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What do you lose by using

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Actuation Valves
Accessories Control
Actuators Quarter-Turn
Electric Nuclear
Mechanical Multi-Turn
Pneumatic Check
Controllers Accessories
Positioners
We’ll give you a hint: Digital
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It’s a lot more than steam. Intelligent
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Experience In Motion. Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-12 flowserve.com


From concept to commissioning Coded Process Equiment, Plants, Skids and Systems

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A VENDOR


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Having worked with a variety of process industries over last 30


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WATER SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES • WASTE SERVICES • ENERGY AND FACILITY MANAGEMENT • PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

CREATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT

Circle 35 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-35
A boost in
accurate Letters
positioning
Texas cement plant ready to share
award-winning process
On May 5, 2010 Texas Lehigh Cement (Buda, Tex.; www.
texaslehigh.com) was awarded an Environmental Excel-
Trial-and-error tuning during lence Award by the state environmental agency Texas
start-up is a thing of the past. Commission for Environmental Quality (TCEQ; Austin;
Thanks to its precisely manu- www.tceq.state.tx.us). The company won for its alternative
factured bypass restriction, the fuel project because of its outstanding community part-
rugged Type 3755 Booster by nership process. Judges for the award said they could see
SAMSON can be set exactly for potential for other plants and other industries to apply
its task and lead-sealed. As the this type of process, and Texas Lehigh Cement president
booster is completely balanced, Robert Kidnew has said he would be happy to help other
it works reliably and remains firms understand it and use it for themselves.
Alternative fuel voluntary testing protocol. In 2008
unaffected by changing pressure
Texas Lehigh Cement needed a more economic and reli-
conditions. It supplies one-to-one
able source of fuel to supplement the coal used in its
signal pressure with a defined
kiln. As they started to evaluate a locally manufactured
hysteresis. And the booster does fuel made of chipped waste wood and chipped waste
all this very quietly. tires, they hired Carbon Shrinks (Austin, Tex.; www.
carbonshrinks.com) to develop a community engagement
Combined with a positioner, the process. Together they designed a voluntary testing pro-
tocol that addresses concerns expressed in one-on-one
booster has even more to offer:
discussions with local environmental critics and commu-
Both devices ensure a fast and
nity members.
accurate positioning of the valve,
Carbon Shrinks listened to concerns about air emis-
even when handling high flow sions and potential odors that are beyond the scope
rates or pressure drops. of permits. They designed a process that weighs and
scores science-based test results and transparently ex-
SAMSON Type 3755 – plains them to a community advisory committee. That
boosting performance
process is now available for anyone else to use in their
own alternative fuel project.
Economic benefits never more important. The reces-
us a t 10
V is i t o 20 sion has hit all U.S. cement plants hard, so the financial
G a s Exp d
il & B21 benefit of every project has to be solid. For Texas Lehigh,
R i o O 2, B o o t h the return on investment of their voluntary testing pro-
Hall
Circle 28 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-28

tocol stacks up well, and the environmental benefit posi-


tions them well for the future. Not only do they now have
capacity to use cheaper fuel and the direct experience of
using it — showing that the quality of their manufactur-
ing process is uncompromised — they have thoroughly
mitigated the risk of expensive community push-back.
Potential critics are now friends and allies.
Future market demand for lower-carbon cement. The
U.S. Green Building Council and Wal-Mart are both devel-
oping supply chain standards that look at the carbon in-
tensity of manufactured inputs. It may only be a matter of
time until bid specifications for cement and concrete with
lower carbon intensity are commonplace. Wood-fuel-ready
plants such as Texas Lehigh are poised to jump in at the
head of the pack to win those bids.
Terry Moore, principal and co-founder
Carbon Shrinks LLC, Austin,Tex.

Postcripts, corrections
Germany · SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK
Weismüllerstraße 360314 · Frankfurt am Main July, Chementator, Fast pyrolysis, pp. 11–12: In the
Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 description of the fast pyrolysis plant that Ensyn Tech-
E-mail: samson@samson.de
nologies is building with Tolko Industries in High Level,
A01088EN

Internet: www.samson.de
U.S.A. · SAMSON CONTROLS INC. Alberta, the annual production was cited as 850,000 L. In
4111 Cedar Boulevard · Baytown, Texas 77523-8588 fact the annual production will be 85 million L. ■
Phone: +1 281 383-3677 · Fax: +1 281 383-3690
E-mail: samson@samson-usa.com
Internet: www.samson-usa.com
IF THEY WORK IN WATER,
THEY WILL BE AT

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Activated Carbon Contractor Services Environmental Filters Pipes
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Computer Software Laboratories Security
Treatment
Data Monitoring Leak Detection Stormwater
Biological Nutrient Removal and Analysis Membrane Technologies Tanks
Biosolids and Sludge Dewatering Motors and Motor Controls Valves
Chemicals and Digesters
Chemical Handling Odor Controls Water Recycling/Reuse
Disinfection Ozone ...and so much more.
Collection Systems

Preview the technical program and exhibitor list at www.WEFTEC.org/announcement

83rd Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference


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Conference: October 2–6, 2010 | Exhibition: October 4–6, 2010

www.WEFTEC.org
Circle 37 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-37
www.altana.com

Bookshelf
Our business is

Customer Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for


Chemical and Petrochemical Plants.
4th ed. Vol. 2. By A. Kayode Coker.

proximity Elsevier Inc. The Boulevard, Langford


Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB,
U.K. Web: elsevier.com. 2010. 961
pages. $223.00.

Reviewed by Kamal Shah,


Aker Solutions, Houston

T
he comprehensive and practical fourth edition of “Lud-
wig’s Vol. 2” is written as a process design manual for
the distillation unit operation. Intended for process
engineers involved in designing distillation columns, trays
and packed towers, the book provides in-depth discussion
of design methods not only for distillation, absorption and
stripping units, but also for enhanced process units involv-
ing extractive, azeotropic and reactive distillation.
Among the interesting and unique features of the book
is a detailed discussion of the design impact of tray geom-
etry and details related to the mechanical design of trays
and their hardware — information practicing chemical
engineers involved with column trays should find useful.
Throughout the book, the author makes good use of equa-
tions, graphs, charts, calculations and examples. A broad ref-
erence list, appendices and supplements are also included.
This book’s (Volume 2) five chapters begin at Chapter 10,
which, after discussing foundation concepts, provides guid-
ance on selecting thermodynamic models for simulation
In today‘s global economy, close customer relationships
using commercially available software, as well as selecting
and in-depth knowledge of the local markets and requi-
equations of state and K-value methods. Other notable
rements are key success factors. ALTANA is at home in all
features of Chapter 10 include information on determining
the world‘s markets for specialty chemicals, ideally placed thermodynamic properties, methods for carrying out multi-
to offer our customers innovative products and services component equilibrium flash, bubble point and dewpoint
on the spot. calculations, and methods for component separation.
Chapter 10 also includes a rigorous explanation of
Specialty chemicals are our business. A business we pursue plate-to-plate calculations using total or partial condens-
with passion and dedication in more than 100 countries. ers and multiple-feed and side-stream configurations.
Four specialized divisions work together to ensure that In addition, the chapter describes methods for tray siz-
ALTANA‘s unrivalled competence and service excellence ing and geometry selection, as well as tools for analyzing
continue to improve and expand. With a clear vision of column performance. Concepts such as heat integration of
what our customers expect of us, it is our ambition at all
columns, capital cost considerations and tradeoffs are ex-
plained in an easily understandable manner.
times to develop solutions that turn opportunities into
Chapter 11 covers complex petroleum-mixture charac-
future reality.
terization and discusses the use of fractionation-distilla-
tion units to produce different products. This chapter also
discusses applications in natural-gas processing.
Enhanced distillation techniques, such as maximum-
and minimum-boiling azeotropes, heterogeneous azeotro-
pic distillation, close-boiling-point component distillation,
pressure-swing distillation, extractive distillation and
reactive (catalytic) distillation, are covered in Chapter 12.
Chapter 13 deals with the impact of mechanical design
on tray performance. The chapter covers several tray
types and the application, mechanical design and hard-
ware details of each. The chapter devotes space to design
methods and specifications to be used during the me-
Circle 1 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-01
8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010

EGaGV232;32aUvcfva3/4a:8z476aUURaGP0kpff"""3 2702:04232"""29<46<4:
LV:5YN4I4MH
chanical design of column tray components, including as-
sociated hardware details for proper tray hydraulics and
liquid distribution of the feed, side draws and reflux.
Chapter 14 provides details for various packing types,
packing supports, liquid distributors, intermediate packing
supports and redistributors. It offers an extensive review
of packed columns, as well as generalized pressure-drop
charts and equations for sizing columns with random and
structured packing.
The book serves as an excellent resource for distilla-
tion unit operations that are crucial to the gas-processing,
chemical and petrochemical industries.

Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hy-


draulic Systems. By Chellappa
Chandresekaran. Elsevier Inc., 30
Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington,
MA 01803. Web: elsevier.com. 2010. 160
pages. $149.00.

Process Risk and Reliability Man-


agement: Operational Integrity
Management. By Ian Sutton. Elsevier
Inc., 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400,
Burlington, MA 01803. Web: elsevier.
com. 2010. 850 pages. $195.00.

Wildlife Toxicology: Emerging Con-


taminant and Biodiversity Issues.
Edited by Ronald J. Kendall and others.
CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Park-
way, NW Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL
Iut|k otm" Vgrrkzoyotm" Vgiqgmotm"
33487. 2010. 340 pages. $119.95.

Thermo-oxidative Degradation
of Polymers. By T. Roy Crompton.
iSmithers Rapra Publishing Ltd., HK[SKX"yzxkzin"nuujØ
Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire
SY4 4NR, U.K. Web: ismithers.net.
Znk"vu}kxl{r"vgiqgmotm"
2010. 136 pages. $200.00. yur{zout"lux"znk"inksoigr"
Advanced Process Control: Beyond otj{yzx 4
Single Loop Control. By Cecil Smith.
Wiley, 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030.
Web: wiley.com. 2010. 450 pages. $99.95.
Uvzosgr"yglkz "lux"grr"vgrrkzoykj"rugjotm"{tozy4"
Innovation in Industrial Research. Vxu|kt"xkroghrk"ot"grr"}kgznkx"iutjozouty"gtj"
By Paulo de Souza. CSIRO Publishing, qkkvy"ozy"gvvkgxgtik"gz"znk"ygsk"zosk4"Znk"
P.O. Box 1139, Collingwood, Victoria
nomn3igvgioz "vgiqgmotm"sginotk2"HK[SKX"
3066, Australia. Web: csiro.au. 2010.
152 pages. $44.95. yzxkzin"nuujØ2"klã"ioktzr "iushotky"znk"rgzkyz"
iutzxur"zkinturum 2"yuvnoyzoigzkj"l{tizout"
Advances in Catalysis. Vol. 53. suj{rky"gtj"yki{xk"lors"ngtjrotm4"Ykk"
Edited by Bruce Gates, Helmut Knoez- lux" u{xykrl4"_u{"igt"ã"tj"suxk"otluxsgzout"
inger and Friederike Jentoft. Elsevier ghu{z"znk"HK[SKX"iusvgt "gtj"ozy"
Inc., 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, vxuj{izy"ut"znk"Otzkxtkz4
Burlington, MA 01803. Web: elsevier.
com. 2010. 644 pages. $224.00. ■ Circle 4 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-04
Scott Jenkins

}}}4hk{skx4ius
October 19 - 21, 2010 | Reliant Center, Hall E | HOUSTON, TEXAS

LOCATION: Houston, Texas. ChemInnovations is strategically located


in the center of North America’s CPI.

NETWORKING: Meet face-to-face with 200+ exhibitors and over 125 speakers.

CONTENT: An in-depth conference to help solve your biggest processing challenges.


BUGDET SAVER: Get deep attendee discounts with early registration. We have all
the tools you need to get approval, save money and increase ROI for your company!

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with code: CHEMREG

C O - L O C AT E D W I T H
PRESENTED BY PRODUCED BY

PRESENTED BY PRODUCED BY

S T R AT E G I C PA R T N E R S S T R AT E G I C PA R T N E R S
Edited by Gerald Ondrey September 2010

Scrubbed Pure CO2


Enzyme-based method could make fluegas (> 90%) for
compression
CO2 capture economically viable Lean solvent
and storage

C odexis (Redwood City, Calif.; www.


codexis.com) and CO2 Solution (Que-
bec City, Canada; www.co2solution.com)
CO2 CO2
have jointly developed a cost-effective absorber stripper
method for capturing carbon dioxide column column
from coal-fired power plants.
Enzyme Enzyme
Solvent-based systems for captur-
ing CO2 are relatively well-understood,
but they have not been widely deployed
Rich solvent
because they are energy-intensive and
inefficient. Solvent-based approaches Steam
involve a trade-off between the kinet- Fluegas
with CO2
ics of CO2 absorption by the solvent and
the energy required to regenerate the
40–60°C Higher T
greenhouse gas for sequestration or fur-
ther use, explains Jim Lalonde, Codexis type of CA that is stable for 30 min at of MDEA’s sterically hindered molecu-
vice president for biochemistry and en- temperatures of 85°C (natural, human lar structure. The Codexis/CO2 Solu-
gineering R&D. CA is unstable above 55°C). The enzyme tion process is designed to reuse sol-
“You want something that binds CO2, catalyzes CO2 absorption into solvents vent, and is compatible with multiple
but not too tightly,” he says. For example, whose properties allow CO2 regenera- carbon sequestration approaches.
the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) tion at lower energies. Without the en- Codexis is applying its directed-evo-
offers efficient CO2 capture, but requires zyme, these solvents, such as monom- lution technology to further increase
high energy to regenerate the gas. ethyl-diethanolamine (MDEA), would the stability of CA by orders of mag-
The new process depends on two tech- have unfavorably slow reaction kinetics nitude and, if successful, will scale up
nologies: new forms of the enzyme car- for CO2 capture. the process to eventually capture tons
bonic anhydrase (CA) that are tolerant In modest quantities, the optimized per day of CO2 by the end of the current
of elevated temperatures; and carbon- enzyme accelerates the rate of CO2 project, Lalonde says. The project is par-
capture solvents that require less en- capture in MDEA by about 50 times tially supported by a $4.7 million grant
ergy to regenerate CO2. compared to the rate without enzyme. from the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s (DOE;
Codexis is using a proprietary ge- Once the CO2 is absorbed, the energy Washington, D.C.; www.energy.gov) Ad-
netic-screening and directed-evolution required to drive off the CO2 is 30% less vanced Research Projects Agency-En-
approach in developing an early proto- than the conventional solvent, because ergy (ARPA-E).

An attractive way to remove arsenic from water World’s largest PDH unit
A magnetic composite based on reduced gra-
phene oxide (RGO) has been developed by
a Korean team with an exceptional capacity
water through coprecipitation of iron min-
erals such as magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrys-
tals. However, those adsorbents are difficult
lummus technology (bloom-
ield, n.J.), a Cb&i company
(the woodlands, tex.; www.
to remove arsenic from drinking water. The to use in continuous flow systems, such as cbi.com), has been awarded a
team, headed by professor Kwang S. Kim rivers, due to small particle size and insta- contract by tianjin bohua petro-
from the Center for Superfunctional Materi- bility — magnetite is highly susceptible to chemical Co. for the license and
als, Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University oxidation when exposed to the atmosphere. engineering design of a grass-
of Science and Technology (www.postech. Therefore, the team decided to synthesize roots propane dehydrogenation
ac.kr), South Korea, claims the composite M-RGO due to its large surface area and the (pDh) unit to be built in tianjin,
China. it will be the irst pDh
can achieve nearly complete removal (more stability of the RGO.
plant in China, and upon startup
than 99.9%) of arsenic — within about 1 ppb The team synthesized graphene oxide via in 2012, will be the largest pDh
— from water. The magnetite-RGO (M-RGO) Hummer’s method. The graphene oxide was plant in the world, says Cb&i.
composite is superparamagnetic at room exfoliated in water to produce a suspension the unit will use the Catoin
temperature. It soaks up arsenic when dis- of graphene oxide sheets. An aqueous mix- dehydrogenation process to
persed in water and is then easily removed ture of FeCl3 and FeCl2 was added slowly produce 600,000 metric tons
from the water with a permanent magnet. to the solution, and ammonia solution was per year of propylene. (for more
Several methods have been developed to added quickly to precipitate Fe+2 and Fe+3 on Catoin and pDh, see push-
remove arsenic from drinking water. For ex- ions for synthesis of magnetite nanopar- ing propylene production, CE,
ample, arsenic can be removed from drinking march 2004, pp. 20–24)
(Continues on p. 12)
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 62, or use the website designation. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2010 11
C HEMENTATO R

Small
A more efficient, less expensive way vessel

to continuously make bioethanol Settlement


part
Ethanol
solution

A n enhanced reactor technology that


boosts the speed of producing bioetha-
nol by a factor of four while decreasing
tinuously fed to the bottom of the reac-
tor and flows upward by the gas gener-
ated by fermentation. The gas is collected
production costs by 25% compared to a by an umbrella-like structure at the top,
stirred batch fermenter has been devel- and then moves into a small side vessel.
oped by IHI Corp. (IHI; Tokyo; www.ihi. There, the gas is separated from the fer- Reaction Recycle
part tube
co.jp). The technology features a cohesive mentation broth (yeast aggregates and
strain of yeast to increase the number liquids), which is recycled to the bottom
density of microorganisms in the reactor, of the reactor. Ethanol is recovered from
and utilizes the flow created by the carbon a side stream leaving the settlement part
dioxide gas released by the fermentation of the reactor.
to enhance the contact (mixing) between In a pilot reactor (8.6-L reactor volume,
the yeasts and glucose feed solution. As a 1-m high and 10-cm dia.) operating at its Yo- On-off
valve
result, the continuous process eliminates kohama facility, IHI has demonstrated the (open
the need for mechanical agitation and aer- technology with one month of continuous op- during
operation)
ation, thereby reducing operating costs, eration. An ethanol production speed of 25 g/
maintenance and reactor size. Lh was achieved, and the average size of the Raw P
materials
In IHI’s process, glucose solution is con- yeast aggregate maintained at 0.5–1.5 mm. (glucose solution)

