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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE IN GHOSE POEMS: a PADEGOGIC STYLISTIC APPROACH

WITH IMPLICATIONS In NON-NATIVE TEACHING CONTEXT

A Thesis

Presented as the Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the


Attainment of M.phil in Linguistics

2017,18

Submitted

By

Khalid Mehmood

Student of M. Phil inlinguistics) Roll No. 600003

To

Supervisor

Dr. Ahsan-ur Rehaman

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ABSTRACT
The present study deals with “Figurative language in Ghose’s poems: a pedagogic

stylistic approach with implications in non-native teaching context.” It is qualitative

research aiming at textual analysis; therefore the role of researcher would be

paramount.The analysis is based on the checklist suggested by Leech and Mick Short

with exclusive focus on figurative language chiefly metaphor simile, personification,

synecdoche and metonymy used in the poems. Similarly, the study focuses on lexical

as well as syntactic structure in which these figures of speech have been employed.

The grammar followed for the analysis in the checklist is ‘Green Baum and Quirk’s ‘A

Student’s Grammar of the English Language’ (2007).

The selected poems are the part of the curriculum designed for BS English

students in Pakistan. It is often observed that many target language learners have

difficulty in identifying broader patterns of texture and they are not conscious of the

practices which are used to analyze and interpret the text. Thus, they fail to describe

the ways linguistic features in a text are used as they rely heavily on teachers and

critics for making interpretation of literary text. They use cheap stuff available in the

market and reproduce it to get through and promote in the next classes. As a result,

they cannot develop communication skill in the target language context which is the

major aim of learning second language. Therefore, it is expected that this study would

help English language teachers to adopt a linguistic based pedagogy which is in

harmony with the teaching goals of target language learning environment like ours.

The analysis is likely to be useful to the teachers and students of BS English across

Pakistan. It is also beneficial for English language students, teachers, general readers

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and researchers who have interest in using stylistics in teaching literature in non-

native academic context.

Content list

CONTENT page

Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………….1

1.1Background………………………………………………………1

1.2 Teaching literature as a subject in non-native context

1.3 Objectives of Applying Stylistics as Teaching Approach…………5

1.4 Poetry and teaching of literature………………………………….7

1.5 Figurative language………………………………………………..8

1.5.1 Tropes……………………………………………………………10

1.5.2 Schemes………………………………………………………..10

1.5.3 Simile…………………………………………………………..10

1.5.4 Metaphor……………………………………………………….11

1.5.5 Personification………………………………………………..11

1.5.6 Metonymy……………………………………………………11

1.5.7 Synecdoche………………………………………………….12

1.6 The poetry of zulfiqar Ghose……………………………12

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1.7 Rationale behind the selection of Ghose’s work…………………13

1.8 The purpose of this study……………………………………..,…..13

1.9 Research objectives……………………………………………….14

1.10 Research Questions………………………………………………….14

1.11 Significance of the Research…………………………….14

1.12 Division of the Chapters………………………………….15

1.13 Scope and Limitation of the Study

2 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………….16

2.1 Preliminaries………………………………………………………16

2.2 Traditional approaches of teaching English literature………..18

2.2.1 The language model…………………………………………..18

2.2.2 Cultural model…………………………………………………19

2.2.3 The personal growth model…………………………………….19

2. 2.3 The Transmission Theory…………………………………….. 20

2.2.4 The Student Centred Theory……………………………………20

2.2.5 The Socio-Cultural Theory……………………………………21

2.3 The Post Structuralism Theories……………………………….22

2.3.1 Post- Structuralistic Literary Theory……………………….23

2.3.2 Literary Theory……………………………………………….23

2.3.3 Feminist Theory…………………………………………….23

2.3.4 Marxist Theory ………………………………………………..23

2.3.5 Post-Colonial Theory………………………………………….24


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2.3.6 Post Modernism Theory……………………………………24

2.4 StylisticApproaches to Language Teaching Through

Literature…………………25

2.4.1 Linguistic stylistics……………………………………………………..26

2.4.2 Literary stylistics…………………………………………………………26

2.4.3 Style as Discourse……………………………………………………..26

2.4.4 Pedagogical Stylistics …………………………………………………….27

2.4.5 Graphological Level………………………………………………………


33
2.4.6 Phonological level…………………………………………………………
33
2.4.7 Morphological
level……………………………………………………….33
2.4.8 Lexico-syntatic
level………………………………………………………..33
2.5 The Role of Stylistics in Teaching of Figurative Language……………..34

2.6 Lexicon structure and stylistics…………………………………………..36

2.7 Previous studies…………………………………………………………….37

3 Research Methodology…………………………………………..42

3.1 Descriptive

Research………………………………………………………..42

3.2 Leech and short

checklist…………………………………………………….43

3.2.1 Lexical

categories…………………………………………………………..43

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3.2.2 Grammatical

categories…………………………………………………….43

3.2.3 Figures of speech ……………………………………………………………

43

3.2.4 Cohesion and

contexts……………………………………………………….43

3.3 The validity of this model, rationale of it selection as well as

modification…48

3.4 Researcher as a

Tool……………………………………………………………49

3.5 The research

procedure………………………………………………………….50

4 DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND

IMPLICATIONS…………….51

4.1 analysis and findings of fivepoems……………………………

52

4.2 Teaching Implications of This

Analysis………………………………………….109

4.3 Suggestive

Lesson…………………………………………………………………….112

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5
CONCLUSION……………………………………………………118
5.1Findings……………………………………………………………………
….118

5.1 Researcher
contribution………………………………………….119
5.3
Recommendations…………………………………………………………….119

6.
References………………………………………………………………………121

7.
Appendices……………………………………………………………………….128

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Chapter 01

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INTRODUCTION

In the first place, theintroduction and background of the study will be stated in

this chapter. Second, a brief overview of teaching literature as a subject in non- native

context will be presented. Third, the objectives of applying stylistics as a teaching

approach in target language state will be discussed. Fourth, the discussion will be

made about poetry and teaching of literature. Fifth, figurative language and the figures

of speech proposed for the study will bediscussed. Sixth, the introduction of the poetry

of Ghose and the reasons of selecting this topic willbe stated. Seventh, the purpose of

the study, objectives and research questions will be presented. In the last,the

significance of study, arrangement of chapters, and the delimitation of study will be

stated.

Language is paramount in all modes of communication. It is through the

medium of language, all manifestations of literature find expression. Therefore, it is

vital that language based perspective be used in the study of literature. Since linguistics

is the discipline that studies language,linguistic based approaches should be the most

valid and reliable approach for the study of literary texts.

1.1 Background

Literature is considered a significant part of curriculum designing for teaching

English language to EFL students. Literature is often taught to enrich the knowledge of

the target language to the students like ours; and this practice is done in almost all

target language learning setting. However, it does not produce the desired

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resultsbecause of faulty ways and method of teaching. In the traditional pedagogy,

much of the work with the literary texts is done by the teachers and students have no

active role in this type of teaching. Thispractice makesthe students passive and reduces

them to study about literature through cheap stuff available in the market; and pass

exam to get degrees instead of working with the literary text itself to enhance their

communicative skills. Therefore, the students fail to conform to the objectives of

incorporating the literature in EFL contexts like ours. They heavily rely on teachers

and get a little benefit of literature; which having authentic texts could be exploited in

better manner for enhancing language competence. It is the common observation of

target language teachers that many foreign language learners, despite having handy

excellence and fairly good competence of English language, are at loss to identify

broader patterns of texture or give individual interpretation of them.

Therefore,anapplicable andpragmatic pedagogy is the need of the hour.

1.2 Teaching literature as subject in non-native context

Literary texts provide authentic material for target language learners.

According to Hill (1998), literature is language in action, a focal point, a living context

for learners in their efforts to communicate. It suggests that literary texts are rich in

topics, registers and styles; and they can ignite class room discussions by opening

them for a variety of interpretation. Therefore, teaching literature on the linguistic

bases is paramount in the background of EFL setting. The most potent and impressive

voice in this regard is of Widdowson (1975). He made a crucial distinction of teaching

literature as a subject rather than as discipline. He argues that treating literature in

pedagogic manners makes it more realistic, limited and attainable. He further says

when we treat literature as subject, its principle aim becomes enhancing the capacity of
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learners to give individual response to the texts (Ibid. p.76). He further elaborates his

argument and says if anyone who looks at the subject in this way, he would find the

logic and apparent immediate reason of teaching literature overseas (Ibid. p.80).He

further argues if we teach literature keeping this sense and perspectives in mind, it

necessitates adopting stylistic perspectives. Of course, he entails that teaching

language and literature becomes two sides of the same coin in this context.

1.3 Objectives of Applying Stylistics as Teaching Approach

Stylistics is a new discipline which helps evaluation and interpretation of text

through linguistic based analysis. Carter (1996:5) says that stylistic studies are helpful

in developing interpretive as well as reading skills especially inferences and read

between the lines. It equips the students with techniques and methods of scrutinizing

texts. In this way, it opens ways for comprehensive interpretation. In terms of teaching

point of view, students deal with the texts without resorting extrinsic means-to go

beyond the texts. They do not depend upon teachers and critics to arrive at the

interpretations; rather they use their own consciousness about the literary text to make

interpretations. Therefore, they would be more independent and confident.

The objectives of using stylistics in literary studies are multiple. The main

objective is to help students nurture and develop their response to the literary texts, for

eliciting response is the prime measure on the side of teachers in nonnative teaching

contexts. The leading stylisticians like Widdowson, Short, Brumfit Carter deem it a

cornerstone in this regard and lay immense emphasis in developing response among

oversea learners. Only the students responding effectively to the literary text can have

genuine access to what they read and enjoy and get experience of what they read.

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The second objective is to develop students’ skills and capacities of experiencing the

world created within the literary texts; and these abilities are necessary for them to

read, understand and respond the literary works via language.

Third aim is to develop students’ literary competence which will help nurture the

essential skill of how to make an effective interaction with the texts.

The fourth aim is to sharpen and enhance the students’ awareness of linguistic

patterning in literary language which develops students’ competence to extend it in

non-literary texts. This is, as a matter of fact, helpful in elimination of their sense of

alienation and strangeness of target texts. One thing can be observed that non-native

students rate literary language more than native speakers and they have more tendency

to use it in their verbal and written expressions. This phenomenon has been confirmed

by many contemporary stylisticians like fish, leech Carter and Nash.

The fifth objective is strengthening the links between students and literature as

Brumfit and Carter (1986:introd.) put it while claiming that it turns them into serious

reader. It is important in this sense because in non-native situation like ours, we cannot

develop the communicative competence of our learners. In non-native situation like

ours- we find because of wrong pedagogy- literary texts like poetry are being

transformed into dull text books. With the help of cheap helping stuff about literary

texts, the students are passing their school and college examinations.

Finally, another argument given in this regard is that analytical precision given

by stylistics is handy for the learners of English in EFL teaching contexts as non-

natives have better grasp of structural elements than that of native speakers. So in this

situation, stylistics can be useful discipline in the interpretation of difficult poetic texts.

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Professor Irina Arnold (2004:8) states that stylistics not only develops close reading

but also creates and develops the foundation for the development of artistic taste.

Further, it encourages language normalization and helps students speak and write

clearly and expressively which is crucial for non-native speakers.

1.4 Poetry and teaching of literature

Literature has many genres like prose, poetry, drama, fiction etc. However,

Poetry is thought to be one of the most popular models of literary works as it contains

elements of beauty and conciseness. Poetry offers a wide and extensive range of

learning opportunities to EFL learners, if it is taught linguistically and

interactively.Literature, especially poetry is a very good source of improving

communication skills in EFL environment. Povey(1967) states that literature;

especially poetic textsstrengthen all language skills. It extends linguistic knowledge by

giving evidence of extensive and subtle vocabulary usage.

Poetic language is embellished with beautiful diction and elevated

grammatical features. These excellent characteristics of poetry can serve as a powerful

stimulus to nonnative students in learning vocabulary, grammar and integrated four

skills of language. It is glaring fact that there would be no poem that has no simile,

metaphor personification or anyother figures of speech.

Therefore as compared to other genres of literature, it has always been major

focus of stylicticians as compared to others. This can be better seen from the poem

having figurative language. Understanding of figurative language and what does it

suggest stylistically is very important skill for appreciating literature for learners in

non-native teaching context. It develops vocabulary which is deemed very significant

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for foreign students. While teaching poetry, a teacher has a golden opportunity to make

the students realize the value of linguistic devices like figures of speech and so on used

by the poet. Poetry can nurture in learners strong sensibility and robust feel in terms of

choice of words, lexico- syntactic patterns and aesthetic beauty. It can make learners to

learn beautiful metaphors, simile, metonymy, syndoche, paradox personification- that

express unique thoughts. And, this is something which adds their communicative

competence dramatically. Many activities based on stylistic approaches can be

employed to improve listening, speaking, reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary.

These linguistic based activities encourage the students to have close reading of the

poem without knowing any biographical and sociological details about the poet. Such

type of analyses, as one supposed to be done here, will encourage students to learn

lexical, syntactic and figurative patterns of language used in poetry easily.

1.5 Figurative language

Figurative language is very significant area of stylistic analysis. It is one of the

most strenuous areas in language teaching and learning especially in poetry in FL

learning context. As opposite to literal language, it is widely used by poets to project

more complex meanings so it has always been a challenging area for all readers,

particularly nonnative learners. The understanding of poetic language is not possible

without the knowledge and understanding of figures of speech and the linguistic

patterns such as lexical and syntactic ones. Figurative language is inherent in poetic

discourse.

Figurative language is the most important characteristic of literature. In

literature, there are many perceptions about figurative language. Mc Arther (1992:402)

says figurative language is the language in which figures of speech such as metaphors
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freely occur. He also explains that figures of speech are rhetorical devices and used

frequently to achieve a special effect. Abrams (1999:960) opines that figures are

described as primarily poetic; and necessary as well for the capital discourses. Simply,

figurative language is a word or phrase that departs from every day literal language for

the sake of comparison, freshness, clarity and emphasis. Mick short (1981:78) says

that the analysis of figurative language includes choice, purpose and meanings as

desired by the poet or author of figurative language. The style of an author can be

assessed by the evaluation of the use of his figures of speech. Metaphors and similes

are the most common examples of figurative language; however it includes other

figures of speech too. Girous and Williston (1974:10) opine that figurative language

transcends from every day common use of words. It creates wonderful effect in

conveying meanings, clarifying ideas besides making writing robust and colorful.

Given some explanations above, we can conclude that figurative language is

unorthodox, and different from literal interpretation of words. It is the most important

characteristic of literary language. Figurative language is used in any form of

communication such as daily conversation, articles, in newspaper advertisement,

movies, poems etc. But it is more telling in poetry. Figurative language has also used

in cognitive linguistics, which has made great advancement in relating the language

faculty to general, cognitive processes.

Figurative language is generally categorized into two types:

1.5.1 Tropes which are to do with meaning variations in the use of lexemes

and multi word language constructions.

1.5.2 Schemes that are concerning with lexical, syntactic and phonological

repetition. Holman (1986:202) explains figurative language gives text


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strength and freshness which is not possible in ordinary use of

language. He calls it a global departure from ordinary text. In this study

as per the nature of poems,the researcher has applied simile,

metaphor,personification,metonymy and synecdochewhich are

explained as under:

1.5.3 Simile

According to leech (1969) simile is overt comparison between two

objects. Thomas R.Arp (in Perrine,1984:62 ) states that authors prefer

similes when they find some similarity in color, shape and

characteristics between two objects.; and it is used after the connectors

like as ,than ,similar to ,resembles, or seems. The examples of simile

are:

1. He fought like Hercules.

2. He behaves as he is a child.

According to Leech, there are four components for analyzing simile:

1. Tenor 2 vehicle 3.ground 4.connectors

In the above sentences, ‘he’ in either sentence is tenor; Hercules and child are vehicles;

ground: bravery and foolish behavior; connectors are ‘as’; ‘like’

1.5.4 Metaphor

Metaphor, according to leech (1969) is covert comparison between two objects.

It is not only the most important trope, but it has been under the study of literary
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critics, philosophers and psychologist. Metaphors not only provide writers with the

ability to express their thoughts in innovative way, but they are also very significant

and crucial in formulating theories in scientific world.

1.Life is but a walking shadow.

2. Life is not all flowers.

In the first example, life is compared with shadow; in second sentence, life is

compared with what is opposite to bed of roses. However, in metaphor, ground is not

clearly stated and things are left at the imagination of readers.

