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Step Four B2.

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READING Shakespeare.WEB

William Shakespeare

Power and Ambition


in Shakespeare
KEY TO THE EXERCICES AND EXIT TEST

William Shakespeare Richard III


Page 6 – exercise 1 Page 8 – exercise 2
1 Historians know that Shakespeare 1 A 2 B 3 B 4 A 5 B 6 A 7 A 8 B
was baptised on 26 April 1564. 9 B 10 B
Baptisms were usually held three Page 8 – exercise 3
days after the birth of a child, so
they calculated 23 April as the day 1 They are Richard and the young
of his birth. princes. 2-3 Open answers.
2 Because the Lord Chamberlain was Page 14 – exercise 1
an important person at court and 1 C 2 D 3 B 4 A 5 C 6 D
theatre companies needed patrons
to give them money to put on their Page 15 – exercise 2
plays. 1 A ring was slipped on Lady Anne’s
3 Over 33,000 people died and the finger by Richard.
spread of the plague caused the 2 Clarence was drowned in a barrel
theatres to close between 1592 and of wine by two men.
1594. William started writing 3 A letter was sent to the Tower of
sonnets, because the theatres were London by King Edward.
closed. 4 The princes were taken to the
4 The 1623 published collection of Tower of London.
Shakespeare’s plays. 5 Buckingham was sent to speak to
5 Over a thousand words in the the cardinal by Richard.
English language are recorded in his 6 A cunning plan was used by Richard
plays and many phrases have to accuse Hastings of treason.
become common expressions. Page 15 – exercise 3
1 die (It is not a crime.)
2 mad (It is not a synonym of
‘cunning’.)
k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

3 feared (To fear = to be afraid of Page 25 – exercise 3


something.) 1 Your beauty was the motive.
4 comfort (It’s a positive word that 2 You are too indecisive to be my
means ‘ease’.) right-hand man.
5 joke (Usually an harmless act, not 3 Tyrell agreed to kill the princes for
meant to deceive.) a large payment.
6 quickly (It means ‘fast’ and has 4 I am not ready to rule.
nothing to do with calm or 5 News arrived at the palace saying
peacefulness.) that Richmond had reached
7 agree (It’s the opposite of ‘argue’.) England with a fleet of ships.
Page 16 – exercise 4 6 This marriage is the only way we
1 in 2 with 3 known 4 was 5 by can escape civil war.
6 never 7 though 8 in 9 were 10 of 7 Buckingham escaped fearing
11 the 12 where Richard’s oppression.

Page 16 – exercise 5 Page 26 – exercise 4


Open answers. 1 The Duchess 2 Richmond
3 Hastings 4 The two little princes
Page 17 – Internet project 5 King Edward 6 Clarence
1 The film was made in 1996. 7 Lady Anne
2 Al Pacino Page 26 – exercise 5
3 Winona Ryder
Open answer.
1 F 2 F 3 T 4 F 5 T 6 T
Page 26 – exercise 6
Page 18 – exercise 1
Open answers.
1 E 2 C 3 D 4 B 5 A
Page 18 – exercise 2 The Influences on
1 He is in his tent at Bosworth Field. Shakespeare’s Plays
2 Because he’s having a nightmare.
Page 30 – exercise 1
3 He sees the ghosts of everyone he
has murdered. 1 The politics of the day, Greek and
4 Open answer. Roman classics, Niccolò Machiavelli.
2 Queen Elizabeth was a theatre
Page 18 – exercise 3
lover who strongly supported
1 believe 2 princes 3 king 4 crown Shakespeare and his actors.
5 alive 6 test 7 nephews 3 Shakespeare’s representation of
Page 24 – exercise 1 mythology was deeply influenced
by Ovid.
1 C 2 B 3 D 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 D 8 A
4 Machiavelli influenced Shakespeare
9 C 10 D
through his most famous work, Il
Page 25 – exercise 2 Principe, in which he described how
1 civil 2 peace 3 throne 4 physical a prince could set out to gain
5 villain 6 murdered 7 blames 8 wit absolute power.
9 ill 10 heirs 11 murderer 12 crowned 5 Richard III, Macbeth, Claudius.
13 niece 14 gathers 15 curse

