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332520_Index_SE_A225-A236.

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Index A225

Index

A degree, 285 oblique, 190


of depression, 306 of a rational function, 186
Absolute value of elevation, 306 slant, 190
of a complex number, 470 initial side, 282 vertical, 185
inequality, solution of, A63 measure of, 283 Augmented matrix, 573
properties of, A4 negative, 282 Average rate of change, 59
of a real number, A4 obtuse, 283 Average value of a population, 261
Acute angle, 283 positive, 282 Axis (axes)
Addition radian, 283 imaginary, 470
of a complex number, 163 reference, 314 of a parabola, 129, 736
of fractions of repose, 351 polar, 779
with like denominators, A7 standard position, 282 real, 470
with unlike denominators, A7 supplementary, 285 rotation of, 763
of matrices, 588 terminal side, 282 of symmetry, 129
vector, 449 vertex, 282
properties of, 451 Angular speed, 287 B
resultant of, 449 Aphelion distance, 798
Additive identity Back-substitution, 497
Arc length, 287
for a complex number, 163 Base, A11
Arccosine function, 345
for a matrix, 591 natural, 222
Arcsine function, 343, 345
for a real number, A6 Basic equation, 534
Arctangent function, 345
Additive inverse, A5 guidelines for solving, 538
Area
for a complex number, 163 Basic limits, 857
common formulas for, 7
for a real number, A6 Basic Rules of Algebra, A6
of an oblique triangle, 434
Adjacent side of a right triangle, 301 Bearings, 355
of a plane region, 896
Adjoining matrices, 604 Bell-shaped curve, 261
of a region, 883
Algebraic expression, A5 Binomial, 683, A23
of a sector of a circle, 289
domain of, A36 coefficient, 683
of a triangle, 622
equivalent, A36 cube of, A25
Heron’s Area Formula, 442, 491
evaluate, A5 expanding, 686
Argument of a complex number, 471
term of, A5 square of, A25
Arithmetic combination, 84
Algebraic function, 218 Binomial Theorem, 683, 724
Arithmetic sequence, 653
Algebraic properties of the cross Book value, 32
common difference of, 653
product, 828, 847 Bounded, A60
nth partial sum, 657
Algebraic tests for symmetry, 19 Bounded intervals, A2
nth term of, 654
Alternative definition of conic, 793 Branches of a hyperbola, 753
recursion form, 654
Alternative form of Law of Cosines, 439, Break-even point, 501
sum of a finite, 656, 723
490 Butterfly curve, 810
Associative Property of Addition
Amplitude of sine and cosine curves, for complex numbers, 164
323 C
for matrices, 590
Angle(s), 282 for real numbers, A6 Calculus, 873
acute, 283 Associative Property of Multiplication area of a region, 883
between two lines, 729 for complex numbers, 164 tangent line, 883
between two planes, 837 for matrices, 590, 594 Cardioid, 789
between two vectors, 461, 492 for real numbers, A6 Cartesian plane, 2
in space, 821 Associative Property of scalar Center
central, 283 multiplication for matrices, 594 of a circle, 20
complementary, 285 Astronomical unit, 796 of an ellipse, 744
conversions between radians and Asymptote(s) of a hyperbola, 753
degrees, 286 horizontal, 185 Central angle of a circle, 283
coterminal, 282 of a hyperbola, 755 Change-of-base formula, 239
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A226 Index

Characteristics of a function from set A Complementary angles, 285 polar equations of, 793, 808
to set B, 40 Completely factored, A26 rotation of axes, 763
Circle, 20, 789 Completing the square, A49 Conjugate, 173, A17
arc length of, 287 Complex conjugates, 165 of a complex number, 165
center of, 20 Complex fraction, A40 Conjugate axis of a hyperbola, 755
central angle, 283 Complex number(s), 162 Consistent system of linear equations,
classifying absolute value of, 470 510
by the discriminant, 767 addition of, 163 Constant, A5
by general equation, 759 additive identity, 163 function, 57, 67
radius of, 20 additive inverse, 163 limit of, 857
sector of, 289 argument of, 471 of proportionality, 105
area of, 289 Associative Property of Addition, 164 term, A5, A23
standard form of the equation of, 20 Associative Property of of variation, 105
unit, 294 Multiplication, 164 Constraints, 552
Circumference, common formulas for, 7 Commutative Property of Addition, 164 Consumer surplus, 546
Classification of conics Commutative Property of Continuous compounding, 223
by the discriminant, 767 Multiplication, 164 Continuous function, 139, 771
by general equation, 759 Distributive Property, 164 Converge, 887
Coded row matrices, 625 equality of, 162 Conversions between degrees and
Coefficient imaginary part of, 162 radians, 286
binomial, 683 modulus of, 471 Convex limaçon, 789
correlation, 104 nth root of, 475, 476 Coordinate(s), 2
equating, 536 nth roots of unity, 477 polar, 779
leading, A23 polar form, 471 Coordinate axes, reflection in, 76
of a polynomial, A23 product of two, 472 Coordinate conversion, 780
of a variable term, A5 quotient of two, 472 Coordinate planes, 812
Coefficient matrix, 573 real part of, 162 xy-plane, 812
Cofactor(s) standard form of, 162 xz-plane, 812
expanding by, 614 subtraction of, 163 yz-plane, 812
of a matrix, 613 trigonometric form of, 471 Coordinate system
Cofunction identities, 374 Complex plane, 470 polar, 779
Collinear points, 13, 623, 823 imaginary axis, 470 three-dimensional, 812
test for, 623 real axis, 470 Correlation coefficient, 104
Column matrix, 572 Complex zeros occur in conjugate pairs, Correspondence, one-to-one, A1
Combination of n elements taken r at a 173 Cosecant function, 295, 301
time, 696 Component form of any angle, 312
Combined variation, 107 of a vector in space, 820 graph of, 335, 338
Common difference, 653 of a vector v, 448 Cosine curve, amplitude of, 323
Common formulas Components, vector, 463, 464 Cosine function, 295, 301
area, 7 Composite number, A7 of any angle, 312
circumference, 7 Composition, 86 common angles, 315
perimeter, 7 Compound interest
domain of, 297
volume, 7 continuous compounding, 223
graph of, 325, 338
Common logarithmic function, 230 formulas for, 224
inverse, 345
Common ratio, 663 Conditional equation, A46
period of, 324
Commutative Property of Addition Conditions under which limits do not
for complex numbers, 164 exist, 856 range of, 297
for matrices, 590 Conic(s) or conic section(s), 735 special angles, 303
for real numbers, A6 alternative definition, 793 Cotangent function, 295, 301
Commutative Property of Multiplication classifying of any angle, 312
for complex numbers, 164 by the discriminant, 767 graph of, 334, 338
for real numbers, A6 by general equation, 759 Coterminal angles, 282
Complement degenerate, 735 Cramer’s Rule, 619, 620
of an event, 708 eccentricity of, 793 Critical numbers, 197, 201
probability of, 708 locus of, 735 Cross multiplying, A48
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Index A227