1.5.6 Personification

It means when inhuman entity is given human quality. Kennedy (1979:495)

states personification creates dramatic effect when it is used in a literary text as

inhuman objects are given a human touch. The examples of metaphor are as follows:

1. Stones and hills stand up.

2. The arm of the chair.

Here stones and hills are given human touch; same is the case with the arm of chair.
1.5.7 Metonymy

It is a figure of speech which is used when whole stands for part. According to

Frederick (1988:20), it is figure of speech to show association between the name of

thing and thing to which it stands relation. For example: I study Iqbal;Islamabad is

silent at the issue of Palestine. Here, ‘Iqbal’ means works of Iqbal; ‘Islamabad’ means

the government in Islamabad.

1.5.7 Synecdoche

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It is opposite to metonymy. Holman (1986:210) states that synecdoche means

when a part or single fragment represents the whole. Martin and Wren (1990:341) say

that in this figure of speech, part designates the whole or the whole designates a part.

1. All eyes are on top singer.

In this instance, a part defines the whole.

2. USA wins the volley ball.

1.6 The poetry of zulfiqar Ghose

Zulfiqar Ghose is an expatriate English language poet and writer who

emigrated from Pakistan and settled in USA. He has contributed immensely in English

literature. Rehman (2012) held him among one of the best South Asian English writers

who has contributed immensely in English literature. In his poetry, he gave an explicit

response to the major events of his time like the partition of India and the break of

Pakistan. Mostly, he writes long poems in blank verse but casually, he writes smaller

poems with regular meter. His style is figurative and full of imagery. His poems are

full of ideas and meditation; and find expression in the style, which is fastidious and

scintillates the reader mind with brilliance. Abbasi (2012) observes that Goose

paramount consideration remains ‘how it is said’ rather than ‘what is said’ of the

language. The poems in this study are: ‘Decomposition’ ;‘A point In

Metaphysics’ ;‘Political Science; ‘ Egypt‘; ‘Attack on Sialkot.’Figurative language

used in the poems would be explored as well as the lexico- syntactic structure in which

figurative language is used.

1.7 Rationale behind the selection of Ghose’s work

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This study deals with the five selected poems of Zulfiqar Ghose which are the

parts of the south Asian literature designed for BS level and which I have been

teaching too. As it has been earlier that Ghose contributed immensely in English

literature despite his being nonnative writer. His work constitutes an important part of

English curriculum exclusively at BS level, recommended by HEC as a crucial part of

south Asian literature. It is general agreement, and researcher has also observed that

relatively a little heed was paid to his valuable poetic work especially in this part of the

world. Therefore, the researcher thought it would be convenient to select only those

poems which are the part of curriculum to investigate them stylistically. In the

proposed study, it would be demonstrated how linguistic choices in texts at figurative

level with specific lexical and the syntactic structure can be used to make an

interpretation of the text. More importantly, in following analysis of work, it would be

explained what are the crucial implications of this study in non-native environment

like ours.

1.8 Purpose of the study

This study aims at analyzing the poems of zulfiqar’s Ghose stylistically ;

focusing exclusively on figurative language and lexico-syntactic structures to show

how meanings are constructed in literary text, and how they can be taught to non-

native learners.

1.9 Research objectives

1. To find out and explain the figures of speech in Ghose’s poems.

2. To identify how Ghose’s poems reflect lexical and syntactic structure in which

figurative language is used.

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3. To explore the pedagogic implications of this type of stylistic studies in non- native

teaching context.

1.10 Research Questions

1-What are the figures of speech used in Ghose’s poems and how they constitute the

specificpatterns in the text?

2-What is the lexico-syntactic structure of the sentences in stanzas in which the

figurative language finds expression?

3-What are the implications of stylistic analysis of figurative language in non-native

teaching contexts?

1.11 The Significance of the Research

The major problem faced by the teachers and students in non-native context is

that the desired goal of incorporating literature to improve the communication skillsof

students isnot achieved. After, reading literature for many years, the students don’t

have the ability to interpret the literary texts especially poetry independently.

The main contribution of this study is that it will enhance the involvement of students

in the poetic text independentlywithout relying on extrinsic means to make the

interpretation of the text. Itwill help teachers adopt right techniques to make the

students give independent opinion on the bases of their own linguistic analysis, thus

give them sense of ownership and self-belief.

It is a pedagogically motivated study aiming at improving the current practices

of teaching literature in EFL context; therefore, it is hoped that it may ignite the efforts

of improving pedagogy, course designing and gauging practices in learning and

teaching English language in non- native teaching context.

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The traditional methods are teacher centered and have proved insignificant to

bring forth the desired results. Therefore, this study will give them a useful way of

studying figurative language thus enhancing their lexical and syntactic knowledge by

working with the literarytexts which are authentic.

The study will change the paradigm of conventional thinking and make them

realize that language can be better learnt by interacting and working with the text

instead of cramming, paraphrasing, and memorizingand so on. Last but not least, as

these poems are part of syllabus designed for BS English students,the result of this

research is expected to be handy for the current teachers and students of English

departments ;and also to all the English teachers at all levels in nonnative contexts.

1.12 The Division of the Chapter

This research is divided into five chapters. In the first place, there is an

introduction chapter. It is followed by literature review in the second chapter. In the

third chapter, methodologywill be discussed. In the fourth chapter,data will be

presented and analyzed, along with the suggestive lesson to show the efficacy and

implications of this study. In the last chapter, the conclusion of this study will be

presented.

1.13 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study isfocused on the five poems of Ghose which are included in the

syllabus at BS level. The analysis is exclusively stylistic based and would be

conducted through the identification and investigation of figurative language employed

in these selected poems. The study is delimited to the figures of speech: simile,

metaphor, personification, metonymy and syndoche as they are predominant in poems.

Besides, lexico-syntactic analysis of those sentences in which figurative language is


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used, would also be presented as per the lexico-syntactic checklist of Leech and Mick

Short.

Chapter 02

LITERATURE REVIEW

The main aim of this chapter is to review the theoretical works and study the

subject of this thesis. To begin with, the preliminaries will be stated. Then, the

traditional approaches to language teaching through literature including literary

theories in pedagogy especially in nonnative context,would be discussed to show the

current practices of teaching literature which are not aligned with the desired targets. It

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would be followed by stylistic approach to language teaching through literature. In this

regard, the notions like stylistic approach to language teaching, the position of

stylistics, stylistics and foreign language learning through literature have been

discussed at length for further clarifying the approach of stylistics. Similarly, in the

end, it would be discussed why stylistics has been proposed to teach figurative

language in poems in non-native context. In addition to this, previous contributions of

some scholars on linguistic based analysis of some important literary works will be

showcased in order to create a consolidate foundation for the analysis. Finally, poetic

works of zulfiqar Ghose and its analysis have also been showcased to identify the gap

and the need of the analysis to justify the stance regarding the subject.

2.1 PRELIMINARIES

Literature teaching is an important part of teaching language to the non-native

learners. There is general consensus that because of immense variety and real life like

experiences, literature, especially poetry offers authentic material fortarget language

learning.However, the way it is taught to the students in non-native situation does not

produce the desiredresults. The teaching approaches,exercises books,testing and

examination system-all are designed in the way which is not studentfriendly. We can

assess, in the winking of an eye, if we look at the teaching activities which are

designed to teach literature to the non-native students. The typical exercises used in

school and college text books are:vocabulary exercises, rephrasing exercises or central

theme, comprehension questions, grammar exercises, plot, character description and so

on and so forth.

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We will see here briefly all the approaches and theories to teach literature besides

exploring why stylistics is the best model to teach literature in non-native teaching

context.

2.2 Traditional approaches of teaching English literature

Traditional approaches of teaching literature are classified as historical,

biographical, moral and impressionistic. Literary criticism aims at studying the

generic, ideological, historical and inter-textual frame work so as to evaluate and

explicate cultural manifestations. Literary criticism endorses those aspects which

certain societies are interested in preserving. At the same time, literary critics have the

right to discuss and change those values. In this sense, critics’ responsibility is not only

the preservation of traditional values but also the right to question them. In the

traditional methods, all interpretation and evaluation of literary piece of writing is

performed by the language teachers based on the point of views of critics.

There are generally three famous models of teaching literature developed by

scholars. They are: the language model; cultural model; personal growth model. Carter

and long (1991:2) asserts that these models are very significant in terms of teaching of

literature.

2.2.1 The language model

This model is based on the development of students’ linguistic knowledge by

working with familiar grammar, lexical and discourse categories. It focuses on the way

language is used in the literary text. There is no emphasis placed on creative thinking

and communicative ability but on acquiring information regarding the target text. In

this method, texts are taught in systematic and organized manner. The exercises given

to the students are those which are typical for EFL classrooms. They are: prediction
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exercises, jumbled sentence, role plays, summaries etc. This approach is considered

unfruitful and demotivating as it kills the pleasure of reading literature. Moreover, it

does not account for how the linguistic analyses contribute to the evaluation and

interpretation of literature.

2.2.2 Cultural model

It focuses on language acquisition and also on the knowledge of the culture and

ideologies of a country. Yimwilai (2015:15) states that it is inter disciplinary approach

to teach literature. It encourages the students to explore the components of a nation

other than lexis. In this model, students are asked to explore and interpret the political,

social, literary and historical context of the texts. This approach is faulty in this sense

that it makes the students to go beyond the text and examine the external means and

stuff to understand the text. In EFL context, it is not useful approach as students read

about the text instead of text itself.

2.2.3 The personal growth model

It aims at creating a link between the language model and cultural model. It

focuses on the use of language but it keeps the specific cultural context. In this

approach students are not supposed to be the passive receivers relying on the teacher

interpretations but have to be engaged in the lesson emotionally and intellectually in

the teaching activity. In this approach, literature is used as a resource not merely a

subject. Carter and Long (1991:3-4) say that students develop their knowledge about

literature independently. The students are encouraged to express their opinions and

belief besides making connection between their experiences and the context by using

critical thinking. This model is very handy for the native students. But for nonnative, it

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is not effective where learning literature means improving communication skill of

students, not emotional and intellectual growth.

There are different theories and methods for teaching literature that are based

on different conceptions of literature, the three main general theories in the context of

traditional pedagogy to teach literature are discussed here:

2.2.3 The transmission theory

It is based on this traditional concept that it is the task of the teacher to present

all the facts about literary text.It is teacher dominated theory. The role of the student is

reduced to reproduce those facts without thinking and get through.This sort of practice

is very common in the country like us. Many studies expose the disadvantages of this

theory. It makes the students passive listeners; and class room activities rotate around

summarizing, translating, and comprehension questions and so on mechanically,

without involving them in positive interaction. Hawang and EMBI (2007) carried out a

study in Malaysia which reveals that students have least motivation in this type of

teaching and their learning skills are retarded. They limit themselves to the views and

opinions of teachers about the text which they are forced to learn. As a result, no active

learning takes place.

2.2.4 The student centred theory

In order to improve the teaching of literature, a theory was presented which is

known as the student centred approach.This approach is called student centered asthe

students are supposed to be responsible for their learning. They have all liberty to

choose the material of their own choice in accordance with their aptitude; however,

27
many critics have observation that as the students learn according to their experience,

they have no social growth.

2.2.5The socio-cultural theory

In this approach, socio cultural experiences of students are given priority in

learning. The students have greater opportunity to enhance their knowledge from the

experiences of one another.

In pedagogy, all methods and classroom practices are meant to develop

aesthetic and linguistic understanding of students; and history is read and understood

in the manner as is discussed by authors and poets. Lindblom (2003:97) states that

students are trained to shut out the world from their class rooms as well as their mind.

It simply means the aim of teaching methodology is to facilitate students to read about

literature; rather than learn to read literature. Hence, these approaches undervalued and

neglect the evaluative and creative abilities of the students.The students are not trained

to see the feature of the texts; and the reality is constructed by literary texts.

These approaches and models are essentially teacher centered, viewing literature as

storehouse of knowledge. Teachers suppose it their responsibility to impart specific

knowledge regarding literary genres, socio cultural context of the text and

interpretation given by selected critics. In this way, students get saturated with

abundant information about the texts but cannot become creative thinkers and problem

solvers. They can’t get confidence and always rely on the opinions of teachers.

Also,they fail to develop collaboration with one another.

28
Keeping in mind the limitations and gaps of these approaches, there are other

specific literary theories suggested by scholars to teach literature in some pragmatic

way. We will discuss them to evaluate their effectiveness.

2.3 The post structuralism theories

The post structuralistic theories, as opposite to traditional approaches towards

the reading of literature achieve the aims of modern pedagogy with their stress on

reader. These approaches utilize the principles of modern approaches to learning and

help nurture cognitive processing of the students by connecting them with the world

outside the class room. The students are not supposed to follow the traditional

assumptions and treat text something sacred.

They are readerbased, interactive and students’ friendly in many ways. They

provide an effective cognitive learning framework. These approaches assert that

meaningful and detailed learning can happen when learners are actively engaged in the

learning process. They further assert that this can be made possible by connecting the

learners between teaching contents and their individual lives outside the class rooms.

These theories make the readers engaged in reading independently in the process of

deciphering meaning with the text. However, the students reading literature with the

angle of literary theories see literature as a part of larger text outside the text and class

rooms. Teachers give them training to decode the text in connection with cultural and

social realities as well as institutions. These literary theories make the readers active

and independent setting aside the authority of the teachers. Discussion and dialogues

replace lecture and the role of teacher is minimized to be a facilitator to promote

inquiry and investigation in the classroom. We discuss them briefly here.


29
2.3.1 Post- structuralistic literary theory

It was the outcome of theory of deconstruction by Derrida who made the reader

and interpreter co-creator of the text by bringing them onto the center stage. Zima

(2002:43) explains that meanings can never be present as they are developed in open

context of reference and thus become subject to change. The prost structuralism

literary theory constitutes meaning to reader by considering political, cultural,

postcolonial, postmodern and feminist contexts.

2.3.2 Literary theory

It makes students active and independent readers by destabilizing the

unchallenged authority of teacher in the classroom. Discussion and dialogue replace

lectures and teacher becomes facilitator to promote inquiry and investigation in the

classroom. They use texts not to find out author beliefs but the world to bereinterpreted

and reconstructed according to their experiences and beliefs.

2.3.3 Feminist Theory

The aim of feminist theory is to develop a critical consciousness in the readers

about the function and structures of patriarchal ideology in the text. Therefore, it is an

ideological angle to look into the text to expose patriarchal dominance expressed in the

text. In this way, it enhances the understanding of cultural processes in which gender

roles are constructed. In this sort of studies, the reader tries to explore and deconstruct

binary confrontation happening between male and female genders in male dominated

patriarchal culture.

2.3.4Marxist theory

It is another angle to look at literature ideologically. It develops critical attitude

in the readers. It equips the readers with analytical knack to look into the authority of
30
bourgeois groups which favour and promote dominated classes interest structures

through literary texts. A Marxism based interpretation of the text makes the reader to

set aside his neutrality and conforms to the ideology of authors and their anti-class

agenda.

2.3.5 Post-colonial theory

In the similar ways, post-colonial theory tells the reader about racial issues

through literary texts. The aim of critical reading strategies like colonial discourse

analysis aims at encouraging the readers to read canonical texts from some specific

angles and interpret them by using different lens. This approach limits the texts

applicability which is universal.

2.3.6 Post modernism Theory

It is type of theory which hasbecome prominent after the world war second. It

suggests an angle to look at literature in specific manners. Instead of searching for the

standard literarymeanings, it tends to find out the possibility of meanings. In this

approach, literary world is seen as fragmented,troubled and chaotic. It is quest to find

out cynicism, disillusionment,disaster and boredom and so on as compared to other

meanings. Postmodern theory of studying literature is also extrinsic as it imposes some

external tools to evaluate literature instead of appreciating the internal features of the

text.

The post structuralism approaches are reader based as they are reader centered.

They encourage reader to interpret text in social and political context. There is no

doubt that these literary approaches of teaching literature have drawn their theoretical

concepts from different disciplines, they provide a new angle to reader to deal with

literary texts with reflexivity. These approaches challenge and call into question the
31
traditional notions of gender, race, history, class and culture which are conventionally

used in the interpretation of literary texts. Davis and Womack (2002:51-53) agree that

Reader Response approaches of poststructuralist literary theory give active role to the

reader so that they find the text relevant in terms of life and society.

2.4 Stylistic Approaches to language teaching through literature

Stylistics aims at sensitized reading dealing with interpretative processes. It

investigates details of particular texts by unfolding aesthetic, emotional and epistemic

functions. Stylistics is to be materialized in literature teaching class rooms in non-

native teaching contexts for different educational levels. All teaching activities should

be programmed on stylistically based instructive lines because this discipline provides

strategies which can guide the students towards developing useful grammatical and

communicative skills.

