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CHINMAYA VIDYALAYA

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

PHYSICS
Topic: To construct AND gate
using resistors and diodes.

Abhay
Sridhar
XII
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere

gratitude to our Principal
B.PUSHPARAJ sir and Physics teacher
support, guidance and
encouragement, without which this
would not have come forth. I would
also like to express my gratitude to my
parents and classmates who have
supported me all the time.
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OBJECTIVE
To construct AND gate using
resistors and diodes

INTRODUCTION

GATE: A gate is defined as a digital

circuit which follows some logical
relationship between the input and
output voltages. It is a digital circuit
which either allows a signal to pass
through it or stop it.
TRUTH TABLE: A logic gate may have
one or more inputs, but it has only one
output. The relationship between the
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possible values of input and output

voltages are expressed in the form of a
table called truth table.
Truth table of a logic gate is a table
that shows all the inputs and outputs
that are possible for the logic gates.
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Algebra which is
based on the binary nature of the logic
gates.
BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS: Logical
statements which are followed by logic
gates.
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PRINCIPLE

Any Boolean algebraic operation can

be associated with input and output,
which represents the statement of
Boolean algebra. These circuits may all
be constructed from three basic
devices like a P-N junction diode, a
resistor and an N-P-N transistor
There are three different types of logic
gates and they are the AND gate, the
OR gate and the NOT gate.
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LOGICAL STATEMENTS

1 0
High Low
Positive Negative
On Off
Close Open
Conducting Non-
conducting
Right Wrong
True False
Yes No
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Components: Two ideal p-n junction

diodes and resistor.
Theory and Construction
An AND gate can be realised by the
electronic circuit, making use of two
diodes D1 and D2. The resistor R is
connected to the positive terminal of a
5V battery.
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Here the negative terminal of the

battery is grounded and corresponds to
the 0 level, and the positive terminal of
the battery corresponds to the level 1.
The output Y is the voltage at C with
respect to earth.

The following conclusion can be

reached from the working of this
circuit:

1. If A=0, B=0, =>Y=0.

2. If A=1, B=0, =>Y=0.
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3. If A=0, B=1, =>Y=0.

4. If A=1, B=1, =>Y=1.

OBSERVATION
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CONCLUSION
Logic gates are used to
develop many IC circuits or
microchips in today’s modern
world.
Without logic gates, electronic
world would be nearly
incomplete.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
kupdf.net
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wikipedia.com
slideshare.net