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ENGLISH IN PROFESSIONAL

COMMUNICATION

Describing business trends


Saying figures :

• 362 1,841 2.89 9,875 79.875

• £80 ¥ 5,800 € 3.58

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• 1/8 2/5 6/7 3 ½ 2¾

• 1987 2026

Types of graphic representations :

Describing information in graphs and charts


-Line graphs show specific trends in data, often on a time line.
-Bar charts illustrate comparisons in trends.
-Pie charts compare percentages or distribution of a whole piece of data.

-Flow charts illustrate oranisation of information according to a hierarchical structure.


Describing trends on graphic Representations
Ex: Use the expressions below to describe variations in the graph

Ex: complete the table with expressions from the previous exercises
Ex: Fill out the table with verbs describing direction of change

Ex: Fill out the table with adjectives describing different rates / levels of change

Small/Slow
Fast change change Large change Regular change

Ex : Correct the wrong information in the description of each graph


Ex : Correct the wrong information in the description of each graph

a) The price fluctuated before falling dramatically and then maintaining the same level.
b) The sales of our products stabilized in the final quarter.
c) The value of the shares has shown a slight decline.
d) Over the first year, sales have stood at 50 per cent of the present level.

e)
The investment level has risen steadily.

f) There has been a moderate increase in costs over several years.


g) The steady collapse in share prices has surprised everyone.

h) The budget has dropped significantly over the past few years.

Ex: Complete the paragraph to describe the graph about a company’s profits.

This graph shows …………………………………………………………………………. In the


first five weeks, ……………………..by half a million. Profits even ……………………………..to reach
3 million. However, these figures …………………………..between weeks 8 and 11 and fell back to the
value of ……………………... Luckily, profits …………………………..again and
…………………………..at 3.5 million in week 15. After this period, on the other hand, profits
…………………………………... Finally, after week 21, these figures
……………………………………..just under the value of 3 million.

Practice: Write a description of this line graph

Presentational Skills

Presentation Structure
Ex: Put in order the elements that constitutes a presentation. Then Group the elements into: an
introduction, a body, and a conclusion

a-Introducing and elaborating the first main point

b-Making conclusions c-Giving the theme of the

presentation d-Referring to visual data / research

e-Summarizing the main points f-Justifying the

topic of the presentation g-Moving to elaborating

another main point h-Dealing with questions i-

Making recommendations j-Giving the outline of

the presentation

An Introduction Structure

Ex 1: Complete this paragraph about a good introduction with appropriate words or phrases

A good introduction usually contains a welcome to the _____________ , and thank them for coming. It
states the subject or title of the presentation and its _____________ . An interesting introduction justifies
the _____________ of the topic and shows its_____________. The audience’s interest can also be raised
through ________________. Another function of the introduction is _____________ the structure of the
presentation, often by listing the _____________ to be covered. It will usually state _____________ the
presentation will take, and tell the audience when the speaker would like them to _____________ : at any
time, or at the end.

Ex 2: Put in order the elements that constitutes an introduction of a presentation.


a-Introducing the main points b- Over-viewing conclusions
c- using an opening to raise the audience’ s interest d-
Giving the theme and the purpose of the presentation f-
Justifying the relevance of the topic of the presentation g-
Tell the audience how the speaker will deal with questions
h- Referring to some recommendations i-Giving the outline
of the presentation
Ex 3: Match the phrases below with their functions of introducing a presentation

a-I’m going to be talking about………..

b- ……., and then I’ll move on to look at ……………

c-My presentation is concerned with …………..


1-Giving the theme of the d-To begin with, I’m going to describe……………
presentatio
n
e-I’ll be looking at the following
reas
a …………
2-Justifying the topic of the
presentation f-We’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have.