Stylistics is the branch of linguistics which aims at evaluation and

interpretation of literature by using the analyses of linguistics. Stylistics approach to

language teaching through literature is viewed as students centered, pragmatic and

handy pedagogy especially in EFL teaching context where the main aim and need of

learning English is instrumental. Great writers such as Brumfit,Carter ,Widdowson,

Leech and others pioneered the usefulness of systematic analysis of literary texts in the

service of language teaching.

Sinclair (1966:68) states that modern methods of linguistic analysis are

comprehensive and have detailed theories of language that can at least tackle the

problem of describing literature.

32
Stylistics allows the reader to be explicit about his reaction to the text. This

explicitness can only be reached after the reader response and close investigation into

the linguistic choices which constitutes the text. Widdowson(1975:4) holds that

literary critics are concerned with the message of the text whereas linguistics

investigates the code. However, he believes that code and message cannot be seen in

isolation. It is of course a fact that the choice of linguistic forms necessarily generates

meaning.

Carter (1988:10) subcategorized stylistics into five sections which are important to

discuss here as they state the scope of stylistic analysis.

2.4.1 Linguistic stylistics

It deals either the study of style and language variation. It is the purest form of

stylistics and contributed to the development of linguistic theory.

2.4.2 Literary stylistics

It deals with any piece of literary text. It has provided comprehensive bases for

the understanding, appreciation and interpretation of literary texts.

2.4.3 Style as discourse

This branch of stylistics deals with variety of discourses. It discusses the

categorization and description of the effects of stylistics in variety of discourses.

2.4.4 Pedagogical stylistics

It is important branches of linguistics dealing with the issues occur between

critics and linguists. Pedagogical stylistics claims patterns are significant only in this

sense that how much they contribute for interpretation.

Only stylistics can offer the genuine study of literature rather than history,

sociology and philosophy based approaches of literary studycurrently practiced


33
throughout the world. In fact, stylisticians are really the only people equipped with the

desired knack and favor to teach literature intrinsically. Stylistics is generally

concerning to the study of style. To further the discussion about the role of stylistics in

the teaching of literature, the concept of style needs to be understood.It will clarify the

shift from traditional concepts of style to the modern linguistic based approach which

is significant to know, in the backdrop of the undertaken study.

The word style is difficult to define and there is no consensus about the concept

of style. In traditional approach, style is defined as set of devices which are used

according to occasion and the subject of discourse aiming at producing right kind of

effects on the reader or listener. Style is also termed as an ornament of thought

according to classical assumption. It implies that there is separation between form and

content. Another theory of style in this regard, is known as style as meaning

propounded by W.k Wimsatt (1967). He says that style is the selection and

arrangements of words function as unit of meaning. This concept of style demonstrates

that style and meaning are inseparable. What is confusing about these traditional

definitions is that they are too confusing and inadequate practically in the study of

style. This concept underlines conformity to the established genres; however, in the

modern approaches of style, one fundamental theory is style as a concept of

distinctiveness of expression and unique creative power of an individual.

Distinctiveness of language, culture and synchronic study has mainly attracted the

attention of structuralism. Similarly, structural linguistics has developed other handy

models of describing the language and analytical tools to study the style in objective

way.

34
The shift in emphasis on the primacy of texts and close reading of the linguistic

features in the texts paved the way for modern stylistics. The most modern important

thing about modern stylistics is that it is based on analytical methods of linguistics and

gives precise and adequate description of the language used in literary texts. Therefore,

the analysis of formal features of texts shows the facts about a writer’s style. In this

regard, it is the linguistics which provides theoretical framework and analytical tools

for studying a writer style. Sol Saporta (1960:93) says stylistics is, in many ways based

on linguistics. Literature of any genre is language first; therefore linguistic methods

can be effectively used to understand the specific patterning of language. According to

Lehman (1996:303) the term style is applicable to periods, genres and individuals.

Lehman is the voracious readers of Shakespeare’s writings and is all in praise of him

because of his style. Chapman (1973:11) says styles spring out from social conditions

and the reflective of relationship existing between the users of language. Among the

modern approaches in the study of style, the theory of style as a choice is very

significant in the field of stylistics. Similarly Richard Ohmann (1972:43) further says

that patterns of language reflect the patterns of thought and stylistic preferences are

cognitive preferences. He says that the words we use in text as compared to other

words of same meanings, and their specific way of arrangement can have cognitive

dimension. Richard Ohman has the similar views about the style; however he adds the

dimension of philosophy by defining style as ‘epistemic choice. Chomsky’s concept of

surface and deep structure has also far reaching consequence in the study of style.

Another theory of style is ’style as deviation’- which is the most popular theory in

terms of style. The style of an author is termed as deviant when it is departure from

35
ordinary use of language in some certain way. In poetry; linguistic deviation is the

most important part of the message.

The theory of style as poetic function was born largely from Roman Jacobson

closing statement of the 1958 Indiana conference on style ‘the poetic function projects

to principles of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination’

(1960:358). The notion of style dependent on textual cohesion is found in M.A.K

Halliday and Geofferry Leech. Besides, lexical sets and collocations is another concept

of style. The notion of collocations is meant to account as one object can occur in the

same linguistic environment for certain items of language which are close to each

other. For example the word, gardener, plants, seed, flower, garden can come in the

same environment. It’s an important concept of style as literary writers use usual

collocations and unusual collocation to compact their style. Thus, we see that different

scholars have defined the style differently and there are several approaches of style in

vogue. Therefore, it is difficult to reach a definite conclusion.

Sell (1991: xiv-xv) states that all language processing entails syntactic

intelligibility, semantic comprehensibility, and pragmatic interpretability. The last one

involves the interpreter ability to build around a world in which it makes sense. So this

view involves that everybody looks at the text according to his/her views and they

world they build would be different too.

Stylistics was born in reaction to subjectivity and imprecision of literary

studies. Stylisticians as against the impressionistic critics, purport to substitute precise

and rigorous linguistic descriptions. It further aims to proceed from these descriptions

to interpretations to head forward to reach objectivity. In brief, it is an attempt to put

criticism on scientific basis.


36
Fish (1980) states after the collection of data or dealing with specific texts, one

major risk that involves is entering of subjectivity specifically when you attribute your

findings to certain interpretations. Because he argues that there are many ways a data

can be interpreted. He says that as far a stylistician goes, he would be using formidable

apparatus between descriptive and interpretative acts. Fish argues strongly to give

interpretation of the texts. He holds opinions that the interpretative conclusions ought

to be speculative and tentative. However, he believes that it is only a matter of time

that we can proceed more firmly on the basis of solid correlation between syntactic and

conceptual orientation. This possibility of specifying correlations is one of the

justifications for studying style.

Widdowson (1996) asserts that stylistic analysis aims at investigating how we can put
the resources of language in producing the actual messages. It accounts for the patterns
employed in literary text.
Stylistics deals with such type of literary messages which are embedded in the text. Its
major objective is to find out and identify messages which lie in linguistic units.
Similarly, it tells us what is the role and effects of different conventions in the
organization of text to convey messages. It implies that stylistics is the study of the
social function of the language. It thus becomes a branch of sociolinguistics.
Stylistics links linguistics to literary criticism. It uses linguistic analysis to
explicate meanings of the text thus facilitating the process of interpretation. Thus it
bridges the gap between linguistic studies and literary criticism. Widdowson (1975:34)
explains that stylistics is not only a subject but it forms bridge between two
disciplines: linguistics and literary criticism. He further says that stylistics is a happy
marriage between linguistic and literary methods. It provides linguistic evidence
regarding the intuitive judgment.
English literature

English literature
37
The role of Widdowson is very vital in terms of determining the positions of stylistics.

The following diagram explains how he visualizes the role of stylistics in relation to

the literary studies.

Disciplines: linguistics
literary criticism literary criticism

Stylistics

Subject: English language


English literature
Widdowson (1975:4) determines the actual position of stylistics. For him, it is

mediation between linguistics and literary criticism. This diagram shows the role of

stylistics that it does not negate the role of literary approaches in the evaluation of

literature nor it raises its eyebrows on the analysis of linguistics which has nothing to

do with meanings. It is addition which primarily focuses on linguistic bases. While

doing stylistic analysis, students can make their own commentaries about any poem

they study. They can improve themselves lexically, syntactically, or phonologically,

and they have something newer for that poem although it has already been said.

Widowson (1978:237) says linguistic analysis can contribute anything to an

understanding of a poem over and above that promoted by the literary approach, then

there ought to be something more to be said about the poem than has been already

said.

38
Auzike (1992:109) discusses different theories of style and concludes that all

the stylisticians agree that the concept of stylistics is nebulous. As a matter of fact,

stylistics grew out of the conflation of various discipline, literary criticism, literary

history, in a wide ranging and diverse practice.

Carter (1988:161) holds the same view as Widdowson. He says stylistics is a

bridge between linguistics and literature. Out of these concepts, we can conclude that

stylistics forms bridge between linguistics and literary criticism. Carter (1988:4)

suggests that practical stylistics deals with literary texts analysis which is based on the

assumption that linguistic procedures are essential interpretative procedures, employed

in the reading of literary texts. He further adds that the means which stylistics provides

can be related to a piece of literary writing to his own experience of language thereby

extending that experience.

It is one of the fundamental issues in hermeneutics that how

interpretation initiates and how reader realizes which aspect should be focused in

analysis. The solution is generally found in one word –intuition. It involves an

unconscious neural Process. The word intuition is opposite to awareness. Therefore, it

resists assessing. Kaplan and Simon (1990) define intuition as change in

representation. According to critics, intuition is paramount and first moment in literary

writing. They suppose that artistic value can be realized by using intuition. In order to

express their opinions, they rely on impressionistic vocabulary. The difficulty with this

point of view is that the intuitive awareness is something which reader cannot share

with the critic especially language learners in non- native environment. In this state of

affairs, it is stylistics that creates difference and makes its contribution. It investigates

39
those patterns of the text and those features which constitute artistic value. In this, the

awareness of artistic value is clearly stated by using stylistic analysis of the patterns.

In stylistic analysis, it is noteworthy to see how to start with discovering patterns of


language and reality which are presented in the poem. Generally, there are four level of
stylistic analysis:
2.4.5 Graphological Level
It involves the writing system of language such as rules of spellings, punctuation and
so on. In the analysis of graphological features, the rules of spellings, punctuation
capitalization are analyzed as well as their patterning and their possible explanation.
2.4.6 Phonological level
The sound system of any language is seen in this study. The rules of pronunciation,
rhyming schemes, pun, syllabic patterns and so on are analyzed and their possible
meanings in the text.
2.4.7 Morphological level
It is studied in this level how the words are formed, and the possible function of
prefixes and suffixes etc.
2.4.8 Lexico-syntatic level
Lexis means all types of words which are used in the textwhile, syntax means the order
of words in the sentence. It also involves the interpretation of specific ordering of the
words.
Nevertheless, it varies from text to text where you start with; there are no hard and fast
rules of it. It is better that a reader should start from those features which strike him
most in the first reading. In this regard, the opinion of Widdowson is very significant.
He gives a general answer which is very important to keep in mind while doing
stylistic analysis. He asserts there are no set patterns or well defined rules, norms or
procedure or order in this regard. The practice and technique is to give preference to
the first impression and select those features or having unusualness, and trying to find
out their implications (ibid.p.145). This point of view of Widdowson implies that there
is no set pattern of stylistic analysis. Even the features takes value in the one text may
not have the same value when they are appearing another text.

40
In 1989, in the interface series, 112 which takes its premise as Jacobson

statement, he says that a linguist who is deaf to the poetic function of language and a

literary scholar indifferent to linguistic problems and conversant with linguistic

methods are equally blatant anacronisms.113.

Roman Jacobson asserts that language is organized according to two principles:

selection and combination.Selection is realized through equivalence and combination

is made linearly and sequentially according to the rules of grammar. In combination,

he means there are similarity and dissimilarity, antonym and synonymy. This argument

of Jacobson is very significant, as it gives us insight about the poetic text.He himself

applies it in the analysis of many poems to substantiate this claim. Despite limitation

of this argument, to me it still suggests a handy model to involve the students in the

analysis of language at poetic level. It offers significant means of investigating the

literary text thus making the students to center around their attention to text. It helps

learners especially in EFL teaching environment to improve learners their grammatical

and linguistic competence in the understanding of the text.

Every reader gives the meaning to the text according to his experience, which

he draws from his reading experience and background knowledge. Therefore,

responsibility cannot be transferred. So, every reading entails another reading of the

text.

2.5 The Role of Stylistics in Teaching of Figurative Language

Figurative language is the main tool of literary writers especially poets.Teaching

figurative language is challenging area for the teachers as neither dictionaries nor

context help figure out their meanings. Therefore, in traditional methods, teachers rely

41
on critics for the explanation of them. Some time there are so diverse explanations of

figures of speech which baffle the learners. Conventionally,meanings of figures of

speech are consideredlying outside the text. This situation becomes very challenging

and confusing to the readersof poetry, particularly nonnative learners.

Thereader response approach lays stress that intimate relation between reader

and text should be encouraged. The main proponents of this theory are WolfgangIser,

and Louis Rosenblatt (1978). In this theory, they stress that there must be intimacy

between the students and poetic discourse and meanings of rhetorical devices and their

structures must be drawn by the readers independently. In drawing the meanings

students should use their experience of reading to the meaning. Apparently, it sounds

like better theory in interpreting lexicon and become active learner; however, it does

not suggest any model or base to probe into the figurative language and patterns they

suggest. Similarly, in the personal growth approach cultural awareness is mainly

emphasized.In this approach, it is stressed the students of literature be exposed to raise

cultural awareness. Here too it is thought that figurative meanings entail cultural

understanding. Therefore, it is the job of the teacher to thrust upon the meaning to the

students thus reducing the students as receptors. Cadorath and Harris (1998) state there

lays no meaning in the textitself, it is only the signboard for the learners to figure out

meanings from his experience. They say that meanings of any sort including rhetorical

devices take place when reader develops the ability to consolidate them from the text

(ibid, 55-53). All the other traditional models have similar ways and meansof dealing

with meanings and lexicons in the similar manners as all are relying on teacher in one

way or another.

42
Stylistic approaches lay stress on figurative language as it enhances the

awareness of poetic patterns which are important in understanding the poetic language

as well as communicative skills. Stylistic models provide that context in which

figurative language can be learnt in an effective way. And, hence stays in the part of

active vocabulary to be recycled again. Stylistic approach makes it possible to learn the

teaching of vocabulary in the real context as well as an innovative way. Understanding

the figurative language is always a barrier in learning language through literature.

Stylistic approaches focus the attention of learners on the figurative language inside

the text. Instead of relying on critics for the explanation of them, they equip the readers

with the tools or checklist to analyze it in interactive manners with the texts. It also

makes the learners to look at the text independently. Importantly, the learners are made

to be involved practically in the learning.

2.6 Lexiconstructure and stylistics

In stylistics, in the analysis of figurative language, the meaning is not only

derived from lexicon but also from lexical and syntactic patterns in which they are

expressed. Therefore, grammatical substance is as important as these figures of speech

for understanding of how figurative meaning is conveyed.

Barry (1995:202) is of the view that one of the crucial aims of stylistic study in

literature is to deal with syntactic and lexical structure of literary text to figure out their

contribution in overall meanings. These structuresare words, phrases,clauses and

sentences. In the analysis of them, it is seen: what is their frequency of them; and do

they imply some patterns that help in interpretation? More importantly, in the EFL

class rooms, they are they part of authentic text. When the students identify them, their

grammatical knowledge along with lexicons is improved dramatically. Here, stylistic


43
approach in relation with lexical and syntactic structure transcends itself from

traditional approaches which have no capacity to develop the communication skills of

non-native students.

Teaching English language through literature has always been part of curricula for

target language learners especially since1945. Since literature has abundant advantages

of giving wider and multiple exposures in terms of richness of language resources,

therefore it presents handy stuff for learners in target learning scenario. Many

approaches are prevalent in terms of pedagogy employed for teaching literature

especially English literature to the students. The main approaches are the content based

learning in which everything is poured into the mind of the learners by teachers; and

students are supposed to be passive listeners. As compared to content based, teacher

centered, non-interactive models, stylistics, as useful, student centered and innovative

discipline can be better approach to teach and enhance the capacity of learners in non

-native context like ours.