Cross product Dimpled limaçon, 789 E


algebraic properties of, 828, 847 Direct substitution, 857
determinant form of, 827 Direct variation, 105 Eccentricity
geometric properties of, 829, 848 as an nth power, 106 of a conic, 793
of two vectors in space, 827 Directed line segment, 447 of an ellipse, 748, 793
Cryptogram, 625 initial point, 447 of a hyperbola, 793
Cube of a binomial, A25 length of, 447 of a parabola, 793
Cube root, A14 magnitude, 447 Effective yield, 251
Cubic function, 68 terminal point, 447 Elementary row operations, 574
Curtate cycloid, 778 Direction angle of a vector, 453 Eliminating the parameter, 773
Curve Direction numbers, 834 Elimination
butterfly, 810 Direction vector, 834 Gaussian, 520
plane, 771 Directly proportional, 105 with back-substitution, 578
rose, 788, 789 to the nth power, 106 Gauss-Jordan, 579
sine, 321 method of, 507, 508
Directrix of a parabola, 736
Cycloid, 775 Ellipse, 744, 793
Discrete mathematics, 41
curtate, 778 center of, 744
Discriminant, 767
classifying
classification of conics by, 767
D Distance
by the discriminant, 767
by general equation, 759
Damping factor, 337 between a point and a line, 730, 806 eccentricity of, 748, 793
Decreasing function, 57 between a point and a plane, 840 foci of, 744
Defined, 47 between two points latus rectum of, 752
Definitions of trigonometric functions of in the plane, 4 major axis of, 744
any angle, 312 on the real number line, A4 minor axis of, 744
Degenerate conic, 735 Distance Formula, 4 standard form of the equation of, 745
Degree, 285 in space, 813 vertices of, 744
conversion to radians, 286 Distinguishable permutations, 695 Endpoints of an interval, A2
of a polynomial, A23 Distributive Property Entry of a matrix, 572
DeMoivre’s Theorem, 474 for complex numbers, 164 main diagonal, 572
Denominator, A5 Epicycloid, 778
for matrices, 590, 594
rationalizing, 384, A16, A17 Equal matrices, 587
for real numbers, A6
Dependent system of linear equations, Equality
Diverge, 887
510 of complex numbers, 162
Dividing out technique, 863
Dependent variable, 42, 47 properties of, A6
Depreciated costs, 32 Division
of fractions, A7 of vectors, 448
Derivative, 878 in space, 820
Descartes’s Rule of Signs, 176 long, 153
Equating the coefficients, 536
Determinant of real numbers, A5
Equation(s), 14, A46
of a matrix, 606, 611, 614 synthetic, 156
basic, 534
of a 2  2 matrix, 611 Division Algorithm, 154
conditional, A46
Determinant form of the cross product, Divisors, A7
equivalent, A47
827 Domain
generating, A47
Diagonal matrix, 601, 618 of an algebraic expression, A36 graph of, 14
Diagonal of a polygon, 700 of cosine function, 297 identity, A46
Difference of a function, 40, 47 of a line, 25
common, 653 implied, 44, 47 general form, 33
of functions, 84 of a rational function, 184 intercept form, 36
of limits, 857 of sine function, 297 point-slope form, 29, 33
quotient, 46, 869, 875, A42 Dot product, 460 slope-intercept form, 25, 33
of two squares, A27 properties of, 460, 492 summary of, 33
of vectors, 449 of vectors in space, 820 two-point form, 29, 33, 624
Differences Double-angle formulas, 407, 425 linear, 16
first, 680 Double inequality, A63 in one variable, A46
second, 680 Doyle Log Rule, 505 in two variables, 25
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A228 Index

