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Calculate the energy transfer rate across 6 in wall of firebricks with a temperature difference

across the wall of 50°C. The thermal conductivity of the firebrick is 0.65 Btu/hr-ft-°F at the

temperature interest.

2. At an average temperature of 100°C, hot air flows through a 2.5 m long tube with an inside

diameter of 50 mm. The temperature of the tube is 20°C along its entire length. Convective film

coefficient is 20.1 W/m2-°K. Determine the convective heat transfer from air to the tube.

3. The sun generates 1 kW/m2 when used as a source for solar collectors. A collector with an area

of 1 m2 heats water. The flow rate is 3.0 liters/min. What is the temperature rise in the water?

The specific heat of water is 4,200 J/kg -°C.

4. Steam, initially saturated at 2.05 MPa, passes through a 10.10 cm standard steel pipe for a total

distance of 152 m. The steam line is insulated with 5.08 cm thickness of 85% magnesia. For an

ambient temperature of 22°C, what is the quality of the steam which arises at its destination if the

mass flow rate is 0.125 kg steam per second?

5. The not combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its surroundings

which are at 25°C, by-a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has a thermal conductivity of 1:2

W/m-K and a surface, emissivity of 0.80. Under steady-state conditions and the outer surface

temperature of 100°C is measured. Free convection heat surface temperature of 100°C is

measured. Free convection heat transfer to the air adjoining this surface is characterized by a

convection coefficient of 20 W/m2-K. What is the inner temperature in °C?

temperature of 385°F. If the cost of the fuel is $5 per 1,000,000 BTU with the net energy

conversion efficiency of 75%, what is the annual cost of the heat lost?

7. A heat exchanger was installed purposely to cool 0.50 kg of gas per second. Molecular weight is

28 and k = 1.32. The gas is cooled from 150°C to 80°C. Water is available at a rate of 0.30 kg/s

and at a temperature of 12°C. Calculate the exit temperature of the water.

8. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at 25°C. The

outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and Its surface temperature and emissivity are 200°C and

0.80 respectively. If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface

to the air is 15 W/m2-K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

Hot gas temperature: 1145°C

Cold gas temperature: 45°C

Unit surface conductance on the hot side: 230 W/m2-K

Unit surface conductance on the cold side: 290 W/m2-K

Thermal Conductivity of the metal wall: 115 W/m-K

Find the maximum thickness of the metal wall between the hot gas and cold gas so that the

maximum temperature of the wall does not exceed 545°C.

10. Calculate the heat transfer per hour through a solid brick wall 6 m long, 2.9 m high, and 225 mm

thick, when the outer surface is at 5°C and the inner surface 17°C, the coefficient of thermal

conductivity of the brick being 0.6 W/m-K.

11. A vertical furnace wail is. made up of an inner wall of firebrick 20 cm. thick followed by

insulating brick 15 cm thick and an outer wall of steel 1-cm thick. The surface temperature of the

wall adjacent to the combustion chamber is 1200°C while that of the outer. surface of steel is

50°C. The thermal conductivities of the wall material in W/m-K are; firebrick = 10; insulating

brick = 0.26; and steel = 45. Neglecting the film resistances and contact resistance of joints,

determine the heat loss per m2 of wall area.

12. A composite wall is made up of an external thickness of brickwork 110 mm thick inside which is

a layer of fiberglass 75 mm thick. The fiberglass is faced internally by an insulating board 25

mm thick. The coefficient of thermal conductivity for the three are as follows:

Brickwork = 1.5 W/m-K

Fiberglass = 0.04 W/m-K

Insulating board = 0.06 W/m-K

The surface transfer coefficient of the inside wall is 3.1 W/m2 - K while that of the outside wall is

2.5 W/m2-K. Take the internal ambient temperature as 10°C and the external. temperature is

27°C. Determine the heat loss through such wall 6 m high and 10 m long.

13. One insulated wall of a cold-storage compartment is 8 m long by 2.5 m high and consists of an

outer steel plate 18 mm thick. An inner wood wall 22.5 mm thick, the steel and wood are 90 mm

apart to form a cavity which is filled with cork. If the temperature drop across the extreme faces

of the composite wall is 15°C. Calculate the heat transfer per hour through the wall and the

temperature drop across the thickness of the cork. Take the coefficients of thermal conductivity

for steel, cork, and wood as 45, 0.045, and 0.18 W/m-K respectively.