Another argument given in this regard is that analytical precision given by

stylistics is handy for the learners of English in EFL teaching contexts as non-natives

have better grasp of structural elements than that of native speakers. So in this

situation, stylistics can be useful discipline in the interpretation of difficult poetic texts.

Professor Irina Arnold (2004:8) states that stylistics not only develops of close reading

but also develops and creates the foundation for the development of artistic taste.

Further, it encourages language normalization and helps students to speak and write

clearly and expressively which is crucial for non-native speakers.

2.7 Previous studies

44
During this study, of figurative language used in Ghose’s poems, it comes out

that that stylistic analysis is not confined to literary text, but it encompasses other

discourses too. Ahamed (2014) analyzed Barrak Obama speech rather his second

inaugural speech stylistically to identify figurative language with its structure. The

findings revealed that Obama achieves effectiveness by the use of figurative language.

He attracts the attention of audience successfully by employing figurative language.

Similarly, fiction too has been a little focus of stylistic analysis. However, during the

study it was found that that poetry has been chiefly the focus of stylistic analysis

especially the English poetry because of its richness and brevity. Style based studies of

poetry have been done largely aiming at enhancing the understanding of nonnative

learners of English where chief aim of studying literature is improving English

language for instrumental purposes.

Doing stylistic analysis as a theoretical frame work, Batool khan at el (2010)

analyzed the poems of Robert frost and gave their findings that different interpretation

of the same text can be made by different critics. Sadiq (2014) analyzed the poem

‘Onset ‘and shown that this poem suggests death while, Tafreshi (2010) analyzed this

poem by using the same frame work and gave different interpretation. This study

suggests that interpretation of poems is open-ended and linguistic choices may suggest

more than one interpretation.

Mansoureh (2012) explicated in one study that there is the conversation and

dialogue between the reader and the text and as a result the reader understand the text

and its meaning. This study is analyzed through the view point of Gadamer's

Hermeneutics. Saeedi (2011) attempted to belief in her study the situation after World

War-1, and the emergence of nationalism and explained that the poet identifies another
45
apocalypse coming. Bhagawati (2012) exclaimed in a study that T.S. Eliot used myth

in his ‘Waste Land’ in order to form a complex traditional background to highlight the

nature of the spiritual waste land by analyzing the work through mythical perspective.

There are many other researchers who carried out stylistic analysis of figurative

language especially used in the poems. One of them is Arina Ruainida Fera

Emham(2010) and Ijoh Hodijah (2004) studied ‘loneliness’ in Emily Dickinson’s

poems. She analyzed figurative speech namely simile, metaphor, personification,

apostrophe, imagery, irony and parody. The theory of loneliness was analyzed too by

other researchers. It is fairly good study which gives us insight about figurative

language, though the work is much focused on the theory of loneliness. Ijoh (2004) did

a research in a poem ‘ Khaled’, by analyzing the figurative language. She concluded

that figurative language is the powerful expression of feelings, passion and emotion.

She further says that studying poems for language, learners improve their language

competence especially in literary terms. Dian (2010) did the study of ‘the figurative

language of Nirvina’s song’. She explained the figurative language of these songs. She

points out simile, metaphor, personification apostrophe, imagery, symbol, irony,

paradox pun, hyperbole. She found that figurative language carried significant implied

meaning. Ita (2010) has done research about figurative language on a song of famous

singer Dion’s song’ -’a study on figurative language In Celine Dion’s song’. From the

research, she concluded that there are three kinds of figurative language namely simile,

metaphor, and rhetorical terms. However, he concludes that it is metaphor which is the

most potent and used to state analogies in the songs. What is understandable in this

research is that metaphor is the most potential figure of speech which may be used to

variety of implied and connotative meanings. Thus some previous researchers from
46
year to year have been the same object of research with this study-to analyzes

figurative language used in a poem, novel, or song.

Zulfiquar Ghose has been relatively unknown poet notwithstanding his being

an accomplished nonnative English writer. His fictional work was analyzed by some

researchers. Abasi (2006) sought to a fundamental understanding of Gose’s works

stylistically. While taking up his novels, he had his mind specific audience primarily

for South Asian students, particularly, Pakistan where he has been recently included in

syllabus. Therefore, he tried to avoid over theorization and he asserted that reading a

writer through style is important for students, particularly international students, for it

helps the students to learn the nuances of the language through style.

His poetic work has been little in focus of critics in our context. Some Critics

discussed him by employing traditional approaches. Rehman (2012) finds Zulfiqar

Ghose, a poet of the Pakistani diaspora who removes the cobwebs from the tombs of

history. Writing from 1959 till date (his latest collection appearing in 2010), his poetry

displays a gradual evolution in content, themes and style. His poetry is reminiscent of

the Romantics, the Modernists, and moves on to the likes of Lowell, Roethke, Plath

and Sexton. Ghose’s poetry displays the rhythm of speech synchronizing in chorus

with controlled and formal versification. The subject matter too moves from exile,

deracination, “love, mutability, religion, politics, the conundrum of reality - indeed,

nothing new, for nothing in the human condition has changed since Homer, or, if you

like, Rumi or for Ghose, India “was no country for princes” (Ghose 7). Manzoor(2012)

is of the view that sense of loss is pervasive in the poetic work of zulqar Ghose. She

concludes that demanding independence; he was forced and pushed to such place that

he seems to have become cynical observer. We find this loss of sense in his poems
47
‘stranger’. Guns and ammunition thunder constitute the background of his poem

like‘The Attack on Sialkot.’ These types of studies of poetry of Ghose were made in a

specific context of post partition period which was marked by bloodshed, sense of loss

and displacement and no one has given any heed to the linguistic beauty of his poetry.

Only Kalidasa Mahmud at el (2015) made the linguistic analysis of Gose’s

poem ‘Decomposition’ by using three levels of analysis. This study is by no means a

final verdict. It is an attempt to understand the poem from three different angles of

stylistics. It is an effort to understand the poem in various perspectives and inculcate

empathy among readers, which might be neglected by them. The analysis of the poem

delineates Gose’s versatile use of words and phrases, mastery in the art of portraying

the vivid picture of a beggar; make him alive for his readers. He has successfully

fulfilled the job of an expert artist, and detached observer. The poem is charged with

realism and symbolism.

The review of his works suggests that there is the least work done in terms of his

poetry stylistically. Finding this gap, the researcher has taken his fivepoems which are

part of syllabus for analysis of figurative language with pedagogic stylistic

implications in non-native learning. Being teacher of English language and literature,

the researcher thinks it a very significant area beneficial for students and teachers of

English which merits attention in non-native contexts. Importantly, in the sense that it

is an established reality that introduction of poetic literature in the class is essential as

it is rich in vocabulary and also rich in variety.

48
Chapter 03

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter explains the methodology used for presenting the detailed

information about the research design. To begin with, it describes the type of research

and its nature.After that, the checklist of Leech and Mickshort which is used as

referential tool for this study will be introduced in detail besides rationale of selecting

this model.Then, it highlights the role of researcher as a big tool in data analysis.

Using Leech and Short model- with little modification- as guiding tool, all the data

will be put into ‘data sheet’ designed to present the research data used in this

study.After integrating the frequency of data of every poem in ‘Frequency data sheet’

respectively, it will be explained what do they suggest and what can be the possible

explanation of it. At the end,implications of the study in terms of pedagogy will be

stated; a suggestive lesson plan will be presented as an example to show the efficacy of

this model of studying poems for target language learners.

3.1 Descriptive Research

49
In this study, descriptive research has been applied.Descriptive research is

used to describe a phenomenon. According to Sukmandinata (2010:60), qualitative

research analysis describes a phenomenon, event, social activity, belief, behavior, or

perception of individuals or group’s thought.

Bogdan and Biklen (1982; 28) says that qualitative research is, essentially,

descriptive. We collect data in the form of words or pictures. Usually, the result is

presented in the form of quotations taken from the data used in the study.Schohamy

(1989:124) says that descriptive research includes the method of collecting data to

specify, explain and describe a common phenomenon without experimental operation.

3.2 Leech and short checklist

Leech and short are the great stylisticians. In order to give stylistics a central

role in the study of literature, they propounded many models and methods. One of

them is Leech and Short checklist especially for studying fiction;however, it can be

used in studying poems chiefly blank verse or free verse type of poetic texts.

According to leach and short (1981:75-82) the checklists for these categories are

placed under four headings:

3.2.1 Lexical categories

3.2.2 Grammatical categories

3.2.3 Figures of speech

3.2.4 Cohesion and contexts

Let see them briefly as without explaining this checklist, we cannot see what

and how it can be used in the textual analysis.

3.2.1 Lexical categories

50
Lexical categories include vocabulary. It is seen in lexical study if the

vocabulary is simple or complex, descriptive or evaluative, general or specific. It is

described in lexical structure, like noun, verb,adjective,and adverb. They are identified

and described as under:

 -Nouns

Noun is an important part of grammar referring to people places, things and

ideas, or concepts. It can function as subject, objects of verbs, direct object of the verb,

and indirect object of the verb or object of preposition. It is discussed in relation with

noun: if the nouns are proper or common, abstract or concrete; and what is specific of

them if they are used accordingly.

 Adjectives

An adjective falls under the class whose members modify every parts of speech

except noun and pronoun. Adjectives answer what kinds of attributes they possess-

whether they are physical, visual, auditory, referential, emotive, and evaluative? In the

analysis of adjective, it can be seen what the degree of adjective is. The credibility,

positioning and structure can also be appreciated if they suggest some patterns.

 Verb

A verb is a crucial part of syntax as without verb no sentence can be formed. It

describes actions, events and states. It can function as singular word, phrase; and there

can be many phrasal unit of verb phrase. It can have different categories: transitive,

intransitive, linking auxualry, dynamic and stative. Similarly, the significance of the

different categories of verbs is understood if they constitute some design.

 Adverb

51
This category covers the kinds of meanings which adverb carries in showing

manners, place, direction frequency or degree. Adverb modifies verb, another adverb,

adjective, preposition and even the whole sentence. What semantic functions do they

perform? Similarly, it is also understood whether adverbs take place in the form of

comparative and superlative forms.

3.2.2Grammatical categories

Grammatical category is divided into seven parts as per the checklists: It

includes clauses and their types; sentence types and their complexities. It also includes

phrases like noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrases adverb phrases as well as

word clauses.

 Clause and its types

Clause is vital part of the checklist. In this study, it is seen what types of

dependent clauses are favoured. These clauses are relative clauses, adverbial clauses,

different types of nominal clauses or non -finite clauses; and their specific significance

in the text.

 Clause structure

In the analysis of clause structure, we have to see the elements of clause like

the frequency of objects, adverbials or the verbal elements –transitive and intransitive

verbs and so on. Then we have to figure out their effects in making some specific

meanings.

 Sentences/line/stanzas

Seeing the pattern of sentence involves the analysis of three types of sentence.

They are simplesentence,complex sentence and compound sentence. In the application

of checklist in terms of sentence, itis observed whether the sentences are statements,
52
questions, commands, exclamations and what their functions are. Then the sentences

are checked in terms of simple, complex and compound.

It is to be noted here that the terms- lines and stanzas are used in poetry instead

of sentences. Here, with little modification for the sake of the analysis of class

structure, the researcher treated the part of lines ending with full stop ‘.’ as one

sentence.Fundamentally, the selected poems are in blank verse mostly narrating events

of the history having no obvious deviation in terms of punctuation and have a sentence

like structures.

 Noun phrases

In relation with phrases,we study they are simple or complex phrases. Where

their complexity does lie? The other things include pre modification by adjectives

noun etc. or post modifications by adjectives, nouns etc. coupled with sequence of

adjectives, co ordinations, or apposition.

 Verb phrases

We see in this analysis that if there is any significant departures from the use of

simple past tense? Similarly, occurrences of present, progressive and perfective aspect

and model auxiliaries are examined as well as their significance in terms of meanings.

 Other phrase types

Here, it is evaluated if there is anything to be said about other phrase types like

prepositional phrase, adverb phrase, and adjective phrase.

 Wordclasses

After the analysis of major lexical word classes, we have to see ordinary minor

word classes and functional words such as axillaries, determiners, conjunctions,

53
interjections. We have to see in this analysis that these words have any particular use

and effect or not and so on.

3.2.3Figures of speech

When we make the analysis of figures of speech, we try to find how they are

foregrounded and what are the implied meanings of poet or an author in their use in

irregular or extra regular manners. In order to identify these features, we explore these

traditional figures of speech. It includes simile, metaphor, personification, paradox,

metonymy, syndoche and all other traditional figures of speech. Most importantly, as

opposite to the traditional studies in isolation, they are studied in the context of the

literary text with lexical and syntactic patterns.

3.2.4 Cohesion and Context

 Cohesion

It is seen in the study of cohesion how the text is linked together-how one part of a

text is attached to another is taken into consideration under cohesion. It deals with the

inventory of logical as well as other links among sentences. It also answers the

question of hidden connections involve in relation to meanings. Finally, it considers

the value of cross references, pronouns as well as ellipsis.

 Context

It simply means social relations between participants like author and reader

etc.; and their shared knowledge and assumption and so on.It is seen how external

relations of a texts contribute to arrive at an interpretations. It answers the question of

reader response to the text whether it is through some fictional character or directly by

the reader. It also accounts for the linguistic clues expressing the relation

54
betweenaddressor and addressee as well as the author intended attitude towards the

subject.

3.3 The validity of this model, rationale of it selection as well as modification

The researcher will use this checklist in the analysis of poems in a little bit

modified and simplified form following having observed the nature of the poems.

Figures of speech namely, metaphor, simile, personification, synecdoche, metonymy

will be identified as they are overwhelmingly present in the study undertaken.

Similarly, lexical and syntactic structures and what do they suggest will be presented.

It is also seen what their relevance is in terms of interpretation. The researcher has

chosen this checklist model because it is very reliable and compact design of studying

literary texts.

According to leech and short (1981:74),this checklist is an attempt to find an

artistic principles existing in writer‘s choice of language. All writers and all literary

texts have their individual characteristics. Therefore, the features seeking attention and

getting prominence in one text shall not necessarily significant in another text even by

the same author or a different one. There is not dependable technique for selecting

what is significant. We have to make ourselves aware of artistic effect and the

linguistic details constituting that effect every time we deal with a text. For this

purpose, Leech and Short prepare a checklist of features and list of questions which

can produce such a range of data which may be examined in relation to the literary

effect of each passage. This checklist enables us to collect data on fairly systematic

bases and very relevant for stylistic analysis. It is not exhaustive as it consists of good

bits.

55
The researcher has preferred this model as against the others is because

figurative language is abundantly used in the poems which are in free verse and mainly

have fiction like lexical and syntactic structure.

3.4 Researcher as a Tool

The most significant tool in qualitative research is the researcher himself. A

researcher is supposed to be the planner, initiator, data collector, data planner, analyst

and data interpreter and reporter. Bogdan and Biklen (ibid: 27) says that qualitative

research has natural data. It is always useful to use qualitative design in a poem as it is

mostly, combination of abstract and concrete objects. Moreover, it gives detailed

picture of the phenomenon under study as it takes place in natural settings. The

researcher chooses this method because there are some reasons: firstly, qualitative

method is open ended. The data would be in the form of sentences in which the

figurative language is used. The data in this research are gathered from the poems of

Ghose.

3.5 Precisely, the research procedure is presented as follows:

1. Following collecting the textual data of poems from text book of BS, the researcher

will read the text intensively and closely.

2. Following putting textual data in a data sheet identify the sentences in which

figurative language is used; and categorize it into different types and make the brief

explanation of it.

3. In the light of checklist, the lexical and syntactic structure of each sentence would

be described in which figurative language is used.

4. The researcher will analyze and interpret the figures of speech and lexico- syntactic

structures of each poetic text to answer the research questions.


56
5. A suggestive lesson will be proposed for teachers and learners to help them opt for a

useful pedagogic model of teaching literature in non-native environment.

6. At the end, conclusion would be drawn in the light of findings emerged from using

Leech and Short checklist.

The sample of data sheet designed to present the data and its analysis are as under.

