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Muscle Physiology & Dynamics of Work

How a Working Horse Works

Muscle Physiology & Dynamics of Work How a Working Horse Works 1
Muscle Physiology & Dynamics of Work How a Working Horse Works 1

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Equine Muscle Physiology & Mechanics

Muscle Tissue Intro

Structure & Function Muscle Microanatomy & Physiology Dynamics of Work Specific Muscle Fibers & Energy Substrates

Exercise & Effects on Muscle

& Physiology Dynamics of Work Specific Muscle Fibers & Energy Substrates Exercise & Effects on Muscle

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Muscle Tissue: Introduction

Muscles = Contraction

3 Types of Muscle

Visceral Muscles (Smooth Muscle) Involuntary

GI Tract, Blood Vessels, Uterus, etc.

Cardiac Muscle Involuntary

Heart

Skeletal Muscle (Striated Muscle) Voluntary

Movement of Joints, Limbs, etc.

Muscle (Striated Muscle) Voluntary Movement of Joints, Limbs, etc. – Explosive power – Stamina – Motor

– Explosive power

– Stamina

– Motor Control

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Skeletal Muscle: Structure & Function

Large part of body weight (up to 40% including H 2 0) Closely associated with the skeletal, nervous, and circulatory systems

• Manipulation impacts a range of tissues & systems Generates heat

Each muscle is a collection of fibers & associated tissues Attached to bone via tendons & connective tissue

• Least moveable attachment = origin

• Most moveable attachment = insertion

bone via tendons & connective tissue • Least moveable attachment = origin • Most moveable attachment

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Microanatomy & Physiology 5
Microanatomy & Physiology 5

Microanatomy & Physiology

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Muscle Fiber = Individual Muscle Cell

Multinucleated – composed of fused cells Large cells

Multinucleated – composed of fused cells Large cells

• 10 – 100 µm diameter

• Approx 20 cm in length

Cell Multinucleated – composed of fused cells Large cells • 10 – 100 µm diameter •
Cell Multinucleated – composed of fused cells Large cells • 10 – 100 µm diameter •

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Muscle Cells

Specialized to contract

• Generate FORCE and MOVEMENT

Do not divide

• Increased muscle size is due to Increased cell size

Key Qualities of Muscle Cells

• Excitable

• Conductive

• Contractile

muscle size is due to Increased cell size Key Qualities of Muscle Cells • Excitable •

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Muscle Cell Key Components

Membrane = Sarcolemma T-Tubules

• Transmit Messages Mitochondria

• Generate Energy

• Numerous

Myofibrils

• 2 Proteins in long strands

• Heart of the contractile function

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

• 2 Proteins in long strands • Heart of the contractile function Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

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Muscle Cell & Associated Structures

Muscle Cell & Associated Structures As visible with a st andard light microscope 10
Muscle Cell & Associated Structures As visible with a st andard light microscope 10

As visible with a standard light microscope

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Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal Muscle Electron Micrograph 11
Skeletal Muscle Electron Micrograph 11

Electron Micrograph

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Dynamics of Work

Mechanism of Contraction Stimulus of Contraction Energy for Contraction

Dynamics of Work Mechanism of Contraction Stimulus of Contraction Energy for Contraction 12

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Sarcomere = Smallest Unit of Contraction

Sarcomere = Smallest Unit of Contraction Repeating Pattern of Striations Thick and Thin Filaments Actin (Thin)
Sarcomere = Smallest Unit of Contraction Repeating Pattern of Striations Thick and Thin Filaments Actin (Thin)

Repeating Pattern of Striations

Thick and Thin Filaments

Actin (Thin) & Myosin (Thick) Myofilaments arranged in a specific pattern H-Zone Z-Line A-Band

Filaments Actin (Thin) & Myosin (Thick) Myofilaments arranged in a specific pattern H-Zone Z-Line A-Band 13