14. A cubical tank of 2 m-sides is constructed of the metal plate 12 mm-and contains water at 75°C.

The surrounding air temperature is 16°C. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient from

water to air. Take the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the metal as 48 W/m-K, the

coefficient of heat transfer of water is 2.5 kW/m2-K and the coefficient of heat transfer of the air

is.16 W/m2-K.

15. Calculate the quantity of neat conducted per minute through a duralumin circular disc 127 mm

diameter and 19 mm thick when the temperature drop across the thickness of the plate is 5°C.

Take the coefficient of thermal conductivity of duralumin as 150 W/m-K.

16. A cold storage compartment is 4.5 m long by 4 m wide by 2.5 m high. The four walls, ceiling,

and floor are covered to a thickness of 150 mm with insulating material which has a coefficient

of thermal conductivity of 0.058 W/m-K. Calculate the quantity of heat leaking through the

insulation per hour when the outside and inside face temperatures of the material is 15°C and

-5°C respectively.

17. A furnace wall consists of 35 cm-firebrick (k = 1.557 W/m-K), 12 cm insulating refractory (k =

0.346) and 20 cm common brick (k = 0.692) covered with 7 cm steel plate (k = 45). The

temperature at the inner surface of the firebrick is 1,230°C and at the outer face of the steel plate

is 60°C. The atmosphere temperature is 27°C. What is the value of the combined coefficient for

convection and radiation from the outside wall?

18. A dry ide storage chest is a wooden box lined with glass fiber insulation 5 cm thick. The wooden

box (k = 0.069) is 2 cm thick and cubical 60 cm on an edge. The inside surface temperature is

-76°C and the outside surface temperature is 18°C. Use k = 0.035 for glass fiber insulation.

Determine the heat gain per day.

19. One side of the refrigerated cold chamber is 6 m long by.3.7 m high and consists of 168 mm

thickness of cork between outer and inner walls of wood. The-outer wood wall is 30 mm thick

and its outside face temperature is 20°C, the inner wood wall is 35 mm thick .and its inside face

temperature is -3°C. Taking the coefficient of thermal conductivity. of cork and wood as 0.042

and 0.20 W/m-K respectively, calculate the heat transfer per second per m2 of surface area.

20. Hot gases at 280°C flow on one side of a metal plate of 50 mm thickness and air at 35°C flows

on the other. side. The heat transfer coefficient of the gases is 31.5 W/m 2-K and that of the air is

32 W/m2-K. Calculate the over-all transfer coefficient if the value of thermal conductivity is 0.01

W/m-K.

21. The surface temperature of the hot side of the furnace wall is 1200°C. It is desired to maintain

the outside of the wall at 38°C. A 152 mm of refractory Silica is used adjacent to the combustion

chamber and 10 mm of steel covers the outside. What thickness of insulating bricks is necessary

between refractory and steel, if the heat loss should be kept at 788 W/m 2? Use k = 13.84 W/m-K

for refractory silica; 0.15 for insulating brick, and 45 for steel.

22. How much neat will flow in 24 hours through a plaster wall that is 0.50 in thick and 8 ft x 14 ft

in the area if the temperature is 80°F on one side and 40°F on the other. Use k = 3.25 BTU/hr-ft-

°F.

23. A hollow sphere has an outside radius of 1 m and is made of polystyrene foam with a thickness

of 1 cm. A heat source inside keeps the inner surface 5.20°C hotter than the outside surface. How

much power is produced by the heat source? The thermal conductivity of polystyrene foam is

0.033 W/m-°C.

24. A glass window has an area of 1.60 m2 and a thickness of 4 mm. If one side is at a temperature of

6.80°C and the other is at -5°C, how much thermal energy flows through the window in a time of

24 hours? The thermal conductivity of glass is 0.000189 kCal/m-s-°C.

25. The wall of a cold room consists of a layer of cork sandwiched between outer and inner walls of

wood, the wood walls being each 30 mm thick. The inside atmosphere of the room is maintained

at -20°C when the external atmospheric temperature is 25°C, and the heat loss through the wall is

42 W/m2. Taking the thermal conductivity. of wood and cork as. 0.20 W/m-K and 0.05 W/m-K

respectively, and the rate of heat transfer between each exposed wood surface and their

respective atmospheres as 15 W/m2-K, calculate the thickness of the cork.