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k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

Henry V Page 41 – exercise 5


Open answers.
Page 32 – exercise 2
Page 41 – exercise 6
1 Prince Hal 2 twenty-five
3 intelligent 4 money 5 fight A
6 tennis balls 7 war 1 King Henry was virtuous and
intelligent because responsibility
Page 32 – exercise 3
had changed him.
1 C 2 E 3 A 4 F 5 D 6 B 2 The French King was worried
Page 38 – exercise 1 because he needed to defend his
country.
1 B 2 B 3 D 4 C 5 D 6 A
3 The English soldiers were brave
Page 39 – exercise 1 because the fighting was violent.
A 4 Bardolph, Pistol and Nym were
afraid because they didn’t want to
Verb Noun Adjective
die.
explain explanation explainable B
advise advice advisable Open answers.
prepare preparation preparatory Page 42 – exercise 7
agree agreement agreeable 1 He sailed from Southampton.
2 They landed at Harfleur.
apologise apology apologetic
3 They stayed from 17th August to
remind reminder reminiscent 7th October.
inspire inspiration inspired 4 They marched from Fecamp to
Amiens, then on to Nesle.
B 5 They reached Agincourt on 25th
1 advice 2 agreement 3 preparations October.
4 reminded 5 apology 6 inspired
Page 42 – exercise 8
Page 40 – exercise 3
1 set 2 to stay 3 side 4 were 5 in
1 France is the place where there was 6 single 7 meant 8 by 9 their 10 for
the Salic law.
Page 43 – exercise 1
2 The Dauphin is the person who
laughs at Henry’s claim to the 1 It’s a picture of the battle of
French throne. Agincourt.
3 The Black Prince is the relative who 2 Because he’s wearing a crown and
beat the French at the battle of his coat of arms shows three gold
Crécy. lions (England) and the ‘fleurs-de-
4 The Boar’s Head Tavern was where lys’ (a sign of the English claims to
King Henry’s old friends met. the throne of France).
5 These are the tennis balls which the 3 They are protected by an armour, a
Dauphin sent me. shield and a helmet.
4 Open answer.
Page 40 – exercise 4
Page 43 – exercise 2
1 E, who 2 C, where 3 F, which
4 B, whose 5 D, which 6 A, who 2 � 6 �

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k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

Page 43 – exercise 3 Page 50 – Internet project


1 English 2 foggy 3 fight 4 army 1 In 1989.
5 death 6 stole 7 asleep 8 weak 2 Angels and Bermans, the famous
Page 49 – exercise 1 London costume house.
3 Montjoy’s
1 Because she knew that soon she 4 Ian Mckellen
would need to speak to the King of 5 Gerard Depardieu
England. 6 We see him hung in the film and not
2 He agreed with the punishment, in the play.
because the English soldiers were
wrong to steal from French villages.
3 They were confident because they Julius Caesar
outnumbered the English army 5 Page 52 – exercise 2
to 1. 1 Emperor 2 secret 3 celebrate
4 He gave them words of 4 March 15 5 insane 6 afraid
encouragement and called them 7 noble 8 dangerous
‘brothers’.
5 He wanted to pretend to be a Page 52 – exercise 3
common soldier and find out what 1 carpenter 2 foreign 3 wrong
his men really thought of him. 4 citizens 5 ignore
6 Williams challenged Henry to a Page 58 – exercise 1
fight if they should both survive the
1 B 2 A 3 D 4 C 5 B 6 D
battle.
7 On the feast of St. Crispin. Page 59 – exercise 2
8 No, the French lost. 1 becomes, suffer 2 persuades, join
9 The people of London were on the 3 stop, help 4 goes, kill 5 is, convince
streets shouting the king’s name
and the Lord Mayor was dressed in Page 59 – exercise 3
his finest clothes. 1 85 BCE 2 79 BCE 3 younger 4 48%
10 Because it was not the custom of 5 Pompey 6 east 7 republic 8 60
French girls to kiss before they Tapescript
married.
Marcus Junius Brutus was born in
Page 49 – exercise 2 about 85 BCE. His father was killed in
1 the Governor of Harfleur 2 Bardolph 79 by a young general called Gnaeus
3 the Dauphin 4 the Bishop of Ely Pompey and Brutus was adopted by
5 the French king 6 Henry V his uncle. Brutus was brought up by
7 Williams 8 Katharine Cato the younger and then went to
Cyprus, where he helped the
Page 49 – exercise 3
townspeople of Salamis who were in
1 D 2 H 3 G 4 B 5 F 6 A 7 C 8 E need of financial help. He received
Page 50 – exercise 4 48% interest from the loan and
returned to Rome a wealthy man. In
1 D 2 A 3 D 4 A 5 C 6 B 7 C
Rome the political situation was
dangerous. Two generals had become
very powerful. Pompey controlled