 Data sheet for categorization of figurative language

Lexical

Structure Lexical

Sentenc   Structure

No. e Figurative Language       Explanation


Pe syn Wr

  Sim Mtp r Mtn d Syn d Phr Cls Smp Cmx  


   ∕                    
                         
1                        
                         
                         
                           
                           
                           
2                          
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
3                          
                           
                           
                         

57
Note:

Sim: Simile Wrd: Word Cmp: complex

Mtp: Metaphor Phr: Phrase Cmx: Complex

Per: Personification Cls:Clause Cmp: compound

Par: Pardox Mty: Metynomy Syn : Synecdoche

Chapter 04

DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS

58
In this chapter, the data of poems has been presented. First of all, the data of

poems have been tabloid in the data sheet; and then the figures of speech are identified

in each poem included in the analysis sheet with brief individual explanation of each

figure of speech. Following this process, the frequency of data has been furnished in

frequency data sheet at the end of each poem.Further,the explanation of these analyses

is made to see if this data of figures of speech make any patterns so that the

possibilities of explanation are to be explored.Finally, it would be seen what can be the

teaching implications of this model of analysis especially innon-native teaching

context. To demonstrate all this analyses practically; a suggestive lesson is presented

as an example to show the efficacy of this type of linguistic based study of

literature.The five poems selected for this study are now presented for analysis after

inserting abbreviated symbols.

 This is the list of abbreviated symbols used for the different figures of
speech in the table:
Sim: Simile Wrd: Word Cmp: complex

Mtp: Metaphor Phr: Phrase Cmx: Complex

Per: Personification Cls:Clause Cmp: compound

IC: Independent Clause

Par: Pardox Mty: Metynomy Syn:Synecdoche

_Underline used for identifying figures of speech;T: denotes tick-s positive option

Identification of Figurative language of the poem ‘DECOMPOSITION’ with


lexical and syntactic structure:

1. DECOMPOSITION
59
Figurative Language Lexical Syntactic
Explanation
No. Sentence Structure Structure

Sim Mtp Per Mtn syn Wrd Phr Cls Smp Cmx Cmp

1 I have a picture I It is categorized as


took in Bombay simile because the
shadow of beggar is
of a beggar asleep on
the pavement; directly compared to
a blanket by the
grey-haired, wearing  NP  connector “like” to
shorts and a dirty show his being
shirt, reduced to an
his shadow thrown unsubstantial entity
aside like a by the society.
blanket.*1

2 His arms and legs T NP The phrase “Cracks


could be cracks in (pp) T in the Stone” is
the stone,*2 classified s metaphor
routes for the ants' used for the beggar to
journeys, the flies' show his statue like
descents. condition.
Brain-washed by the
sun into exhaustion,
he lies veined into
stone, a fossil man.
3 Brain-washed by T VP NC  It is personification
the sun into (pp) and also called as
exhaustion,*3 (pp) humanizing metaphor
he lies veined into as the sun has been
stone, a fossil man. given human quality.
it is clause employed
for the beggar being
reduced into
exhaustion by his
trouble and misery.
4 Brain-washed by the “Veined into stone”
sun into exhaustion,  VP  is metaphorical
he liesveined into (pp) phrase showing man
stone, a fossil man. disassociation from
*4 living human society
and part of stones.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a, *2

60
S.noSentences Figurative language Lexical Syntactic Explaination
structure structure

Sim Mtp Per Mty Syn

5 His arms and legs could “A fossil man” is


be cracks in the stone, another metaphor
routes for the ants' since it means
journeys, the flies'  
Adj.p apparently a dead
descents.
Brain-washed by the entity- beggar.
sun into exhaustion,
he lies veined into
stone, a fossil man. *5
6 Behind him there is a “A pavement
crowd passingly   trickster” is
bemused by a Adj.p classified as metaphor
pavement trickster *6
since it was used for
and quite
indifferent to this very pavement conjurer.
common sight
of an old man asleep on
the pavement.
7 I thought it then a good  Adj.p  “A good
composition *7 composition” is
and glibly called it 'The classified as metaphor
Man in the Street',
since it was used to
remarking how typical
it was of show resemblance to
India that the man in the the good shots made
street lived there. of the beggar by a
photographer.
8 His head in the posture It is metaphor used to
of one weeping show the picture of
into a pillow chides me  VP this poor creature that
now for my 
(NP) was picture of hunger
presumption at
attemptingtocompose and loneliness.
art out of his hunger
and solitude. *8

*5 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

Analysis and Explanation of the Poem “Decomposition”

Following identifying figurative language as well as lexico –syntactic structure, the


analysis and interpretation of data is given in the next part.It is used to show how

61
linguistic based analysis helps make the evaluation and interpretation of literary text.
For this purpose, a data sheet has been developed to show the frequency of figurative
language as well as lexico-syntactic structure.

The frequency of categories of figurative language as well as lexico-

syntacticstructure of the poem ‘Decomposition’

No. Types of Lexical structure total Syntactic structure total

Figurative word phrase clause simple complex compound


language

1 simile 1 1 1 1

2 Metaphor 6 6 6 6

3 personification 1 (1) 1 1 1

total 8 8 8 8

The explanation of the data of the poem ‘the poem Decomposition is presented as
below:
Figurative language
In the poem ‘Decomposition’, the poet uses figurative language of three types:

simile, metaphor and personification. The data of metaphor are seven, simile two and

personification one.Let see them one by one.

Metaphors
The most frequent use of figure of speech in this poem is metaphor.Metaphors used in
this poem can be categorized into two groups:
1. Cracks in the stone, veined into the stones, a fossil man.
2. Pavement trickster, composition, to compose art.
The first category makes a unique pattern here. They all suggest pathetic and

miserable condition of the beggar.Cracked into the stone, veined into the stone have

62
relevance in turning him into a fossil man; - all these are implicitly related to the

theme of the poem ‘Decomposition’.

The second category pavement trickster, to compose art, good composition

have similar pattern yet suggesting opposite meanings related to the overall meanings

of poem. They are reflecting contrast in the poem while referring to composition-

namely standing for the well-off classes or apathetic people and spectators who have

no empathy and compassion for beggars and vulnerable section of the society.

Simile
The poet has used one simile in the poem. The simile ‘his shadow thrown like

blanket’ shows beggar being a common place thing, having no life and animacy in him

like an abandoned blanket.

Personification

Like simile, we have one personification in the data which can also be called

humanizing metaphor. Brain-washed by the sun into exhaustion shows that nature

also works in his decomposition as a living potent agent.

Now, we look and assess lexical and syntactic structure in which figurative language is

used.

Lexical and syntactic structure

1. The lexical structure of single simile‘his shadow thrown like blanket’ used in the

above poem is NP. The poet uses complex sentence for this simile.

2. Among four metaphors-Cracks in the stone, veined into the stones, a fossil man,
Pavement trickster, compose art- there are two NPS and two VPS implying
uniformity and equivalence in terms of meaning. The contrast in them strike balance at
the level of two sections of the society-Have and Have not- who are present in the
poem.

63
For all the figures of speech, the poet prefers to use complex sentence. This

may imply the unchanged condition of the beggar.

To conclude, we can say that thepoet has employed more metaphors in the poem

‘Decomposition’ to describe indirectly the profundity of meanings; and to express the

message more forcefully. He finds more variety and depth in imparting his thoughts

about the condition of beggar and apathy of well-off people. However, this is only a

tentative analysis giving only the subjective opinion of researcher. The aim of this

analysis is to give one form of opinion and opens it for further interaction and

interpretation as it is the main aim of applying the stylistic analysis toliterary texts.

2 Now we discuss the second poem of the poet ‘A POINT in M ETAPHYSICS


’and try to find out the figurative language and its structure.

2. A POINT in METAPHYSICS

The identification of figurative language as well as syntactic and linguistic structure of


the poem ‘A POINT IN METAPHYSIS’is as follows:

Figurative Language Lexical Syntactic


Explanation
No. Sentence Structure Structure

Sim Mtp Per Mtn syn Wrd Phr Cls Smp Cmx Cmp

1 The two public It is metaphor since


clocks in Blauvac providing is used as
express a two-minute   T borrowed word for
difference clock in the sense of
when sticking the showing time.
hour, providing *1
thus two minutes of
timelessness
or the deceiving
impression
that the hour had
never struck or
that the past is
retrievable.

64
2 The two public Clocks,,the
clocks in deceiving
Blauvacexpress a impression” is an
two-minute adjective phrase
differencewhen personified. It is
sticking the hour, animistic metaphor
providingthus two too showing
minutes of  Adj.P indefiniteness of
timelessnessor the time and animacy
deceiving  puzzling to human
impression *2 senses.

that the hour had


never struck or

that the past is


retrievable.

S,noSentences Figurative language Syntactic Explaination


structure
Lexiacal structure

si mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. cls sim cmx cmp
m

3 Butterflies hung above  VP  “Hung above” is


the*3flower-pots (pp) categorized as metaphor
in their short, sharp since it shows
movements resemblance of flies
as if pinned to needle, which seemed to be
the air quaking around them, hanging up above flower
when pots.
the first clock slowly struck
the hour;
fallen figs lay on the
roadside
like deflated balloons with
flies
plucking at strings of their
juice;
the bees, pursuing the
perfumed
air, turned from lavender to

65
thyme;
the hills, pipelined with
rows of vines,
were reservoirs for the sun’s
overflow that Provencal
noon.
4 Butterflies hung above the “As if pinned to needle”
flower-pots is a phrase showing
in their short, sharp  VP(PP)  directly the short sharp
movements movements of flies above
as if pinned to needle,*4 the flower pots. it is
the air quaking around them, connected by the
when connector “as.”
the first clock slowly struck
the hour;
fallen figs lay on the
roadside
like deflated balloons with
flies
plucking at strings of their
juice;
the bees, pursuing the
perfumed
air, turned from lavender to
thyme;
the hills, pipelined with
rows of vines,
were reservoirs for the sun’s
overflow that Provencal
noon.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

s.no Sentence Figurative language Syntactic Explaination


Lexical structure structure

sim mtp per mty syn wrd phr Cls. cmx cmp
5 Butterflies hung above the It is termed as
flower-pots personification and
in their short, sharp animistic metaphor either
movements T VP  as quacking is giving +
as if pinned to needle, animacy to air which is –
the air quaking*5 around inanimate. It has been
them, when used to show the severity
the first clock slowly struck of air.
the hour;
fallen figs lay on the
roadside
like deflated balloons with
flies
plucking at strings of their
juice;
the bees, pursuing the
perfumed
air, turned from lavender to

66
thyme;
the hills, pipelined with
rows of vines,
were reservoirs for the sun’s
overflow that Provencal
noon.
6 Butterflies hung above the Fallen figs lay like
flower-pots deflated balloons is simile
in their short, sharp asit shows how the figs
movements lay on the roadside. “like”
as if pinned to needle, is the connector to join
the air quaking around them, this simile.
when  Adj.P 
the first clock slowly struck
the hour;
fallen figs lay on the
roadside
like deflated balloons*6
with flies
plucking at strings of their
juice;
the bees, pursuing the
perfumed
air, turned from lavender to
thyme;
the hills, pipelined with
rows of vines,
were reservoirs for the sun’s
overflow that Provencal
noon.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8
s.nosentences Figurative language Lexical structur Syntactic Explaination
structure

sim mtp per mty syn wrd phr Cls. sim cmx cmp
7 Butterflies hung Flies,,pursuing the
above the flower- performed air is
pots metaphor, since it
in their short, sharp reflects bees going
movements after flora having nice
as if pinned to smell.
needle,
the air quaking  VP 
around them, when (Adj.p)
the first clock slowly
struck the hour;
fallen figs lay on the
roadside
like deflated
balloons with flies
plucking at strings of
their juice;
the bees, pursuing
the perfumed*7
air, turned from

67
lavender to thyme;
the hills, pipelined
with rows of vines,
were reservoirs for
the sun’s
overflow that
Provencal noon.
8 Butterflies hung The hills pipelined
above the flower- with rows of vines
pots are a phrase in which
in their short, sharp word pipelined is
movements as if categorized as
printed to as if metaphor since it
pinned to needle, shows resemblance of
the air quaking the rows of vines and
around them, when their alignment and
the first clock slowly symmetry.
struck the hour;  VP
fallen figs lay on the (pp) T
roadside (pp)
like deflated
balloons with flies
plucking at strings of
their juice;
the bees, pursuing
the perfumed
air, turned from
lavender to thyme;
the hills, pipelined
with rows of
vines,*8
were reservoirs for
the sun’s
overflow that
Provencal noon.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

Sentences Figurative language Lexical Syntactic Explaination


structure structure
sim mtp per mty syn Wrd. Phr. cls sim cmx cmp
9 Butterflies hung above “
the flower-pots
in their short, sharp
movements as if
printed to as if pinned
to needle,
the air quaking around
them, when
the first clock slowly
struck the hour; Reservoirs for the
fallen figs lay on the sun’s overflow is a
roadside  NP  phrase classified as
like deflated balloons (pp) concrete metaphor as
with flies it shows storage of
plucking at strings of sun heat and energy

68
their juice; for all sort of
the bees, pursuing the vegetation observed
perfumed at that noon.
air, turned from
lavender to thyme;
the hills, pipelined
with rows of vines,
were reservoirs for
the sun’s
overflow that
Provencal noon.*9
10 And then the second Clock, tricking the
clock struck,  VP  consciousness into
tricking the (NP) thinking is
consciousness into (PP) personification and
thinking*10that humanizing metaphor
nothing had happened giving animacy to
or that everything clock because of the
must happen consistency and
again and again and regularity.
again,
that the insects,
flowers and trees,
extracting one
another’s juices
in a common
dependence on
the earth, had a
timeless origin
or had begun now, at
this hour.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

s.noSentence Figurative language Syntactic Explaination


Lexical structure
structure
sim mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. Cls. sim cmx cmp
11 And then the second It is clause showing
clock struck, metaphoric
tricking the meanings since
consciousness into extracting one
thinking that another juices here
nothing had implies human
happened  VP  beings exploitation
or that everything (NP) of one another.
must happen
again and again and
again,

69
that the insects,
flowers and trees,
extracting one
another’s
juices*11
in a common
dependence on
the earth, had a
timeless origin
or had begun now,
at this hour.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

Analysis and Explanation of the Poem “ A Point in Metaphysics”

After identifying figurative language as well as lexico –syntactic structure, the analysis
and interpretation of data is given in the next part.It is used to show how linguistic
based analysis helps make the evaluation and interpretation of literary text.
In the following table a data sheet has been developed to show the frequency of

figurative language as well as lexico-syntactic structure. The aim of this data sheet is

find out any patterning of figures of speech which is suggesting some interpretation.

Frequency of categories of figurative language as well as lexico-syntactic

structures of the poem ‘A point in Metaphysics ‘is as follows:

No. Types of Lexical structure total Syntactic structure total

Figurative word phrase clause simple comple compound


language x

1 simile 2 - 2 2 - 2

2 Metaphor 1 4 5 4 1 5

3 Personificatio 3 3 2 1 3
n

tota 1 9 10 8 2 10
l

70
Finding of the data in the poem ‘A POINT IN METAPHYSICS’ is explained as under:

Simile
Pinned to needle, deflated balloon are different similes used for butterfly hung

and figs fallen on the road. But they suggest some patterns. They equally have the

same sense of meanings in relation to time which is only definable in terms of

activities taking place in the surrounding.

We can likewise see two different lexical structures in the similes telling us the same

description.

There are same syntactic structures of complex sentence for both of them

again, expressing same theme.

Metaphors
In expressing profound philosophical abstract meanings, metaphor is the best

language resource. In order to describe the immeasurable concept of time, the poet

consciously seems to opt for them. Reservoirs of the suns overflow, pipelined with

rows of vines, insects extracting another juices, providing- all implying activities

done or going on. They all express that time is same as yesterday, only the activities

done or going on give you the impression that time has a cycle.

However,philosophically and scientifically, it is same. Bee hung, bee pursuing,

insects extracting juices and so on are indirectly suggesting unfathomable time.

Personification

Deceiving impression, air quacking around, tricking the consciousness-these

personified phrases are interestingly describing the faulty impression made on our ears.

71
They are deliberately used by the poet in animate sense. In literal realm, these

phenomena are inanimate but in the context of this poem, they take on unique value.

Lexical and syntactic structures

We have four phrases one clause and one word. The dominate uses of verb

phrases again implicitly explaining the complex concept of time.

There are four compound sentences implying again that there is no cycle like thing-

present, past and future- attached with time.

The lexical and syntactic structures of personification imply variation that the

unified sense of impression in terms of time is, in essence, deceptive.