parametric, 771 one-to-one property, 220 for the nth term of a sequence, 678
of a plane Exponential growth model, 257 power-reducing, 409, 425
general form, 836 Exponential notation, A11 product-to-sum, 411
standard form, 836 Exponentiating, 249 Quadratic, A49
position, 525 Expression reduction, 402
quadratic, 16, A49 algebraic, A5 sum and difference, 400, 424
second-degree polynomial, A49 fractional, A36 summation, 892
solution of, 14, A46 rational, A36 sum-to-product, 412, 426
solution point, 14 Extended principle of mathematical Four ways to represent a function, 41
sphere, standard form, 814 induction, 675 Fractal, 726
symmetric, 834 Extracting square roots, A49 Fraction(s)
system of, 496 Extraneous solution, A48, A54 addition of
in two variables, 14 with like denominators, A7
Equilibrium point, 514, 546 F with unlike denominators, A7
Equivalent complex, A40
Factor Theorem, 157, 213
equations, A47 division of, A7
Factorial, 644
generating, A47 equivalent, A7
Factoring, A26
expressions, A36 generating, A7
completely, A26
fractions, A7 multiplication of, A7
by grouping, A30
generating, A7 operations of, A7
polynomials, guidelines for, A30
inequalities, A61 partial, 533
solving a quadratic equation by, A49
systems, 509 decomposition, 533
special polynomial forms, A27
operations that produce, 520 properties of, A7
Factors
Evaluate an algebraic expression, A5 rules of signs for, A7
of an integer, A7
Evaluating trigonometric functions of subtraction of
of a polynomial, 173, 214
any angle, 315 with like denominators, A7
Family of functions, 75
Even function, 60 with unlike denominators, A7
Far point, 216
trigonometric functions, 298 Fractional expression, A36
Feasible solutions, 552
Even/odd identities, 374 Frequency, 356
Finding a formula for the nth term of a
Event(s), 701 Function(s), 40, 47
sequence, 678
complement of, 708 algebraic, 218
Finding intercepts of a graph, 17
probability of, 708 arithmetic combination of, 84
Finding an inverse function, 97
independent, 707 characteristics of, 40
Finding an inverse matrix, 604
probability of, 707 common logarithmic, 230
Finding test intervals for a polynomial,
mutually exclusive, 705 composition, 86
197
probability of, 702 constant, 57, 67
Finite sequence, 642
the union of two, 705 continuous, 139, 771
Finite series, 647
Existence of a limit, 867 cosecant, 295, 301
First differences, 680
Existence theorems, 169 cosine, 295, 301
Fixed cost, 31
Expanding cotangent, 295, 301
a binomial, 686 Fixed point, 397 cubic, 68
by cofactors, 614 Focal chord decreasing, 57
Expected value, 726 latus rectum, 738 defined, 47
Experiment, 701 of a parabola, 738 derivative of, 878
outcome of, 701 Focus (foci) difference of, 84
sample space of, 701 of an ellipse, 744 domain of, 40, 47
Exponent(s), A11 of a hyperbola, 753 even, 60
properties of, A11 of a parabola, 736 exponential, 218
rational, A18 FOIL Method, A24 family of, 75
Exponential decay model, 257 Formula(s) four ways to represent, 41
Exponential equation, solving, 246 change-of-base, 239 graph of, 54
Exponential form, A11 for compound interest, 224 greatest integer, 69
Exponential function, 218 double-angle, 407, 425 of half-angles, 407
f with base a, 218 half-angle, 410 Heaviside, 126
natural, 222 Heron’s Area, 442, 491 identity, 67
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Index A229