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k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

Rome, but Julius Caesar had a great Page 61 – exercise 3


army and was very popular with the 1 B 2 C 3 B 4 A 5 D
people. Brutus sided with Cicero, who
wanted to defend the rights of the Page 67 – exercise 1
senate against the generals and, when 1 A 2 C 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 D
Caesar and Pompey fought, Pompey Page 68 – exercise 2
was defeated.
1 defeated 2 triumph 3 ignores
Brutus asked Caesar’s forgiveness and
4 powerful 5 assassinate
they became friends. Caesar made
6 convinces 7 dream 8 persuade
him Governor of Gaul and sent him on
9 crowd 10 raise 11 honourable
an important mission to the east.
12 noblest
Brutus divorced his first wife and
married Cato’s daughter, Portia. It Page 68 – exercise 3
soon became clear that Caesar 1 C 2 A 3 E 4 D 5 A 6 E 7 F 8 C
wanted to be crowned Emperor and 9 B 10 G
would not make Rome a republic once
more and so 60 senators conspired to Page 68 – exercise 3
kill Caesar. Brutus became one of the 1 by 2 into 3 the 4 who 5 to
leaders of the plot. 6 them 7 which 8 make 9 gave
10 about 11 from 12 not 13 one
Page 60 – exercise 4
Open answers. The Dark Side of
Page 60 – Internet project Shakespeare’s Plays:
1 In 101 BCE. Revenge, Ghosts and Witches
2 In 65 BCE.
3 In 58 BCE.
4 The Pharoah executed him to gain Hamlet
Caesar’s favour. Page 72 – exercise 1
5 He declared war on Egypt. 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 B 6 A 7 B
6 In 44 BCE.
Page 74 – exercise 2
1 In 1953.
1 C 2 extra heading 3 D 4 A 5 B
2 Louis Calhern
3 James Mason Page 74 – exercise 3
4 Marlon Brando 1 C 2 D 3 F 4 E 5 A 6 B
5 Yes, five (and it won an Oscar).
Page 81 – exercise 1
Page 61 – exercise 1 1 Hamlet felt shame over his mother’s
4� marriage to his uncle.
Page 61 – exercise 2 2 Bernardo and Marcellus had seen
the apparition of the recently
1 Caesar and the conspirators.
deceased king Hamlet on the castle
2 They are stabbing Casear.
ramparts.
3 In the background, the crowd is
3 Prince Fortinbras, nephew of the
watching and screaming.
king of Norway, wanted to invade

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k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