72
1. POLITICAL SCIENCE

The identification of figurative language as well as its lexical and syntactic strcture of
the poem ‘POLITICAL SCIENCE’is as follows:

Figurative Language Lexical Structure Syntactic


Explanation
No. Sentence Structure

Sim Mtp Per Mtn syn Wrd Phr Cls Smp Cmx Cmp

1 “We shall cede   the phrase “a


with a brotherly Adj.p brotherly
embrace”,*1 embrace”is
determined categorized as
Shivaji, the metaphor as it is
insurgent used in the sense of
king of the warm hug to his
Marathas; Below rival.
the fortress,
Afzal Khan
encamped with ten
thousand men.
2 “We shall give NP It is clause
into the Emperor’s (Adj.p) categorized as
will”  (PP) Adj.C  metaphor is
Spoke Shivaji to VP(NP) compared to and
his assembled believed to have
court. resemblance with
“ This sudden sudden quick
mushroom- increase of troops of
growth below our Afzal Khan.
hill
outnumbers our
swords:*2
3 “a war would be  NP  “Swim in
shortas a swim in Adj tempestuous sea” is
a tempestuous .p) simile joined by the
sea*3 (PP connector
We must erect “as”suggesting the

73
cunning’s dyke. challenging
Lords, nobles, circumstances and
leave me with the dire state of affairs
Brahmin in faced to Shivagi’s
privacy. Army.
We shall pray for
an end to our
troubles”.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

74
S.N Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explanations
o structure
Sim Mtp Per Mty Syn wordPhrase Claus sim Cmx Cmp
e
4 a war would be Erect cunning dyke
short “as a swim is phrase which is
in a tempestuous  VP  lexically speaking a
sea”, verb phrase. It is
(Adj.P)
personification as
We must erect animate feature has
cunning’s been given to dyke-
dyke.*4 Lords, ditch, in figurative
nobles, sense which refers
to the proposed trap
leave me with the
to get rid of Afzal
Brahmin in
Khan.
privacy.

We shall pray for


an end to our
troubles”.

5 Shivaji said to the It is a metaphoric


Brahimn: “You phrase, which
shall ironically telling
something other
go to Afzal Khan wise than stated
and invite him
T I.C  here.
here.

I shall embrace
him by the garden
wall

and resign my
will to the
Emperor.*5

6 “When low T NP Adv.C  The clause “low


sunlight combs sunlight combs the
the wild jungle’s (Adjp) wild jungle’s hair”
hair,*6 is personification
VP
employed showing
I shall wait for him little bit light after
(NP)
in my garden seat. the sun setting.

When the evening


whispers its
coolest air,

75
say we shall be
lovers if then we
meet.”

7 When the evening  Adv.C  “The evening


whispers its whispers its coolest
coolest air,*7 air”, is animistic
metaphor and
say we shall be personified
lovers if then we expression which
meet.” gives animacy to
evening air.

S.N Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explanation


o structure

Sim Mtp Per Mty Syn Wor Phrase Clause Sim Cmx Cmp
d

8 When the evening NPVP Say we shall be lovers


whispers its coolest air, if then we met is simile
 (NP) Adv.C  which ironically tells us
say we shall be lovers that the lovers are
if then we meet.”*8 actually rivals.it is
linked by connector
“say”

9 Afzal Khan encamped It is concrete metaphor


with ten thousand men in the structure of clause
 N.C  which suggests
deputed by the resemblance of total
Emperor to raze destruction of image and
achievements of Shivagi
Shivaji’s fame which
by the hands of Afzal
built its monument
Khan.
by stealing bricks
from the empire’s
wall.*9

10 Afzal Khan thus NPVP Adj.c T It is categorized as a


answered by Brahim’s personification giving
animacy to reason.
offer of peace: “If
Shivaji accepts 

defeat, then it is his


reason which
wins.*10

76
If our firmness, our
strength he interprets

It represents his
weakness, then he is
wise.

11 But say he must “A tributary which will


surrender all arms and flow always to Delhi” is
become  NPVP Adj.C  a clause suggesting that
Shivaji would surrender
a tributary which will all his little empire to
flow always*11 Delhi which was the
main stream of power.
to Delhi.

77
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

78
S.N Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination
o structure

Sim Mtp Per Mty Syn Word Phrase Clause Sim Cmx Cmp

12 If he agrees, we Embrace is
shall welcome categorized as
 NP  metaphor
hisembrace.*12 suggesting
Say, sunset or gay agreement.
sunrise,

his word we accept


as of that rich hue,

our faith in it will


be the butterfly’s.

Say, if he loves us,


we shall love him,
too”.

13 If he agrees, we
shall welcome

“his embrace. Say,


sunset or gay Adj.P NC  It is simile directly
sunrise, stating the
T commitment to
his word we accept conform happily to
as of that rich hue, the terms of
would-be
our faith in it will agreement.
be the butterfly’s.
*13

Say, if he loves us,


we shall love him,
too.

14 Thus, is shall reach,  With outsretched


“with outstretched arms is metaphor
arms *14 and the  Pre.P suggesting warm
love I profess, welcome.

his heart under the


homeward flight of
crows.

When we embrace,
bosom to bosom

79
press.

I shall sign a treaty


with the tiger’s
claws

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

sno sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination


structure

sim mtp per mty syn wrd phr cls sim cmx cmp

15 “with outstretched His heart under the


arms and the love I homeward flight of
profess,    crows, is metaphor
since it reflects the
his heart under the intense happiness or
homeward flight of contentment of heart
crows,*15 when Afzal Khan
would strike peace
when we embrace,
agreement.
bosom to bosom
press.

I shall sign a treaty


with the tiger’s
claws

16 “with outstretched With tiger’s claw is


arms and the love I possessive noun
profess, classified as
metaphor telling us
his heart under the the power and might
homeward flight of of Afzal Khan.
 Prp.P 
crows.

When we embrace,
bosom to bosom
press.

I shall sign a treaty


with the tiger’s
claws.*16

17 I shall sign a treaty On the stiff


with the tiger’s parchment of his
claws  Prp.P T chest is metaphor
suggesting putting
on the stiff Prp,p
dagger into the chest

80
parchment of his of Afzal Khan.
chest.*17 The dark

falls quickly this


time of year. Each
rose-bush

shall have glow-


worms of my men,
each tree’s bark

will breathe with


the secret sap of
ambush”.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

sno sentences Figurative language Lrxical structure Syntactic Explanation


structure

Sin Mtp Per Mty Syn word Phrase Clause Sum Cmx Cmp

18 The dark falls Glow worms of my


quickly this time of men” is categorized
year. Each rose-  NP  as metaphor showing
bush shall have great number of
(PP)
glow-worms of Shivaji’s army
my men,*18 each persons ambushing
tree’s bark will behind the trees.
breathe with the
secret sap of
ambush”.

19 The dark falls It is categorized as


quickly this time of personification as it
year. Each rose-    suggests the hiding
bush shall have places brimming wit
glow-worms of my the presence of his
men, each men.
tree’sbark will
breathe with the
secret sap of
ambush*19.

20 They sprinkled The “soft” is


water on the lawns, metaphor used to
his walk    show soft gait of of
Shivaji.
towards Afzal

81
Khan would
besoft:*20 he
would

sway weakly in the


air like a flower-
stalk

and tip poisonous


pollen into the
blood

21 They sprinkled His walk,, a flower-


water on the lawns, stalk” is simile used
his walk to show walking
delicately; and it is
towards Afzal  N.P T
linked by the
Khan would be connector“like”
soft: he would

sway weakly in the


air like a flower-
stalk*21

and tip poisonous


pollen into the
blood.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

s.n Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination


o structure
Sentences

22 They sprinkled VP
water on the lawns,
his walk (Adj.p)

towards Afzal Khan (Pre.p) It is a metaphor


would be soft: he showing stabbing
 T dagger into Afzal
would
Khan blood.
sway weakly in the
air like a flower-
stalk

and tip poisonous

82
pollen into the
blood of Afzal
Khan.*22

23 The last crow  VP T It is metaphor


choked his cry*23 employed the hoarse
when the shadows (NP) cries of crows in early
became discarded in the morning.
cloaks upon the
lawns. The sun, .
ballooned in the
sky, as about to
burst. Frogs
coughed their silly
jokes.

24 The last crow  NPVP Adv.C T


choked his cry when
the shadows (Adj.P) It is metaphor
became discarded showing the early
cloaks *24 upon the rising of the sun
lawns. The sun, swelling into the sky.
ballooned in the
sky, as about to
burst. Frogs
coughed their silly
jokes.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

S.N
o
Sentences Figurative language Lexica sructure Syntactic Explaination
structure

sim mtp per mty syn word phrase clause sim cmx cmp

26 The sun, ballooned “Burst” is classified


in the sky,    as metaphor since it
as about to burst. shows rising of the
*26Frogs coughed sun.
their silly jokes.
27 Frogscoughed  VP  It is metaphor
their silly (Adj,p) suggesting the

83
jokes.*27 hoarse cries of
frogs.
28 Only Shivaji’s men Burst again is
behind the trees   T metaphor standing
noticed that what the trickling of the
burst*28was Afzal fast blood.
Khan’s heart
and the short cough
of hate was
Shivaji’s
as he unscrolled the
flag of Afzal’s shirt
29 Only Shivaji’s men The short cough
behind the trees (Adj.P) of hate is a phrase
noticed that what  (AdjP)  standing for
burst was Afzal metaphorical
Khan’s heart meanings of all
and the short prejudice and
cough of hate *29 aversion Shivaji had
was Shivaji’s for Afzal Khan.
as he unscrolled the
flag of Afzal’s shirt.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

84
S,n Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explanation
o structure
sim mtp per mty syn word phrase clause sim cmx cmp
30 With the gale-  (Prp.P  The gales a force of
forces of his )(Prep.P) his dagger point is
dagger’s metaphorical clause
point.*30 unfolding the force
In the court, the of poisonous dagger
Lords prayed, inserted into the
tapping the sticks heart.
of their throats at
their god. They
rose then to join
In praise of
Shivaji’s shrewd
sense of politics.
31 In the court, the  VP  It is phrase as
Lords prayed, metaphor showing
tapping the sticks (NP) resemblance of the
prayers which were
of their throats at (Pre,P)
made by Shivaji’s
their god.*31 disciples or
They rose then to subordinates to gods
join for success.

In praise of
Shivaji’s shrewd
sense of politics.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

85
In the following table ,the frequency of the data of the poem ‘Political Science’ has been presented
to find out the any type of specific patterning, possibly suggesting some sort of interpretation.

Frequency of categories of figurative language as well as lexico-syntactic structure of the poem ‘


political Science’

No. Types of Lexical structure tota Syntactic structure tota


l l
Figurative
language wor phras claus simpl comple compoun
d e e e x d

1 simile 4 - 4 4 4

2 metaphor 22 (5) 22 3 13 6 22

3 personificatio 4 (4) 4 - 2 2 4
n

Tota 28 (9) 30 3 19 8 30
l

Findings of the poem ‘political science’ and it explanation:

Metaphor

Metaphor is again major tool for the poet to give vent to his feelings while

narrating a historical famous incident, which he called the trick of political

maneuvering. Metaphors here like other poems are used very consciously on important

places again orchestrating specific sense of meanings. Stealing bricks, embrace, with

tiger claws ,on the parchment of his chests ,glow worms of my men, gale forces of

dagger are aptly in tune with the theme of the poem and telling us the sequence of

events which cause this tragedy. They are the indirect expression of trickery, stabbing,

conspiracy, maneuvering to execute this horrendous act. There are many metaphors

which reveal ironical meanings. The metaphors like brotherly embrace, resign my will

86
to emperor, embrace, with outstretched arms are lexis having pleasant sense of

emotions and feelings but they are ironically suggesting vice versa. They are

beautifully in harmony with the dubious political science-showing you are not meant

what you say.

Similes

The poet like others poems have less use of similes as compared to metaphors.

We shall be lovers than we meet suggesting again irony, as swim in the tempestuous

sea is exaggeration stating the rival forces which have the power to end the war in

short span of time. His word we accept as that of rich hue in our faith suggesting

ironical meanings as context endorses that he does not accept his word, rather he stabs

him to death. He would sway in the air like flower stalk ironically suggesting the

politics which he was not really aiming it. Therefore, these similes having different

structure have been artfully used in the specific context of the poem, generating

specific sense of meanings as per the title of the poem.

Personification

As like the other poems, the poet has banked on personification as another

figurative device in expressing his philosophical meanings. In this poem, cunning

dyke has strong affinity with evening whispers, showing conspiracies and traditional

illicit whispering at the highest echelon of powers to do any heinous act. So there is

similarity and pragmatism in giving animate sense to these two inanimate entities.

Each tree will breathe showing the great numbers of his men hiding behind the trees.

The combination of these men to whispers and cunning maneuvering reinforce the

political trickery which causes success to Shiva Ji in political terms. So the words

which seem inanimate make robust animate sense in the context of this poem.
87
Lexical and syntactic structure
In the lexical and syntactic structure, we have more adjective phrases. Adjective

does function as a modifier of noun and pronoun. We have more modifiers adjectives

in this poem seemingly used by the poet to highlight the features of political attributes

at work to crush the rival enemy in the guise of peace and reconciliation. The

abundance of complex sentence in this poem is showing the intriguing dependent

nature of politics at work.

88
The identification of the figurative language of the poem ‘EGYPT’ with lexico-

syntactic analysis is as below:

4.Egypt

Figurative Language Lexical Syntactic


Explanation
No. Sentence Structure Structure

Sim Mtp Per Mtn syn Wrd Phr Cls Smp Cmx Cmp

1 Descending towards It is simile since the


Cairo, an arid  Adj.p T AdjP misted mirror
plain is like a is compared with
misted, mirror,*1 arid plain of Cairo.It
its haze is connected by
the diffused image connector “like”
of the sun. Egypt
is straw to the sun’s
flame, its
monuments
are slipping into the
floodwaters like
beasts
come to drink from
the dry interior.
2 Descending towards The phrase diffused
Cairo, an arid image of the sun is
plain is like a  Adj.P T metaphor compared
misted, mirror, its (PP) to haze of the arid
haze plain.
the diffused image
of the sun.*2 Egypt
is straw to the sun’s
flame, its
monuments
are slipping into the
floodwaters like
beasts
come to drink from
the dry interior.
3 Egypt is straw to  NP T Egypt is straw to
the sun’s flame,*3 (pre.p) the sun’s flame is
its monuments metaphor as it stands
are slipping into the comparison with
floodwaters like Egypt because of its
beasts tendency to
come to drink from vulnerability.

89
the dry interior.
4 Egypt is straw to Beasts come to
the sun’s flame, its drink from the dry
monuments  I.C T interior is simile
are slipping into the
which shows the
floodwaters like
beasts comparison of
come to drink mountains slipping
from the dry into the flood of
interior.*4 water- may be,
because of their
manner of
displacement.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

90
s.n
o sentences
Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explanation
structure

sim mtp per mty syn word phrase clause sim cmx cmp

5 Cranes, absurd  Adj.P  Crane being


as science absurd is
fiction compared
creatures,*5 directly to
stand science fiction
where slaves creature. “as” is
once tore their connector linking
muscles so that the simile.
kings
might lie
entombed in
cool, musk-
smelling
darkness,
mummified,
perfect as
butterfly
specimens:
the more
advanced a
civilization,
the subtler the
refinement of
vanity.
6 Cranes, absurd as “Tore their
science fiction  VP  muscles” is a
creatures, stand (NP) metaphor giving
where slaves the harrowing
once tore their image of
muscles so that grinding and
kings *6 hard labour
might lie which was taken
entombed in from labour
cool, musk- slaves in building
smelling these huge

91
darkness, monuments.
mummified,
perfect as
butterfly
specimens:
the more
advanced a
civilization,
the subtler the
refinement of
vanity.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

S.n sentences Figurative language Syntactic


o Lexical structure structure Explanation

sim mtp per mty syn word phrase claus sim cmx cmp
e
7 Cranes, absurd “King might lie
as science entombed..” is
fiction personification as
creatures, stand   here the dead
VP N.C
kings are
where slaves supposed to lie as
(Adj.P)
once tore their per their dogma in
muscles so that these huge tombs.
kings
might lie
entombed in
cool,*7 musk-
smelling
darkness,
mummified,
perfect as
butterfly
specimens:
the more
advanced a
civilization,
the subtler the
refinement of

92
vanity.

