,

M other but H is flesh and limbs are beautifully painted and


,

modelled T owards the end of the last cent u ry this valuable


.

work was in the possession of a poor widow who sold i t to a ,


S TA N Z A D E LL

E D UCA Z I O N E D ] GI O VE .

picture dealer for twelve crowns from thence it fo u nd its way


-

to the Gallery of the Grand D u ke F erdinand I I I who carried .


,

it with him wherever h e went When bo u ght from th e widow .

it was i n a perfect state bu t it has since that time twice u nder


,

gone the process o f cleaning T his was the fi rst pict u