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CHINMAYA VIDYALAYA

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

PHYSICS
Topic: To construct AND gate
using resistors and diodes.

Abhay
Sridhar
XII
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere


gratitude to our Principal
B.PUSHPARAJ sir and Physics teacher
ARPITHA madam for their vital
support, guidance and
encouragement, without which this
would not have come forth. I would
also like to express my gratitude to my
parents and classmates who have
supported me all the time.
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OBJECTIVE
To construct AND gate using
resistors and diodes

INTRODUCTION

GATE: A gate is defined as a digital


circuit which follows some logical
relationship between the input and
output voltages. It is a digital circuit
which either allows a signal to pass
through it or stop it.
TRUTH TABLE: A logic gate may have
one or more inputs, but it has only one
output. The relationship between the
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possible values of input and output


voltages are expressed in the form of a
table called truth table.
Truth table of a logic gate is a table
that shows all the inputs and outputs
that are possible for the logic gates.
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Algebra which is
based on the binary nature of the logic
gates.
BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS: Logical
statements which are followed by logic
gates.
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PRINCIPLE

Any Boolean algebraic operation can


be associated with input and output,
which represents the statement of
Boolean algebra. These circuits may all
be constructed from three basic
devices like a P-N junction diode, a
resistor and an N-P-N transistor
There are three different types of logic
gates and they are the AND gate, the
OR gate and the NOT gate.
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LOGICAL STATEMENTS

1 0
High Low
Positive Negative
On Off
Close Open
Conducting Non-
conducting
Right Wrong
True False
Yes No
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THE AND GATE

Components: Two ideal p-n junction


diodes and resistor.
Theory and Construction
An AND gate can be realised by the
electronic circuit, making use of two
diodes D1 and D2. The resistor R is
connected to the positive terminal of a
5V battery.
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Here the negative terminal of the


battery is grounded and corresponds to
the 0 level, and the positive terminal of
the battery corresponds to the level 1.
The output Y is the voltage at C with
respect to earth.

The following conclusion can be


reached from the working of this
circuit:

1. If A=0, B=0, =>Y=0.


2. If A=1, B=0, =>Y=0.
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3. If A=0, B=1, =>Y=0.


4. If A=1, B=1, =>Y=1.

OBSERVATION
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CONCLUSION
Logic gates are used to
develop many IC circuits or
microchips in today’s modern
world.
Without logic gates, electronic
world would be nearly
incomplete.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
kupdf.net
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wikipedia.com
slideshare.net