26. A slab of material has an area of 2 m 2 and is 1 mm thick. One side is maintained at a temperature

of 0°C while the other is at 12°C. It is determined that 6820 J of heat flows through the material

in a time of 10 minutes. What is the thermal conductivity of the material?

27. An insulated steam pipe located where the ambient temperature is 32°C, has an inside diameter

of 50 mm with 10 mm thick wall. The outside diameter of the corrugated asbestos insulation is

125 mm and the surface coefficient of still air, h o = 12 W/m2-K. Inside the pipe is steam having a

temperature of 150°C with film coefficient h i = 6000 W/m2-K. Thermal conductivity of pipe and

asbestos insulation are 45 and 0.12 W/m-K respectively. Determine the heat loss per unit length

of the pipe.

28. A pipe 200 mm outside diameter and 20 m length is covered with a layer, 70 mm thick of

insulation having thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/m-K and a thermal conductance of 10 W/m 2-K

at the outer surface If the temperature of the pipe is 350°C and the ambient temperature 15°C,

calculate the external surface temperature of the lagging.

29. Dry and saturated steam at 6 MPa absolute enters a 40-m length of 11.5 cm outer diameter steel

pipe at a flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The pipe is covered with 5 cm thick asbestos insulation (k =

0.022 W/m-K). The pipe is located in a tunnel with a stagnant air temperature of 27°C. The unit

outside the convective coefficient is 10 W/m2-K. Neglecting steam film and pipe wall

resistances, determine the mass of steam condensed.

30. Calculate the heat loss per linear ft from 2 in. nominal pipe (2.375 in. outside diameter) covered

with 1 in. of an insulating material having an average thermal conductivity of 0.0375 BTU/hr-ft-

°F. Assume that the inner and outer surface temperatures of the insulation are 380°F. and 80°F

respectively.

31. Calculate the heat loss per linear foot from a 10 in. nominal pipe (outside diameter = 10.75 in.)

covered with composite pipe insulation consisting of 1.5 in of insulation I placed next to the pipe

and 2 in. of insulation II placed upon insulation I. Assume that the inner and. outer surface

temperatures of the composite insulation are 700°F and 110°F respectively, and that the thermal

conductivity of material I is 0.05 Btu/hr-ft-°F and for material II is 0.039 Btu/hr-°F.

32. A steam pipe carrying steam at 380 kPa pressure for a distance of 120 m in a chemical plant is

not insulated. Estimate the saving in steam cost that would be made per year if this 8-cm

diameter steam pipe were covered with 85% magnesia pipe covering 5 cm thick. Take room

temperature to be 25°C, the cost of steam is 65 cents per 1000 kg. Thermal conductivity of

magnesia k = 0.0745 W/m-K, unit convective coefficient of room air, ho = 12 W/m2-K.

33. A liquid to liquid counterflow heat exchanger is used to heat a cold fluid from 120°F to 310°F.

Assuming that the hot fluid enters at 500°F and leaves at 400°F, calculate the log mean

temperature difference for the heat exchanger.

34. A pond is covered by a sheet of ice 2 cm thick (k = 1.68 W/m-C). The temperature of the lower

surface of the ice is 0°C and that of the upper surface is -10°C. At what rate is heat conducted

through each square meter of ice?

35. How much heat is conducted through a sheet of plates glass, k = 0.0024 Cal/s-cm-°C which is 2

m × 3 m and 5 mm thick, when the temperatures of the surfaces are 20°C and -10°C.

36. A copper rod whose diameter is.2 cm and length 50 cm has one end in boiling water, the other

end in a jacket cooled by flowing water which enters at 10°C. The thermal conductivity of the

copper is 0.102 kCal/m-s-°C. If 0.20 kg of water flows through the jacket in 6 min, by how much

does the temperature of the water increase?

37. The thermal insulation of a woolen glove may be regarded as being essentially a layer of

quiescent air 3 cm thick, of conductivity 5.7 x 10-6 kcal/m-s-°C. How much heat does a person

lose per minute, from his hand of area 200 cm 2 and skin temperature 35°C on a winter day at

-5°C?