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Actin & Myosin

2 Principal Muscle Proteins Found in Myofibrils Arranged in a Ring-like Structure

• Usally 6 Actin strands around a Myosin fibril

Run Parallel & Lengthwise Myosin (Thick) has protrusions (Crossbridges) Actin (Thin) is intertwined with thinner topomyosin and troponin

Myosin (Thick) has protrusions (Crossbridges) Actin (Thin) is intertwined with thinner topomyosin and troponin 15

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Mechanism of Contraction

1. Nerve Impulse Stimulation

2. CA ++ Released into Cytoplasm by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

3. CA ++ Binds to Troponin, which Rotates

4. Tropomyosin Moves and Actin is Exposed to Myosin

5. Myosin Crossbridge Binds to Actin

6. Crossbridge Drags Along Actin (Power Stroke)

and Actin is Exposed to Myosin 5. Myosin Crossbridge Binds to Actin 6. Crossbridge Drags Along
and Actin is Exposed to Myosin 5. Myosin Crossbridge Binds to Actin 6. Crossbridge Drags Along

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When all the crossbridges in a sarcomere act together, the whole sarcomere contracts 18

When all the crossbridges in a sarcomere act together, the whole sarcomere contracts

When all the crossbridges in a sarcomere act together, the whole sarcomere contracts 18
When all the crossbridges in a sarcomere act together, the whole sarcomere contracts 18

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Mechanism of Relaxation

7. Nerve Impulse Ends

8. SR Reabsorbs CA++

9. CA++ Dissociates from Troponin

10.ATP Binds to the Crossbridge 11.Crossbridge Disconnects from Actin 12.Actin Fibers Return to Previous Positions 13.Sarcomere Relaxes

Crossbridge 11.Crossbridge Disconnects from Actin 12.Actin Fibers Return to Previous Positions 13.Sarcomere Relaxes 19

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Contraction-Relaxation

A muscle cell may not go back to immediate complete relaxation Contraction can continue through a series of stimulations (Summation) Summation increases the total force of contraction If the stimulus is great enough, many sarcomeres in many fibers are recruited, and the muscle as a whole contracts. Allows for varying amounts of work Muscle failure occurs when the maximum number of fibers are stressed beyond their limits

varying amounts of work Muscle failure occurs when the maximum number of fibers are stressed beyond

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Stimulus of Contraction:

Muscle Contraction is Controlled by Motor Nerves

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Interaction of Motor Nerves and Muscle Fibers

Each muscle is innervated by only one motor nerve One nerve can innervate a number of muscles Each nerve controls many fibers (motor units), the fewer the fibers the more delicate the movement If nerve contact is lost, fibers shrink (atrophy) The pattern of nerve activity determines the fiber type

If nerve contact is lost, fibers shrink (atrophy) The pattern of nerve activity determines the fiber

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Feedback Loop

Feedback from the tendon and stretch receptors controls motor nerve activity Motor nerve activity is also controlled by higher centers (brain)

and stretch receptors controls motor nerve activity Motor nerve activity is also controlled by higher centers
stretch receptors controls motor nerve activity Motor nerve activity is also controlled by higher centers (brain)
stretch receptors controls motor nerve activity Motor nerve activity is also controlled by higher centers (brain)

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Mechanism of Neuromuscular Stimulation (Excitation)

1. Electrical depolarization occurs along the stimulated nerve

2. Nerve end touching the muscle fiber releases a neurotransmitter (ACH)

3. Depolarization of the muscle cell membrane (Action Potential)

4. T-tubules open in SR and Ca ++ is released

5. Increased intracellular Ca ++ allows actin and myosin to interact and the crossbridge cycle starts

released 5. Increased intracellular Ca + + allows actin and myosin to interact and the crossbridge

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Relaxation

When electrical activity stops, the calcium is removed and contraction stops Muscle must relax between each contraction by actively pumping Ca back to SR Ion pumps in the cell membrane actively repolarize the muscle cell membranes All processes necessary for relaxation are active – require energy

actively repolarize the muscle cell membranes All processes necessary for relaxation are active – require energy