Denmark and Horatio felt that the Page 82 – exercise 5


ghost was warning them of danger. 1 had died, was 2 suspected, had been
4 Claudius had said that a snake had 3 spoke, had seen 4 had entered,
bitten King Hamlet, but young poured 5 came, had hidden 6 said,
Hamlet suspected that the snake had gone
was Claudius himself.
5 The ghost had to return to Page 82 – exercise 5
purgatory at dawn. 1 C 2 F 3 G 4 J 5 I 6 E 7 A 8 H
6 The old king was murdered as he 9 B 10 D
lay sleeping in the orchard. Claudius Page 83 – exercise 1
poured poison in his ear.
1 A 2 C 3 C 4 B 5 B 6 D
7 Claudius wanted Rosencrantz and
Guildenstern to find out what was Page 83 – exercise 2
wrong with Hamlet. Open answers.
8 Hamlet wanted the actors to
perform The Murder of Gonzago Page 88 – exercise 1
because the storyline was similar 1 Because he still had the rewards of
to what he suspected had happened his murder. He was still king and
to his father. still married to Gertrude.
9 When Hamlet saw the guilt on 2 He thought it was Claudius.
Claudius’s face, he realised that the 3 He said that it was not as bad as his
ghost’s words were true. mother’s act when she killed her
husband and married his brother.
Page 81 – exercise 2
4 Because he was afraid that fear
1 madness (‘Ghost’, ‘apparition’ and and grief would kill her.
‘spirit’ are synonyms; ‘madness’ is a 5 He sent him to England by ship.
state of mind.) 6 That Hamlet should be put to death
2 footsteps (It’s a noun and the other as soon as he arrived in England.
three words are verbs.) 7 Pirates attacked his ship.
3 murderer (It’s the person who 8 She had taken flowers to hang in a
commits the crime; the other three tree. The branch had broken and
words are verbs.) she had drowned in the stream.
4 beckoned (You use your voice with 9 No he didn’t. He put a goblet of
the other three words.) poisoned wine for Hamlet to drink
5 servants (It is not a word connected and Gertrude drunk it by mistake.
to theatrical life.) 10 He wounded Claudius with the
6 disorder (It’s a noun. The other poisoned sword and forced him to
three words are verbs.) drink the poisoned wine.
Page 81– exercise 3 Page 88 – exercise 2
1 servants 2 Footsteps 3 madness 1 death 2 considered 3 performance
4 murderer 5 beckoned 6 disorder 4 occurrences 5 appointed
Page 81 – exercise 4 6 beginning 7 repulsion 8 agreement
9 marriage
1 Francisco 2 Gertrude 3 Horatio
4 Hamlet 5 the ghost 6 Ophelia

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k e y t o t h e e x e r c i c e s

Page 89 – exercise 3 Page 102 – exercise 3


Open answer. A hideous B brave C ruthless
Page 89 – exercise 4 D uneasy E coward F evil
1 A 2 D 3 D 4 A 5 C 6 C 7 B 8 C Page 102 – exercise 4
9 A 10 D 11 B 1 B 2 A 3 F 4 C 5 E 6 D
Page 90 – exercise 5 Page 102 – exercise 1
Open answers. 1 B 2 A 3 A 4 B 5 A
Page 90 – Internet project Page 102 – exercise 2
1 In 1996. 1 Lady Macbeth
2 Kate Winslet 2 Because she sees them covered in
3 Julie Christie blood and she wants to clean them.
4 Open answer. 3 In the background there are a
Page 91 – exercise 6 doctor and a lady-in-waiting. They
are looking at Lady Macbeth and
Open answers. talking about her strange behaviour.
Page 92 – exercise 7 Page 107 – exercise 1
1 was suspected of killing 2 that he 1 B 2 A 3 B 4 D 5 C 6 A
would watch 3 know if the ghost was
4 was growing more and more 5 on Page 108 – exercise 2
Hamlet’s nerves 1 Lady Macbeth 2 the witches
Page 92 – exercise 8 3 Lady Macbeth 4 Macduff 5 Malcolm
6 Banquo 7 the witches and Duncan
Open answers.
Page 108 – exercise 3
Macbeth 1 C 2 D 3 A 4 I 5 F 6 H 7 B 8 E
9G
Page 94 – exercise 2
Page 109 – exercise 4
1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 A
Open answers.
Page 94 – exercise 3
Page 109 – exercise 5
1 bravely 2 heath 3 mortal
4 intrigued 5 meeting Open answers.
Page 101 – exercise 1
AFTER READING
1 C 2 F 3 E 4 B 5 D 6 A
Page 110 – exercise 1
Page 101 – exercise 2
1 Richard III: C, F, L 2 Henry V: B, G, I
1 was, were waiting 2 was reading, 3 Julius Caesar: M, D, J 4 Hamlet: K,
arrived 3 wanted, was having E, O 5 Macbeth: H, N, A
4 returned, was holding 5 was, was
knocking 6 shouted, saw 7 went, Page 111 – exercises 2 and 3
was sitting Open answers.