3-Giving the outline of the g-I intend to discuss …........


presentation
h-…………has been the topic of much debate recently. For
4-Introducing the first main this reason , …………………….
point
i- I hope to consider the main issues about ………..
5-Moving to another main
j- In the third part of the
presentation, I’ll put forward some
point
ideas about………………………..
6- Overviewing conclusions
k-This presentation focuses on the issue of ………
7-Referring to
l-In this part of my presentation, I’ll be showing you some
recommendations
charts / figures ………….
8-Dealing with questions
m-I’ll also try to explain ……………………….

n-I’ll be also offering some


suggestions on how we
………………
o -I have divided my talk into the following main areas….

p- My contribution will conclude by ………………

Ex 4: Here are the introductions to two different presentations. Separate the two presentations and
put them in the correct order:

a. At the end I will suggest practical ways in which you as managers can motivate both yourselves and the
people who work for you.
b. Good morning ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to our session on the dynamics of motivation.
c. Then I will give a short demonstration of our prototype and explain what we have already achieved.
d. Please feel free to raise questions at any time on technical or financial aspects of the project and I shall
do my best to answer them.
e. To begin with, I shall outline the main goals of the project.
f. I would like to ask you to keep any questions you may have until the end, when I hope we will also
have time to discuss your personal experiences and particular work situations.
g. Finally, I shall move on to the major commercial applications and potential returns on investment.
h. I will then turn to what we really mean by motivation, and look at the internal and external factors that
play a part in creating it.
i. Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. I would like to talk to you this afternoon about why we feel our
interactive video project is worth investing in.
j. I shall start by looking at why motivation is so important and why the ability to motivate is a vital
management skill.

-Presentation 1: …………………………………………………………………………………

-Presentation 2: …………………………………………………………………………………

How did each speaker plan to deal with the audience questions?

Discussion :

What are the most important ingredients of a successful presentation ?

What things to take into account or to avoid in order to make a presentation successful?

Ex 5: complete this outline of a presentation on: ‘Elements of a successful presentation’

Introduction

I. Structuring the presentation

1 logical organization and sequencing of ideas

2 ………………………………………………..

3 ………………………………………………..

II. Establishing rapport with audience

1 techniques for high-impact openings: grabbing audience’s attention

2 ………… ………………………………………………..
3 ……………………. ………………………………………………..

III: ………………………… ………………………………………………..

1 Unexpected questions or feedback

2 Coping with hostile audience

3 ……………………………………………

Conclusion

Ex 6: Write an introduction of the presentation:

• Use an appropriate opening

• Introduce the theme

• Justify your interest in the topic

• Outline the presentation

• Overview conclusions and recommendations to be made

• Invite the audience for questions or feedback

Transitions between ideas

A- Linking Words

Ex1: a) Fill out the chart with appropriate linking words under the correct column

b) Add other linking words to the list

also consequently however on the other hand as well while therefore


although since despite due to whereas in spite of thus as a result even
though nevertheless so as to

But Yet To So Because And Like


= Contrast = Concession = Purpose = Result = Cause = Addition = Similarity
Ex 2: Link the statements in A with those in B

Ex 3: Tick the sentences that make sense. Correct the LW in the false ones

1-We’ll look at the latest study from the World Bank in order to answer the inflation question.

2- Online banking is mainly used by our younger customers. Many of our older customers, therefore,
find it difficult to handle modern computer technology.

3- Whereas the euro is quite strong, we managed to increase our exports to the US.

4- Thanks to the growing demand, we didn’t sell more cars than the year before.

5- Our company has to pay more for gas and oil. Thus, our products have become more expensive.

6- Poster campaigns are extremely important. However, we also need advertisements in daily
newspapers.

7- I felt sleepy throughout the meeting despite my tiredness.

8- Their prices are very competitive. Therefore, we have decided not to do business with them.

9- We reached out to customers with special offers and appreciation letter. Besides, customer retention
did not improve.
10- In spite of their criticism, I lost my confidence.

Ex 5: Match sentence 1 to the sentences (a, b,….e ) using the correct linking word

1- Big investors are still worried about the stock market

a) the share market is plummeting

b) share prices are recovering

c) there are fewer transactions

d) other emerging companies are optimistic

e) they are pessimistic about the future of business

Example:
Big investors are still worried about the stock market because the share market is plummeting.