Nanofiber applications
A new iodine-based catalyst for asymmetric synthesis last month, Dupont (wilming-
ton, Del.; www.dupont.com)
P rofessor Kazuaki Ishihara and colleagues
at Nagoya University (Nagoya, Japan;
www.nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp/nubio4/english/
pounds — catalyzed by in-situ-generated
chiral, quaternary-ammonium-(hypo)iodite
salts, with hydrogen peroxide as an envi-
introduced the irst nanoiber-
based polymeric battery separa-
tor that boosts the performance
main-e.htm) has discovered an efficient, ronmentally benign oxidant (only water and safety of lithium-ion batter-
chiral, salt-based hypervalent iodine cata- and alcohol are generated as byproducts). ies. tradenamed energain, the
lyst that could replace toxic metal catalysts After recrystallization, an optical purity of separators are said to increase
without generating the waste or explosion 99 ee % is achieved for this reaction, the power by 15–20%, increase
risks associated with hypervalent organo- highest selectivity with the lowest catalyst battery life by up to 20% and im-
iodine complexes. The researchers took the loading ever seen in asymmetric, hyper- prove battery safety by providing
radical step of swapping iodine bonded to valent-iodine catalysis, says Ishihara. The stability at high temperatures.
carbon for an iodite (IO2–) or hypoiodite team confirmed that asymmetric synthesis the battery separators are
made into a web using a propri-
(IO–) anion as the oxidant, which can be using inorganic iodide catalyst occurred in
etary spinning process that cre-
generated from iodide (I–) by simple oxi- several hours for 10 mol% catalyst, which ates continuous ilaments with
dants, such as hydrogen peroxide. The team is faster than the 17 hours required for the diameters between 200 and
also coupled the (hypo)iodite with a chiral, same concentration of an organic iodine 1,000 nm.
quaternary-amine counter ion to solubilize catalyst, suggesting the possibility for real the company has begun
the inorganic iodite in organic solvents and industrial use. construction on a facility in
provide a chiral environment to control the Ishihara expects that a variety of oxida- Chesterield, Va., to manufac-
geometry of the reaction. tive coupling reactions could be controlled ture product for development
In the laboratory, the researchers per- by these salts in place of transition metal and commercial sale. Slated
formed an enantio-selective, oxidative cy- catalysts, and is aiming to make an inter- to startup in the irst quarter of
2011, the facility will initially have
cloetherification of ketophenols to 2-acyl- molecular version — joining two molecules
the ability to supply 20% of to-
2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives — a key together rather than reacting two sites on day’s hybrid and electric vehicle
structure in several biologically active com- the same molecule. needs. while the initial uses
for the separator are in hybrid
vehicle batteries, the nanoiber
REMOVE ARSENIC FROM WATER not simply mixed in or blended with RGO, technology will target other
(Continued from p. 11) rather, they are entrapped inside the RGO renewable-energy applications
ticles. The graphene oxide was reduced sheets. The composite is especially effective as well as a broad range of liq-
to RGO by hydrazine hydrate, which was in arsenic removal — compared with bare uid iltration applications for the
added slowly for 4 hours at 90°C. magnetite — because the graphene sheets biopharmaceutical, microelec-
In the composite that the team created, greatly increase the number of adsorption tronics, and food-and-beverage
industries, offering “superior”
the magnetite nanoparticles are well dis- sites. Also, the stability of magnetite is in-
retention, ilter life and low re-
persed in the RGO matrix with an average creased by the RGO, so that it can be used in sistance, says Dupont.on p. 13)
(Continues
particle size of 11 nm. The nanoparticles are continuous flow systems for longer periods.
12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2010
Siemens

Newsfront

SECURING
THE CPI
Heightened activity toward CFATS
compliance brings the need for
integration and a shift of cultural FIGURE 1. Siemens and other industry security experts are seeing
perspective into view a strong trend toward remote, third-party management of security
systems. This Siemens center is located in Dallas

A
s potential threats continue to plans had been submitted and were in mittee’s actions, Sloan says “We thank
make headline news around the review; and DHS inspectors had made Senator Collins for this extension,
world, it is clear that the need over 244 compliance assistance vis- which gives chemical manufactur-
for security measures is an on- its. As of June, almost 5,000 facilities ers and DHS valuable time in which
going process, and that this process were covered by CFATS with rank- to continue to strengthen protections
requires vigilance. The chemical pro- ings in the top four tiers. Over 4,000 of against attack and more fully assess
cess industries (CPI) are considered these facilities were given final tiers the effectiveness of the entire CFATS
part of the critical infrastructure in and the rest were preliminarily tiered program.” The next step in the legis-
the U.S., and as such are regulated by facilities (for more on CFATS, “tiers” lative process for this bill is consider-
the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security and other CFATS-related terms see ation by the full Senate.
(DHS; Washington, D.C.; www.dhs. Chemical Plant Security, Chem. Eng., Harmonization. While CFATS is the
gov) under the Chemical Facility Anti- pp. 21–23, September 2009). main regulatory agent for CPI secu-
Terrorism Standard (CFATS). Already Revisions being considered. Even rity, there are a number of exemption
renewed for one year, the standard is as compliance moves forward, sev- categories under which facilities must
again set to expire in October 2010, eral aspects of CFATS are under comply with other governing bodies.
but all signs are that CFATS is here scrutiny by the U.S. Congress. One One example is that some facilities fall
to stay and the CPI have taken great main issue is a proposed revision under the Maritime Transportation
strides toward compliance. to mandate use of inherently safer Security Act (MTSA) regulations. For
technology (IST). Other areas of some of these facilities, there is con-
CFATS implementation discussion relate to broadening the cern about how to comply with overlap
“The chemical industry is well along scope of the standard to include, for among various government agencies,
in implementing the current chemi- example, water-treatment plants. and this concern was expressed during
cal security regulations, which are Congress is considering multiple a question-and-answer period at the
rigorous, enforceable and protective of bills in the House of Representatives July Chemical Sector Security Sum-
the American public,” says Lawrence and Senate to either reauthorize the mit. This concern is recognized and
Sloan, president and CEO of the So- existing standards for a limited time being addressed by an effort to create
ciety of Chemical Manufacturers & or to significantly alter them. multi-agency harmonization through
Affiliates (SOCMA; Washington, D.C.; In late July, legislation that would working group initiatives, such as the
www.socma.com). At the 2010 Chemi- make the existing CFATS standard MTSA/CFATS Harmonization group.
cal Sector Security Summit and Expo permanent took a step forward with
held in July, Sue Armstrong, acting bipartisan support in the Senate Security experts
deputy assistant secretary for In- Homeland Security and Government Security in the CPI did not start with
frastructure Protection of the DHS, Affairs Committee. The legislation CFATS. As ACC president and CEO
reported on the progress made with would extend the existing CFATS by Cal Dooley states, “Since 2001, ACC
CFATS implementation. At the time three years, to October 2013. Both members have helped lead the way
of the summit, over 38,000 top-screens SOCMA and the American Chemistry on chemical security, well ahead of
had been submitted and reviewed; Council (ACC; Arlington, Va.; www. government regulation. They have in-
over 6,000 security vulnerability as- americanchemistry.com) support this vested more than $8 billion on facility
sessments had been submitted and extension of the current standard. security enhancements under ACC’s
reviewed; over 3,100 site security Referring to the recent Senate com- Responsible Care Security Code.”
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 17
Yokogawa

Newsfront

Even so, there has been much activity


in CPI security recently, mostly due to
CFATS and perhaps partly due to the
greater visibility and interest given
to security and the corresponding in-
crease in available resources.
Ryan Loughin, director of the chem-
ical & energy solutions of ADT Ad-
vanced Integration (Norristown, Pa.;
www.adtbusiness.com/petrochem-ce)
says that “Just in the last 30–60 days
there has been a lot of movement from
DHS, so there has also been a lot of
movement from the CPI,” referring to
requests for security system design, FIGURE 2. The integrated ield wireless gateway (left), EJX-B Series differential
awarding of contracts and more. Com- pressure and pressure transmitter (center) and YTA Series temperature transmitter
panies are asking for help in designing are Yokogawa’s ield wireless devices based on the ISA100.11a standard
their site security plans (SSPs) and
then redesigning them when rework fers to command-and-control centers in third-party security monitoring. At-
is needed as feedback from the DHS is that work toward an efficient informa- teberry sheds some light on the reasons
received, explains Loughin. tion flow during emergency situations for this increase when he says “Before
For CPI facilities seeking help, there to ensure a unified command and it was a single-alarm system, but now
are a number of security-expert com- intelligent response to threats — a it is more enterprise-based … one focal
panies, such as ADT and others, that control center at a police department point can monitor the total situation
offer assistance with designing, build- was given as an easy-to-understand awareness of the facility.” Advantages of
ing and managing security systems. example. Formerly, only very large third-party security monitoring include
And these companies have developed businesses were interested in these having an expert, who best understands
expertise with CFATS so that they centers due to the expense, but more the incoming security data, monitor it;
can, for example, specifically address recently that is changing. reducing or eliminating the need for on-
what a facility might do to meet the The second trend is hosted or man- site monitoring personnel and the asso-
requirements of the risk-based perfor- aged services. This refers to hiring an ciated costs; and reducing the potential
mance standards (RBPSs) that are es- outside company — a security expert that an event might be missed due to
tablished in CFATS. “One of the beau- — to monitor the incoming security a lapse of attention to a video screen,
tiful things about the RBPSs,” says data (from video surveillance, for ex- for example, during a long period of
Michael Saad, senior director consult- ample, but also a wide-range of other inactivity on the screen. Since remote
ing services with Huffmaster Crisis information) and initiate actions when centers monitor a number of sites, there
Response (Troy, Mich.; www.huffmas- needed. As Boethel explains, “Hosted is inherently more activity being moni-
ter.com), “is that they leave it to the applications once focused on small tored and therefore more stimulation to
facility to determine how to achieve and medium-sized businesses, but keep personnel attentive.
the level of security performance re- are now entering an enterprise-class The increase in requests for remote
quired. But that is a sword that cuts phase where large multinational com- monitoring is a trend that has been
both ways. It also requires the facility panies are embracing the technology.” noted by a number of security experts.
to determine how to create layers of In fact, Boethal expects that managed ADT’s Loughin sees more requests for
integrated security.” This is where the video services industry-wide will have third-party video and alarm monitor-
security experts can help. more than a 15% compounded annual ing for their special operations moni-
Managed services and other growth rate. An interesting conclusion toring facility in Aurora, Colo., and
trends. At a briefing given on August can be drawn from these two trends cites cost-effectiveness as a strong
10 at Siemens AG’s (Munich, Germany; — the distinction between “high-end” reason for this movement. Saad also
www.siemens.com) U.S. headquarters and “low-end” security system users notes that an increase in demand for
for their Security Solutions Business is going away. Large, mid-sized and Huffmaster’s interactive remote-video-
Unit (Buffalo Grove, Ill.; usa.siemens. small facilities are exploring all op- monitoring services led Huffmaster to
com/buildingtechnologies), Carey tions for their site security plans. renovate and expand the space and re-
Boethel, vice president and business Phil Atteberry, director of managed sources devoted to those services.
unit head for Security Solutions, ex- security services at Siemens, manages
plained two trends that are currently both of Siemens’ remote-monitoring Securing process control
shaping security strategies. The first centers in Dallas, Tex. (Figure 1) and For the CPI, securing process control
is a proliferation of physical security Beltsville, Md. He has seen a “huge systems is a vital part of any security
information management (PSIM) and trend” toward managed services with plan. And, the CPI has been very ac-
command-and-control centers. This re- about an 8% increase from 2007–2010 tively involved in leading-edge efforts
18 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
Westfalia Separator® capitalcare

in cyber security. An example of this no matter how you put them together
is the Roadmap to Secure Control Sys- they are still secure.” Yokogawa says
Comprehensive Protection
tems in the Chemical Sector (www.us- it has taken a step in that direction by for Your Investment
cert.gov/control_systems/pdf/Chem- developing the world’s first field wire-
Sec_Roadmap_First_Edition.pdf), less devices based on the ISA100.11a
which is a document published in Sep- industrial wireless communications
tember 2009 that presents a security standard (Figure 2).
vision for industrial control systems What makes the Stuxnet worm such
in the CPI, proposes a comprehensive big news in the control community is
plan for implementation, and identi- not just that it was deliberately made
fies milestones over a ten-year period. to attack control systems, but that it
Preparation of the roadmap was truly is highly sophisticated — enough so
a cooperative effort that included the that it attacks a previously unkown
DHS and a substantial number of vol- vulnerability and it wraps libraries to
unteers from CPI companies. hide PLC programming changes. “The
Citing the roadmap and other ef- worm is a wake-up call. A lot of opera- You are pursuing a clear objective
forts in cyber security standards, tions people and even security decision with your investments: a high
Ernest Rakaczky, portfolio manager makers had still been on the page that level of performance at mini-
of control system cyber security for malware is only an incidental threat mum cost. We have customized
Invensys Operations Management to control systems and physical pro- our range of services to take full
account of this throughout
(Plano, Tex.; www.iom.invensys.com) cesses, and that sophisticated threats
the entire life cycle of your cen-
says “In a lot of ways, the chemical … were not something they had to
trifugal technology. Westfalia
sector is leading the way.” Rakaczky worry about. All that has changed
Separator® capitalcare is the
stresses the importance of control with Stuxnet,” says Andrew Ginter,
modern, appropriate response
and IT experts working together to- chief security office with Industrial to your growing needs for pro-
ward the common goal of security. He Defender, Inc. (Foxboro, Mass.; www. cess efficiency and availability
says that typically, firewall technol- industrialdefender.com). of your plant. Our tailor-made
ogy is changing faster than controller A basic principal of cyber security service products mean you bene-
technology. With a core competence plans offered by Industrial Defender fit from the competence and
in control, Invensys builds its control is Defense-in-Depth (Figure 3), which experience of the technology
systems so that they can easily be presumes that no single mode of se- leader:
updated with the latest security sys- curity mitigation is impenetrable and
tems. This built-in ability to update therefore several layers are needed. Field service
the control system allows the user to The company’s approach includes Original spare parts
take advantage of the newest tech- three major categories including: in- Repairs
nologies without large investments. trusion prevention, which is applied Condition monitoring
Threats to control systems can come at network perimeters with a firewall, Training
from a variety of sources. Firewalls and within servers and end-point de- Service level agreements
are very effective at preventing intru- vices via the recently introduced Host Applied consulting
sion. People with access to the control Intrusion Prevention System (HIPS);
system, however, are a credible threat, access management, which provides
rigorous authentication and authori- Your direct route to 24 / 7 service:
whether through accidental means www.westfalia-separator.com / service
(such as unwarily using personal de- zation before allowing access through
vices or USB sticks), or through inten- the perimeter; and monitoring and re-
tional means (such as by a disgruntled sponse, which integrates intrusion de-
employee for example). “A malicious tection, performance monitoring and
insider is the tough threat,” says Gra- event management.
ham Speake, principal systems archi- Third-party management. An inter-
tect for Yokogawa Corp. of America’s esting shift is occurring in that more
(Newnan, Ga.; www.yokogawa.com/us) companies are looking for outside se-
IA Global Strategic Technology Mar- curity management of not only physi-
keting Center in Dallas, Tex. Threats cal security systems, but also cyber
to control systems are “no longer theo- security systems. Ginter explains that Liquids to Value
retical” says Speake, citing the recently while there has been a reluctance to let
discovered Stuxnet worm that was information out to third parties, com-
distinctly targeted to attack a specific panies are getting more comfortable GEA Mechanical Equipment
control system. “One way to increase with this through cloud computing and GEA Westfalia Separator
security,” says Speake, “is to build “software as a service”, where comput-
SE-2-60-002

Werner-Habig-Straße 1 · 59302 Oelde (Germany)


more security into products so that ers and functionality are rented. He Phone +49 2522 77-0 · Fax +49 2522 77-2089
www.westfalia-separator.com
Circle 16 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-16
Newsfront
Industrial Defender

says that some CPI customers have fender has a remote control center at
said that “If you’ve got a good security its headquarters in Foxboro, Mass.
posture now and you want to take a Invensys’ Rakaczky says, “One ele-
step up, outsource it.” Their reason- ment where there is a big future is
ing is that industrial-control-security managing security. The overall suc-
experts, such as Industrial Defender, cess of security is not [a question of]
understand the system and follow the how many firewalls or security de-
rules (set up by the user) since that’s vices I put in, but once I do this, how
what they get paid to do. Industrial De- do I manage it?” He sees a goal to be
 FIGURE 3. Industrial Defender’s De-
fense-in-Depth solution takes a multi-
pronged approach to security

Where Intelligence learning how to address an attack and


how to manage it so that a user can

Meets Economics...
work through the attack (and not shut
down). And Speake, who fairly recently
joined Yokogawa coming from a CPI
company, says that with his CPI back-
Strobic Air’s programmable ground, when it comes to managing
Tri-Stack® Smart System™ the security systems he would choose
to outsource it. He cautions, however,
makes the industry’s best that you would have to be careful
exhaust solution even better!! about who does it and where.