implied domain of, 44, 47 General form Half-life, 225


increasing, 57 of the equation of a line, 33 Harmonic motion, simple, 356, 357
inverse, 93, 94 of the equation of a plane, 836 Heaviside function, 126
cosine, 345 Generalizations about nth roots of real Heron’s Area Formula, 442, 491
sine, 343, 345 numbers, A15 Horizontal asymptote, 185
tangent, 345 Generating equivalent equations, A47 Horizontal components of v, 452
trigonometric, 345 Generating equivalent fractions, A7 Horizontal line, 33
linear, 66 Geometric properties of the cross Horizontal Line Test, 96
logarithmic, 229 product, 829, 848 Horizontal shift, 74
of multiple angles, 407 Geometric property of the triple scalar Horizontal shrink, 78
name of, 42, 47 product, 831 of a trigonometric function, 324
natural exponential, 222 Geometric sequence, 663 Horizontal stretch, 78
natural logarithmic, 233 common ratio of, 663 of a trigonometric function, 324
notation, 42, 47 nth term of, 664 Horizontal translation of a trigonometric
objective, 552 sum of a finite, 666, 723 function, 325
odd, 60 Geometric series, 667 Human memory model, 235
one-to-one, 96 sum of an infinite, 667 Hyperbola, 185, 753, 793
period of, 297 Graph, 14 asymptotes of, 755
periodic, 297 of cosecant function, 335, 338 branches of, 753
piecewise-defined, 43 of cosine function, 325, 338 center of, 753
polynomial, 128 of cotangent function, 334, 338 classifying
power, 140 of an equation, 14 by the discriminant, 767
product of, 84 of a function, 54 by general equation, 759
quadratic, 128 of an inequality, 541, A60 conjugate axis of, 755
quotient of, 84 in two variables, 541 eccentricity of, 793
range of, 40, 47 intercepts of, 17 foci of, 753
rational, 184 of inverse cosine function, 345 standard form of the equation of, 753
reciprocal, 68 of an inverse function, 95 transverse axis of, 753
secant, 295, 301 of inverse sine function, 345 vertices of, 753
sine, 295, 301 of inverse tangent function, 345 Hypocycloid, 810
square root, 68 of a line, 25 Hypotenuse of a right triangle, 301
squaring, 67 point-plotting method, 15
step, 69 of a rational function, guidelines for I
sum of, 84 analyzing, 187
Idempotent square matrix, 639
summary of terminology, 47 of secant function, 335, 338
Identity, A46
tangent, 295, 301 of sine function, 325, 338
function, 67
transcendental, 218 slope of, 875
limit of, 857
trigonometric, 295, 301, 312 special polar, 789
symmetry, 18 matrix of order n, 594
undefined, 47 Imaginary axis of the complex plane,
value of, 42, 47 of tangent function, 332, 338
Graphical interpretations of solutions, 470
Vertical Line Test, 55 Imaginary number, 162
zero of, 56 510
Graphical method, 500 pure, 162
Fundamental Counting Principle, 692 Imaginary part of a complex number,
Graphical tests for symmetry, 18
Fundamental Theorem 162
Greatest integer function, 69
of Algebra, 169 Imaginary unit i, 162
Guidelines
of Arithmetic, A7 Implied domain, 44, 47
for analyzing graphs of rational
Fundamental trigonometric identities, functions, 187 Improper rational expression, 154
304, 374 for factoring polynomials, A30 Inclination, 728
for solving the basic equation, 538 and slope, 728, 806
G for verifying trigonometric identities, Inclusive or, A7
Gaussian elimination, 520 382 Inconsistent system of linear equations,
with back-substitution, 578 510
Gaussian model, 257
H
Increasing annuity, 668
Gauss-Jordan elimination, 579 Half-angle formulas, 410 Increasing function, 57
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A230 Index

Independent events, 707 graph of, 95 dimpled, 789


probability of, 707 Horizontal Line Test, 96 with inner loop, 789
Independent system of linear equations, sine, 343, 345 Limit(s), 853
510 tangent, 345 basic, 857
Independent variable, 42, 47 Inverse of a matrix, 602 of a constant function, 857
Indeterminate form, 863 finding an, 604 converge, 887
Index Inverse properties difference of, 857
of a radical, A14 of logarithms, 230 diverge, 887
of summation, 646 of natural logarithms, 234 evaluating
Indirect proof, 568 of trigonometric functions, 347 direct substitution, 857
Inductive, 614 Inverse trigonometric functions, 345 dividing out technique, 863
Inequality (inequalities), A2 Inverse variation, 107 rationalizing technique, 865
absolute value, solution of, A63 Inversely proportional, 107 existence of, 867
double, A63 Invertible matrix, 603 of the identity function, 857
equivalent, A61 Irrational number, A1 indeterminate form, 863
graph of, 541, A60 Irreducible at infinity, 883, 884
linear, 542, A62 over the integers, A26 rational functions, 886
properties of, A61 over the rationals, 174 nonexistence of, 856
satisfy, A60 over the reals, 174 one-sided, 867
solution of, 541, A60 of a polynomial function, 749
solution set of, A60 J of polynomial and rational functions,
symbol, A2 907
Joint variation, 108
Infinite geometric series, 667 power of, 857
Jointly proportional, 108
sum of, 667 of a power function, 857, 907
Infinite sequence, 642 K product of, 857
Infinite series, 647 properties of, 857
Infinite wedge, 545 Kepler’s Laws, 796 quotient of, 857
Infinity Key points of a radical function, 857
limit at, 883, 884 of the graph of a trigonometric of a rational function, 749
rational functions, 886 function, 322 scalar multiple of, 857
negative, A3 intercepts, 322 of a sequence, 887
positive, A3 maximum points, 322 sum of, 857
Initial point, 447 minimum points, 322 Line in space
Initial side of an angle, 282 parametric equations of, 834
Integer(s) L symmetric, 834
divisors of, A7 Latus rectum Line(s) in the plane
factors of, A7 of an ellipse, 752 graph of, 25
irreducible over, A26 of a parabola, 738 horizontal, 33
Intercept form of the equation of a line, Law of Cosines, 439, 490 inclination of, 728
36 alternative form of, 439, 490 least squares regression, 104
Intercepts, 17 standard form of, 439, 490 normal, 908
finding, 17 Law of Sines, 430, 489 parallel, 30
Intermediate Value Theorem, 146 Law of Trichotomy, A3 perpendicular, 30
Interval(s) Leading coefficient of a polynomial, A23 secant, 875
bounded, A2 Leading Coefficient Test, 141 slope of, 25, 27
on the real number line, A2 Least squares regression line, 104 tangent, 873, 883
unbounded, A3 Left-handed orientation, 812 vertical, 33
Invariant under rotation, 767 Lemniscate, 789 Linear combination of vectors, 452
Inverse Length of a directed line segment, 447 Linear depreciation, 32
additive, A5 Length of a vector, 448 Linear equation, 16
multiplicative, A5 in space, 820 general form, 33
Inverse function, 93 Like radicals, A17 intercept form, 36
cosine, 345 Like terms of a polynomial, A24 in one variable, A46
definition of, 94 Limaçon, 786, 789 point-slope form, 29, 33
finding, 97 convex, 789 slope-intercept form, 25, 33
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Index A231