8 Cranes, absurd
as science
fiction  Adj.P  It is metaphor
creatures, stand used to show bad
where slaves odor prevailing in
once tore their the darkness of
muscles so that these tombs.
kings
might lie
entombed in
cool, musk-
smelling
darkness8,
mummified,
perfect as
butterfly
specimens:
the more
advanced a
civilization,
the subtler the
refinement of
vanity.
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*8

s.n sentences Figurative


o language
Lexical structure Syntactic Explanation
structure
si mt pe mt sy wor phras claus si cm cm
m p r y n d e e m x p
9 Cranes, absurd as Perfect as
science fiction butterfly
creatures, stand specimens:
where slaves once it is
tore their muscles so metaphor
that kings  Adj.P T standing
resemblance
might lie entombed
in cool, musk- how
smelling darkness, delicately
the corpses
mummified, perfect of kings are
as butterfly
mummified.
specimens:*9

93
the more advanced a
civilization,
the subtler the
refinement of vanity.
10 Cranes, absurd as It is
science fiction metaphor
creatures, stand “The
where slaves once NP subtler the
tore their muscles so refinement
that kingsmight lie (PP) of
entombed in cool, refinement
musk-smelling ” is giving
darkness,mummified
  as concrete
, perfect as butterfly
specimens: image of
variety.
the more advanced a
civilization,the
subtler the
refinement of
vanity. *10

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

s.n Figurative Lexical structure Sentence


o language structure
sentences Explaination

si mt pe mt sy wor phrase claus si cm cm


m p r y n d e m x p
11 The same old  VP  “Old” is
*11Egypt holds metaphor used
its sun-wearied T for Egypt for
earthtogether giving us
with transfusions historic
from the Nile, glorious
the dammed-up ancient
waters a bank of civilization of
the country’s Egypt.
blood.The
concrete lifts its

94
pharaoh head
abovethe people
in Cairo,
compelling
submission to
the hours of
work. They sky
is a scrap of iron.
12 The same old  VP N.C  “Egypt holds
Egypt holds its sun wearied
sun-wearied (Adj.p earth’ is
earth*12togethe ) animistic
r with metaphor and
transfusions personification
from the Nile, s since it
the dammed-up reflects animate
waters a bank of quality.
the country’s
blood.

The concrete
lifts its pharaoh
head abovethe
people in Cairo,
compelling
submission to
the hours of
work. They sky
is a scrap of iron.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

95
sno Figurative Lexical structure Syntactic
language structure
sentences Explaination

sim mtp per mtysynword phrase clause sim cmx cmp


13 The same old It is metaphor
Egypt holds its  Prp.P  since “with
sun-wearied Pre.p transfusion
earthtogether
from the Nile”
with
transfusions stands for water
from the Nile, used for
*13 agriculture
the dammed-up which is vital to
waters a bank of produce food.
the country’s
blood.
The concrete
lifts its pharaoh
head above
the people in
Cairo,
compelling
submission
to the hours of
work. They sky
is a scrap of
iron.
14 The same old A bank of the
Egypt holds its country’s
sun-wearied blood” is
earth
 NP  metaphor which
together with
transfusions stands
from the Nile, (pp) comparison
the dammed-up with the
waters a bank dammed up
of the water, a tenor
country’s here; it has
blood.*14
importance of
The concrete
lifts its pharaoh like blood bank
head above for the
the people in irrigation of
Cairo, Egypt
compelling

96
submission agriculture.
to the hours of
work. The sky
is a scrap of
iron.

__------------------------------------------------

no sentences Figurative Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination


language structure

simmtp per mtysynword phrase clausesim cmxcmp


15 The concrete lifts  NPVP N.C  “The concrete
its pharaoh head lifts its Pharoach
above *15 (NP) head above the
(PP) sky” is
the people in Cairo, personification as
compelling these inanimate
submission structures have
human quality.
to the hours of
work. The sky is a
scrap of iron.

16 The sky is a scrap  NP  It is metaphor used


of iron.*16 to show implicit
comparison with
its tenor sky.

17 A scholar hurries to It is metaphor


a museum, telling the fixed
image of flies
a tourist points his which have
zoom lens at the  VP 
gathered on the
flies cluster of dates.
(pp)(Pp)
sticking to a
cluster of dates*17
in a bazaar.

Second hand vision


records Egypt
myths

Endure. The same

97
old Egypt contracts
like

a dried fig in the


heat of the jet’s
ascent.

18 Second hand “Second hand


vision vision records is
records*18Egypt T NPVP N.C T syndoche as vision
myths as part stands for
whole. It is treated
Endure. The same as animate being
old Egypt contracts which records
like myths. It shows
second rated
a dried fig in the
intellectuals. (It is
heat of the jet’s
personification
ascent.
either).

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

98
s.n Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explanation
o structure

sim mtp per mty syn word phrase claus sim cmx cmp
e

19 Second hand vision Egypt contracts is


records Egypt myths metonymy as Egypt
T  VP  is whole standing for
Endure. The same a part.
old Egypt
contracts*19 like

a dried fig in the


heat of the jet’s
ascent.

20 Second hand vision “Like a dried fig in


records Egypt myths the heat of the jet’s
 NP  ascent is phrase
Endure. The same which acts as simile
old Egypt contracts Adj.p
standing
like comparisonfor old
(pp)(pp)
Egypt ; revealing the
a dried fig in the
degeneration or
heat of the jet’s
decline of it .
ascent.*20

99
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

In the following table, a data sheetof the frequency of figurative language as well as lexico-
syntactic structure of the poem ‘EGYPT’ is presented to find out the possible interpretation of
the patterns in the poem.

Frequency of categories of figurative language as well as lexico-syntactic structures of the


poem ‘Egypt’

No. Types of Lexical structure total Syntactic structure total

Figurative word phrase clause simple complex compound


language

1 Simile - 5 - 5 1 4 - 5

2 Metaphor - 10 10 1 9 - 10

3 Personification 3 (3) 1 2 - 3

4 Syndoche - 1 1 1 - - 1

5 Metonymy 1 - 1 1 - - 1

Tota 20 (3) 17 5 15 19
l

The findings of the poem ‘Egypt’ and the explanation of the frequency of figures of
speech in it are presented as follows:

Metaphors

In this poem metaphors, straw to sun flame, tore their muscles, old, sun wearied earth,
transfusions from the Nile waters, the bank of country blood, the sky scrap of iron, Egypt
contracts show old and present life of Egypt. Tear their muscles stands for the hard grinding
labor put into by the slave in erecting the tombs for kings so that they could get a decent
burial, after their death. Transfusion from the Nile and water being the bank of country
blood stand for the agriculture banking on traditional river Nile is another dimension of life.

100
The sky scrap of iron, contracting, stand for the degenerated state of Egypt which was once
famous for its grandeurs and magnificent civilization.

Simile

Perfect as butterfly specimen, absurd as science fiction creatures, diffused image of the sun,
and contract like the dried figs are similes clearly and precisely standing the life of Egypt
which was degenerating and deteriorating in the opinion of the poet.

Personification

The concrete lifts its pharaoh’sgives animacy to tombs as like animate creature, pharaohs
construct them to make themselves immortal.

Lexical and syntactic structure

In this poem, there are seventeen complex sentences and no independent sentence which show
interdependent life structure of Egypt taking its value and self- sufficiency from other
elements. In the same way NPS and PPS were nicely balanced by VPS and ADJ Phrases. In
this balancing, the poet seems to suggest that he has tried to explore the old and new facets of
Egypt life by wearing the neutral spectacles.

101
The identifcation of figurative language and its lexical and syntactic structure of the poem
‘ATTACK ON SIALKOT’is as under:

THE ATTACK ON SIALKOT


Figurative Language Lexical Syntactic
No Explanation
Sentence Structure Structure
.
Sim Mtp Per Mtn syn Wrd Phr Cls Smp Cmx Cmp

1 Grandfather, eighty
now, his pilgrimage

to Mecca over, still


these at place This phrase still as
poster is
with his Muslim  NP  categorized as
conscience. At our simile. It tells us
last meeting the motionless
sitting of
he sat in the grandfather in the
courtyard of a court. “As” is
mosque, still connector showing
the simile.
as a poster *1
against the
whitewashed wall

in my mohair suit and


corduroy hat,

advertising my
patient secularism

2 At our last meeting   

he sat in the
courtyard of a
mosque, still It is termed as
metaphor as
as a poster against the advertising my
whitewashed wall patient secularism
has been used to
in my mohair suit and show resemblance
corduroy hat, of what his wearing
reflecting.
advertising *2 my

102
patient secularism.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

103
snosentences Explaination
Syntactic
Figurative language Lexical structure structure

sim mtp per mty syn word phrase clause sim cmx cmp

3 At our last meeting It is personification


as patient is used
he sat in the with secularism to
courtyard of a give human quality
mosque, still to an ideology.

as a poster against the


whitewashed wall

in my mohair suit and


corduroy hat,

advertising my
patient secularism*3  Adj.P 

4 Gunfire made Sialkot  NP  A Kiln to fire is


a kiln to fire *4 phrase classified as
(PP) metaphor since it
Pakistan’s earthen- stands for the
put faith, I listened severity and
intensity of war
to the news hour after
fought in Sialkot.
hour the whole month

and saw maps in


newspapers an arrow
pointed at Sialkot.
Grandfather’s breast
plate

of Islam and become


frigate as china

in the intruding
heresy of tanks.

I see that arrow still:


aimed at grandfather.

104
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

105
s.n Sentences Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination
o structure

sim mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. clause sim cmx cmp

5 Gunfire made Sialkot a Pakistan’s earthen


kiln to fire  NP  pot faith is categorized
Pakistan’s earthen-pot (PP) as metaphor suggesting
faith,*5 I listened fragility of faith which
to the news hour after has no reinforcement or
hour the whole month preparation in
and saw maps in background.
newspapers an arrow
pointed at Sialkot.
Grandfather’s breast plate
of Islam had become
fragile as china
in the intruding heresy of
tanks.
I see that arrow still:
aimed at grandfather.
6 Grandfather’s breast  NP  It is noun phrase
plate (pp) metaphorically
of Islam*6 had become suggesting sets of
fragile as china belief which was
in the intruding heresy of possessed by old man.
tanks.
I see that arrow still:
aimed at grandfather.
7 Grandfather’s breast Because as fragile as
plate  Adj.P  China is simile
of Islam had become revealing lack of
fragile as china*7 preparation and
in the intruding heresy of infirmity, linking word
tanks. to simile is “as”
I see that arrow still:
aimed at grandfather.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

106
s.no Figurative language Syntactic Explaination
Sentences Lexical structure structure

sim mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. Cls. sim cmx cmp
8 I see that arrow still:  N.C  Arrow still aimed
aimed at at grandfatheris
grandfather.*8 metaphorically and
symbolically
suggesting the life
threatening dangers
and destruction
faced to grandfather
and Sialkot.

9 It was a messy, a  NP  A child pudding


child’s pudding- plat is categorized
plat*9 (NP) as metaphor telling
us all the mess
of a town during nay which the
first seven years. circumstance has
imposed on them.
I pulled at
grandfather’s beard
and dragged down

his turban when he


carried me to school.

He turned five times a


day to swung me
round

the bed so that my feet


did not insult

the holy direction, the


one truth he knew.

10 He turned five times a The holy direction


day to swung me is metaphor
round implying Kbbaba.

the bed so that my feet  Adj.p 


did not insult

the holy
direction,*10 the one
truth he knew.

107
*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

108
S.n Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination
o structure
sentences

sim mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. Cls. sim cmx cmp

11 From east south east Massive


the tanks, from the air pilgrimageis
metaphor implying
the jets converged all
month on Sialkot the greater number
 Adj.P T
of war planes
in a massive shelling heavily on
pilgrimage, bloodier the man and
than*11 material in Sialkot.
the sacrifice of goats
at the end of
Ramadan.

Grandfather, the
landmarks are falling,
which

way will you turn


now? Islam, Islam,
that’s

all you cared for,


Stubborn as a child,
while

I had gone westward,


began to eat pork.

12 From east south east Adj,p It is a metaphoric


the tanks, from the air clause implying
(NP) resemblance of the
the jets converged all
month on Sialkot spectacle of
 (PP)(PP)Adj.C T
sacrifice of goats at
in a massive Eid ul Azha.
pilgrimage, bloodier
than

the sacrifice of goats


at the end of
Ramadan.*12

Grandfather, the
landmarks are falling,
which

way will you turn


now? Islam, Islam,
that’s

all you cared for,

109
Stubborn as a child,
while

I had gone westward,


began to eat pork.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

s.n Figurative language Lexical structure Syntactic Explaination


o structure
sentences

sim mtp per mty syn wrd Phr. Cls. sim cmx cmp

13 Grandfather, the Stubborn as child


landmarks are falling, is simile
which expressively telling
s stubbornness of
way will you turn T Adj.P T
grandfather.
now? Islam, Islam,
that’s

all you cared for,


Stubborn as a child,
*13while

I had gone westward,


began to eat pork.

14 Islam, Islam, that’s all It is a metaphor


you cared for, suggesting the
Stubborn as a child,  VP  adoption of the
while I had gone ways of life other
westward, began to than Islam.
eat pork. *14

15 Grandfather, if the old


house falls, if you
  
die where you built
and Sialkot VP It is metaphor
collapses*15 standing for
destruction of men
I shall have no Mecca and property.
to turn to, who

admire cathedrals for


their architecture.

I religion is irrelevant
to grief:

110
you will not agree, nor
will Pakistan

finding in this war the


old Islamic

Priderise like a
congregation in a
mosque.

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6,

111
Figurative Syntactic
language structure
s.n sentence Lexical structure Explanation
o

sim mtp per mty syn wrd phr cls sim cmx cmp

16 I religion is irrelevant old Islamic pride is


to grief: metaphor implying
the glory and
you will not agree, nor grandeur of Islam.
will Pakistan  Adj.P 

finding in this war the


old Islamic

Pride*16rise like a
congregation in a
mosque.

17 I religion is irrelevant Like a


to grief: congregation in a
NP mosque” is a phrase
you will not agree, nor categorized as
will Pakistan (PP)
simile showing
directly the crowd
finding in this war the
of believers usually
old Islamic
in mosque. “Like”
priderise like a is linking word
congregation in a showing simile.
mosque.*17 T 

*1 Line no.5 , P.115 i.a , *6, *7,*

As like above, the data sheet of the frequency of figurative language along with lexical and
syntactic structure is presented here in the table along with interpretation to check any
possible patterning, emerging from this frequency.

112
The frequency of categories of figurative language as well as lexico-syntactic structures of
the poem ‘Attack On Sialkot’

No. Types of Lexical structure total Syntactic structure total

Figurative word phrase clause simple comple compound


language x

1 simile - 4 - 5 1 1 2 4

2 Metaphor 2 9 1 12 3 7 2 12

3 Personificatio 1 - 1 - 1 - 1
n

tota 14 1 6 4 9 4 17
l

Findings in the poem ‘ATTACK ON SIALKOT’ in terms of figurative language and

its lexico-syntactic structures and what do they suggest in this poem.

Simile

Mosque still as poster, Islam fragile as china; Islam stubborn as child; are similes

which simply state direct and precise comparison. Here the comparison is quite

precisely explicit in terms of meanings. All the similes used in this poem state that

faith based on bigotry, devoid of reason and expediency is wrong type of strategy

-vulnerable against the challenges of anti-Islamic forces. Therefore, the aim of the use

of similes explicitly reveal that the poet has clear cut views against the preparation and

so called beliefs of local Muslims in the face of war taking place in Sialkot.

Metaphors

113
All the metaphors used in the poem are consciously used. They have religious

connotations. Earthen pot faith; grandfather breast plate of Islam, a child’s pudding

plat; in massive pilgrimage; bloodier than the sacrifice of goats at the end of

Ramadan, pork, Islamic pride- all these metaphors have religious implications. They

imply the war that is causing hell upon the land of Sialkot is the offshoot of religious

animosity, existing between two nations after partition. All this suggest compact

relevance with the main metaphor Sialkot kiln of fire; and globally with the title of the

poem ‘The Attack on the Sialkot’. The predominant use of metaphors canopen the

poem for intensive interaction and expression of their personal opinion.

Personification

My patient secularism is humanizing metaphor and personification in the poem. It

may have profound meaning; the poet wants to show that his secularism has

ideologically better choice than the fierce overall pervasive fanaticism which has

grown in Hinduism and Islam in this part of the world.

Lexical structure

The structure, he uses for these figures of speech is very interesting to analyze. The

poet has used eight NPS and Adj.p respectively. There are five PPPs. However, he

does not use single VP for these figures of speech. He wants to show no change or hint

in relation with status quo continuing between two conflicting nations.

Syntactic structure
The majority of sentences are complex which are seven in numbers. Whereas, there are
three simple and four compound sentences equalizing complex sentences in their sum.

Ghose has used figurative language in his poems to make his work memorable and
worth remembering. Mostly, he used metaphors to express his philosophical thoughts.