The patent pending Tri-Stack® Smart System™ A cultural shift


� Senses pressure changes as system demand changes With CFATS implementation well
� Adjusts fan speed to maintain optimal system flow underway, and cooperative working
– Maintains specific pressure at lab hoods groups, such as those involved with the
– Maintains fan exit velocity for safe ventilation as Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in
per ANSI Z9.5 the Chemical Sector, and those work-
� Stages fans on and off as required ing on standards to improve wireless
� Cycles the spare fan on a monthly basis
security, there is a heightened level
� Minimizes use of electrical power while
of awareness about security — both
maintaining a safe lab environment
� Automatically adjusts fans to run slower and quieter
physical and cyber — in the CPI. Most
during off-peak hours, promoting a “good neighbor” agree that the typical CPI facility has
policy a well-established safety culture where,
Other Features & Benefits
� Virtually maintenance free
as Rakaczky puts it “everybody in the
� Direct drive reliability, no plant has a stake in ensuring that ev-
belts to wear out eryone is safe.” He says that this type
� Optional heat recovery of culture that drives safety is getting
for even more savings started on the security front, and that
� Can be retrofitted to
“training, policies and procedures, and
existing systems
The SMART
managing everyday activities will have
choice for the biggest influence on cyber security.”
safety critical
lab exhaust! Andrew Wray, senior global market-
ing manager with Honeywell Process
Solutions (Phoenix, Ariz.; www.honey-
well.com), another leader in expert se-
curity systems, has noticed a “cultural
shift in a plant environment where
everyone feels more a part of secu-
Low Capital Cost!
STROBIC AIR rity.” Whereas people have previously
viewed certain surveillance items, such
Energy Saving Design! Fans, Silencers & Systems as video cameras, an intrusion on their
A Met-Pro Product Recovery/Pollution Control Technologies Business
privacy, Wray says that now “People
Reduces Carbon Footprint! Harleysville, PA
believe they have a right to feel secure
TOLL-FREE 1-800-SAC-FANS
tristack@strobicair.com and safe, and they see video surveil-
Typical Two-Year Payback! www.strobicair.com
lance as a benefit to that end.” ■
Dorothy Lozowski
Circle 32 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-32
20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies

Newsfront

FROM SEA TO
SHINING SEA FIGURE 1. Pictured is a Chevron facility in
San Ardo, Calif., where Veolia’s OPUS system
has been operating
Siemens Water Technologies

Desalination
technologies are
improving to make
seawater and brackish
water treatment more
efficient and cost
effective for industry

A
though the municipal water de-
mand is considerably greater
than that of industry, many of
the municipal needs are ad-
dressed by relatively basic technolo-
gies, while industrial requirements FIGURE 2. This photo shows an installation of an RO high-pressure pump and the
can only be met with advanced treat- energy recovery devices (in the background)
ment options. And, as industrial water
demands continue to grow due to Typically brackish water is used He continues to say that this will
regulatory restrictions and mandates, more broadly in industry, but that remain a persistent issue for indus-
water treatment providers are devel- doesn’t preclude the use of desalina- try even in areas where fresh water
oping innovative desalination tech- tion of seawater as a key technology is plentiful due to mandates that pro-
nologies, which allow saltwater and solution to the overall issue of indus- hibit facilities from disposing of waste-
brackish water supplies to be cleaned trial water scarcity around the globe. water, permits being withheld due to
up in a more cost effective, energy ef- “Just as you have multiple ways to high water use or by economic drivers
ficient manner. generate electricity, such as coal, wind, such as the increasing cost of fresh
“Municipalities are beginning to sun and gas based on geography and water. “In any of those situations, de-
reserve fresh water supplies for the atmospheric conditions, the same can salination will undoubtedly be part of
population, which means industry is be said of water,” notes Joseph Such, the solution.”
now required to find alternative water general manager of reverse osmosis
sources, such as seawater and brack- and electrodialysis systems with GE Industrial technologies
ish water to support manufacturing Power & Water (Trevose, Pa.). “We can Although municipal- and industrial-
processes,” notes Gary Martin, seg- clean up water using different technol- desalination needs share some com-
ment general manager of water and ogies such as desalination of seawater mon technologies in that most ad-
wastewater solutions, with Siemens or reuse of brackish water. Clearly, vanced treatment technology uses
Water Technologies (Warrendale, Pa.). with water scarcity, we are looking at membranes for removal of suspended
“We’re finding this especially true in all the different levers we can pull to solids and dissolved solids, in munici-
applications for the power, chemical assist with this issue, and that may pal applications these two methods
and mining industries where we are include desalination of saltwater if the are usually sufficient to meet the
increasingly being asked to find so- customer is near the sea, or reusing quality requirements. In industrial
lutions for retrofits, expansions, up- municipal or industrial wastewater if applications, however, the water often
grades or new installations.” the customer is inland.” needs additional treatments, such as
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 21
Newsfront

SOLAR DESALINATION
orldwide, more and more people are obtaining drinking In a similar vein, IBM (Armonk, N.Y.) and the King Abdulaziz City

W water either from the sea or from increasingly salty inland


sources. Analysts at Global Water Intelligence, an industry
service, estimated that in 2008, desalination facilities around the
for Science and Technology (KACST) (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) are
collaborating to create a water desalination plant powered by solar
electricity, which could significantly reduce water and energy costs.
world produced nearly 12-billion gallons of water each day. This A new, energy efficient desalination plant with an expected pro-
amount is expected to more than double by 2016. The bulk of this duction capacity of 30,000 m3/d will be built in the city of Al
amount is attributable to the Arab countries around the Persian Khafji to serve 100,000 people. KACST plans to power the plant
Gulf. Other countries such as Spain, France, Greece and Italy are with the ultra-high concentrator photovoltaic (UHCPV) technology
also turning to desalination. While most large desalination plants that is being jointly developed by IBM and KACST. This technology
are fueled by oil or gas, smaller and medium-sized plants can run is capable of operating a CPV system at a concentration greater
partly or even entirely on renewable energies. than 1,500 suns. Inside the plant, the desalination process will
“Often people in these plants don’t know how reliable and ef- hinge on an IBM-KACST developed technology, a nanomembrane
ficient solar-powered desalination plants, or wind-powered and, that filters out salts as well as potentially harmful toxins in water
perhaps someday tidal-energy-driven plants, work,” says Marcel while using less energy than other forms of water purification.
Wieghaus of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems According to KACST scientists, the two most commonly used
(ISE; Freiburg, Germany; www.ise.fhg.de). The European ProDes methods for seawater desalination are thermal technology and re-
initiative, of which ISE is a member, intends to change that by verse osmosis, both at a cost ranging from 2.5 to 5.5 Saudi Riyals
conducting a study of examining how renewable energies can be per cubic meter. Combining solar power with the new nanomem-
harnessed more effectively in the future to transform seawater and brane, the project may significantly reduce the cost of desalinating
brackish water into drinking water. seawater at these plants.
ProDes, which stands for Promotion of Renewable Energy for “Currently Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated
Water Production through Desalination, has established an array water in the world and we continue to invest in new ways of mak-
of processes for desalinating seawater and brackish water. Cur- ing access to fresh water more affordable,” says Dr. Turki Al Saud,
rently most European desalination plants rely on reverse osmosis, vice president for research institutes, KACST.
where high-pressure and semi-permeable membranes separate Because over 97% of the world’s water is in the oceans, turning
water from salt and unwanted organic constituents. Plants operat- salt water into fresh water cost effectively and energy efficiently
ing on conventional energy forms deliver around 400,000 m3/d offers tremendous potential for addressing the growing worldwide
of drinking water. When it comes to desalination plants running on demand for clean water. One of the most efficient means of desali-
renewable energy, the spectrum ranges from simple solar distilla- nation is reverse osmosis. But there are obstacles to unlocking this
tion plants with a capacity of a few liters a day to wind-powered reserve — principally biofouling, degradation by chlorine and low
reverse osmosis plants capable of desalinating nearly 2,000 m3. flux challenges. The joint research focuses on improving polymeric
Ultimately the best technology for the task depends on the salinity membranes through nanoscale modification of polymer properties
of untreated water, the local infrastructure and the quantity of water to make desalination much more efficient and much less costly.
required. “The more remote the location, the more worthwhile and “Our collaborative research with KACST has led to innovative
profitable it is to use plant systems run on renewable energy and technologies in the areas of solar power and of water desalina-
to set up a water treatment operation that is not dependent on an tion,” says Sharon Nunes, vice president, IBM Big Green Innova-
external energy supply,” explains Weighaus. He and a team of tions. “Using these new technologies, we will create energy-effi-
researchers have installed solar-powered desalination plants on cient systems we believe can be implemented across Saudi Arabia
the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. and around the world.” ❏

verse osmosis modules with standard bining a proprietary high-rate chemi-


pre-treatment and post-treatment WATER TREATMENT cal softening process, known as Multi-
products, it has the multiple effect of PROVIDERS flow with filtration, ion exchange and
reducing energy use, reducing costs, BWA Water Additives reverse osmosis, this technology gen-
increasing availability through the www.wateradditives.com erates high quality water with a low
use of products that are proven to Dow Water and Process Solutions waste volume.
work together and shorter schedules www.dowwaterandprocess.com And GE Water’s Propak NA Series,
and start up times.” GE Water and Process Technologies which was designed for industrial ap-
www.gewater.com
Brad Biagini, a product manager plications in boiler feed, combines ul-
IBM
with Veolia Water Solutions and www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/water
trafiltration hollow-fiber membranes
Technologies (Cary, N.C.) agrees that Siemens Water Technologies to take out solids with spiral wound
all-in-one treatment technologies are www.water.siemens.com RO membranes to take out dissolved
efficient solutions. For example, the Veolia www.veoliawaterst.com salts on a single skid. “Being on one
Amdro from Veolia, which he says was skid saves on footprint, and because
initially developed for water treatment ion exchange, the technology gener- they aren’t buying two separate sys-
in the phosphate fertilizer industry, is ates high-quality effluent with mini- tems, it also saves on capital costs. Op-
a reverse osmosis technology operated mum pre-treatment requirements. erational cost savings can also be had
in double-pass mode. By combining Similarly, the company’s OPUS tech- because the systems are optimized to
the company’s Actiflo high-rate clarifi- nology uses a reverse osmosis process work together.” ■
cation process with filtration, RO and operated at an elevated pH. By com- Joy LePree
24 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
Hydrogen-rich syngas
to gas cleaning system

T
he first ChemInnovations 2010 Thermal
Conference and Expo (www. residence
cpievent.com) is designed to Solid waste chamber
feed (TRC)
provide engineers in the chem-
ical process industries (CPI) with tools Liquid waste
and knowledge for solving today’s
complicated processing challenges.
Hydrogen-rich
Scheduled to take place at the Reli- syngas to TRC
Plasma-arc
ant Center in Houston October 19–21, graphite
ChemInnovations is expected to at- electrodes
tract over 150 exhibitors and more Steam/oxygen
than 2,000 attendees. injection Plasma-arc
ChemInnovations is focused on heating zone
fostering innovative thinking and on Molton glass
Volumetric resistance
delivering the innovative technolo- Molton metal heating zone
gies and approaches that are vital in
addressing current processing chal- Side entry electrodes
lenges. The event was put together to Thermal valves
help attendees anticipate market and FIGURE 1. InEnTec’s PEM uses a direct-current plasma arc Source: InEnTec Chemical
regulatory trends in the CPI. to generate syngas from waste and other materials
Conference keynote speakers will
address various aspects of innovation, gies are among those to be presented Mich. site. In addition to being convert-
including how to cultivate innova- within this track at ChemInnovations ible to other products, the syngas pro-
tive thinking and support innovation 2010. The date and time of each pre- duced by the PEM can also be used as
while meeting the regulatory demands sentation follow each writeup. a fuel to produce energy, a scheme with
placed on the CPI. attractive energy balances, the com-
The ChemInnovations conferences Plasma-enhanced gasification pany says. — Oct. 21, 12:30 PM
are organized into seven tracks, with offers improved waste disposal
track titles including the following: Plasma-enhanced melter (PEM) gasifi- A steam thermocompressor
• Business insight for engineers cation technology developed by InEnTec with improved efficiency
• Process design and operations — Chemical LLC (Fleming Island, Fla.; Through a careful redesign informed by
nurturing your plant production www.inentecchemical.com) employs a computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD)
• Energy efficiencies and the use of direct-current plasma arc and an alter- modeling, a research team at Kadant
alternative energy sources nating-current glass melter to generate Johnson Inc. (Westford, Mass.; www.
• New horizons in automation synthesis gas (syngas) from hazardous kadant.com) has developed a steam jet
• Environmental, health and safety — and other wastes (Figure 1). thermocompressor that improves per-
let’s talk regulations and operations As waste is fed into the primary ves- formance and energy efficiency com-
The ChemInnovations 2010 event pro- sel, it contacts the plasma and is im- pared to conventional units.
gram also features poster sessions, mediately broken down into its atomic Thermocompressors use high-pres-
CPI training seminars, workshops and molecular constituents. The dis- sure steam to entrain flow from a
and a host of special activities. sociated products of organic waste lower-pressure steam source in order
recombine to form the components of to boost pressure for reuse. By optimiz-
CHEMENTATOR synthesis gas, while inorganic materi- ing the thermocompressor geometry,
LIGHTNING ROUND als are entrained or dissolved in the entrainment-ratio improvements of
Further in keeping with the innova- glass phase. Since steam and oxygen 15 to 25% over conventional designs
tion theme, ChemInnovations 2010 are also fed into the PEM gasification have been observed. Thermocompres-
will showcase a unique track called reactor, the PEM essentially conducts sors have been applied widely in the
the Chementator Lightning Round. an almost instantaneous steam-meth- CPI to boost low-pressure steam, but
This track parallels a monthly edito- ane reforming reaction. are often oversized and operate at
rial department in Chemical Engineer- The company says the syngas pro- higher differential pressures than are
ing. Using a fast-paced, interview-style duced is of high purity, and the PEM needed. The results are energy waste,
format, the Chementator Lightning works well on nearly all forms of bio- operational problems and poor control.
Round will provide a look at newly mass and waste material, including — Oct. 20, 11:50 AM
proven technologies and approaches hazardous waste from chemical plants,
that could lead to breakthroughs in municipal waste, non-hazardous indus- A new refractometer
CPI applications. The interviews will trial waste and medical waste. The ini- compensates for drift
be led by the Chemical Engineering tial commercial site for this technology A novel refractomer developed by
editorial staff. The following technolo- is operating at Dow Corning’s Midland, Flexim GmbH (Berlin, Germany;
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 24D-1
on p. 62, or use the website designation.
Combustion
air blower
Source: Ronald Bell
DeNOx
catalyst Economizer
Show Preview
Main header Stack
CO oxidation
After catalyst
burner FIGURE 2. To
www.flexim.de) compensates for drift achieve high
Boiler
and deposit sensitivity in inline pro- thermal efficien-
cess measurements of refractive index, cies, the Ecoces
overcoming a key disadvantage of con- cogeneration
system com-
ventional instruments. Jacket water
bines engine
exchanger
Rather than measuring the critical Electrical
power Cooling tower
Chiller unit
exhaust from a
angle of refraction, the new refractome- generator with
ter sets up a differential measurement combustion air
Generator I.C. engine
Cold water Flue gas
based on a method that measures light Pump Valve
Hot water Fuel
transmitted through a bi-prism.
A parallel light beam crosses the
fluid to be measured, and is refracted varying rates, independent of electri- Novomer recently completed con-
and split at the surface of the measur- cal load,” comments technology devel- struction of a continuous pilot unit to
ing prism. The two intensity peaks oper Ronald Bell. verify the catalyst lifetime in a closed
from the split beam are detected on Bell, an industry consultant, origi- loop system. Novomer is seeking part-
a charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor nally patented the technology in 1991, ners to commercialize the technology.
that is positioned in the focus of an op- then optimized the control system in — Oct. 19, noon
tical lens. The distance between them 2005, and worked with General Sys-
is correlated to the refractive index of tem Co. Ltd. (Korea) to set up a com- Plate reactor can replace batch
the fluid through Snell’s Law (ratio mercial demonstration in 2006. — Oct. processes with continuous ones
of the sines of the angles of incidence 20, 11:50 AM Alfa Laval’s (Lund, Sweden; www.
and refraction equals the ratio of the alfalaval.com) ART plate reactor en-
velocities in the two media). Catalyst system allows high-effi- ables some batch processes in phar-
While the critical angle approach can ciency propriolactone production maceutical production, as well as fine
be useful in the laboratory, its value is A process under development by No- and specialty chemicals, to convert to
diminished somewhat in process ap- vomer (Waltham, Mass.; www.novomer. continuous operation. The ART reac-
plications because only the material com) utilizes a novel aluminum-based tor uses channeled plates to integrate
at the prism surface contributes to the catalyst system that allows carbon the mixing channel with heat trans-
measurement. This characteristic can monoxide and ethylene oxide to react fer surfaces, creating a modular, con-
be problematic because measurements to form propriolactone with greater tinuous reaction system.
are sensitive to particles adhering to than 99% efficiency. The ART plate reactor consists of a
the prism surface, and are not appli- Propriolactone is a versatile chemi- series of cassettes with specially de-
cable for low-flow conditions or highly cal intermediate that can be converted signed channel plates at their cores.
viscous materials. — Oct. 20, 3:30 PM to acrylic acid, acrylate esters, 1,3- Machined into the plates are process
propanediol and polypropriolactone and utility channels, which are de-
Cogeneration process has high (PPL), a polymer that has similar signed to optimize mixing and heat
thermal efficiency, low emissions properties to polyethylene and poly- transfer performance. Each cassette
The Ecoces Cogeneration system pro- propylene, but is biodegradeable. The has process inlet and outlet ports, as
duces electrical and thermal energy new catalyst system, discovered by well as secondary ports through which
with thermal efficiencies of 90 to 92% Cornell University (Ithaca, N.Y.; www. reactants may be added or monitoring
and achieves exhaust emissions of less cornell.edu) professor Geoff Coates, devices may be inserted. Multiple cas-
than 5 ppmv for NOx and 10 ppmv enables an economically viable route settes are typically stacked and held
carbon monoxide. The cogeneration to PPL, which has not yet been made together in a frame.
system can be applied to both lean- on a commercial scale. “Continuous reactors ... will not re-
burn and rich-burn internal-combus- In Novomer’s process, the CO, ethyl- place all batch reactors,” Alfa Laval ex-
tion (IC) engines. ene oxide and process solvent are com- plains, “but in cases where the chem-
To achieve higher thermal efficien- bined in a reactor with the catalyst istry is limited by the batch reactor,
cies than conventional systems, the under mild reaction conditions. After or where safety is an issue, the ART
Ecoces system combines engine ex- formation of propriolactone, the cata- plate reactor can help a great deal.”
haust from an IC-engine-driven gen- lyst is separated from the product and Two plate-reactor models are com-
erator with combustion air (Figure recycled with the solvent. mercially available, covering the range
2). The controls allow the auxiliary Novomer says an ethylene-oxide- of laboratory trials to production of up
burner to fire a heat-recovery steam based route to acrylic acid has strategic to 1,000 ton/yr. Standard plate reactors
generator at near stoichiometric ox- advantages over current technology, are constructed with stainless steel or
ygen-to-fuel ratios, maximizing the which is based on propylene oxidation. Hastelloy, and can operate at tempera-
overall thermal efficiency and mini- Further, the company says in 2009, its tures between –60 and 200°C without
mizing emissions. process was determined to have a cost any reactor changes. Design pressure
“This approach to cogeneration pro- advantage of more than 30% over ex- ranges from full vacuum to 20 bar. —
vides for a means to produce steam at isting acrylic acid processes. Oct. 19, noon
24D-2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
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Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-15
Show Preview

first-principles mathematical model A non-invasive density and is being commercialized by Ultimo


that relates the moisture of product viscosity measurement device Measurement LLC (Providence, R.I.;
exiting the dryer to the temperature A new non-invasive, percussion-based www.ultimompd.com). The instru-
drop of hot air (after contact with the device for measuring the density of ment is expected be available com-
product and the drying rate), the in- process liquids and loose solids is mercially before the end of 2010. —
strument provides a 30% advantage mounted on the outside of tanks, stor- Oct. 20, 3:30 PM
or more in reducing moisture varia- age vessels and pipes.
tion compared to conventional means The apparatus consists of a striker A phosphogypsum-free
of moisture control. and receiver module, which is mounted route to P2O5
The control system adjusts the on process equipment, and a data pro- A new process has been designed to
dryer to stay near a target moisture cessing unit. The striker/receiver gen- offer a more energy-efficient and en-
content (as determined by laboratory erates vibrations by making contact vironmentally benign approach to
samples or process set points) in re- with the exterior of the vessel and col- making phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5)
sponse to changes in the feedrate or lects vibration information on the in- from phosporite (phosphate rock).
moisture level of the feed. Since the teractions between the vessel wall and In a direct reaction between an
dual-temperature-sensor instrument the content material. The data proces- acid gas, such as SO3 and calcium
can survive the harsh environment of sor applies mathematical algorithms phosphate, P2O5 is liberated from the
the dryer, it can operate without the to the resulting vibration patterns and phosphate rock and calcium sulfate is
time delays required of conventional calculates density and viscosity. formed. The calcium sulfate is further
sensors that work outside the dryer. The software-driven technology al- heated to produce lime and sulfur ox-
It can be used on belt, flash, spray, lows non-invasive and non-radiomet- ides.
fluidized-bed and rotary dryers. The ric measurements of density and vis- “P2O5 can be recovered as phos-
system can reduce energy costs by 7 cosity regardless of vessel geometry or phoric acid at desired concentrations
to 10% and can help avoid underdried material, says Alexander Raykhman, without having to go through the
product material. — Oct. 20, 3:30 PM a co-inventor of the technology, which phosphoric acid step,” says process