summary of, 33 properties of, 590 Multiplicative identity of a real number,


two-point form, 29, 182, 624 additive identity, 591 A6
in two variables, 25 adjoining, 604 Multiplicative inverse, A5
Linear extrapolation, 33 augmented, 573 for a matrix, 602
Linear Factorization Theorem, 169, 214 coded row, 625 of a real number, A6
Linear function, 66 coefficient, 573 Multiplicity, 143
Linear inequality, 542, A62 cofactor of, 613 Multiplier effect, 671
Linear interpolation, 33 column, 572 Mutually exclusive events, 705
Linear programming, 552 determinant of, 606, 611, 614
problem, solving, 553 diagonal, 601, 618 N
Linear speed, 287 elementary row operations, 574
n factorial, 644
Local maximum, 58 entry of a, 572
Name of a function, 42, 47
Local minimum, 58 equal, 587
Natural base, 222
Locus, 735 idempotent, 639
Natural exponential function, 222
Logarithm(s) identity, 594
Natural logarithm
change-of-base formula, 239 inverse of, 602
properties of, 234, 240, 278
natural, properties of, 234, 240, 278 invertible, 603
inverse, 234
inverse, 234 minor of, 613
one-to-one, 234
one-to-one, 234 multiplication, 592
power, 240, 278
power, 278 properties of, 594
product, 240, 278
product, 240, 278 nonsingular, 603
quotient, 240, 278
quotient, 240, 278 order of a, 572
Natural logarithmic function, 233
properties of, 230, 240, 278 in reduced row-echelon form, 576
Near point, 216
inverse, 230 representation of, 587
Negation, properties of, A6
one-to-one, 230 row, 572
Negative
power, 240, 278 in row-echelon form, 576
angle, 282
product, 240, 278 row-equivalent, 574
infinity, A3
quotient, 240, 278 scalar identity, 590
of a vector, 449
Logarithmic equation, solving, 246 scalar multiplication, 588
Newton’s Law of Cooling, 268
Logarithmic function, 229 singular, 603
Nonexistence of a limit, 856
with base a, 229 square, 572
Nonnegative number, A1
common, 230 stochastic, 599
Nonrigid transformation, 78
natural, 233 transpose of, 640
Nonsingular matrix, 603
Logarithmic model, 257 uncoded row, 625
Nonsquare system of linear equations,
Logistic zero, 591 524
curve, 262 Measure of an angle, 283 Normal line, 908
growth model, 257 degree, 285 Normal vector, 836
Long division, 153 radian, 283 Normally distributed, 261
Lower bound, 177 Method Notation
Lower limit of summation, 646 of elimination, 507, 508 exponential, A11
of substitution, 496 function, 42, 47
M Midpoint Formula, 5, 124 scientific, A13
in space, 813 sigma, 646
Magnitude
Midpoint of a line segment, 5 summation, 646
of a directed line segment, 447
Minor axis of an ellipse, 744 nth partial sum, 647
of a vector, 448
Minor of a matrix, 613 of an arithmetic sequence, 657
in space, 820 Minors and cofactors of a square matrix, nth root(s)
Main diagonal of a square matrix, 572 613 of a, A14
Major axis of an ellipse, 744 Modulus of a complex number, 471 of a complex number, 475, 476
Marginal cost, 31 Moment, 849 generalizations about, A15
Mathematical induction, 673 Monomial, A23 principal, A14
extended principle of, 675 Multiplication of unity, 477
Principle of, 674 of fractions, A7 nth term
Matrix (matrices), 572 of matrices, 592 of an arithmetic sequence, 654
addition, 588 scalar, 588 recursion form, 654
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A232 Index