B Signpost words and phrases

These kinds of expressions guide your audience through a presentation Ex 1: a) Make signposting
sentences using elements from each column of the table below b) Match the sentences to their
functions (1 to 5) 1. saying what is coming 2. Signaling that you are moving on to the next
point 3. indicating the end of a section 4. referring back 5. summarizing a point
1 Before I move on to my next come back to next question.
point,
summarize what I have said so far.
2 This brings
the issue point, which is price.
3 This leads
let me go this question later.
4 Let us now turn to
we were discussing our new sales strategies.
5 As I mentioned
to the next a brief overview of our activities.
6 I’d like to
before , I’d like to give you earlier.
7 Let us go back to what
us directly to my the main points.
8 Let me briefly
I’ll be focusing on through the main issues once more.
9 As I said earlier
sum up of customer service.
10 I’d like to

Ex 2: Here are some expressions that can be used in presentations to perform other functions:
Do some research and add more expressions to each list

• Reformulating important ideas.

* In other words  Stating others’ opinion or an opinion


that is commonly held.
*……………………………………….

*………………………………………. *According to Professor X, ………..

*………………………………………. *……………………………………….

*……………………………………….
• Introducing examples *For instance • Making Conclusions

*To sum up ...


* Pollutants such as those found in automobile exhaust
……….. * In conclusion ...

*………………………………………. *……………………………………….

*………………………………………. *……………………………………….

*………………………………………. *……………………………………….

B- Practice

Ex 1 : These sentences belong to a three-paragraph presentation. Put them in order. Write the numbers of
the corresponding sentences on the left. Sentences 4, 8, 12, and 15 have been given.

---4---We now know that managers contribute to staff performance.

---8--- -Everybody knows that businesses are constantly changing and evolving.

---12----Conversely, managers ought to ensure that this work also gives staff personal satisfaction and
fulfilment.
-----15--- Accordingly, my recommendation is that if managers fail to carry out their motivational tasks,
then employees fail to perform well.

---------To begin with, let us consider organization.

--------- My presentation is concerned with various areas managers can impact staff performance.

--------- One of the purposes of management is to manage this change for the benefit of both the business and its
people.

--------- As the outline shows, the work of the manager consists mainly of managing three things, namely
organization, communication, and people.

--------- To sum up, we can see how the three elements of organization, communications and motivation
determine the success and profitability of the business.

-------- In the past, many people believed that managers were there just to provide support for frontline staff, and
this has been the topic of much debate recently.

--------- Moving to the second point, managing communication is necessary to make everyone in the business
share a common purpose, and know their own role in achieving that purpose.

--------- However, our understanding of the manager’s function has improved.

--------- I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have when I finish my presentation.

---------Finally, individuals need to be managed to ensure that they are motivated to do their work well.

--------- It can be easily seen that the third element is particularly important.

Ex 2: Complete this presentation with appropriate transition words/ expressions

In today’s world more and more people use the Internet.--------------------------------that the
World Wide Web is more useful than books for three main reasons, as in the following.

--------------------------------, Internet is more a comprehensive source of the knowledge.


There are billions of subjects about everything where everybody can find some information
for them. --------------------------------, Internet users can consult various sources on a given
topic.

--------------------------------, using the Internet is usually quicker and more comfortable.


There exist plenty of resources -------------------------------- eBooks and Audio books online,
which can replace traditional books. --------------------------------, people do not have go to a
library and check these books out; they can just download them at home.
--------------------------------, the Internet is multimedia. In a book, there is only a black
text on a white paper, -------------------------------- in the Internet there are many animations
and pictures, which can help users to remember and understand modern issues.

--------------------------------, information has become more easily accessible thanks to Internet


because the latter is more comprehensive, effort saving, and sophisticated.
_________________ , Internet is now more popular than books among young people.