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Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-20
24D-6 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
inventor Mohammed Elgafi, chief en- producing H2O2 at the point of use, the strumentation can monitor multiple
gineer at EM&C Engineering Associ- microreactor ensures the proper dis- pieces of equipment, collecting high-
ates (Cerritos, Calif.). tribution of gas reactants and reaction resolution data that allow engineers
Current wet processes for produc- solution over the catalysts. The reactor to examine cause-and-effect interac-
ing phosphoric acid require 2.8 tons of is fabricated using chemical isotropic tions among all the components over
sulfuric acid per ton of P2O5 produced etching with hydrofluoric acid, and the course of normal operational
and generate phosphogypsum, con- also numerically controlled microma- swings. As an example, Flowserve
sidered a hazardous waste, at rates of chining. Together, the two methods are points to a case where the analysis
four to five tons per ton of P2O5. able to generate narrow channels of approach monitored in realtime a
According to Elgafi, the process can width 0.05 mm, as well as wide chan- complete feedwater system with ten
save at least $300/ton of P2O5 pro- nels in the sub-mm size range to con- locations for flow and six to eight
duced, as well as five tons of water trol gas-liquid distribution over the pumps in operation, along with many
with improved energy efficiency. — catalyst and promote productivity. valves and tanks.
Oct. 19, 3:45 PM The new microreactor has been Flowserve Integrated Solutions
used to generate aqueous hydrogen Group co-founder Dale Winterhoff
Hydrogen peroxide synthesis peroxide safely and at more than 5% says, “From this, you can get a true
using a microreactor (wt). — Oct. 19, noon system picture relating cause and ef-
Scientists at Japan’s National Insti- fect to operational performance.”
tute of Advanced Industrial Science Realtime analysis of equipment The monitoring system generates
and Technology (AIST; Tokyo, Japan; gives full-system picture “high-resolution data” that are pro-
www.aist.go.jp) have developed a glass A new methodology for realtime analy- grammable to be preprocessed accord-
microreactor that allows smaller-scale sis of multiple pieces of equipment is ing to engineers’ needs. It has been
production of hydrogen peroxide from offered by a division of Flowserve Corp. employed in several industry sectors.
hydrogen and oxygen. (Fairfield, N.J.; www.flowserve.com). — Oct. 20, 3:30 PM ■
Designed to provide a method for The approach and associated in- Scott Jenkins

Please visit us at
ChemInnovations, Houston, TX - Booth 511
Circle 38 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-38 Circle 27 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-27
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 24D-7
T
he Water Environment Federa-
tion (WEF; Alexandria, Va.; www.
wef.org) will host the 83rd an-
nual Weftec technical exhibition
and conference October 2–6 at the Morial
Convention Center in New Orleans. The
largest water-quality conference in North
America, Weftec 2010 features 112 tech-
nical sessions, along with 35 workshops
Plast-O-Matic Valves
and six local facility tours. Its techni-
cal program and exhibition are designed
to provide engineers and water quality
professionals with the latest industry in-
formation and a host of educational and
networking opportunities. The event will
feature a keynote address by economics
journalist Steven Solomon, author of the Moyno
book “Water: the Epic Struggle for Wealth,
Power and Civilization.” The following is These grinders ensure
a small sampling of products on dis- uniform sludge streams
play at Weftec 2010. Annihilator grinders (photo)
are twin-shaft, solids-reduc-
This process converts sludge tion units designed to ensure
into biogas and fertilizer that harsh solids in primary
This firm has built 20 thermal hydroly- sludge streams are ground
sis plants to date, with five plants now uniformly and efficiently. The
under construction. The firm also re- grinders can reduce the need Fluid Metering
ceived an order for a sludge-treatment for repairs by protecting down-
plant in Drammen, Norway, that will stream equipment from being plugged Inject hypochlorite for treatment
treat approximately 20,000 ton/yr of or damaged by large solids in a variety of municipal drinking water
municipal sludge. Biogas generated at of industrial and municipal applica- The Chloritrol valveless metering sys-
this plant will have an energy content tions. Annihilator grinders feature op- tem (photo) can accurately measure,
of 16 GW/yr, suitable for cogeneration timized cutter combinations and a one- liquid sodium hypochlorite and calcium
or as vehicle fuel. The digested sludge piece flange housing. The design places hypochlorite for treating municipal
is dewatered into a pasteurized fer- the mechanical seal and the bearing drinking water. Metering sodium hy-
tilizer. The sludge-treatment plant is on separate stainless-steel sleeves to pochlorite presents a unique challenge
scheduled for completion in the second allow for quick onsite replacement of because of the fluid’s tendency to outgas.
half of 2011. Booth 7631 — Cambi AS, worn components without purchasing The Chloritrol System is a valveless,
Asker, Norway complete cartridge designs. Booth 5739 duplex-pump design where the primary
www.cambi.no — Moyno Inc., Springfield, Ohio pump injects liquid hypochlorite directly
www.moyno.com into the water main, and the secondary
Measure flowrate in partially pump removes outgas bubbles from the
filled pipes with this device An actuator that can adjust system, preventing loss of pump-prime.
The Tidalflux 4300 measures the vol- automatically to voltage The Chloritrol will self-prime against
umetric flow of electrically conductive The new series EBVA electrical actua- pressures up to 125 psi. Internal compo-
liquids in partially filled pipelines. The tor (photo) automatically adjusts to the nents are made of hard ceramic materi-
device’s capacitive flow-level measure- voltage provided within its standard als, which provide longterm, drift-free
ment system is built into the wall of voltage range of 85 to 240 V alternating accuracy. In addition to sanitizing drink-
the tube and works for levels between or direct current. Also offered in a 12 to ing water, the Chloritrol can be used to
10 and 100% of the pipe cross-section. 24 V version, the actuator can gener- add sodium hypochlorite to municipal
The Tidalflux provides errors of less ate torques of 177 in.-lb with an 11 s swimming pools, water parks, food-
than 1% of the measured value, even cycle time. The actuator is designed to processing plants and in waste treat-
in cases of rough product surfaces and work with a plasticizer-free ball valve. ment applications. Booth 1561 — Fluid
distorted flow profiles. Booth 1967 — Booth 6646 — Plast-O-Matic Valves Metering Inc., Syosset, N.Y.
Krohne Inc., Peabody, Mass. Inc., Cedar Grove, N.J. www.fmipump.com ■
www.krohne.com www.plastomatic.com Scott Jenkins
24D-8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 62, or use the website designation.
Fractionation Column

Pushing capacity limits


tarting around 1970, many new er’s capacity was stuck at

S contacting devices became avail-


able for use in distillation, absorp-
tion and stripping columns. Those
17 million Btu/h. Mean-
while, the cooling tower
was also stuck at 17 mil-
devices included high-performance lion Btu/hr and therefore
random packings, structured pack- needed to be refurbished.
ings, high-capacity structured pack- Temperature excursions in the 1990s ers and the two reflux pumps. After
ings, augmented crossflow trays, coun- had embrittled the plastic fill. Some about a week of lining out and minor
terflow trays and cocurrent flow trays. areas of the fill were so under-irrigated troubleshooting, FRI’s unit was run
At the request of FRI’s membership, that birds had built nests in between steadily at 24 million Btu/h — a 41%
many of those devices were tested in the fill sheets. The cooling tower was increase over the previous maximum.
FRI’s 4-ft and 8-ft test columns. completely refurbished. FRI’s maintenance budgets are an-
The FRI test columns, and all of the FRI’s Technical Committee ap- nual and forever. FRI’s upgrade project
ancillary equipment, were designed proved what was called an empty col- is now considered to be complete, at a
in 1952. The original designers of the umn test, which took place in October total cost of only $716,000. FRI stands
unit imagined that the columns would of 2009. The low-pressure column was ready to test the next generations of
contain simple single-pass, crossflow emptied, so that no trays or packings trays and packings. Bring ‘em on! ■
trays at 24-in. spacings. None of those would limit the unit’s capacity. An Mike Resetarits
designers imagined the eventual ex- auxiliary boiler was rented to run in
Mike Resetarits is the technical director at
istence of today’s two-pass, cocurrent parallel with the existing boiler. FRI’s FRI (resetarits@fri.org), a distillation research
flow trays, which have at least 50% two reboilers were piped-up for paral- consortium headquartered in Stillwater,
Okla. Each month, Mike shares his first-hand
more capacity. None imagined cocur- lel operation; so were the two condens- experience in this column.
rent flow trays at all. Nevertheless,
subsequent to 2004 the following
three cocurrent flow trays were tested
at FRI: Shell ConSep, Koch-Glitsch
Ultra-Frac and UOP SimulFlow. All
worked well, but, it was beginning to
concern the FRI membership that the
capacities of the contacting devices
COALESCERS
were near to exceeding the capacities Highly Efficient & Easy to Use
of the FRI test unit.
In 2007, FRI’s Executive Committee,
authorized the use of $2 million to up-
grade the test unit and perform mainte-
nance work that would extend its life for
an additional 20 years. The first thing
that FRI did was contract with FTS In-
spection & Engineering Services (www.
ftsinspection.com; Bartlesville, Okla.) to
perform a mechanical audit of all ves-
sels and lines. FTS ultimately concluded
that even after 50 years of operation, the
unit was mechanically sound and safe.
Thereafter, FRI staff engineers at-
tempted to identify hydraulic and Phase Separator with two pre-filters for the separation
heat transfer bottlenecks in the unit. of sulfuric acid from vegetable oil and biodiesel
Project money was spent using the
motto “One safe and correct step at a As a worldwide supplier of HIGH-QUALITY SEPARATION PLANTS we stand for:
time”. Over the last two years, many • Outstanding separation technology & cost-saving solutions
small and medium-sized projects were • Long standing experience with over 700 units installed worldwide
performed, with an overall target of • Customized all-in solutions supplied by one partner
• Permanent technology development, qualied consulting & testing service
25% increase in unit capacity. The two
biggest unit bottlenecks proved to be For additional information please contact: FRANKEN FILTERTECHNIK KG, Germany
the steam-generating boiler and the Phone: +49 (0) 2233 974 40-0, e-mail: info@frankenlter.com, web: www.frankenlter.com
cooling tower. Even repaired, the boil- Circle 15 on p. 50 or go to adlinks.che.com/29253-15
Circle 14 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-14
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 25
Controlling
Membrane Fouling
Department Editor: Scott Jenkins

he deposition and accumulation of suspended and dissolved crossflow velocity or by increasing turbulence on the membrane

T particles on membrane surfaces leads to performance loss.


Fouling can dramatically reduce the efficiency and econom-
ic benefits of a membrane process. The type of fouling and how
surface, which increases the back transport of the particle away
from the membrane. The challenge becomes balancing high
luxes and low fouling with low investment and operating costs.
strongly it appears depends on several parameters, including
the following: Membrane properties
• Nature of solutes and solvents As an essential part of the membrane process, the membrane
• Membrane process itself has a strong influence on fouling. Typically, hydrophilic
• Pore-size distribution membranes are speciied because they exhibit an afinity for
• Membrane surface characteristics and material of construction water, which is one of the main tools used to reduce the ad-
• Hydrodynamics of the membrane module sorption of foulants onto the membrane surface. A hydrophilic
• Process conditions membrane is surrounded by water molecules, which work as a
protective layer. The hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of some
COMMON FOULING MODES polymeric membrane materials are shown in Table 2.

Membrane fouling can be a confounding problem in water treat- POLYMERIC MEMBRANE PROPERTIES
ment systems. Several of the most common types of fouling are Property Polymer
shown in the following table.
Hydrophobic Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon)
FOULING EXAMPLES Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF)
Polypropylene (PP)
Foulants Fouling mode
Polyethylene (PE)
Large Particles present in the original feed or
suspended developed in the process can block module Hydrophilic Regenerated cellulose
particles channels Cellulose ester
Small colloi- Colloidal particles can raise a fouling layer or Polycarbonate (PC)
dal particles block the porous structure of the membrane Polysulfone/polyethersulfone (PS/PES)
Macro- Gel-like cake formation on top of the mem- Polyimide/polyetherimide (PI/PEI)
molecules brane or macromolecular fouling within the (aliphatic) Polyamide (PA)
structure of porous membranes Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
Small Molecules such as substituted aromatics can Cellulose triacetate (CTA)
molecules adsorb onto the membrane structure and
reduce the water content of the membrane, Because hydrophilic membranes have lower chemical resistance
which lowers permeability than hydrophobic ones, their chemical stability and cleanability
Scalants Depending on the pH, salt may precipitate on have to be evaluated as part of the selection process. It should
the membrane. This reduces the membrane be noted that most membranes are polymer blends.
area and may reduce the water content in the Most polyethersulfone (PES) membranes contain some poly-
membrane
vinylpyrolidone (PVP) to increase hydrophilicity. The problem is
Biological Growth of bacteria on the membrane surface, that PVP is not stable against oxidizing agents, which may lead
material which leads to a gel-like cake on the membrane
to changes in membrane porosity if not closely monitored.

REDUCING FOULING Porosity


Porosity can reduce fouling during microiltration and ultrailtra-
Inluence of the bulk solution tion. The strongest fouling is caused by the blocking of membrane
Properties of the bulk solution can affect membrane fouling, but pores. Therefore, their pore size should be smaller than the
whether these properties can be manipulated depends on the average particle size, and a membrane with a narrow pore-size
actual process conditions. distribution is preferred to avoid the blocking of bigger pores.
Adjusting pH, varying temperature and changing particle size
are possible parameter changes that may be manipulated to Inluence of the permeate lux
inluence the fouling behavior of a bulk solution. For example, Critical lux is another factor that can be inluenced to reduce
operation at low pH can help prevent scaling of calcium sulfate fouling in microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration
by changing the solubility of the salts. This can significantly processes. It is deined as the lux below which a decline in
reduce the precipitation of calcium sulfate on the membrane. lux with time does not occur, while above this lux, fouling
starts. At critical lux, the number of particles transported to the
Concentration polarization membrane is similar to the number of particles that diffuse away
Concentration polarization is the accumulation of rejected par- from the membrane. In operation below critical lux, the luxes
ticles, especially during microfiltration and ultrafiltration, to the are reversible, which means that as long as lux is below the
extent that transport to the membrane surface becomes limited. critical lux, membrane permeability is not changed by fouling.
High lux through the membrane can cause rejected particles The advantages of critical lux are that constant luxes and
to accumulate on the surface of the membrane. Concentration membrane properties can be sustained for longer periods. On
polarization reduces the permeability of the solvent and can the other hand, the conditions of critical lux require lower pres-
lead to a limiting lux, where an increase in pressure does not sure, hence a higher membrane area is required. Therefore,
correspond to a rise in lux. the tradeoff between higher investment costs and lower fouling
Reducing concentration polarization leads to higher limiting tendencies has to be assessed for each process.
lux and lower fouling tendency. Controlling concentration polar-
The material in this column is adaped from the following article: Lipnizki, J.,
ization is essential for a process to be economically beneicial. Strategies for Controlling Membrane Fouling, Chem. Eng., September 2007,
Concentration polarization can be controlled by increasing pp. 62–64.
People

WHO’S WHO

Pagenkemper Roller Tutin Sautter Muzyka

James Diamantis becomes director of innovation scout at Georgia-Pacific sales managers: Jim Walker (north-
strategic accounts for Wayne Chemicals LLC (Atlanta, Ga.). eastern U.S. and Canada) and Jim
Chemicals (Fort Wayne, Ind.). Price (southwestern U.S.).
Wolfgang Sautter becomes managing
Bernhard Pagenkemper becomes sales director at Voith Turbo BHS Get- DuPont (Wilmington, Del.) names
director for the machinery div. of riebe GmbH (Sonthofen, Germany), Doug Muzyka chief science and tech-
Haver & Boecker (Oelde, Germany). a manufacturer of turbo gearboxes. nology officer. Tony Su, currently
DuPont’s director of marketing and
Colfax Corp. (Richmond, Va.), a man- Darrin Drollinger is elected executive sales in China, succeeds Muzyka as
ufacturer of fluid-handling solutions, director of the American Society of president of DuPont Greater China.
promotes William Roller to executive Agricultural and Biological Engi-
vice-president of Colfax Americas. neers (St. Joseph, Mich.). Ingen Biosciences appoints Karine
Mignon-Godefroy as director of
Kim Tutin is appointed to the newly Hansen Technologies Corp. research and development. ■
created role of technology and (Bolingbrook, Ill.) adds two regional ホ Shelley
Suzanne

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www.argonide.com – ATEX conformity