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k e y t o t h e e x i t t e s t

1 1 Shakespeare was born on 23rd 5 Possible answer:


April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Claudius, Hamlet’s uncle, has killed
2 He was one of eight children and Hamlet’s father. Two months later
his father was a wealthy man. he marries Gertrude, Hamlet’s
He went to the Grammar School, mother. One evening the ghost of
but had to leave when he was 13 Hamlet’s father tells his son that it
because his father had got into was Claudius who poisoned him. He
debt. wants Hamlet to avenge this terrible
3 The themes running through murder. Hamlet needs proof, so he
thefive plays are the potency pretends to be mad so that Claudius
of power and the danger of will not suspect him. The king and
unchecked ambition. queen think that he is still in love
4 There was the plague. with Ophelia, but that relationship
5 They were mostly performed at ended when Hamlet’s father died.
The Globe Theatre. Hamlet organizes a group of players
6 He wrote tragedies. to re-enact a play which is similar to
7 His legacy lives on in the plays his father’s murder. Hamlet watches
and sonnets, but also in the Claudius’s reaction and from now on
language we use today. he knows that he is guilty. When
2 1 about 2 since 3 to 4 though Hamlet speaks to his mother about
5 in 6 between 7 to 8 them 9 to his father’s murder, he discovers
10 an 11 before 12 is someone hiding in the curtains and
3 Possible answer: he thinks it’s Claudius. He kills the
The play is set in England in the 15th man, but it is Polonius, Ophelia’s
century. In his youth Henry was a father and not Claudius. Ophelia
wild young man who met thieves in becomes mad with grief. Claudius
a tavern in London. When he sends Hamlet to England with two
becomes King of England, he decides friends. They have a letter with
to change. Henry is convinced that orders that Hamlet is to be killed
he has a legal claim to the French when they arrive. Hamlet changes
throne and so he makes plans to the name in the letter and escapes.
attack France. The English army He arrives home just as they are
take the town of Harfleur and move burying Ophelia. She drowned in the
on towards Calais. The two armies river. Laertes, Ophelia’s brother, has
prepare for battle and even though returned from France and he fights
the French army are five times with Hamlet. There is poison on
larger than the English army, Henry Laertes sword and in the fight
wins. Henry returns to London in Hamlet picks up Laertes’ sword and
triumph before making peace with kills him. Hamlet’s mother drinks a
the French king. Henry marries cup of poisoned wine, which was
Katharine and the marriage unites meant for Hamlet. She dies. Hamlet
the two kingdoms. kills Claudius, but he is also fatally
4 1 C 2 B 3 A 4 D 5 D 6 C 7 B wounded. He dies, but his revenge is
8 A 9 A 10 D complete.
6 1 until 2 his 3 about 4 tell
5 who 6 have 7 order 8 them
9 Everything 10 has
© 2012 Black Cat, Genoa, London 9
EXIT TEST

1 The author
Answer the following questions.

1 When and where was Shakespeare born?


2 What do you remember about his early life?
3 What are the themes running through these five plays?
4 What happened in London between 1592 and 1594?
5 Where were most of Shakespeare’s plays performed?
6 Which plays did Shakespeare write between 1593 and 1600?
7 How does William Shakespeare’s legacy live on?