38. The temperature directly beneath a 3-inch concrete road is 5°F and the air temperature is 20°F.

Calculate the steady flow per square foot through the concrete. The thermal conductivity of the

concrete is 0.50 Btu/ft-hr-°F.

39. How many watts will be radiated from a spherical black body 15 cm in diameter at a temperature

of 800°C?

40. A surface condenser serving a 50,000-kW steam turbo-generator unit receives exhaust steam at

the rate of 196,000 kg/hr. The vacuum pressure in the condenser is 702 mmHg. Seawater for

cooling enters at 29.5°C and leaves at 37.5°C. For steam turbine condenser, manufacturers.

consider 950 Btu/lb of the steam turbine condensed as heat given up to cooling water. Calculate

the logarithmic mean temperature difference.

41. The stack gas from a chemical operation contains noxious vapors that must be condensed by

lowering its temperature from 315°C to 35°C. The gas flow rate is 0.70 m 3/s. Water is available

at 10°C at 1.26 kg/s. A two-shell and 4-tube pass, counterflow heat exchanger will be used with

water flowing through the tubes. The gas has a specific heat of 1.10. kJ/kg-K and a gas constant

of 0.26 kJ/kg-K. Calculate the logarithmic mean temperature difference.

42. Exhaust steam at 7 kPa at the rate of 75 kg/s enters a single pass condense containing 5,780

pieces copper tubes with a total surface area of 2950 m2. The steam has a moisture content of

10% and the condensate leaves saturated liquid at steam temperature. The cooling water flow

rate is 4,413 liters per second entering at 20°C. Size of tubes, 25 mm O.D. by 3 mm thick wall.

Find the overall heat transfer coefficient.

43. What is the heat flow per hour through a brick and mortar wall 9 in. thick if the coefficient of

thermal conductivity has been determined as 0.40 Btu/ft-hr-°F and the wall is 10 ft high by 6 ft.

wide, the temperature on one side of the surface being 330°F and on the other 130°F.

44. A heat exchanger has an over-all coefficient of heat transfer of 900 W/m2-K. The mean

temperature difference is 20°C and heat loss is 15,000 W. Calculate the heat transfer area.

45. A composite furnace wall is made up of a 12-inch lining of magnesite refractory brick, a 5-inch

thickness of 85% magnesia, and a steel casing 0.10 in. thick. Flue gas temperature is 2200°F and

the boiler room is at 80°F. Gas side film coefficient is 15 Btu/hr-ft 2-°F and air side is 4 Btu/hr-

ft2-°F. Determine the thermal current.

46. The wall of a furnace is made up of 9-inch firebrick (k = 0.72 Btu/hr-ft-°F) 5-inch of insulating

brick (k=0.08) and 7.5 in. of red brick (k = 0.5 Btu/hr-ft-°F). The inner and outer. Surface

temperatures T1 and T4 of the wall are 1500°F and 150°F respectively. Neglecting the resistance

of the mortar joints, compute the rate of heat flow through 1 ft2 of the wall.

47. What is the heat transfer in the glass surface area of 0.70 m 2 having an inside temperature of

25°C and 13°C outside temperature? The thickness of the glass surface is 0.007 m. The thermal

conductivity is 1.8 W/m-K.

48. The interior of an oven is maintained at a temperature of 1500°F by means of suitable control

apparatus. The walls of the oven are 9-inch thick and constructed from a material having a

thermal conductivity of 0.18 Btu/hr-ft-°F. Calculate the heat loss for each square foot of wall

surface per hour. Assume that the inside and outside wall temperatures are 1500°F and 400°F

respectively.

49. Compute the amount condensate formed during 10 minutes warm-up of 150-m pipe conveys

saturated steam with an enthalpy of vaporization hfg = 1,947.8 kJ/kg. The minimum external

temperature of pipe is 2°C and the final temperature is 195°C. The specific heat of pipe material

is 0.6 kJ/kg-K and the specific weight is 28 kg/m.

50. A high-pressure steam generator is to be fitted with convection type superheater having 72

elements in parallel. Steam at the rate of 70,000 kg/hr from the boiler drum enters the

superheater inlet header at 8.3 MPa absolute and 98% quality, and leaves the same at 8 Mpa and

485°C. Combustion products at 980°C enters the superheater proper at the rate of 160,000 kg/hr.