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Energy for Contraction

Each crossbridge requires ATP Each myosin strand has dozens of crossbridges Each muscle fiber has hundreds of myosin strands

Muscle Contraction Requires Significant Energy

Basic Unit of Energy = ATP

ATP ADP & Pi ENERGY

(ATP + H 2 O ADP + Pi +H + + Energy)

Pi ENERGY (ATP + H 2 O ADP + Pi +H + + Energy) ATP= adenosine

ATP= adenosine triphosphate; ADP=adenosine diphosphate; Pi=Inorganic phosphate

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For a horse to maintain exercise for more than a few seconds, ATP stores in muscle must be replenished at an appropriate rate.

to maintain exercise for more than a few seconds, ATP stores in muscle must be replenished

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Energy for Contraction

Fuels Intramuscular Triglycerides & Glycogen Extracellular FFAs from Adipose Deposits and Glucose from the Liver

Extracellular FFAs from Adipose Deposits and Glucose from the Liver Total amount of fuel stored in
Extracellular FFAs from Adipose Deposits and Glucose from the Liver Total amount of fuel stored in

Total amount of fuel stored in a 1,000 lb horse

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Two Main Pathways For Energy Metabolism

Two Main Pathways For Energy Metabolism ANAEROBIC AEROBIC 32

ANAEROBIC

AEROBIC

Two Main Pathways For Energy Metabolism ANAEROBIC AEROBIC 32

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Aerobic Metabolism

Occurs in Mitochondria For low energy demands of slow speed exercise Primary pathway for endurance exercise Gallop speeds < 18sec/200m can usually be met by aerobic metabolism in fit horses

Training can increase capacity to generate energy aerobically

• Enhanced oxygen delivery to muscle

• Increased mitochondrial density

• Increased enzyme concentrations

• Enhanced oxygen delivery to muscle • Increased mitochondrial density • Increased enzyme concentrations 33

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Aerobic Metabolism

Oxidative Phosphorylation Fats & CHO oxidized to produce ATP Fats – stored in depots around body CHO – stored as glycogen in liver & muscle

& CHO oxidized to produce ATP Fats – stored in depots around body CHO – stored

(glycogen metabolizes to glucose) Aerobically metabolized approx 2x as fast as fat

as glycogen in liver & muscle (glycogen metabolizes to glucose) Aerobically metabolized approx 2x as fast
as glycogen in liver & muscle (glycogen metabolizes to glucose) Aerobically metabolized approx 2x as fast

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Aerobic Metabolism

Limitations Primarily limited by availability of oxygen in working muscles Upper airway obstructions Cardiovascular system impairment Hemoglobin concentration

oxygen in working muscles Upper airway obstructions Cardiovascular system impairment Hemoglobin concentration 35

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Anaerobic Metabolism

High intensity exercise of short duration (2-3 min in horses) At start of fast exercise, O2 delivery does not immediately reach the level required to support aerobic metabolism

• Approx 30-45 seconds of exercise is required before maximal rate of oxygen use is achieved

• During this time, anaerobic metabolism supplies energy

Fast Exercise not totally anaerobic; makes up the deficit

• Horse galloping over 1200 m, aerobic metabolism provides approximately 70% of energy

makes up the deficit • Horse galloping over 1200 m, aerobic metabolism provides approximately 70% of

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Anaerobic Metabolism

Glycolysis = Degradation of muscle glycogen to lactate Results in increases in lactate, hydrogen ions and Pi in the cells Lactic acid accumulation and fatigue develop as muscle pH falls

At pH < 6.4 glycolysis and contraction are inhibited

acid accumulation and fatigue develop as muscle pH falls At pH < 6.4 glycolysis and contraction
acid accumulation and fatigue develop as muscle pH falls At pH < 6.4 glycolysis and contraction

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Different Muscles have Fibers with Different Properties