of a geometric sequence, 664 Orthogonal vectors, 462 Point


of a sequence, finding a formula for, in space, 821 of diminishing returns, 151
678 Outcome, 701 equilibrium, 514, 546
Number(s) Point-plotting method, 15
complex, 162 P Point-slope form, 29, 33
composite, A7 Points of intersection, 500
Parabola, 128, 736, 793
critical, 197, 201 Polar axis, 779
axis of, 129, 736
direction, 834 Polar coordinate system, 779
classifying
imaginary, 162 origin of, 779
by the discriminant, 767
pure, 162 pole, 779
by general equation, 759
irrational, A1 Polar coordinates, 779
directrix of, 736
nonnegative, A1 conversion to rectangular, 780
eccentricity of, 793
prime, A7
focal chord of, 738 quick tests for symmetry in, 787
rational, A1
focus of, 736 test for symmetry in, 786
real, A1
latus rectum of, 738 Polar equations of conics, 793, 808
Number of permutations of n elements,
reflective property, 738 Polar form of a complex number, 471
693
standard form of the equation of, 736, Pole, 779
taken r at a time, 694
807 Polynomial(s), A23
Number of solutions of a linear system,
tangent line, 738 coefficient of, A23
522
vertex of, 129, 133, 736 completely factored, A26
Numerator, A5
Parallel lines, 30 constant term, A23
Parallel vectors in space, 822
O Parallelogram law, 449
degree of, A23
equation, second-degree, A49
Objective function, 552 Parameter, 771 factors of, 173, 214
Oblique asymptote, 190 eliminating the, 773
finding test intervals for, 197
Oblique triangles, 430 Parametric equations, 771
guidelines for factoring, A30
area of, 434 of a line in space, 834
irreducible, A26
Obtuse angle, 283 Partial fraction, 533
leading coefficient of, A23
Octant, 812 decomposition, 533
like terms, A24
Odd function, 60 Pascal’s Triangle, 685
trigonometric functions, 298 Perfect long division of, 153
One cycle of a sine curve, 321 cube, A15 prime, A26
One-sided limit, 867 square, A15 prime factor, 174
One-to-one correspondence, A1 square trinomial, A27, A28 standard form of, A23
One-to-one function, 96 Perihelion distance, 798 synthetic division, 156
One-to-one property Perimeter, common formulas for, 7 test intervals for, 144
of exponential functions, 220 Period Polynomial function, 128
of logarithms, 230 of a function, 297 limit of, 749, 907
of natural logarithms, 234 of sine and cosine functions, 324 real zeros of, 143
Operations of fractions, A7 Periodic function, 297 standard form of, 142
Operations that produce equivalent Permutation, 693 of x with degree n, 128
systems, 520 distinguishable, 695 Polynomial inequality, test intervals, 197
Opposite side of a right triangle, 301 of n elements, 693 Position equation, 525
Optimal solution of a linear Positive
taken r at a time, 694
programming problem, 552 angle, 282
Perpendicular lines, 30
Optimization, 552 infinity, A3
Phase shift, 325
Order of a matrix, 572
Piecewise-defined function, 43 Power, A11
Order on the real number line, A2
Plane(s) Power function, 140
Ordered pair, 2
angle between two, 837 limit of, 857, 907
Ordered triple, 519
Orientation of a curve, 772 general form of the equation of, 836 Power of a limit, 857
Origin, 2 standard form of the equation of, 836 Power property
of the polar coordinate system, 779 trace of, 839 of logarithms, 240, 278
of the real number line, A1 Plane curve, 771 of natural logarithms, 240, 278
symmetry, 18 orientation of, 772 Power-reducing formulas, 409, 425
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Index A233

Prime inverse, 234 Radius of a circle, 20


factor of a polynomial, 174 one-to-one, 234 Random selection
factorization, A7 power, 240, 278 with replacement, 691
number, A7 product, 240, 278 without replacement, 691
polynomial, A26 quotient, 240, 278 Range of a function, 40, 47
Principal nth root of negation, A6 Rate, 31
of a, A14 one-to-one, exponential functions, 220 Rate of change, 31
of a number, A14 of radicals, A15 average, 59
Principal square root of a negative reflective, 738 Ratio, 31
number, 166 summation, 892 Rational exponent, A18
Principle of Mathematical Induction, 674 of sums, 646, 722 Rational expression(s), A36
Probability of vector addition and scalar improper, 154
of a complement, 708 multiplication, 451 proper, 154
of an event, 702 of zero, A7 Rational function, 184
of independent events, 707 Pure imaginary number, 162 asymptotes of, 186
of the union of two events, 705 Pythagorean identities, 304, 374 domain of, 184
Producer surplus, 546 Pythagorean Theorem, 4, 370 graph of, guidelines for analyzing,
Product 187
of functions, 84 Q limit of, 749
of limits, 857 at infinity, 886
Quadrant, 2
of trigonometric functions, 407 test intervals for, 187
Quadratic equation, 16, A49
of two complex numbers, 472 Rational inequality, test intervals, 201
solving
Product property Rational number, A1
by completing the square, A49
of logarithms, 240, 278 Rational Zero Test, 170
by extracting square roots, A49
of natural logarithms, 240, 278 Rationalizing a denominator, 384, A16,
by factoring, A49
Product-to-sum formulas, 411 A17
using the Quadratic Formula, A49
Projection, of a vector, 464 Rationalizing technique, 865
using the Square Root Principle,
Proof, 124 Real axis of the complex plane, 470
A49
by contradiction, 568 Real number(s), A1
Quadratic Formula, A49
indirect, 568 absolute value of, A4
Quadratic function, 128
without words, 638 division of, A5
standard form of, 131
Proper rational expression, 154 subset of, A1
Quick tests for symmetry in polar
Properties subtraction of, A5
coordinates, 787
of absolute value, A4 Real number line, A1
Quotient
of the cross product bounded intervals on, A2
difference, 46, 869, 875
algebraic, 828, 847 distance between two points, A4
of functions, 84
geometric, 829, 848 interval on, A2
of limits, 857
of the dot product, 460, 492 order on, A2
of two complex numbers, 472
of equality, A6 origin, A1
Quotient identities, 304, 374
of exponents, A11 unbounded intervals on, A3
Quotient property
of fractions, A7 Real part of a complex number, 162
of logarithms, 240, 278
of inequalities, A61 Real zeros of polynomial functions, 143
of natural logarithms, 240, 278
of inverse trigonometric functions, Reciprocal function, 68
347 R Reciprocal identities, 304, 374
of limits, 857 Rectangular coordinate system, 2
of logarithms, 230, 240, 278 Radian, 283 Rectangular coordinates, conversion to
inverse, 230 conversion to degrees, 286 polar, 780
one-to-one, 230 Radical Recursion form of the nth term of an
power, 240, 278 index of, A14 arithmetic sequence, 654
product, 240, 278 like, A17 Recursion formula, 655
quotient, 240, 278 properties of, A15 Recursive sequence, 644
of matrix addition and scalar simplest form, A16 Reduced row-echelon form, of a matrix,
multiplication, 590 symbol, A14 576
of matrix multiplication, 594 Radical function, limit of, 857 Reducible over the reals, 174
of natural logarithms, 234, 240, 278 Radicand, A14 Reduction formulas, 402
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A234 Index