ARGONIDE CORPORATION 291 Power Court • Sanford, FL 32771


NanoCeram® is a Registered Trademark of the Argonide Corporation 2005. All right reserved. Müller GmbH - 79 618 Rheinfelden (Germany)
NanoCeram-PAC™ is a Trademark of the Argonide Corporation 2007. All rights reserved. Industrieweg 5 - Tel. +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-0 - Fax +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-69
A Company of the Müller-Group
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 27
Cover Story

technical Committee) industry


standard for platinum RTDs
is 0.12%, making an RTD
more than twice as accurate
as a thermocouple. RTDs also
have lead wires, but they can
FIGURE 5. High density transmitters, such FIGURE 6. A wireless temperature transmit-
be configured in two-, three- or as these, can accept up to eight thermocouple ter can be easily installed in remote or inac-
four-wire circuits. A two-wire or RTD inputs each, thus replacing many cessible areas, where running wire would be
lead circuit has problems with individual wire runs in applications such as too impractical
lead wire compensation and columns and reactors
should only be used for short
connections. The best solution is a four- Multiplexers, along with remote ter- wires. Estimates for installing wires
wire circuit, which is used when a high minal units (RTUs), data acquisition currently say that parts and labor add
degree of accuracy is required. systems and data concentrators are up to a cost of $50 to $200 per foot,
RTDs and thermocouples are avail- widely used, especially in rehabilita- and up to $2,000 per foot in hazard-
able in various versions to suit virtu- tion or retrofit applications where it is ous areas. With such high costs, wiring
ally any industrial application. As a too expensive to run additional sensor sensor signals directly to a controller
general rule, RTDs are more accurate wire or twisted pairs through existing is rarely an option, unless the control-
and drift less but are more expensive conduit or underground passages. ler is in the immediate vicinity of the
than thermocouples. RTDs are useful A temperature transmitter is an process unit.
up to more than 600°C, while thermo- industrially hardened device that can Instead, chemical plants are turn-
couples can go up to several thousand be installed near the sensor, even in ing to transmitter technology (ana-
degrees Celsius. hazardous areas (Figure 4). Twisted- log, HART, fieldbuses and wireless)
pair copper wires (or wireless com- because these methods drastically
Signal conversion, transmission munications) from each transmitter reduce wiring costs while improving
The millivolt signal from a thermo- convert and carry the signal from the measurement reliability.
couple or the milliohm signal from field to the controller. Using transmit- A high-density transmitter can
an RTD must be converted to a form ters can be economically justified due save a project a considerable amount
suitable for use by the control system. to the lower cost of copper versus ther- of money, because it replaces up to
Typically, this function is performed mocouple lead wire and the improved eight individual transmitters with
by an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter reliability and performance of trans- a single device. For example, a glass
obtained via one of the following: mitters. The recent advent of so-called manufacturer re-instrumented 12
• Wiring directly to an analog input high-density transmitters combines vapor-deposition furnaces. Each fur-
card in a programmable controller the multiplexing technology (the abil- nace had 16 temperature monitoring
(PC), programmable logic control- ity to receive multiple sensor inputs) points, so using conventional trans-
ler (PLC) or a distributed control with reliable transmitter technology mitters would require 192 devices.
system (DCS) to provide an option that is both ro- Instead, they installed high-density,
• A multiplexer that converts it to a bust and effective from a cost-per-point eight-input transmitters (Figure 5),
digital value that can be transmit- basis in applications communicating which accept eight sensor signals.
ted over a network data from large quantities of sensors. The savings amounted to $10,000
• A temperature transmitter, which High-density transmitters complement in transmitter costs, and $21,000 in
converts the sensor signal to a traditional single-point transmitters to labor costs. The labor savings associ-
4–20-mA signal that can be sent provide the plant designer with mea- ated with the installation arose from
over long distances on a twisted pair surement communications options for reduced wiring and terminations, as
of wires or wirelessly different plant applications. well as the transmitter’s ability to
Wiring the sensor signals directly to The choice of how to convert the sig- detect when a thermocouple fails or
a PC, PLC or DCS analog-input card nal depends on several factors: needs to be recalibrated, eliminating
works only if the control device is • Distance to the converting device unnecessary maintenance.
nearby. The cost of running lead wires (long distances affect accuracy)
is extremely expensive, and long dis- • Electrical noise in the area, which Improved transmitters
tances can be affected by electrical may interfere with lead wires Another factor entering the equation
noise. The lead wires themselves act • The number of nearby sensors, is the increased capability of trans-
as antennas that pick up noise. which influences whether a high mitters. While they were once limited
A multiplexer is typically mounted density transmitter or a multiplexer to making the 4–20-mA conversion,
in a field enclosure centrally located RTU can be used transmitters now perform a variety
among several sensors. A multiplexer In recent years, additional factors of functions that make them more at-
might accommodate signals from doz- have entered the equation. CPI de- tractive and cost effective.
ens of nearby sensors, with each sensor cision makers are now much more Not too many years ago, a trans-
attached to an analog input channel. aware of the high cost of installing mitter was considered an expensive
30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
TABLE 1.THE VERSATILITY OF POLYMER-PIPING SYSTEMS
Concept Jointing technology Typical Characteristics
OD-range /
Feature Report mm
Thermoplastic (Butt-fusion) welding; 16 – 2,000 Standard in the CPI
pressure pipe solvent cement joint-
reached the state that jointing ing, flanging
of PVC-U, for instance, can be Double Solvent cement 20 – 225 Increased safety due to
done with a special solvent ce- containment jointing; (Inner pipe) pipe-in-pipe concept; outer
ment that is even able to cope butt-fusion welding shell frequently made of
transparent PVC-U
with long-term and steady con-
tact to strong oxidizers, such as Dual Welding (butt fusion / 16 – 2,000 Increased safety due to
laminates rod); flanging pipe-in-pipe concept; sig-
concentrated sulfuric acid. nificant increase of the
As soon as the dimensions of range of applicability as the
fabrication tolerances of pipes thermoplastic inliner is only
and fittings exceed a certain used as the “chemical bar-
limit, solvent-cement jointing rier”; all mechanical load
is handled by the external
becomes no longer practically FRP-layer
feasible due to both the gaps
Tubes Push-fit sockets, flar- < 2 in. Coiled tubing made, for
that need to be “bridged” and
ing, screwing, custom- example, from full fluori-
the procedure of assembly (re- ized solutions nated polymers used in
quired forces, application of double containment piping
the cement and so on). In all are of particular interest
those cases the dual laminates for very demanding CPI-
applications (for instance,
(based on welding and flang- electronic-grade chemical
ing) are then widely accepted media handling)
as an alternative. Note that no
Ventilation Socket jointing in < 800 Frequently the only econom-
solvent-cement jointing is rec- pipes combination with sol- ical alternative to handle
ommended in the field of dual vent cement joining corrosive exhaust fumes
laminates. or (rod-)welding
Customized Multiple and very Usually Pipes as semi-finished
QA and standardization piping individual < 250 products; mostly no system-
Since the market introduction concept required
of polymer-piping systems a
few decades ago, many national stan- piping products. In particular, while user specifications and are continu-
dards (for instance, DIN in Germany setting a strong priority on the com- ously being updated and completed.
or ASTM in the U.S.) have been elabo- mitment to a clearly defined material Furthermore, the regular training
rated, continuously developed and formulation — to be disclosed to the and education of polymer-welders is
stepwise accepted — also globally in DIBT by a non-disclosure agreement based on these standards. Note that
many cases. Nevertheless, standard- (NDA) and an integrated third-party a given DIBT pipe approval does di-
ization of polymer-piping systems testing procedure — approved prod- rectly refer to the respective DVS
is completed by international ap- ucts are also linked to a comprehen- guidelines regarding planning, con-
plication norms which are updated sive chemical-resistance list that will struction and joining of the respec-
regularly by international competent also provide additional safety factors tive piping products. Thereby, addi-
working groups. For selected applica- (distinguishing between temperature tional support is given to keeping up
tions (such as drinking water or gas and media concentration) for appro- with quality.
supply) additional approvals com- priate dimensioning of the piping sys- In addition, many competent end-
bined with external third-party test- tem. Thus, this DIBT-approval should users (typically bigger companies in
ing supervised by a separate quality be considered as much more than just the CPI) rely on the use of a sensi-
assurance body (for example, the DIN a national German QA issue; it is ble and in-house developed system
Certco in Germany) do effectively rather a very helpful specification tool of standards, which are also part of
increase the quality level of such ap- for end-userss making use of polymer- their respective process specifica-
proved piping systems. As a rule, such based piping systems for conveyance tions. Of course, these internal and
approvals are based on even stricter of hazardous chemical media. individual standards are also regu-
national quality-assurance (QA) reg- In addition to its presence in the larly reviewed and updated based on
ulations (such as various DIN Certco standards of the American Welding a steady growing experience gained
guiding rules). For the global CPI it society (AWS), the jointing of such from practical long-term use of poly-
is very important to consider that the systems is documented and updated mer piping systems.
so- called German Institute for Build- in comprehensive detail by the guide-
ing technology (DIBT; Berlin; www. lines issued by the German Welding Versatile piping concept
dibt.de) provides a unique, worldwide Society (DVS) [5]. Similar to the fab- There is no other class of material
approval based on such QA guide- rication standards of polymer-piping showing a larger variety of piping con-
lines. This DIBT approval is the basis system components, these guidelines cepts available for CPI applications
for a very narrow-meshed testing pro- have been globally accepted over than polymer pipes. Table 1 presents
gram and documentation of each lot of many years, laid down in many end- a number of these.
34 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
8.0 0.1243
7.5
0.1183
7.0
0.1123
6.5
0.1063

HF
6.0
0.1003
5.5
0.0943
5.0
4.5 0.0823 0.0883
0.0763
4.0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
HNO3

FIGURE 4. Shown here is view of a FIGURE 5. After 17 years of continu- FIGURE 6. This graph show the isothermal
BCF weld of PVDF (polyvinylidene luo- ous contact with 35 wt.% hydrogen per- diffusion coefficients of mixed acid (HNO3/
ride). The energy for melting the poly- oxide (25°C), only 60 µm of corrosion HF; T= 65°C) with variable concentration
mer is introduced from the outside; the attack is measured with PVC-U piping (wt.%) in PVC-U determined from the combi-
formation of a crevice-free and smooth components. Such minor traces of cor- nation of laboratory-scale immersion testing
inner surface in the joining region is rosion do not inluence the function or and simulations (source: Swerea KIMAB [7])
achieved by temporarily inserting a bal- safety of the system at all
loon illed with compressed air

A good investment over decades given polymer in contact with chemi- by compounding with suitable func-
Although polymer-based piping sys- cal media under varying service condi- tionalizing additives; by doing so, even
tems have not reached the status tions. Figures 5 and 6 provide an im- an increase of the thermal conductiv-
of metal-based piping in CPI usage, pressive example of the status of such ity of a few orders of magnitude under
there are a variety of quite demand- efforts in this field. retention of the electrical insulation-
ing segments in CPI where the spe- properties is possible.
cific advantages of polymer pipes have Physical and natural barriers The non-destructive monitoring of
been understood, systematically and A comparatively high thermal expan- corrosion processes in polymer pip-
successfully exploited for many years sion, longterm creeping under me- ing is still an unfulfilled demand of
now [6]. The global chlorine industry, chanical load as well as a significant many end-users and the realization
basic-chemical synthesis, logistic part- reduction of mechanical properties of such a concept is currently not in
ners for chemical media, surface tech- under increasing temperature are the sight. However, efficient management
nologies (for example, galvanizing and well-known, inherent shortcomings of of corrosion knowledge, practical expe-
pickling industry), pulp and paper, polymers that have to be considered rience, a rational understanding of the
as well as power plants are the most in any polymer-product application. chemical processes and materials in-
important fields of application. The Those processes are, of course, well- volved can already give a good and re-
combination of the practical experi- understood, and corresponding ma- liable basis for a sustainable and safe
ence gained from these sectors and the terial data are always considered in operation. Competent manufacturers
knowledge derived from other fields of the material selection, design and are always good partners for the end-
application leads to a considerable pool dimensioning. Polymer-specific safety customer in case of need.
of data supporting the assessment and factors and very reliable data to
further understanding of the longterm quantify the longterm creep behavior Quo vadis industrial piping ?
performance as well as to assist in the support this selection process. When Despite being a small branch of the
decision making for material selec- using smaller pipe-dimensions (O.D. industry, industrial piping and pip-
tion. The continuous evolution of that typically < 110 mm) in the CPI, many ing for the CPI have always been
knowledge-pool is efficiently supported experienced end-users specify the ap- very innovative. During the last few
by both an active international net- plication of thick-walled piping sys- years, the impulse for innovation in
work of polymer-corrosion specialists tems for safety reasons (for instance, the chemical industry shows a focus
as well as international and national pipe series 9 for PVC-U). As already at the site of compounder and pro-
joint efforts in polymer-corrosion re- mentioned, the use of dual laminates cessors rather than at the site of the
search of institutes, universities and for handling of chemical media at el- raw material suppliers. In the field of
industry-partners. In this concern the evated temperatures or higher pres- materials and piping concepts, a trend
immense contribution (30 years of ac- sure (or both) is also a widely applied towards more pressure-resistant and
tive research) of the Swerea KIMAB tool to fully exploit the potential of stiffer pipes has become evident. The
(former Swedish Corrosion Institute, chemical resistance properties of a various approaches are quite versatile
SE) as well as the recent activities of given polymer and to surmount some and cover innovations such as layered
the NACE (U.S.), Eurocorr (EU), FGK/ of the polymer-inherent shortcom- structures, continuous welding of ori-
GfKorr and KRV (Germany) should be ings. Keeping a proper bonding of the ented polyolefin tapes on polyolefin
recognized. The result of this work is inliner to the FRP sleeve maintained pipes made from the same polymer;
primarily a steadily increasing pool as well as not exceeding the critical and the use of innovative copolymers
of longterm-field references, thor- wall-thickness of the inliner are nec- or fillers, to name just a few. The topics
oughly evaluated case studies of key essary preconditions to guarantee a “functional layers” and “nano-technol-
applications as well as the buildup of safe operation. ogy” have just emerged in practically
systematic databases to extrapolate The energy-transporting properties relevant concepts for this type of in-
or forecast the corrosion process of a of polymers can strongly be influenced dustry and are expected to strongly
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 35
3 4

Engineering
Feature Report
Practice Fluegas
E-100
Fluegas
T-100 E-101

inlet outlet
400°F 185°F
1,200 5

Recover million
std. ft3/d
R

Waste Heat
P-100 D-100
2 1

Working fluid: R-245fa


1.291 x 104

From Fluegas
Turbine (T-100) generation, hp
Condenser (E-101) consumption, hp 57.72
Pump (P-100) consumption, hp 1,031
Total power recovery, hp 1.182 x 104
Total power recovery, kW 8,815

Adding an organic Rankine cycle system FIGURE 1. This simulation lowsheet

to generate power onsite can help operators for an ORC system shows the basic
equipment, low streams and power
requirement and recovery based on R-
optimize the overall economics of combustion- 245fa as the working luid. The stream
numbers indicate the order in which the
related systems and emissions controls streams low

Ali Bourji, John Barnhart, below). An ORC also operates at lower to improve the overall economics of
Jimmy Winningham, Alan Winstead temperatures compared to the more fluegas treatment by generating ad-
WorleyParsons widely used steam-based Rankine ditional power from waste heat in the
systems. For instance, steam-based fluegas stream — heat that would oth-

T
he ever-increasing cost of fuel systems typically operate at tempera- erwise simply be lost to cooling water
and relentless push for environ- tures corresponding to low-pressure or to the atmosphere.
mental responsibility are con- steam; that is 250°F or higher. By
stant factors in the profitability comparison, an ORC can efficiently The basic ORC scheme
of many chemical process operations, operate at temperatures below the The simple process flow diagram that
and fluctuations in the prices of nat- boiling point of water, from 212°F to is provided in Figure 1 shows a basic
ural gas and other fuels can make it as low a temperature as desired for ORC system. The liquid refrigerant
hard to predict future energy costs a given application. Thus, the use of (also called the working fluid) flows
and the impact of such fluctuations an ORC can be a more cost-effective from the surge drum (D-100) to the
on profits. However, the impact of method for capturing waste heat from pump (P-100) where the fluid is pres-
fluctuating fuel costs, and the regula- fluegas compared to the use of a tra- surized. The pressurized fluid is then
tory uncertainty related to managing ditional steam-based Rankine cycle. sent to the evaporator (E-100). The
emissions can be reduced by increas- This is accomplished by reducing flu- evaporator vaporizes the working fluid
ing energy efficiency and incorporat- egas temperatures below what is pos- by heat exchange with the fluegas
ing innovation into the design of any sible in a steam-based system without stream. Once vaporized, the working
combustion-related system that pro- the need for a complex heat exchange fluid then enters the turbo-expander/
duces fluegas. system. generator (T-100) where, by process of
Numerous industrial processes in- When properly designed, an ORC expansion, the fluid produces usable
volving furnaces, heaters, kilns and system can remove more heat from work in the form of electrical energy.
boilers that combust fossil fuels re- a fluegas stream than a steam-based After expansion, the fluid enters the
lease large quantities of energy in the Rankine system and thus can be effec- air-cooled condenser (E-101) where it
form of waste heat that is contained in tively used with cooler fluegas streams is condensed back to liquid form and
the fluegas. An organic Rankine cycle compared to those produced by steam- returned to the surge drum.
(ORC) system can efficiently utilize based Rankine systems. Figure 1 also provides values for
this waste heat to generate electricity, Meawhile, most fluegas-treatment the basic fluegas stream variables
even from relatively low-temperature methods, such as those involving flu- along with a small table that shows
fluegas streams. egas scrubbing, carbon capture, and the quantity of power produced by the
An ORC resembles a typical Rank- carbon sequestration require the flu- turbo-expander/generator train, the
ine cycle, but instead of circulating egas stream to be cooled prior to its components that are power consumers
water as the working fluid, an ORC introduction into the treatment train. (and their respective power consump-
uses a refrigerant — typically an or- Thus, the addition of an ORC system tion), and the net power recovered by
ganic fluid such as ethane, propane, can be of great benefit when used in the system.
propylene or various name-brand re- combination with a downstream flue- Power-recovery rates will vary for
frigerants, such as R-245fa (discussed gas-treatment system, and can help different applications based on fuel
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 37
Power-recovery potential
Equation versus simulation deviation
Recovery rate, kW / million std. ft3/h fluegas
300 0

Deviation from simulated value, %


0.25

250 0
0.20

0.15
200 0

0.10

150 0 0.05

0
100 0

-0.05

-0.10 500
50 0

50 450 4 5 0

60 s °F
Ambie 70 400 ega re,
4 0 0

0 nt tem 80
Flu ratu
peratu 90 350
3 5 0

pe
0

350 400 450 500 re, °F 100 m


Fluegas temperature, °F te

FIGURE 2. This chart, showing the power-recovery po- FIGURE 3. This chart compares the accuracy of the net
tential at various luegas temperatures, can be used to ap- power recovery estimated using Equation (1) versus the net
proximate the power-recovery rate for various luegas inlet power recovery as predicted by the simulation model. As shown,
temperatures at a given ambient temperature of 70ºF the results predicted by the simulation and the results predicted
by the equation differ by no more than -0.1% to +0.23%