Superheater elements are made of 60 mm O.D. by 8 mm thick tubing of 30 m length: Assume

that the flue gas has the same thermal properties of air. Calculate the heat transferred to the

superheated tubes.

51. In a hot water heating system, water heated to 95°C and then is pumped at the rate of 4 L/min

through a radiator where it is cooled to 35°C. If the water arrives at the radiator at a temperature

of 85°C, how much heat does the radiator release each hour?

52. Brine enters a cooler at the rate of 50 m 3/hr at 15°C and leaves at 1°C. Specific heat and a

specific gravity of brine are 1.07 kJ/kg-K and 1.1 respectively. Calculate the heat transferred in

kW.

53. A metal rod is 10 cm long and has a diameter of 2 cm one end is in contact with steam at 100°C

while the other end contacts a block of ice at 0°C. The cylindrical surface of the rod is carefully

insulated so heat flows only from end to end. In a time of 20 minutes, 320 grams of ice melts.

What is the thermal conductivity of the metal?

54. A wall with an area of 10 m2 is made of a 2 cm thickness of white pine (k=0.113 W/m-°C)

followed by 10 cm of brick (k = 0.649 W/m-°C). The pine is on the inside where the temperature

is 30°C while the outside temperature is 10°C. Assuming equilibrium conditions exist, what.is

the temperature at the interface between the two metals?

55. In a hot air heating system, the furnace heats air from 60°F to 160°F. If the air is then circulated

at the rate of 330 ft3/min by the blower, how much thermal energy is transferred per hour? The

specific heat of air at constant pressure is 0,250 Btu/lb-°F, the density of air is 0.0806 lb/ft 3 at

atmospheric pressure.

56. Water enters the condenser at 20°C and leaves at 35°C. What is the log mean temperature

difference if the condenser temperature is 45°C?

57. The temperature of a sample of molten lead near its temperature of solidification is falling at the

rate of 6 K/min. If the lead continues to tose heat at this same rate. and takes 35 min to solidify

completely, what is the heat of fusion of the lead? The specific heat of molten lead is 0.126

kJ/kg-K.

58. A fuel oil of 20°API is to be heated in a heater which makes two passes thru heater tubes and the

heating fluid makes one passes but the flow is cross flow through the heater due to baffles inside

the shell.

Temperature of oil entering heater tubes: 21°C

Temperature of oil leaving heater tubes: 95°C

Heating fluid, steam enter at 105°C and leaves as condensate at 85°C. Assume specific. heat of

oil to be 2.093 kJ/kg-K. Find the heating surface area if the over-all coefficient of heat transfer is

taken as 140 W/m - °C.

59. A 30 cm thick wall has an inside and outside surface temperatures of 300°C and 50°C

respectively. If the thermal conductivity of the wall is 8 W/m-K. Calculate the heat transferred in

kW/m2.

60. A 4-pass low-pressure surface type feedwater heater is designed to heat 92,730 kg/hr of

feedwater from 40°C initial to 80°C final temperature using steam bleed at 70 kPa abs containing

2,645 kJ/kg enthalpy. Assume no subcooling of condensate, determine the effective length of 19

mm OD x 2 mm thick Muntz metal tubes to be installed, if the water velocity inside the tubes is

1.22 m/s and U = 3000 W/m2-K based on the external surface of the tubes.

61. Find the thermal conductivity of the 500 mm thick material with an area of 10,000 cm 2 and a

temperature difference of 10 K if the heat transmitted during 2 hours test is 2000 kJ.

62. A pipe with an outside diameter of 2.5 in. is insulated with a 2 in. layer of asbestos (ka = 0.396

Btu-in./hr-ft2-°F), followed by a layer of cork 1.5 in. thick (kc = 0.30 Btu-in./hr-ft2-°F). If the

temperature of the outer surface of the cork is 90°F and inner temperature of 290°F, calculate the

heat lost per 100 ft of insulated pipe.

63. At $0.25 per kW-hr, how much will it cost to maintain a temperature of 96°F for 24 hours in a

box 2 ft square on each side, if the outside temperature is 72°F and the over-all heat transfer

coefficient for the box is 0.10 Btu/hr-ft?-°F?