Reference angle, 314 Secant line, 59, 875 Solution(s)


Reflection, 76 Second-degree polynomial equation, A49 of an absolute value inequality, A63
of a trigonometric function, 324 Second differences, 680 of an equation, 14, A46
Reflective property of a parabola, 738 Sector of a circle, 289 extraneous, A48, A54
Relation, 40 area of, 289 of an inequality, 541, A60
Relative maximum, 58 Sequence, 642 of a system of equations, 496
Relative minimum, 58 arithmetic, 653 graphical interpretations, 510
Remainder Theorem, 157, 213 finite, 642 of a system of inequalities, 543
Repeated zero, 143 first differences of, 680 Solution point, 14
Representation of matrices, 587 geometric, 663 Solution set, A60
Resultant of vector addition, 449 infinite, 642 Solving
Right-handed orientation, 812 limit of, 887 an absolute value inequality, A63
Right triangle nth partial sum, 647 an equation, A46
definitions of trigonometric functions, recursive, 644 exponential and logarithmic
301 second differences of, 680 equations, 246
hypotenuse of, 301 terms of, 642 an inequality, A60
opposite side of, 301 Series, 647 a linear programming problem, 553
right side of, 301 finite, 647 right triangles, 306
solving, 306 geometric, 667 a system of equations, 496
Rigid transformation, 78 Gaussian elimination with
infinite, 647
Root(s) back-substitution, 578
geometric, 667
of a complex number, 475, 476 Gauss-Jordan elimination, 579
cube, A14 Sierpinski Triangle, 726
Sigma notation, 646 graphical method, 500
principal nth, A14 method of elimination, 507, 508
square, A14 Sigmoidal curve, 262
Simple harmonic motion, 356, 357 method of substitution, 496
Rose curve, 788, 789 a system of linear equations
Rotation frequency, 356
Simplest form, A16 Cramer’s Rule, 619, 620
of axes, 763
Gaussian elimination, 520
to eliminate an xy-term, 763 Sine curve, 321
Space
invariants, 767 amplitude of, 323
Distance Formula in, 813
Row-echelon form, 519 one cycle of, 321
of a matrix, 576 Midpoint Formula in, 813
Sine function, 295, 301
reduced, 576 surface in, 815
of any angle, 312
Row-equivalent, 574 vector in, 820
common angles, 315
Row matrix, 572 Special products, A25
curve, 321
Row operations, 520 Sphere, 814
domain of, 297
Rules of signs for fractions, A7 standard equation of, 814
graph of, 325, 338
Square
inverse, 343, 345
S period of, 324
of a binomial, A25
of trigonometric functions, 407
Sample space, 701 range of, 297 Square matrix, 572
Satisfy the inequality, A60 special angles, 303 determinant of, 614
Scalar, 588 Sines, cosines, and tangents of special idempotent, 639
identity, 590 angles, 303 main diagonal of, 572
Scalar multiple, 588 Singular matrix, 603 minors and cofactors of, 613
of a limit, 857 Sketching the graph of an equation by
of a vector in space, 820 Square root(s), A14
point plotting, 15 extracting, A49
Scalar multiplication, 588 Sketching the graph of an inequality in
properties of, 590 function, 68
two variables, 541 of a negative number, 166
of a vector, 449
Slant asymptote, 190 Square Root Principle, A49
properties of, 451
Slope, 834 Square system of linear equations, 524
Scatter plot, 3
Scientific notation, A13 of a graph, 875 Squaring function, 67
Scribner Log Rule, 505 inclination, 728, 806 Standard equation of a sphere, 814
Secant function, 295, 301 of a line, 25, 27 Standard form
of any angle, 312 Slope-intercept form, 25, 33 of a complex number, 162
graph of, 335, 338 Solid analytic geometry, 812 of the equation of a circle, 20
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Index A235