TABLE 1. REFINERY WASTE-HEAT-RECOVERY POTENTIAL lar values of the power recovered an-
nually are based on a plant on-stream
Refinery size, Net power Value of recovered factor of 8,000 hours per year, and a
1,000 bbl/d recovered, MW power, $ millions/yr
conservative, per kW-h value of $0.06.
500 to 600 22 to 27 up to 12.9
400 to 499 18 to 22 up to 10.7 Various ORC configurations
300 to 399 13 to 18 up to 8.6 Although, the main focus of this article
is on the use of a simple ORC configu-
200 to 299 9 to 13 up to 6.2
ration, specific modifications may be
100 to 199 4 to 9 up to 4.3 made to the cycle and to improve the
heat-recovery efficiency and increase
and fluegas composition. The case il- C = 1.122 (unitless constant) the quantity of power recovered. For
lustrated in Figure 1 is based on a D = –211.63 (constant) example, as shown in Figure 5, if an
typical fluegas flowrate, temperature, additional heat exchanger (E-102)
pressure and composition [1] with an This equation produces estimates of were provided to preheat the refrig-
ambient air-temperature of 70ºF, and fluegas temperatures that have an erant stream entering the evaporator
assumes that natural gas is the fuel accuracy of ± 0.23% between 350 and (E-100) by heat exchange with the tur-
used by the fluegas source. 500ºF with ambient temperatures bine exhaust stream, then an increase
The curve shown in Figure 2 can varying between 50 and 100ºF. Figure in power recovery of at least 10% over
be used to approximate the power- 3 illustrates the percent difference in the simple cycle may be realized. De-
recovery rate for various fluegas inlet the values calculated by the equation pending on the size of the specific in-
temperatures at the assumed ambi- versus those produced by simulation. stallation, this could prove to be a very
ent temperature. Note that power Equation (1) also assumes that the significant increase.
recovery varies linearly with fluegas cycle is running in the working fluid’s However, while improved heat-recov-
temperature for a given ambient tem- subcritical region. The subcritical ery efficiencies and the potential to in-
perature and fluegas stream, allowing region is the ranges of temperature crease the quantity of power recovered
for easy interpolation to estimate the and pressure below the fluid’s critical are always gratifying, the addition of
power-recovery rate for a specific ap- point — that is, where distinct liquid extra equipment requires additional
plication. and vapor phases exist. Note that this capital, operations and maintenance
Equation (1) is derived empirically equation is only provided for quick es- expenditures. These additional costs
from simulation data, and can be used timation purposes. More accurate re- must be weighed against the value of
to estimate the potential power re- sults can be easily achieved by simu- the power recovered. Thus, depend-
covery that is possible when using a lating the simple process. ing on the required payback time and
simple ORC: Using Equation (1) to obtain empiri- forecasted energy prices, the addition
cal data on fluegas rates and tempera- of a simple ORC system may prove to
tures for various refinery units, it is be the most cost-effective solution for
(1)
easy to formulate a table such as that a particular application.
P = Net recovered power, kW shown in Table 1. Based on the size of Choice of a working fluid. The sim-
Qfg = Fluegas flow, million std. ft3/h the refinery, the potential power re- ulated properties of the working fluid
Tfg = Fluegas inlet temperature, ºF covery and the associated dollar value used in this study are based on the
Ta = Ambient temperature, ºF of the power recovered can be approxi- physical properties of the refrigerant
A = –0.00411 (unitless constant) mated with suitable accuracy. For the R-245fa (1,1,1,3,3 – pentafluoropro-
B = 0.775 (unitless constant) case discussed here, the reported dol- pane), which has the trade name Gen-
38 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
Refinery waste-heat-recovery breakdown

Utility boilers – 9.7% Atm distillation – 13.6%


Engineering Practice Vacuum – 3.7%
Hydrodealkyation – 4.6% Naptha HDS – 1.8%
Alkyation – 11.3% Jet/kero HDS – 0.7%
etron and is a product of Honeywell Diesel HDS – 1.4%
[2,3,4]. The characteristics of R-245fa
make it particularly suitable for flu- CCR – 12.6%
Delayed
egas heat-recovery applications using coker – 3.7%
ORC technology. This refrigerant has CCR = Continuous catalytic
reforming
the required thermodynamic proper- FCC = Fluid catalytic cracking
ties — namely, relatively high criti- FCC – 37.0% HDS = Hydrodesulfurization
cal and condensing temperatures —
which are necessary for operating in
FIGURE 4. In this breakdown of waste-heat recovery by reinery unit, one can see
the temperature range between typi- that particularly high rates of potential waste-heat recovery are possible for luid cata-
cal fluegas temperatures and the am- lytic cracking, atmospheric distillation and catalytic reforming units and utility boilers
bient temperature of the heat sink.
This particular refrigerant also has the particular application, air-cooled to the overall system cost, the con-
a relatively high decomposition tem- heat exchange is more economical densation of fluegas provides addi-
perature, which is desirable for heat than systems based on cooling water. tional opportunity for energy capture,
exchange with hot fluegas streams. Air coolers, depending on the cool- because as the water vapor in the
Furthermore, R-245fa has desirable ing duty required, are generally not fluegas stream condenses, the latent
environmental traits that make it a high energy consumers but they may heat of vaporization of the water will
refrigerant of choice for many indus- require a significant amount of plot be transferred to the working fluid,
trial refrigeration systems, in light space. The decision of which type of thereby increasing the potential power
of environmental concerns related heat exchange methodology, in terms recovered via the ORC system.
to the ozone layer and fugitive emis- of capital cost, operating cost, operat- An economic analysis must be per-
sions. For instance, the fluid has a ing logistics and potential impact on formed to balance the tradeoffs and
zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), the overall heat-recovery potential, determine whether cooling the fluegas
a relatively low global-warming po- must be evaluated on a case-by-case stream below its acid dewpoint and
tential (GWP), and it is not considered basis for each application. capturing the extra energy is worth
a volatile organic compound (VOC) in Acid-gas condensation issues. the additional capital necessary to
the U.S. [4] When establishing the temperature at implement the metallurgical require-
The economics and heat-recovery po- which the fluegas will exit the waste- ments to withstand the potential for
tential of an ORC are a function of the heat-recovery unit, consideration must acid attack.
thermodynamic properties of the se- be given to the potential for acid con- Plant economics and air permit
lected refrigerant. Thus, the selection densation. This occurs when the water benefits of ORC technology. If
of the best working fluid for a given ap- vapor in a fluegas stream is allowed properly designed, the use of an ORC
plication is important to the successful to condense, carrying with it any com- system can provide a facility with an
implementation of any waste-heat-re- pounds that may form an acid when opportunity to produce additional elec-
covery system. Refrigerant blends may combined with water. tric power without an increase in air
also be considered, and the choice of In most cases, industrial fluegas emissions. As a general rule of thumb,
refrigerant or refrigerant blend must streams are produced by the combus- any combustion-related facility can
be optimized on a case-by-case basis. tion of a fossil fuel. In many cases, benefit from ORC installations on fur-
Designers and marketers of ORC sys- this fuel contains some form of sulfur, nace stacks if electrical power from ex-
tems and their component machinery which will likely be converted to some ternal sources is limited, expensive, or
have process simulations and empiri- form of SOx during combustion. If unreliable by providing the plant with
cal data that are needed to accurately cooled below the acid dewpoint, these internal power-generation capabilities
model and optimize ORC systems spe- combustion byproducts, along with and an additional source of electricity
cific to any given fluegas stream. carbon dioxide, can combine with the for captive use at the site.
It is tempting to choose a working water vapor present in the fluegas It is also worth noting that facilities
fluid based solely on the desire to max- stream and form corrosive acids [5]. in certain regions face restrictions on
imize the power-recovery efficiency, To prevent equipment corrosion, air emissions that make it costly or im-
but there are other factors to consider, any item that comes in contact with possible to amend air permits to add
as well. For instance, depending on the cooled fluegas stream must be con- furnaces, cogeneration units or other
the specific application and location of structed of special materials that can means of increasing utility power, a
the installation, it may be necessary to withstand damage from such acids, situation that can limit expansion and
select a working fluid that is environ- and these special materials can add modernization opportunities. How-
mentally friendly, safe, and economi- considerably to equipment costs. Such ever, the installation of an ORC sys-
cal in addition to being inexpensive fluegas systems are also commonly de- tem on existing furnaces allows for the
and readily available. signed to remain above the acid dew- generation of electrical power without
Air-cooled heat exchangers vs. cool- point to avoid corrosion. increasing air emissions by capturing
ing water. The results of this study While these design and operating waste heat from furnaces already in
are based on the assumption that in considerations can add considerably operation.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 39
Working fluid: R-245fa
Turbine (T-100) generation, hp 1.426 x 104
Condenser (E-101) consumption, hp 170.7
T-100 Pump (P-100) consumption, hp 910.0
Fluegas E-100 Fluegas Total power recovery, hp 1.318 x 104
inlet outlet Total power recovery, kW 9,830
400°F 185°F
1,200 million
std. ft3/d
E-101

E-102

R
D-100

P-100

FIGURE 5. The addition of a pre-heater unit (E-102) to this ORC coniguration helps
the system enhance the overall heat-recovery efficiency and increase the quantity of
recovered power
A typical ORC installation will usu- Authors
ally generate a significant surplus of Ali Bourji is a senior techni-
cal director at WorleyParsons
electricity compared to the power that in Houston ( 6330 West Loop
its own equipment uses, so an ORC sys- South, Bellaire, TX 77401;
Phone: 713-407-5000; Fax:
tem’s net utility costs are generally less 713-350-1394; ali.bourji@wor-
than zero. An ORC system is therefore leyparsons.com). He holds a
B.S.Ch.E and M.S.Ch.E from
a minimal contributor to a plant’s over- the University of Houston and
all operating costs, which is another a Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
ing from Lamar University.
advantage of using ORC technology to Bourji is a professional engi-
neer and a member of AIChE
improve both fluegas treatment and and NPRA.
onsite power generation. John Barnhart is a Wor-
leyParsons vice-president
(john.barnhart@worleypar-
Final thoughts sons.com). A graduate of the
Ongoing political developments are ex- University of Houston and
a professional engineer, his
pected to bring about stricter enforce- background includes plant
operations, and project and
ment of environmental regulations and company management. Barn-
increased incentives to reduce fossil- hart is a member of AIChE.
fuel consumption and imports, while
the escalation of energy prices is tight-
Jimmy Winningham is a
ening profit margins for all chemical process engineer at Worley-
process and refinery operators. ORC Parsons in Houston (james.
winningham@worleyparsons.
systems offer a promising means of en- com). He holds a B.S.Ch.E.
hancing waste-heat recovery from flu- from Texas A&M University.
egas in both existing and new facilities,
and thus help to improve the overall
economics of fluegas treatment.
Today, thanks to advances in refrig-
erants (and blends), and ongoing in- Alan Winstead is a supervis-
novations in heat exchange technology, ing process engineer at Wor-
leyParsons in Houston (alan.
metallurgy, and simulation tools, the winstead@worleyparsons.
classic ORC system can be optimized com). He holds a B.S.Ch.E.
from Rice University.
to fit ideally within a wide range of flu-
egas sources and treatment systems. ■
Edited by Suzanne Shelley

References
1. Mahasenan, N., and Brown, D.R., Beyond 3. Pan, Jiang, Wu, Jiangtao, and Lui, Zhigang,
the big picture: Characterization of CO2- Vapor pressure of dimethoxymethane and
laden streams and implications for capture 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane, J. Chem. Eng.
technologies, “Proceedings of the Seventh In- Data, 51–1, p. 188, 2006.
ternational Conference on Greenhouse Gas 4. Genetron 245fa Applications Development
Control Technologies (GHGT-7),” Vancouver, Guide, Honeywell, 2000 (Genetron is a reg-
Canada, September 5–9, 2004, 2005. istered trademark of Honeywell.)
2. Thermophysical properties of fluid systems, 5. Wulfinghoff, D.R., Acid dewpoint limita-
National Institute of Standards and Tech- tions on heat recovery, “Energy Efficiency
nology (NIST) website; Accessed: November Manual,” Energy Institute Press, Wheaton,
21, 2008; http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ Md.,pp. 122–123, 1999.
fluid/.
Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-11

40 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010


In the bigger picture, it makes sense
to rigorously pursue the commercial
development of coal to liquids
technologies (CTL). It's the only way we
can deal with the tyranny of large numbers
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Process Economics Program Report:


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Rising crude oil prices have renewed interest in producing fuel from unconventional sources such as coal, oil
shale, and biomass. The United States has many opportunities to improve fuel efficiencies, but these will not
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fuels is an important part of the solution to meet growing demand.
In a high priced energy market, a commercially competitive CTL industry could produce as much as 3
million barrels per day of high quality liquid fuels by 2030, providing 15% of the current energy demand in
the U.S.
This report examines the technologies involved to produce fuels from coal by two of the most promising
routes, high temperature Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) and methanol to gasoline. The first F-T route produces a slate
of transportation fuels, including gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil. The second methanol to gasoline
route produces a 90+% yield of gasoline, which can be produced either from coal or natural gas.
The 290 page report provides a combination of simulated and conceptual designs and economic analysis
for the production of F-T liquids using high temperature synthesis technology. The bases for this analysis
include the construction of free-standing demonstration and refinery scale plants.

The report includes:


Introduction Syngas from Coal Gasification Patents
Industry Status High Temperature F-T Synthesis Design and Cost Basis
Technology Review Syncrude Refining Process Flow Diagrams

For more information and to purchase this report, contact Angela Faterkowski,
+1 281 203 6275, afaterkowski@sriconsulting.com or visit our website.

www.sriconsulting.com/PEP

Smart Research. Smart Business.

Circle 31 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29254-31

MENLO PARK HOUSTON BEIJING NEW DELHI RIYADH SEOUL TOKYO ZÜRICH
Solids Processing
Environmental Manager

Selecting Laboratory
Exhaust Systems
With upfront thought, exhaust systems can ensure
personnel safety and improve building efficiency
FIGURE 1. Rooline aesthetics are
Paul A. Tetley among a host of considerations when
selecting a fume-hood exhaust system
Met-Pro Corp. for a laboratory facility

A
s components of chemical re- stream) is also a key consideration. at the sash (damper) can occur, which
search facilities, fume-hood Other important considerations in- may push fumes into the room. Airflow
exhaust systems for labora- clude: system efficiency, initial and oper- velocities that optimize safety can vary
tory workstations are often ating costs and roofline aesthetics (Fig- by manufacturer, but typically are in
taken for granted. Yet the choice of ure 1). For example, quiet, vibration-free the range of 100 ft/min.
exhaust system, when designing or performance can be important to protect Exhaust flow from a fume hood should
specifying a laboratory workstation, delicate laboratory instruments. be greater than the supply air to create
can have a tremendous impact on the Before selecting a laboratory work- outside-in air movement and thereby
safety of the laboratory building’s oc- station fume-hood exhaust system, contain airborne contaminants.
cupants as well as those in adjacent the location of the workstation should Workstation fume-hood exhaust sys-
buildings. The choice of a fume-hood be carefully thought out. Its location tems can be either constant-air-volume
exhaust system can also affect a build- can significantly affect efficiency and (CAV) or variable-air-volume (VAV) de-
ing’s longterm operating costs. safety. For example, occupants in the signs. A CAV fume hood exhausts air at
A better upfront understanding of laboratory can create air turbulence a constant rate, with an airflow velocity
the various types of exhaust systems simply by walking past the worksta- that increases as the sash is lowered. A
and their operation can eliminate po- tion, causing contaminants to be pulled VAV laboratory fume hood attempts to
tentially significant safety problems outside of its air space. For a work- eliminate the variable velocity by vary-
in the future while optimizing the effi- space designed with an air diffuser di- ing the air volume exhausted through
ciency of the building and the reliabil- rectly above the fume hood, significant the hood. In doing so, it can reduce the
ity of the system. air turbulence can cause contaminants total supply of exhaust air, and con-
to escape into the laboratory. tribute to reduced operating costs. VAV
Exhaust system basics In addition, airflow into the labora- fume hoods use a closed-loop exhaust
The main purpose of a fume-hood ex- tory will affect the performance of a system to monitor the amount of air
haust system in a laboratory is to re- fume-hood exhaust system. Since the being exhausted in order to maintain
move contaminated air resulting from laboratory should maintain negative the required average face velocity. The
chemical fumes, reactions and other air pressure with respect to the out- control system also helps monitor the
laboratory activities. The system must side, the doors, windows, air vents and presence of contaminants. In addition,
provide maximum protection while other openings should remain closed many VAV hoods use visual and audi-
using the least possible amount of air. during normal operation to ensure that ble alarms and gages to warn of inad-
It must control the flow of two types any contaminants will be exhausted equate air velocity or exhaust system
of air: workstation exhaust, and the through the fume hood, rather than malfunctions.
clean air that replaces it. by other laboratory openings.
When designing new laboratory facil- The effectiveness of a laboratory Exhaust system fans
ities, or upgrading existing ones, safety fume-hood exhaust system can be Laboratories can choose from a number
— with regard to re-entrainment of gauged in terms of safety provided. of fume-hood exhaust-system designs
workstation exhaust into the building The principle design parameter is to based on the requirements of the facil-
or adjacent buildings — and indoor air allow safe removal of fumes away from ity. Exhaust systems rely on hidden,
quality to protect building occupants, the operator and from the occupants of but essential subsystems, including ex-
are the most important considerations the laboratory. The velocity of the air haust fans and ventilation systems.
for a fume-hood exhaust system. In entering the hood from the room is the Fume-hood exhaust systems typi-
addition, the system’s ability to com- key factor in achieving this safety. If cally employ a network of air ducts
ply with appropriate pollution-control the velocity is too low, the fumes can (plenums) leading to a roof-mounted
standards (including elimination of escape the hood and enter the room. If exhaust system that is driven by one
unpleasant odors in the discharge the velocity is too high, air turbulence of three fan technologies: axial, cen-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 43
Environmental Manager