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EXIT TEST

2 Richard III
Read this summary of Richard III and fill in the gaps with a suitable word.

Edward IV is King of England, but his younger brother Richard wants


to be king. Richard is evil, but clever. He is bitter (1) ............. the
physical deformity he has had (2) ............. birth. Using his intelligence,
he convinces Lady Anne (3) ............. marry him, even (4) ............. he
murdered her first husband. He also persuades Edward IV to put their
brother Clarence (5) ............. the Tower of London and then Richard
orders his execution. Only his two young nephews now stand (6) .............
Richard and the throne. He takes the two young boys (7) ............. the
Tower of London telling them it is for their own safety. Then he pays an
assassin to kill (8) ............. .
Later, in order (9) ............. marry his niece Elizabeth, Richard has his wife
murdered. He is hated by everyone, but there is hope when, at some
point, a challenger to the throne, Richmond, gathers (10) ............. army in
France. Richard prepares to fight, but on the night (11) ............. the battle
Richard has a terrible dream. The ghosts of everyone he has murdered
appear to him and curse him. Richard (12) ............. killed in battle and
Richmond is crowned King Henry VII.

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EXIT TEST

3 Henry V
Give a brief summary of Henry V.

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EXIT TEST

4 Julius Caesar
Read this summary of Julius Caesar and decide which answer (A, B, C or
D) best fits each gap.

At the beginning of the play Julius Caesar (1) ............. the sons of Pompey
and returns to Rome in triumph. A fortune-teller tells Caesar that he
(2) ............. die on 15th March but Caesar ignores him. There are fears
that Caesar is becoming (3) ............. powerful. Cassius persuades Brutus
to join a group of conspirators and assassinate Caesar and (4) .............
Brutus agrees, he convinces (5) ............. not to kill Mark Antony.
Caeasar’s wife, Calpurnia, has a terrible dream. She fears (6) .............
Caesar’s life and she tries to persuade him not to go to the Senate.
He goes and the conspirators kill him. Brutus gains support from the
citizens of Rome when he explains why they killed Caesar, but it is Mark
Antony’s words that make the crowd (7) ............. anger for Caesar’s
death. The mob turn (8) ............. the conspirators and Cassius and Brutus
run away. Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavius raise (9) ............. army
and meet Cassius and Brutus in battle. Brutus and Cassius prefer to die
honourable deaths than be captured. Mark Antony pays tribute to Brutus
saying that he was (10) ............. Roman of them all.
1 A is defeating B had defeated C has defeated D will defeat
2 A won’t B will C might D must
3 A too B more C most D to
4 A even B if C despite D although
5 A they B he C they’re D them
6 A in B from C for D to
7 A see B feel C smell D hear
8 A on B off C from D away
9 A an B a C the D /
10 A noblest B noble C the nobler D the noblest

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EXIT TEST

5 Hamlet
Give a brief summary of Hamlet.

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EXIT TEST

6 Macbeth
Read this summary of Macbeth and fill in the gaps with a suitable word.

Macbeth, a Scottish general in King Duncan’s army, has never thought of


becoming king (1) ............. he meets three witches. They tell him that he
will be king one day and that his friend Banquo will father a line of kings.
Macbeth sends a letter to (2) ............. wife to tell her about his encounter
with the witches. Lady Macbeth is ambitious and she persuades her
husband to murder King Duncan when he is staying at their castle.
After Duncan’s death, Macbeth is crowned king, but he cannot sleep and
he thinks (3) ............. the witches’ prophecy. He hires murderers to kill
Banquo and later goes to see the witches again. They (4) ............. him that
no one born of a woman can harm him and he can only be defeated when
Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Hill. They also tell him to beware of
Macduff, so Macbeth has Macduff’s wife and children killed. Meanwhile
Lady Macbeth, (5) ............. has gone mad, dies.
Malcolm and Macduff (6) ............. raised a large army. In (7) ............. to
disguise the army, they cut branches from Birnam Wood and carry
(8) ............. in front of them: now Macbeth sees Birnam Wood moving to
Dunsinane Hill. There is a great battle and Macduff tells Macbeth that he
was not born naturally. He was taken from his mother’s womb. Shortly
after that, Macduff kills Macbeth.
(9) ............. the witches said (10) ............. come true.

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EXIT TEST

7 Your favourite play


Write a paragraph about your favourite of the five plays. Explain why
you like it.

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