Type I & Type IIA High Oxidative Capacity Store Triglycerides & Glycogen Standing and posture: Slow contracting fibers that are well supplied with oxygen – example stay apparatus Type I aka “Slow Twitch” Fibers “Red Fibers”

Type IIB Low Aerobic Capacity Store Glycogen Athletic Movements: Muscles that generate rapid movement contain fast fibers and can work for short periods without oxygen Type II aka “White” Fibers, “Fast Twitch” Fibers

fast fibers and can work for short periods without oxygen Type II aka “White” Fibers, “Fast

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Fiber Type Recruitment Based on Energy Requirements

Walking

Primarily Type I Fibers

• primarily aerobic energy, primary substrate is fat

Transition from Walk to Trot and Cancer

Type IIA Fibers Recruited Primarily aerobic energy, substrate is both fat and glycogen

Type IIA Fibers Recruited Primarily aerobic energy, subs trate is both fat and glycogen

Transition to Gallop

Type IIB Fibers Recruited Energy no longer purely aerobic,

Type IIB Fibers Recruited Energy no longer purely aerobic,
subs trate is both fat and glycogen Transition to Gallop Type IIB Fibers Recruited Energy no

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Exercise

Concentric Exercise

• Isometric – constant length

• Isotonic – constant force

• Or a mixture of the two

Eccentric Exercise

• Lengthening contractions

length • Isotonic – constant force • Or a mixture of the two Eccentric Exercise •

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Effects of Exercise on Muscle

Lack of exercise leads to fiber atrophy Gentle exercise maintains muscle mass & flexibility Moderate long term activity increases fatigue resistance High load exercise leads to muscle fiber hypertrophy

Moderate long term activity increases fatigue resistance High load exercise leads to muscle fiber hypertrophy 45

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Muscle Fatigue

Prolonged and/or strong contraction Fatigue

• Inability of contractile and metabolic processes to continue supplying the same work output Nerve sends electric stimulation, NMJ transmits, action potentials spread over muscle fibers However contraction becomes progressively weaker due to reduced ATP in the muscle fibers Interruption of blood flow through a contracting muscle leads to almost complete fatigue in less than a minute due to loss of nutrient supply

through a contracting muscle leads to almost complete fatigue in less than a minute due to

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Muscle Fatigue

Endurance Horses Most often due to glycogen depletion, as most work is performed aerobically

Race Horses Most often due to lactic acid accumulation

to glycogen depletion, as most work is performed aerobically Race Horses Most often due to lactic

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Lactic Acid or Lactate

By product of anaerobic glycolysis A potential cause of late onset muscle soreness 24 – 48 hours after intense exercise Sent from muscle to blood and removed via liver Removal requires oxygen and is hastened by light work during recovery

from muscle to blood and removed via liver Removal requires oxygen and is hastened by light

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Muscle Atrophy

Results anytime a muscle is not used or used only for weak contractions Denervated muscle begins immediate atrophy

• Example: Sweeney

Injury to Suprascapular N causing atrophy in supraspinatus & infraspinatus

immediate atrophy • Example: Sweeney Injury to Suprascapular N caus ing atrophy in supraspinatus & infraspinatus

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Muscle Hypertrophy

Diameter of individual muscle fibers increase Sarcoplasm increases Fibers gain in nutrient and intermediary metabolic substances (ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen, intracellular lipids, additional mitochondria) Myofibrils may also increase in size

Hypertrophy increases both power of the muscle and the nutrient mechanisms to maintain that power

increase in size Hypertrophy increases both power of the muscle and the nutrient mechanisms to maintain

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Conclusion

Muscle Microanatomy & Physiology Dynamics of Work Specific Muscle Fibers & Energy Substrates

Together IMPACT Exercise & Its Effects on Muscle

of Work Specific Muscle Fibers & Energy Substrates Together IMPACT Exercise & Its Effects on Muscle
of Work Specific Muscle Fibers & Energy Substrates Together IMPACT Exercise & Its Effects on Muscle

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