FIGURE 2. A difference
trifugal, and mixed-flow impeller. The between exhaust system
fans in each of these categories can types is the height of
be direct-drive designs, with the fan rooftop stacks, a charac-
wheel mounted directly on the motor teristic with value in ac-
shaft, or belt-driven, with the fan wheel commodating space and
mounted on a separate drive shaft and weight restrictions
driven by power from the motor trans-
ferred through one or more belts. fans, and greater air pressure than into a network of ducts that transport
Axial fan systems Axial fan blades axial fans. These systems eliminate re- it to the outside of the facility, usually
draw air into fan housings and dis- entrainment of exhaust air and odors to the roof, where it is mixed with am-
charge air in the same axial direction into a facility and surrounding build- bient air. In some cases, particularly
— ideal for moving large volumes of air, ings with improved indoor air quality where local ordinances dictate rooftop
rated at cubic feet per minute (ft3/min) (IAQ). This technology typically incor- appearances, mixed-flow impeller sys-
at low pressures, and also rated in static porates low-profile, roof-mounted ex- tems may be mounted in an enclosed
pressure (SP). Fan blades used in axial haust systems with lower-speed fans facility (this is usually done for aes-
fans are typically plastic, aluminum, as compared to the other technolo- thetic reasons).
stainless steel or fiberglass. Different gies. To minimize noise levels, these Using base-mounted bypass damp-
types of axial fans used for industrial systems employ low-vibration, direct- ers, a mixed-flow impeller can draw in
applications include panel fans, which drive motors to draw in the exhaust twice as much fresh air as exhaust air,
are wall-mounted to draw air into — or air from a laboratory fume hood. resulting in a much lower concentra-
exhaust air out of — a room, and tube A noticeable difference between ex- tion of contaminants and odor-causing
axial fans, which are connected to a se- haust systems with centrifugal fans elements to be treated from the labo-
ries of ductwork conduits for exhausting and those with mixed-flow impellers ratory fume hood.
contaminated or hot air from a location. is the height of the exhaust stacks:
Centrifugal fan systems Centrifugal mixed-flow impeller systems present a Release to atmosphere
fans have blade wheels mounted inside lower profile and smaller footprint on Because a mixed-flow-impeller ex-
a housing. The blades can be forward- the roof (Figure 2). This characteristic haust system can generate relatively
curved, backward-curved or straight. has obvious value in accommodating high escape velocities, even at fairly
Exhaust air is pulled into the inlet of space and weight restrictions, as well low fan speeds, additional fresh air is
the blower housing and deflected by the as in its aesthetic qualities (more and entrained into the exhaust mixture
fan blades into a spiral pattern. This more communities are passing ordi- when it is expelled from the rooftop
pattern of airflow is then focused by nances limiting overall building height, stack by means of a nozzle/windband
the scroll housing and directed into a including rooftop appurtenances). section. This mechanism creates a pro-
single outlet airstream. The airstream As the name implies, a mixed-flow tective envelope around the discharged
leaves the fan’s housing at a right impeller system combines the best at- exhaust-air mixture and leaves the
angle to the axis of the housing assem- tributes of both axial and centrifugal surrounding air stationary to improve
bly. A variation on the traditional, cen- air movement technologies. Impellers entrainment. The exit velocities of
trifugal scroll-type fan housing is the in this approach have high efficiency, these escape gases can exceed 6,300
tubular centrifugal fan, which uses a consume less energy and are typically ft/min and can send an exhaust plume
cylindrical housing rather than a scroll quieter. In addition, true mixed-flow more than 120 ft into the air, even into
housing and cutoff assembly. technology is stable throughout the steady crosswinds. Of course, a variety
A centrifugal fan is designed to work impeller performance curve. Therefore, of factors can determine the effective-
at fairly high revolutions per minute these impellers do not have a stall or un- ness of the system, including building
and with a tall, roof-mounted exhaust stable performance region, as is found architecture, surrounding terrain and
stack in order to discharge the exhaust on axial and centrifugal fan curves in even weather conditions.
air at sufficient height above a facility regions of higher pressure. The concern As an example, a mixed-flow impel-
to prevent re-entrainment of exhaust is that systems operating at or near ler moving an exhaust and clean air
air (and its possible noxious fumes or this unstable performance region can mixture at 80,000 ft3/min will typi-
unpleasant odors) into the building give rise to significant performance, cally generate 6,300 ft/min exit veloc-
and surrounding facilities. Because of sound and vibration problems. ity. According to wind tunnel research,
the size and height of the stack, it re- Mixed-flow impellers blend the ex- additional air is entrained into an air
quires expensive and complex mount- haust air from a laboratory fume hood plume through aspiration, even at exit
ing hardware for stability and to mini- with outside, ambient air to reduce the velocities of 3,000 ft/min (the mini-
mize vibration. This includes elbows, concentration of contaminated particu- mum velocity specified by the ANSI
flex connectors, spring vibration isola- lates, as measured in parts per million Z9.5 standard for clearing chemical
tors and supporting guy wires. (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter contaminants in laboratory ventila-
Mixed-flow impeller systems Mixed- (mg/m3) to a level that can be safely tion systems).
flow impeller systems generally pro- and legally exhausted to the atmo- A belt-driven, centrifugal-fan ex-
vide greater airflow than centrifugal sphere. These fans draw exhaust air haust system and duct network can
44 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
also mix contaminated and clean air systems, compared to axial and cen- fuel costs for the building (for every 1ºF
similar to a mixed-flow impeller, with trifugal fan systems, usually translate in added heat, there is a corresponding
useful dilution effects when released into lower noise and vibration levels. In 3% reduction in heating fuel costs).
into the atmosphere. But the centrif- addition, for applications where noise
ugal fan approach requires a rooftop must be tightly controlled, mixed-flow Ductless laboratory fume hoods
stack with sufficient height, some- impeller systems can be designed with The three major laboratory fume-hood
times as high as 40 ft or more. For the integrated noise attenuators that do exhaust systems discussed so far as-
same dilution and operating efficiency, not increase the overall height of the sume the use of ductwork networks to
a mixed-flow impeller system will typ- roof exhaust fan. vent contaminated air from the labo-
ically rise only about 15 ft above the Axial and centrifugal fan exhaust ratory. In recent years, ductless labo-
roofline. Because of the lower height, systems can also be equipped with ratory fume hoods have emerged as
the mixed-flow impeller exhaust sys- noise-reduction attachments, such as lower-profile alternatives. In ductless
tem would not require the extra stabi- a discharge silencer, added onto the designs, the hood incorporates a carbon-
lizing hardware needed with centrifu- exhaust stack. But this adds to the al- bed or other type of filter to remove and
gal fan exhaust systems. ready tall stack height, and requires control contaminants. The filter media
Tall exhaust stacks are not the only additional mounting hardware to mini- must be matched to the types of chemi-
structures associated with centrifugal mize vibration induced in the building. cals used in a laboratory. General-pur-
fan systems. Often, centrifugal fan Even at their lower motor speeds, there pose filters will adsorb a percentage of
systems also need a rooftop penthouse, is little sacrifice in performance with most chemicals and gases, while par-
mainly to protect service personnel. a mixed-flow impeller. It can provide ticulate matter filters may be needed
Because centrifugal fan systems rely greater airflow than a centrifugal fan, for some applications. In some cases, a
on belt-drive motors — in contrast to and greater air pressure than an axial chemical impregnate may be needed in
the more reliable direct-drive motors fan, at lower rotational speeds. the filter to alter the target chemical to
of mixed-flow impellers — periodic Compared to belt-driven centrifugal a less hazardous material.
maintenance visits are required to ad- and axial fans, direct-drive mixed-flow A ductless, laboratory fume hood has
just belt tension or to replace pulleys impeller fans are energy-efficient and no external connections other than its
or failed belts. The penthouse enclo- cost-effective choices for fume hoods, power cord, making it extremely por-
sure maintains safe, workable condi- with about 25% greater energy effi- table and useful for facilities that re-
tions for maintenance personnel. ciency than belt-driven centrifugal fan quire more than occasional redesign.
In terms of reliability, laboratory systems. Improperly aligned shafts, The power cord connects to electronic
workstation fume-hood exhaust sys- pulleys, pillow blocks and motors in a systems that monitor airflow and filter
tems based on mixed-flow impellers belt-driven system can rob it of power, conditions for operator safety, as well
are relatively simple and maintenance- and can introduce reliability issues. as provide visual and audible alarms
free compared to the belt-driven fans Also, the outlet nozzle of a mixed-flow when needed. A ductless approach is
and blowers of typical centrifugal and impeller system can be designed for not a substitute for all ducted systems,
axial fan systems. The belts alone in high exhaust-gas exit velocities even and should never be used in any chemi-
a belt-drive system, which can stretch, at lower fan speeds and corresponding cal laboratories involving unknown
loosen and break over time, require reduced power requirements. results (for which the filter may not
regular maintenance and repair, re- For further energy efficiency, it may work). Admittedly, ductless laboratory
sulting in shorter expected operating be necessary to specify a variable-speed fume hoods sacrifice efficiency for por-
lifetimes. For example, the minimum drive system. The use of variable-speed tability, especially compared to a cen-
expected lifetimes (L10) of bearings drives can contribute to lower energy trifugal or mixed-flow impeller system,
in belt-driven systems are typically costs, running at slower fan speeds at and they require careful monitoring of
40,000 h, while the expected operat- night when laboratories are unoccu- the carbon filter’s condition so that re-
ing lifetime of direct-drive motor bear- pied. In addition, if one fan fails in a placement can occur once the filter has
ings can be at least 200,000 h for some multiple-fan exhaust system, the re- become saturated. ■
mixed-flow impeller systems. maining fans increase speed to com- Edited by Scott Jenkins
pensate. This is critical in many bio-
A quieter solution safety level (BSL) laboratories, where Author
Paul A. Tetley is execu-
Noise management is also an important redundancy is mandatory. tive vice president of Met-
consideration for most laboratories and In addition, energy savings are also Pro Corp. (160 Cassell Rd.,
Harleysville, PA 19438;
areas — in some cases requiring firms possible by recovering some of the heat Phone: 215-723-4700; Email:
to perform noise studies at their prop- normally lost through exhausted air. p t e t l e y @ s t r o b i c a i r. c o m ) .
Prior to his current position,
erty lines to determine the noise levels Mixed-flow impellers can be equipped Tetley was vice president and
general manager at Strobic
of a facility’s various systems, includ- with unique heat-recovery modules Air Corp., a Met-Pro subsid-
ing the laboratory exhaust system. The that extract warmed air from the ex- iary. Since joining Strobic Air
in 1989 as engineering pro-
lower speeds and inherently quieter haust flow and transfer the heat energy duction manager, he has designed or invented
design configuration of the direct-drive to the intake of a building’s ventilation many innovative Tri-Stack fan systems, an
acoustical silencer nozzle, and a unique multi-
motors in mixed-flow-impeller exhaust system, significantly reducing heating fan plenum system.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 45


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17828
TABLE 1. KEY PAT TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS
PAT Tool Application in Unit Operations
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Raw material testing, Drying, Pow-
Pristine Processing der blending, Coating
Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy (FT -NIR) Mixing, Reaction, Solvent recovery
Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR), Particle Video Crystallization, Drying, Powder
Microscopy (PVM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), blending, Coating
flow cell or transmission probe that Raman Spectroscopy (RS)
requires neither sample preparation Heat Balance Calorimetry Reaction, Crystallization
nor laboratory analysis [3]. The pro- Laser Diffraction (LD) Crystallization, Milling, Granulation
cess can be more tightly controlled, Digital Image Processing(DIP) Crystallization, Milling, Granulation
problems detected earlier, and overall Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) Crystallization, Milling, Granulation
product quality and yields improved. Tomography Mixing, Filtration, Drying
Many chemical reactions used in Turbidity Metering Crystallization, Filtration
the manufacture of APIs use metal Conductivity Metering Filtration
catalysts. In some cases, these metal Thermodynamic Lyophilization Control (TLC) Lyophilization
Acoustic-Resonance Spectrometry (ARS) Tableting
catalysts are doped with carbon black
particles to increase the catalyst sur- baffle, to measure axial mixing and cial energy of particular crystal faces.
face area. The high sensitivity and solids concentration levels. The drug The main measures of the outcome of
throughput of a Fourier-transform and the diluents can be dry-mixed in a a crystallization process, listed here,
near-infrared (FT-NIR) system can an- double cone mixer, which gives ease of are difficult to reproduce and achieve.
alyze these solutions with carbon-black cleaning and complete discharge. The • Particle size distribution, or the rel-
concentration levels of 0.05–0.5%. homogeneity of the mixture can be ative amounts of particles present,
Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are confirmed using NIR measurements sorted according to size
potentially sensitive to matrix effects. with an FT-NIR spectrometer. • Crystal shape (needle, cube and
Inline analysis provides kinetic and plates)
mechanistic information that can be Solvent recovery • Polymorphic form — polymorphism
used to study the sensitivity of the re- The solvent recovery process involves is the tendency of some compounds
action to matrix effects. the distillation of a feed or crude sol- to exist in more than one stable
vent from a low purity of about 60%, crystal form
Optimal mixing to a pure product that can be reused in The size and shape of the crystals
An agitator impeller can be designed the manufacturing process. This pro- formed has a strong effect on process-
and operated such that agitator power cess is commonly analyzed by offline ability. Smaller-sized and nonspherical
input is used to maximize flow with GC, requiring an operator to collect a particles make flow, filtration and pro-
minimum shear, maximize shear with sample from the process and take it to cessing more difficult. Fine particles
minimal flow, or to balance shear and a laboratory for analysis. This process have greater surface area and can
flow at a designated point in between. can take longer than 1 h and result in collect more impurities at the surface.
However, solid-solid, liquid-liquid or the distillation of a product that does The solubility of different polymorphic
solid-liquid mixing or combinations not meet specifications. forms may differ, and dissolution rates
thereof are complex. For these applica- Process FT-NIR has many benefits will depend on crystal size as well as
tions, high-shear mixers are typically over GC in this application, and, if im- polymorphic form.
used because they can combine immis- plemented correctly, can give realtime Supersaturation measurement is
cible fluids to produce emulsions and analysis of the feed streams and the the key process variable that affects
dispersions through the controlled product [5]. High-quality NIR spectra crystallization performance [6]. To
formation and integration of droplets. can be collected usually in less than control supersaturation, the solubil-
They are also used for deagglomera- 1 min and the quantitative analysis ity curve and meta-stable zone width
tion and particle size reduction to im- of multiple components performed. (MSZW) need to be known.
prove the blending of solid ingredients This information is then used as a key Focused-beam reflectance measure-
into liquids. component of the control strategy to ment (FBRM) can be used to measure
Many powders are difficult to dis- change column temperatures or re- the solubility curve and MSZW by
perse efficiently and the resulting flux ratios in either a feedback or feed identifying the point of dissolution
mixtures are prone to persistent clog- forward control. This results in better and point of nucleation at different
ging, which tends to drive up costs and product quality and yield. solute concentrations. FBRM provides
drive down throughput. Early indica- information about yield, suitable seed-
tion of these problems can control or Crystallization ing locations and optimal zones of op-
eliminate them. Pharmaceutical crystallization pro- eration to get uniform particle size.
Tomography involves taking mea- cesses are extremely complex and are MSZW depends on cooling rate, agita-
surements around the periphery of not baseline scalable. The key aspects tion and solid concentration.
an object, such as a process vessel or of a crystallization process are the rate Uneven or different particle-size dis-
impeller, to determine what is going of nucleation and growth rate of the tributions may require further powder
on inside [4]. Each image (tomogram) crystals. Both of these rates depend on processing, such as milling or compac-
is composed of an array of derived the type of flow, mixing, heat and mass tion. In some cases, the additional pro-
conductivity measurements. Process transfer rates of the process in an un- cessing costs can be reduced or elimi-
vessels with all types of mixers and predictable manner. Impurities and nated through realtime observation of
accessories can be retrofitted with a additives can have a significant effect crystal size distribution using laser dif-
linear tomography probe, typically a on these rates by altering the interfa- fraction (LD), and the progress of crys-
48 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010
Pristine Processing