of the equation of an ellipse, 745 Supplementary angles, 285 for a polynomial, 144
of the equation of a hyperbola, 753 Surface in space, 815 for a polynomial inequality, 197
of the equation of a parabola, 736, trace of, 816 for a rational function, 187
807 Surplus for a rational inequality, 201
of the equation of a plane, 836 consumer, 546 for symmetry in polar coordinates,
of the Law of Cosines, 439, 490 producer, 546 786
of a polynomial, A23 Symmetric equations of a line in space, Three-dimensional coordinate system,
of a polynomial function, 142 834 812
of a quadratic function, 131 Symmetry, 18 left-handed orientation, 812
Standard position algebraic tests for, 19 octant, 812
of an angle, 282 graphical tests for, 18 right-handed orientation, 812
of a vector, 448 quick tests for, in polar coordinates, Torque, 849
Standard unit vector, 452 787 Trace
notation in space, 820 test for, in polar coordinates, 786 of a plane, 839
Step function, 69 with respect to the origin, 18 of a surface, 816
Stochastic matrix, 599 with respect to the x-axis, 18 Transcendental function, 218
Straight-line depreciation, 32 with respect to the y-axis, 18 Transformation
Strategies for solving exponential and Synthetic division, 156 nonrigid, 78
logarithmic equations, 246 uses of the remainder, 158 rigid, 78
Strophoid, 810 System of equations, 496 Transpose of a matrix, 640
Subset, A1 equivalent, 509 Transverse axis of a hyperbola, 753
Substitution, method of, 496 solution of, 496 Triangle
Substitution Principle, A5 with a unique solution, 607 area of, 622
Subtraction System of inequalities, solution of, 543 oblique, 430
of a complex number, 163 System of linear equations area of, 434
of fractions consistent, 510 Trigonometric form
with like denominators, A7 dependent, 510 argument of, 471
with unlike denominators, A7 inconsistent, 510 of a complex number, 471
of real numbers, A5 independent, 510 modulus of, 471
Sum(s) nonsquare, 524 Trigonometric function
of a finite arithmetic sequence, 656, number of solutions, 522 of any angle, 312
723 row-echelon form, 519 evaluating, 315
of a finite geometric sequence, 666, row operations, 520 cosecant, 295, 301
723 square, 524 cosine, 295, 301
of functions, 84 cotangent, 295, 301
of an infinite geometric series, 667 T even and odd, 298
of limits, 857 horizontal shrink of, 324
Tangent function, 295, 301
nth partial, 647 horizontal stretch of, 324
of any angle, 312
of powers of integers, 679 horizontal translation of, 325
common angles, 315
properties of, 646, 722 inverse properties of, 347
graph of, 332, 338
of square differences, 104 key points, 322
of vectors in space, 820 inverse, 345 intercepts, 322
Sum and difference formulas, 400, 424 special angles, 303 maximum points, 322
Sum and difference of same terms, A25 Tangent line, 873, 883 minimum points, 322
Sum or difference of two cubes, A27 to a parabola, 738 product of, 407
Summary Term reflection of, 324
of equations of lines, 33 of an algebraic expression, A5 right triangle definitions of, 301
of function terminology, 47 constant, A5, A23 secant, 295, 301
Summation of a sequence, 642 sine, 295, 301
formulas and properties, 892 variable, A5 square of, 407
index of, 646 Terminal point, 447 tangent, 295, 301
lower limit of, 646 Terminal side of an angle, 282 unit circle definitions of, 295
notation, 646 Test Trigonometric identities
upper limit of, 646 for collinear points, 623 cofunction identities, 374
Sum-to-product formulas, 412, 426 intervals even/odd identities, 374
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A236 Index

fundamental identities, 304, 374 as nth power, 106 vertical component of, 452
guidelines for verifying, 382 Vary inversely, 107 zero, 448
Pythagorean identities, 304, 374 Vary jointly, 108 Vertex (vertices)
quotient identities, 304, 374 Vector(s), 834 of an angle, 282
reciprocal identities, 304, 374 addition, 449 of an ellipse, 744
Trigonometric values of common angles, properties of, 451 of a hyperbola, 753
315 resultant of, 449 of a parabola, 129, 133, 736
Trigonometry, 282 angle between two, 461, 492 Vertical asymptote, 185
Trinomial, A23 component form of, 448 Vertical components of v, 452
perfect square, A27, A28 components of, 463, 464 Vertical line, 33
Triple scalar product, 831 difference of, 449 Vertical Line Test, 55
geometric property of, 831 directed line segment of, 447 Vertical shift, 74
Two-point form of the equation of a line, direction of, 834 Vertical shrink, 78
29, 33, 624 direction angle of, 453 Vertical stretch, 78
dot product of, 460 Volume, common formulas for, 7
U properties of, 460, 492
equality of, 448 W
Unbounded, A60
horizontal component of, 452
Unbounded intervals, A3 With replacement, 691
length of, 448
Uncoded row matrices, 625 Without replacement, 691
linear combination of, 452
Undefined, 47 Work, 466
magnitude of, 448
Unit circle, 294
negative of, 449 X
definitions of trigonometric functions,
normal, 836
295
orthogonal, 462 x-axis, 2
Unit vector, 448, 621
parallelogram law, 449 symmetry, 18
in the direction of v, 451
projection, 464 x-coordinate, 2
in space, in the direction of v, 820
resultant, 449 xy-plane, 812
standard, 452
scalar multiplication of, 449 xz-plane, 812
Upper bound, 177
properties of, 451
Upper limit of summation, 646 Y
in space, 820
Upper and Lower Bound Rules, 177
angle between two, 821 y-axis, 2
Uses of the remainder in synthetic
component form of, 820 symmetry, 18
division, 158
cross product of, 827 y-coordinate, 2
V dot product of, 820 yz-plane, 812
equality of, 820
Value of a function, 42, 47 length of, 820 Z
Variable, A5 magnitude of, 820
dependent, 42, 47 orthogonal, 821 Zero(s)
independent, 42, 47 parallel, 822 of a function, 56
term, A5 scalar multiple of, 820 matrix, 591
Variation standard unit, 820 multiplicity of, 143
combined, 107 sum of, 820 of a polynomial function, 143
constant of, 105 unit, in the direction of v, 820 bounds for, 177
direct, 105 zero, 820 real, 143
as an nth power, 106 standard position of, 448 properties of, A7
inverse, 107 unit, 448, 621 repeated, 143
joint, 108 in the direction of v, 451 vector, 448
in sign, 176 standard, 452 in space, 820
Vary directly, 105 v in the plane, 447 Zero-Factor Property, A7