64. A steam pipe having a surface temperature of 300°C passes Through a room where the

temperature is 25°C. The outside diameter of the pipe is 100 mm and the emissivity factor is

0.60. Determine the radiated heat loss for a 5 m pipe length.

65. An air-cooled condenser is to reject 70 kW of heat from a. condensing refrigerant to air. The

condenser has an air-side area of 210 m2 and a U value based on this area of 0.037 kW/m2-K; it is

supplied with 6.6 m3/s of air which has a density of 1.15 kg/m 3. If the condensing temperature is

to be limited to 55°C, what is the maximum allowable temperature of the inlet air?

66. Two walls are composed of 150 mm thick insulating material at the outer layer (k = 0.139 W/m-

K) and 300 mm thick material at the inner layer (k = 1.111 W/m-K). Calculate the heat

transmitted per m? if the surface temperatures of the cold side and hot side are 25°C and 300°C

respectively.

67. The temperature of the flame in a furnace is 1277°C and the temperature of its surroundings is

277°C. Calculate the maximum theoretical quantity of heat energy radiated per minute per square

meter to the surrounding surface area.

68. A small sphere has a radius of 3.50 cm and is maintained at a temperature of 360°C. Assuming it

to be a black body surrounded by empty space, how much energy does it radiate each second?

69. The hot gas temperature in a heat exchanger is 350°C (h o = 220 W/m2 - k). What is the surface

temperature on the wall if the heat transferred is 1500 W/m2?

70. If total resistance to heat flow of a composite wall is 3.0875 m 2-K/W. What is the over-all

transfer coefficient of the wall?

71. Calculate the quantity of heat to be: transferred to 3.25 kg of brass to raise its temperature from

30°C to 250°C taking the specific heat of the brass as 0.394 kJ/kg-K.

72. The mass of copper calorimeter is 0.28 kg and. it contains 0.4 kg of water at 15°C. Taking the

specific heat of copper as 0.39 kJ/kg-K, calculate the heat required to raise the temperature to

20°C?

73. In an experiment to find the specific heat of lead, a 0.50 kg of lead shot at a temperature of 51°C

is poured into an insulated calorimeter containing 0.25 kg of water at 13.5°C and the resultant

temperature of the mixture is 15.5°C. If the specific heat of the calorimeter is also equivalent to

the water and its mass is 0.02 kg, find the specific heat of the lead.

74. A casting of mass 5 kg is pulled a distance of 10 m along a horizontal floor. The coefficient of

friction between the surfaces of the casting and floor being 0.40. Calculate the heat generated at

the surfaces.

75. With three different quantities x, y, and z of. the same kind of liquid of temperatures 9, 21 and

38°C respectively, it is found that when x and y are mixed together the resultant temperature is

17°C and when y and z are mixed together the resultant temperature is 28°C. Find the resultant

temperature if x and z were mixed.

76. A 2.5 kg of brass of specific heat of 0.39 kJ/kg-K at a temperature of 176°C is dropped into 1.2

liters of water at 14°C. Find the resultant temperature of the mixture.

77. The journals of a shaft are 380 mm diameter, it runs.at 105 rpm and the coefficient of friction

between journals and bearings is 0.02. If the average load on the bearings is 200 kN, find the

heat generated per minute at the bearings.

78. To ascertain the temperature of flue gases, 1.8 kg of copper of specific heat 0.395 kJ/kg-K was

suspended in the flue gas until it attained the temperature of the gases and then dropped into 2.27

kg of water at 20°C. If the resultant temperature of the copper and water was 37.2°C, find the

temperature of the flue gases.

79. In an experiment to find the specific heat of iron, 2.15 kg of iron cuttings at 100°C are dropped

into a vessel whose mass is 0.18 kg containing 2.3 liters of water at 17°C and the resultant

temperature of the mixture is 24.4°C. Assuming that the specific heat of the vessel is equivalent

to the water, determine the specific heat of the iron.

80. The effective radius of the pads in a single collar thrust block is 230 mm and the total load on the

thrust block is 240 kN, when the shaft is running at 93 rpm. Taking the coefficient of friction

between thrust and collar pads as 0.025, find the heat generated per hour.