dispersion can be achieved in a liquid ing). Consequently, depending on the not be coated to the same thickness as
cell with the addition of appropriate sur- drug substance and excipients pro- the tablet face, the final product may
face-active agents. Dispersion can also cessed, solution-mediated polymorphic appear to be nonhomogenous, imper-
be achieved by controlled agitation or transformations probably take place. fect and not finished at all.
by the application of ultrasound. Here, A lack of particle size measurement in NIR spectroscopy is used as an at-
there is always a possibility of changing granulator processes denies cost sav- line technique for monitoring tablet
the particle-size distribution due to the ings and product consistency. film coating in a Wuster column. The
thermodynamic Ostwald ripening or re- In granulation, particle size is criti- is also useful for analysis of the active
crystallization effects. In addition, the cally dependent on the amount of liq- layer of film-coated tablets, for inline
blender is stopped at fixed intervals for uid. Using inline particle-size analyz- analysis of film coating of pharmaceu-
sampling. This process of interruption of ers, variables such as moisture content ticals pellets in a fluidized-bed appa-
the blend cycle and repeated sampling and liquid saturation of the agglomer- ratus and for inline monitoring of tab-
may change the state of blend. ate can be controlled for desired par- let film coating in a pan coater.
NIR spectroscopy is a fast and non- ticle size [7]. An image-processing sys- Raman spectrometry is used as
destructive method to determine blend tem with particle vision management a tool to examine the variability of
homogeneity of all the compounds and (PVM) can be used as a PAT tool to tablet coatings by a spectral changes
endpoints in blending. Online Raman accurately control granule growth in correlation with coating thickness [9].
spectroscopy can evaluate the effect of high-shear granulation processes. Here, a probe operates with a revolv-
parameters such as blend time, blender ing laser focus to average content and
speed, API placement in the blender, Tableting coating nonuniformity.
filler particle size and density, multiple Conventional tableting presses are
tablet components, and sample homo- multistage cycling processes that em- PAT potential
geneity. The tool is feasible due to large ploy punches and dies. These machines PAT usage encourages the application
number of samples across the run are more expensive to operate and less of process engineering in pharmaceu-
(sampling every 20 s) and the availabil- efficient to use than systems based on tical manufacturing and regulatory
ity of spectral information on all blend acoustic-resonance spectrometry (ARS), assessment. PAT, therefore, holds the
components throughout the process. which measures sample compaction, great promise of improving productiv-
axial strain, deformation, hydration, ity, efficiency and quality of pharma-
Controlled granulation drying endpoint, elasticity, molecular ceutical intermediates, active ingredi-
The purpose of granulation is to con- stacking, and homogeneity [8]. ARS ents and finished drug products. ■
vert light, small powders into high- identifies and quantifies an analyte on- Edited by Deborah Hairston
density free-flowing granulates. A line, providing a simple and continuous
number of phase changes or process- method of process control for tableting Acknowledgment
Thank you to the management of Ranbaxy Re-
induced transformations can occur operations. search Laboratories Ltd. for its cooperation and
due to the different process steps of permission to publish this work. Thank you also
to Vasdev Singh, adjunct professor and head,
wet granulation, which include wet- Perfect coatings University of Petroleum and Energy Studies
ting, mechanical stress and drying. To be coated, tablets are loaded in (Uttarakhand, India), for his critical remarks
and support.
Granulation or the manufacture of large rotating pans and vented for hot
pellets using the extrusion-spheroni- air drying with coating-material-filled Authors
zation technique includes several pro- intagliations. Intagliations are impres- Sanjay Gade was formerly
associate director of technol-
cess stages (blending of the dry mass, sions typically achieved by engraving ogy development and transfer
at Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd.
wet granulation of the mass, extrusion or impressing an identifying mark or (R&D Center II, Plot No. 20,
of the moist mass, rotation of the ex- logo onto a tablet or other solid dosage Sector 18, Udyogvihar Indus-
trial Area, Gurgaon 122 015,
trudate by spheronization, and dry- form. Because edges and corners can- Haryana, India.) He is now
director of technology and
scaleup for pharmaceutical sci-
References 7. Vaisman, A., and Pugh, D., “The importance ences at Pfizer Pharmaceutical
of on-line particle size analysis for the phar- India Pvt. Ltd. (Thane Belpur
1. FDA PAT page. URL: http://www.fda.gov/ maceutical industry,” Insitec technical note:
cder/OPS/PAT.htm. Road, Navi Mumbai 400 705; Phone: 91-22-6793
MRK960-01, pp 1-5, URL: www.malvern.com. 2425; Email: sanjay.gade@pfizer.com). Gade has
2. Manning, H. and Sue, D., “Application of Pro- 8. Medendorp, J., and Lodder, R., Acoustic-Res-
cess Analytical Technology to Pharmaceuti- B.S.Ch.E. and M.S.Ch.E. degrees from the Univer-
onance Spectrometry as a Process Analytical sity Institute of Chemical Technology (Mumbai)
cal Processes,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Technology for Rapid and Accurate Tablet
Cincinnati (2004). and is a senior member of AIChE and ISPE.
Identification, AAPS Pharm Sci Tech., 7(1)
3. Mettler Toledo, “Gain Insights into your A25 (2006). Deepak Jain was senior re-
Chemistry with ReactIR In situ Reaction 9. Hagrasy, A., Chang, S., and Desai, D., Raman search scientist for technol-
Analysis” Application Note: URL: http:// Spectroscopy for the determination of coat- ogy and transfer at Ranbaxy
us.mt.com. ing uniformity of tablets: assessment of Laboratories Ltd., and is now
4. Industrial Tomography Systems, ITS Pro- product quality and coating pan mixing ef- is manager of technology and
cess Tomography page, URL: http://www. ficiency during scaleup, J Pharma. Inno., pp. scaleup for pharmaceutical
itoms.com. 37–42, (Oct 2006). sciences at Pfizer Pharma-
5. Bruker Optics, “In-Line Solvent Recovery ceutical Sciences India Pvt.
10. David, E., Characterization of the solid-state: Ltd. (Phone: 91-22-6793 2469;
Using FT-NIR” (AF # 511 E) URL: http:// spectroscopic techniques, Adv Drug Del Rev,
www.brukeroptics.com. Email: deepak.jain@pfizer.
pp 43 65, 48 (2001). com) With 13 years of aca-
6. Yu, L., and others. Applications of process ana- 11. Gregory, A., Robert, A., Susan, M., Character- demic and industrial experi-
lytical technology to crystallization processes, ization of the solid state: quantitative issues, ence, he has M.S.Ch.E. and Ph.D.Ch.E. degrees
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 56, pp. 349–369 (2004). Adv Drug Del Rev, pp. 67–90, 48, (2001). from The M.S. University of Baroda.

50 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010


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60 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010


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2010 Buyers’ Guide

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 61


New Product Information September 2010

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09 agricultural Chemicals tion equipment
23 research & Development & equipment
10 petroleum reining, 43 instrumentation & Control Sys-
24 Safety & environmental 56 hazardous waste management
Coal products tems
26 other———————————— Systems
11 rubber & misc. plastics 44 mixing, blending equipment 57 Chemicals & raw materials
12 Stone, Clay, glass, Ceramics EMPLOYEE SIZE 45 motors, motor Controls 58 materials of Construction
13 metallurgical & metal products 28 less than 10 employees 46 piping, tubing, Fittings 59 Compressors

1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 406 421 436 451 466 481 496 511 526 541 556 571 586
2 17 32 47 62 77 92 107 122 137 152 167 182 197 212 227 242 257 272 287 302 317 332 347 362 377 392 407 422 437 452 467 482 497 512 527 542 557 572 587
3 18 33 48 63 78 93 108 123 138 153 168 183 198 213 228 243 258 273 288 303 318 333 348 363 378 393 408 423 438 453 468 483 498 513 528 543 558 573 588
4 19 34 49 64 79 94 109 124 139 154 169 184 199 214 229 244 259 274 289 304 319 334 349 364 379 394 409 424 439 454 469 484 499 514 529 544 559 574 589
5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 140 155 170 185 200 215 230 245 260 275 290 305 320 335 350 365 380 395 410 425 440 455 470 485 500 515 530 545 560 575 590
6 21 36 51 66 81 96 111 126 141 156 171 186 201 216 231 246 261 276 291 306 321 336 351 366 381 396 411 426 441 456 471 486 501 516 531 546 561 576 591
7 22 37 52 67 82 97 112 127 142 157 172 187 202 217 232 247 262 277 292 307 322 337 352 367 382 397 412 427 442 457 472 487 502 517 532 547 562 577 592
8 23 38 53 68 83 98 113 128 143 158 173 188 203 218 233 248 263 278 293 308 323 338 353 368 383 398 413 428 443 458 473 488 503 518 533 548 563 578 593
9 24 39 54 69 84 99 114 129 144 159 174 189 204 219 234 249 264 279 294 309 324 339 354 369 384 399 414 429 444 459 474 489 504 519 534 549 564 579 594
10 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160 175 190 205 220 235 250 265 280 295 310 325 340 355 370 385 400 415 430 445 460 475 490 505 520 535 550 565 580 595
11 26 41 56 71 86 101 116 131 146 161 176 191 206 221 236 251 266 281 296 311 326 341 356 371 386 401 416 431 446 461 476 491 506 521 536 551 566 581 596
12 27 42 57 72 87 102 117 132 147 162 177 192 207 222 237 252 267 282 297 312 327 342 357 372 387 402 417 432 447 462 477 492 507 522 537 552 567 582 597
13 28 43 58 73 88 103 118 133 148 163 178 193 208 223 238 253 268 283 298 313 328 343 358 373 388 403 418 433 448 463 478 493 508 523 538 553 568 583 598
14 29 44 59 74 89 104 119 134 149 164 179 194 209 224 239 254 269 284 299 314 329 344 359 374 389 404 419 434 449 464 479 494 509 524 539 554 569 584 599
15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 465 480 495 510 525 540 555 570 585 600

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62 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2010


Economic Indicators
BUSINESS NEWS
BASF plans to build dispersions plant improvement projects will be completed in
PLANT WATCH
in Huizhou, China phases through the early part of 2011.
Dow Corning considers biomass plant to August 16, 2010 — BASF SE (Ludwigshafen,
produce steam and electricity Germany; www.basf.com) will invest in a
August 20, 2010 — Dow Corning’s (Midland,
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS
dispersions plant in Daya Bay Petrochemi-
Mich.; www.dowcorning.com) Midland Teijin to develop silicon inks with the
cal Industrial Park in Huizhou, China. With a
manufacturing site is considering the instal- acquisition of NanoGram
capacity of 100,000 ton/yr, the new plant will
lation of a biomass-powered energy facility August 8, 2010 — Teijin Ltd. (Tokyo; www.teijin.
produce XSB dispersions for the paper in-
to provide a renewable, reliable and cost- co.jp) has acquired NanoGram Corp. (Milpi-
dustry and acrylic dispersions for industries
effective supply of steam and electricity tas, Calif.; www.nanogram.com) to function
that include coatings, construction, printing-
necessary for the site’s operations. Cirque as a U.S. base for the development of silicon
and-packaging and adhesives. Production
Energy, LLC, which would build, own and inks with semiconductor properties and the
is scheduled to begin in the 1st Q of 2012,
operate the plant for Dow Corning, recently processes to manufacture such inks.As a
subject to government approval.
filed for appropriate environmental permits. wholly owned subsidiary of Teijin, NanoGram
Biomass energy from the plant would be will pursue its interest in expanding into de-
Outotec to design and deliver filtration
produced by gasification of plant-derived velopment of silicon-based nanoparticles,
technology to iron-ore project in Australia
organic matter. The biomass energy facility working closely with the Teijin Group’s Inte-
August 5, 2010 — Outotec Oyj (Espoo, Fin-
at the Midland site would initially use waste grative Technology Research Institute.
land; www.outotec.com) has been awarded
wood chips, as well as dead trees or old orders for Australia’s Karara Iron Ore Project,
growth harvested as part of sustainable for- worth more than €28 million. Outotec will Air Liquide acquires a German
estry initiatives. design, deliver and install the complete flota- syngas plant
tion circuit along with all filtration technology August 6, 2010 — Air Liquide (Paris, France;
SNC-Lavalin receives a contract in for the project.The Karara Iron Ore Project www.airliquide.com) has signed an agree-
Alberta’s oil sands located in Western Australia is a 50–50 joint ment with OXEA GmbH for the acquisition of
August 19, 2010 — SNC-Lavalin Inc. (Montre- venture between Gindalbie Metals Ltd. and its syngas plant based in Oberhausen, Ger-
al, Quebec, Canada; www.snclavalin.com) Chinese steel producer AnSteel. It is part of many.Anti-trust authorities have given their
has been awarded an engineering and the development of the Karara magnetite approval.This large plant has a production
procurement contract by Grizzly Oil Sands deposit, which has the potential for more capacity of approximately 83,000 Nm3/h of
ULC for its new Algar Lake steam assisted- than 30-million-m.t./yr processing of mag- syngas — a mixture of hydrogen and carbon
gravity drainage (SAGD) facility located netite over its estimated 30-year life.The first monoxide — used in the production of oxo-
near Fort McMurray in Alberta.The project phase of operation is scheduled for 2011. intermediates and oxo-derivatives, which are
consists of an initial 5,000 bbl/d SAGD used in high-quality coatings, lubricants and
central-processing facility with associated … and will deliver chromite sintering cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
well pads, flow lines, tank farm and 8-MW technology to South Africa
cogeneration facility.The detailed design August 3, 2010 — Outotec Oyj has signed Axens signs agreement for
of the project is expected to be completed a contract with RB Met Engineering (Pty) activated alumina business
in April 2011.This is a unique project in the Ltd. and Xstrata Merafe PSV for the delivery August 4, 2010 — Axens (Rueil Malmaison,
fact that the execution plan is based on of chromite sintering technology to Xstrata France; www.axens.net) has signed an
engineering and constructing a completely Merafe’s ferrochrome plant located in Rus- asset sale agreement (ASA) with Canada-
modularized processing facility capable of tenburg, South Africa.The contract value based Rio Tinto Alcan regarding the sale
being trucked to site. is approximately €17 million. The plant by Rio Tinto Alcan of its activated alumina
will treat 600,000 m.t. /yr of chromite ore. business in Brockville, Ontario. The terms of
SGL Group expands its isostatic Xstrata Merafe’s project is subject to an the ASA are confidential.The transaction is
graphite capacity environmental permit by local authorities in expected to close by end-September 2010.
August 19, 2010 — SGL Group (Wiesbaden, Rustenburg, and the plant is expected to be
Germany; www.sglcarbon.com) will invest operational in 2012. Bilcare enters agreement to acquire
approximately €75 million into the capacity Ineos’ Global Films business
expansion of isostatic graphite within the BASF begins upgrade of North American August 2, 2010 — Ineos Group (Lausanne,
next three years.This expansion supports catalyst manufacturing operations Switzerland; www.ineos.com) has entered
the global growth of its customers in the August 3, 2010 — BASF Corp.’s catalyst divi- into a binding agreement for the sale of its
solar energy, light emitting diode (LED) and sion (Iselin, N.J.; www.catalysts.basf.com) Global Films business to Bilcare AG for ap-
semiconductor industries. A significant part has initiated several capital investment proximately €100 million.The deal comprises
of the investment will involve the construc- projects to enhance the company’s manu- the business, assets and personnel related
tion of a new, fully automated Iso Graphite facturing operations for copper-chrome cat- to Ineos’ Films operations located in North
Green Production Center at the Bonn, Ger- alysts at its production sites in Erie, Pa. and America, Europe and Asia.The transaction
many, site. Commissioning is scheduled for Elyria, Ohio.The multimillion-dollar invest- was expected to be completed at the end
2012. In this context SGL Group will increase ments are aimed at re-engineering, retrofit- of August, subject to necessary regulatory
its global, annual isostatic-graphite capac- ting and further automating catalyst manu- filings and approvals. ■
ity from 5,000 metric tons (m.t.) to 15,000 m.t. facturing at both sites. BASF says the capital Dorothy Lozowski

FOR ADDITIONAL NEWS AS IT DEVELOPS, PLEASE VISIT WWW.CHE.COM


September 2010; VOL. 117; NO. 9
Chemical Engineering copyright @ 2010 (ISSN 0009-2460) is published monthly, with an additional issue in October, by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road,
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FOR MORE ECONOMIC INDICATORS, SEE NEXT PAGE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010 63
Economic Indicators 2010 2009 2008

DOWNLOAD THE CEPCI TWO WEEKS SOONER AT WWW.CHE.COM/PCI


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI) 650

(1957-59 = 100) June '10 May '10 June '09 Annual Index:
Prelim. Final Final
2002 = 395.6 600
CE Index 556.4 558.2 512.0
Equipment 668.1 670.2 601.5 2003 = 402.0
Heat exchangers & tanks 628.7 629.9 538.0
Process machinery 632.0 631.8 584.9
2004 = 444.2 550
Pipe, valves & fittings 818.5 828.3 749.0 2005 = 468.2
Process instruments 419.4 424.8 391.8
2006 = 499.6 500
Pumps & compressors 898.4 903.1 898.9
Electrical equipment 482.2 473.2 459.8 2007 = 525.4
Structural supports & misc 697.5 697.5 610.0 2008 = 575.4
Construction labor 326.7 327.8 325.6 450
Buildings 509.4 513.9 485.7 2009 = 521.9
Engineering & supervision 339.1 339.7 347.2
400
Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have
J F M A M J J A S O N D
been converted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO


CPI output index (2007 = 100) Jul. '10 = 88.8 Jun. '10 = 88.1 May. '10 = 88.5 Jul. '09 = 83.9
CPI value of output, $ billions Jun. '10 = 1,753.1 May. '10 = 1,780.7 Apr. '10 = 1,854.6 Jun. '09 = 1,597.2
CPI operating rate, % Jul. '10 = 71.7 Jun. '10 = 71.2 May. '10 = 71.4 Jul. '09 = 66.6
Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) Jul. '10 = 258.7 Jun. '10 = 267.7 May. '10 = 272.8 Jul. '09 = 236.1
Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2007=100) Jul. '10 = 90.6 Jun. '10 = 89.6 May. '10 = 90.0 Jul. '09 = 84.1
Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) Jul. '10 = 152.6 Jun. '10 = 153.3 May. '10 = 152.8 Jul. '09 = 148.8
Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) Jul. '10 = 120.3 Jun. '10 = 120.6 May. '10 = 119.2 Jul. '09 = 118.5

CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2007 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%)
120 2500 85

110 2200 80

100 1900 75

90 1600 70

80 1300 65

70 1000 60
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
Current Business Indicators provided by Global Insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass.

MARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX CURRENT TRENDS


1500

C
(1926 = 100) 2nd Q 1st Q 4th Q 3rd Q 2nd Q
apital equipment prices (as
2010 2010 2009 2009 2009
1485
M & S INDEX 1,461.3 1,448.3 1,446.5 1,446.4 1,462.9 reflected in the CE Plant Cost
Process industries, average 1,522.1 1,510.3 1,511.9 1,515.1 1,534.2 1470 Index) declined in June, an un-
Cement 1,519.2 1,508.1 1,508.2 1,509.7 1,532.5 usual phenomenon given that
1455
Chemicals 1,493.5 1,481.8 1,483.1 1,485.8 1,504.8 equipment prices typically peak
Clay products 1,505.6 1,496.0 1,494.3 1,495.8 1,512.9 1440 around August of each year.
Glass 1,416.4 1,403.0 1,400.1 1,400.4 1,420.1
1425
Meanwhile, Current Business
Paint 1,527.6 1,515.1 1,514.1 1,515.1 1,535.9
Indicators from Global Insight,
Paper 1,430.1 1,416.4 1,415.8 1,416.3 1,435.6
Petroleum products 1,625.9 1,615.6 1,617.6 1,625.2 1,643.5
1410 Inc. show that CPI output dropped
Rubber 1,564.2 1,551.0 1,560.5 1,560.7 1,581.1 1395 for the fourth consecutive month
Related industries in June. Data from the American
Electrical power 1,414.0 1,389.6 1,377.3 1,370.8 1,394.7
1380 Chemistry Council indicate a July
Mining, milling 1,569.1 1,552.1 1,548.1 1,547.6 1,562.9 1365 rebound, however, in both produc-
Refrigeration 1,786.9 1,772.2 1,769.5 1,767.3 1,789.0 tion and capacity utilization.
Steam power 1350
1,488.0 1,475.0 1,470.8 1,471.4 1,490.8 Finally, note that the bases for
1335 the CPI Output Index and Indus-
Annual Index:
trial Production in Manufacturing
2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3 2008 = 1,449.3 1320
1st 2nd 3rd 4th changed from 2002=100 to
2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5 2007 = 1,373.3 2009 = 1,468.6 Quarter 2007=100 on June 25.
Marshall & Swift's Marshall Valuation Service© manual. 2010 Equipment Cost Index Numbers reprinted and Visit www.che.com/pci for
published with the permission of Marshall & Swift/Boeckh, LLC and its licensors, copyright 2010. May not be more. ■
reprinted, copied, automated or used for valuation without Marshall & Swift/Boeckh's prior permission.

64 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM SEPTEMBER 2010


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