114
4.2 Teaching Implications of This Analysis

In this chapter, research findings are presented founded on research objectives.The

research objectives are: To find out and explain the figures of speech in Ghose’s

poems; to pinpoint how Ghose’s poems reflect lexical and syntactic structure in which

figurative language is used; to explore the pedagogic implications of this type of

stylistic studies in non- native teaching context.

The aim of this analysis was to demonstrate and sought to show that how poetic texts

can be used to enhance the capacity of language learning of students in the English

class rooms by engaging them with meaningful texts. It would lead them to become

independent believing in them, thus building their confidence.

According to Hill,literature is language in action, a focal point, a living context for

learners in their efforts to communicate. It suggests that literary texts are rich in

topics, registers and styles and they can ignite class room discussions by opening

them for a variety of interpretation.

This model as against traditional model of teaching poetry is based on variety of

linguistic activities was found very handy for students and teachers of Kashmir and

Pakistan. This model as opposite to the model of paraphrasing, summarizing, and so

on with the poems is learners centered. Learners were encouraged to analyze the

poems grammatically, lexically and syntactically. Therefore, stylistic model creates

115
useful motivation and opportunity for learners to delve deep in learning process. It

promotes students centered, enjoyable, involving and meaningful activities.

Figurative language is deeply entrenched in literacy texts to express deep felt and

subjective opinion. Its presence is so dominant in the texts that it creates massive

problems for native learners in general and non-natives in particular. Therefore,the

teaching based stylistic model presented above is very useful and interesting for all

levels of language teaching. It can develop the taste, personal growth and imaginative

abilities of the students. Half the work is done in the understanding of literacy text if it

is properly taught. Therefore; it must be special focus of language learning endeavors

in non-native environment.

It is worth noting that the figurative language can be explained and interpreted in better

way, when we study it as a part of coherent work as proposed here rather than

individually as they are treated in traditional pedagogy. In this way,itprovides valuable

linguistic inventory for interpretation and opening it for valuable interaction and

evaluation.

By employing stylistic analysis, it is possible to position language centrally and hence

to understand literary texts by essentially using linguistic means. For instance, if

teacher wants to improve the lexical and syntactic knowledge as done in the analysis,

he could encourage the students to notice this in the poem. If he wants to improve their

knowledge of clauses, he can ask them to see it in the sentences of poems. Stylistics as

an approach is very useful in foreign language teaching. It is fundamental for second

116
language learners who are motivated to improve their proficiency by involving them in

intensive reading and this is what stylistic does.

There is another advantage of ownership. If students use literary texts in the class

rooms in interactive manners, they would feel that they have made personal investment

and it is more likely they may use it for extending personal understanding by further

reading it at home. Language based approaches to literature makes the texts more

accessible for students engaging them in collaborative activities that are learners

centred.

The above analysis and models suggest that poetic texts can be used profitably if

complemented with valid kind of communicative and teaching activities.

The course designers and scholars should consider that literature must be taught by

using different pedagogical approach for non-native speakers. In our country literature

is reduced to content based learning. The texts books contain material where focus is

placed on content instead of language development.

It has already been discussed there is no room for the traditional exercises mentioned

in the above analyses of the poems. Therefore students fail to use the information for

their own interpretations. They have no analytical and creative abilities and mere

reduced to be reproducers. So, in EFL context like us, the teachers direct them to

literary text to reproduce or summarize and so on; and they have no chance of

analyzing the texts lexically, phonologically and syntactically in order to reach the

meaning of it. Therefore, it is best way to engage the students by using stylistic

117
analysis of literature especially poetic text for the acquisition of linguistic knowledge

of foreign language.

4.3 Suggestive Lesson Based on theAbove Model ofStylistic Analysis

In order to further demonstrate the benefits of using stylistic based model for the

teaching of literature, a teaching model was suggested. It shows how a teacher can

engage students in literary text profitably to improve their analytical and

communicative skills while promoting their sense of independence to give individual

interpretations of literary text.

The main aim of this suggestive lesson is to demonstrate chiefly the model of stylistic

analysis of poetic text which can be handy for teaching literature in non-native

context. The model lesson here is intended for BS students of English language. Many

teaching activities can be suggested based on this analysis of figurative language of

poetry with complex lexical and syntactic structure. The poem taken for this

suggestive lesson is one of the poems of Ghose selected for this particular study. The

suggestive activities are based chiefly on this particular model of study which the

researcher has undertaken for this particular wok. It is believed that these sorts of

stylistic based models of teaching make the students to interact and work with the

text individually without referring to external resources outside the literary text.

Being the teacher of English language and literature, the researcher himself applied

this model and found it very effective and useful. However, it is one tentative

example; other activities based on different level of stylistic analysis may also be

developed on this poem.

118
Teaching of “Decomposition”
By TIME.1hour

Level: BS

APPLYING STYLISTIC APPROACH

Stage 1 preparation stage:

The main objective of this stage is to elicit from learners the real literary experience

of the main theme and the context of the texts. The teacher after initial greeting may

ask some questions in this connection:

1. What is composition?

2. What is decomposition?

3. What does the picture of poem suggests? (Showing the picture of a beggar lying on

the pavement)

4. What do you anticipate to come across when you read the poem?

Stage 2

Presentation stage

119
1. In this stage, learners would beexposed to the original text through reading and

listening focusing on the specific content of the text. It is advisable that they do listen

the text two or three times keenly and then read it silently again and again to get

acquainted with rhythm, phonological features of the texts generally.

2. Then, the text is given to them for close reading. It is expedient that teacher reads

out the text with full rhythm and intonation and then asks one or two students to

read it out loudly.

3. Next the students are asked to read the text closely.

Stage 3: Stylistic Analysis chiefly focusing on figurative language

and finding lexical and syntactic structure.

Teacher gives them samples of data sheet of Figurative Language and asks questions

to each student. He may execute this activity in group work, pair work or individually.

The Sample of Data Sheet of Figurative Language, Lexical Structure,

and Syntactic Structure used in ‘Decomposition’ by zulfiqar Ghose.

Lexical Syntactic

No Structure Structure

. Sentence Figurative Language     Explanation


Pe Pa Sy Ph

  Sim Mtp r Mtn r Hyp n Wrd r Cls Smp Cmx  


   ∕                        
                             
1                            
                             
                             
120
                             
                             
                             
2                            
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
3                            
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
4                            
                             
                             
                             
                             
5                            
                             
                             

1. Find out the figures of speech used in the text?

2. What is the lexico- structure of figurative language used in the texts?

3. What is the phrase structure of them?

4. What is the syntactic structure of the sentences in which figurative language is

employed- simply showing if they are simple, complex or compound sentences?

5. What is the explanation of each figures of speech used in the texts?

6. Is there a pattern in the use of metaphors?

Note:

Sim : Simile Mtp: Metaphor

Mtp : Metaphor Wrd : Word


121
Phr : Phrase Syn : Synecdoche

Cls: clause

Simp; Simple

per : Personification

Mtn : Metonymy

Par : Paradox

Hyp : Hyperbole

The other teaching activities based on stylistic analysis may be as follows:

2.What is the tone of the poem? Tick right option.

Ironic, satiric

Formal informal

Forceful, vigorous

Concise short or full of imagery and so on

Rhythmic, eurythmic,

Which words like adjectives describe the tone of the poem?

3. Audience

Who are the audience of this poem?

Are the general or specific?

Are they individual or group? Tell reasons of your reply.

4. Intention and theme

What type of human condition is depicted in this poem?

What can be the objective of Ghose writing this poem?


122
5. Technique of development

Is there argumentation or persuasion? If so how?

Is it descriptive or narrative? Give evidence from the text.

Is there any comparison or contrast? If so, points out.

6. Emotion or sentiment

What sort of feeling engenders while reading the poem?

To what extent did he get success in manipulation the emotions of readers?

7. Diction

In terms of words, which choice the poet has made?

Why or how is the choice made?

Is the choice of words is effective?

Do specific words imply something?

Are the majority of words concrete or abstract?

How many words are euphony (having pleasing sounds) or cacophony (harsh sounds)

in the poem?

If so, what is the effect of them?

Is imagery used in the poem?

8. Overall description of the style

Point out one general thing about style

Colloquial

Humorous

Formal

Aggressive
123
Pensive

Earnestness

All these above activities are text based and student centered. They involve the

students in the literary text individually and independently. Students are not supposed

to read the analysis of critics or expect from the teachers the interpretation of the text;

rather they work with the poem freely. Resultantly, it does not only enhance their

consciousness of the unique pattern of poetic language but also make them suggesting

some interpretation of these patterns which they discover by themselves.

To sum up, it is important to mention that teacher should give orientation and

sufficient background knowledge with preliminary experience before conducting this

type of stylistic based lessons.

Chapter 5

CONCLUSION
5.1Findings
The focus of this study was stylistic analysis of figurativelanguage in Zulfiquar
Ghose’s poems to demonstrate a betterpedagogic approach to teach English literature
in non-native teaching context. This study proves that stylistic based approach to teach
literature is more robust and effective in improving the language skills of students. It
helps convert them active into interactive learners- a practice which is in harmony with
modern pedagogy.
The great aim of practicing this model as an example is to give stylistic based analysis,
a due place in the context of foreign language learning.However, the question remains,
whose responsibility is to sensitize students to the literary texts. To me, it involves
teachers, academics, educationists and linguistics and policy makers to determine the
place of stylistics in the curriculum keeping in view the national objectives of teaching
target language. In fact, stylistic model is the best suited in EFL environment like ours.

124
Therefore, measures have to be taken to ensure that the teachers are trained; and
programs be devised to accommodate the practice of stylistics in pedagogical context.
This model, as against traditional model of teaching figurative language in poetry is
based on variety of linguistic activities, would be very handy for students and teachers
of Kashmir and Pakistan. It is learners centered and encouraged analyzing the poems
grammatically, lexically and syntactically. Therefore, this stylistic model creates useful
motivation and opportunity for learners to explore deep in learning process which is
enjoyable, involving and meaningful.

Currently, teaching literature at college and university level is more focused in


developing vocabulary and comprehension.In this regard, literary texts are only used
for paraphrasing, comprehension questions, explanation, gap- filling and so on. The
teachers of English enjoy dominant positions and they exhibit themselves as know- all
instructors who breathlessly carry out ready-made interpretations based on the views
of other critics and writers. Also, the examination systems are designed to check and
evaluate these things. In this scenario, it is crucial for the policy makers, academia to
reconsider the role of literature in EFL teaching context.It is highly convenient and
advisable to evolve an adequate pedagogy in relation with literature which can help
students nurture an independent ability to reading, interpretation and overall
communicativeskills.

Stylistic analysis improves the skills of literary appreciation of literary work. It


enhances language perception skills of learners. It makes the learners to probe into the
layers of implications and hidden messages of authors.
Thus, it is apt to say that teaching stylistics as part of EFL curricula definitely has its
future and must be granted right place in teaching environment like ours.
5.1 Researcher contribution
This study is pretty significant that it has viably paved the way or at least one step to
evolve and develop the better method and material of teaching literature for non-native
learners.Curriculum designers, academics can advocate stylistic based pedagogy to
promote literature studies in overseas foreign language learning. They can encourage
the teaching of contemporary as well as localized English literature like zulfiquar
Ghose and others to meet our national needs.
The study has proved that authentic literary texts like poetry can be a good source of
teaching foreign language through linguistic orientation. It has attracted the students
and teachers to use first-hand experience and further apply it in their teaching and
learning practices.
The current study is the first attempt in Azad Kashmir and Kashmir academic scenario
for teaching poetry from stylistic orientation at BS level.The ramifications of this study
are varied and many as suggested below.
5.3 Recommendations

125
1. It is job of the course designer that in selecting the literature especially poetic texts,
they should be very careful. Old poetic texts should be avoided. Poetic texts should be
interesting and taken from the contemporary literature for common language students
by keeping their age, taste, needs, level and abilities. Thus, they can be a source to
contribute their language proficiency and personal discovery.

2. Activities should be incorporated in the text books which promote students response
and interaction with the text and lead them explore all the resources that a text offers.

3. Teachers of language and literature should be trained in stylistics so that they can
understand the language pedagogy and apply it in better way.

4. Testing and evaluating system in terms of foreign language learning, needs


overhauling. Texts related activities should be a source for literary and linguistic
development and they should not be regarded as assessment material. If student feel
stress and anxiety while working with literary texts, they would see literary material as
a subject to pass at the end of course. Presently, because of literature syllabus, and
examination system, students cannot think out of the box. Mostly, teachers are
concerned to complete the syllabus within time and usually, they deliver lectures and
present readymade stuff to the students. They are least bother to train the students how
to work with a literary text.

5. Despite so many current tendencies and new approaches in linguistics, academic


programs and curricula have beenremained out dated and traditional. It needs to be
changed to keep it abreast with our target needs and national objectives. The researcher
observed that literary texts with exercises and subsequent examination system are not
harmonized with modern trends in non-native language requirement.

6. To develop effective communication in foreign language as per our needs, other


prevailing teaching approaches of teaching literature can be investigated in relation to
their faulty effects on learning and communication. These studies would further the
debate on pedagogy, opening the dialogue among academics thus, pave the way for
adoption of apt stylistic practices in this regard.

7. Present study, is concerned with the stylistic analysis of figurative language of


Ghose with lexical and syntactic patterns and its implications in EFL pedagogic
contexts. Other studies can focus on phonological, morphological, semantic, pragmatic
analysis. Similarly, other model of stylistic analysis like this can also be used in this
connection.

Same study can be revised on different level or with other works where there is similar
background.

126
6 References

Abbasi, Abu Ul Wafa Mansoor Ahmed, "Paradigms of Style: A Study of Zulfikar

Ghose's b

Abrams, M. H. 1999. Glossary of Literary Terms: Fourth Edition. New YorCarnell

University,:9600.

Ahmad Munir, ‘English language and literature study’ PR theses and

dissertations.British Journal of English Linguistics Vol.5, No.6, pp.1-15,

November 2017.

Azuike, M.N. (1992) “Style: theories and practical application”. Language

Sciences,vol.14,no.1/2,pp.109-1

Barry, P. 1995. Beginning Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

`Beach,R.,Appelman,D.,Hynds,s.,&Wilhelm,j.(2011).Teaching literature to

adolescents,2nd ed.New York:Routledge.

Brumfit, c.j., &Carter, R.A (1986).literature and language teaching. Oxford university

press.Cadorath, J., and S. Harris.“Unplanned Classroom Language and

TeacherTraining,” ELT Journal 3, (1998): 52-188.

Carter,R.A. & long, M.N. Teaching literature: Longman Handsbooks for Language

Teachers.New York: longman, 1991.p.2. 1988 (ibid, 4)(ibid,10)

127
Carter (1988:10) (style as meaning a stylistic analysis of wh auden s poemsChapman,

R. 1973. Linguistics and Literature: An Introduction to LiteraryStylistics.

London: Edward Arnold Ltd...p.11.

Day, T. (2008). Between the conception and the creation’: T’S’Eliot,the Hollow men.

English, 57, 235-244.

Fish, S. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities,

(HarvardUP). 1980

Fish, S.E. ‘What is Stylistics and why are they Saying such Terrible Things aboutit?’

In Essays in Modern Stylistics. D.C. Freeman, ed. London:Methuen, 1981.

Frederik, J. T. 1988. English Poetry, an Introduction to Indonesian Students.Jakarta:

P2LPTK..p20.

Galperin, I. R. 2010. English Stylistics. Moscow: URSS Publisher, p.62.

Giroux, James A. & Williston, Glenn R. 1974.Appreciation of Literary Forms.Rhode

Island: Jamestown Publishers.

Geoffrey, L. (2000). ‘A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry’ Foreign

Language.Teaching and Research Press.

Hwang, D.,&Embi,M.A(2007). Approaches employed by secondary school teachers to

teaching the literature component in English. Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan,

22,1-23.

k.Lindblom. Teaching English in the world:Literature and Public Discourse in Times

of Global Unrest. The English Journal, 2003, 39(1):96-99.Retrived from

http://www.jstor.org/

128
Galperin, I. R. 2010. English Stylistics. Moscow: URSS Publisher.

Gill, R. 1995.Mastering English Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan.p.25.(ibid),

p.30.

Holman, C. H., and W. Harmon. 1986. A Handbook to Literature. 5th ed. NewYork:

Macmillan.p.202(ibid) 210.

Halliday, M. A. K. "Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies." Linguistic and

LiteraryStyle.ed. Donald C Freeman. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston

Inc., 1970: 65-80. Print.

Jakobson, R. (1960). Linguistics and Poetics.In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Langauge

(pp. 350-377). Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Jakobson, R. (1960). Linguistics and Poetics.In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Langauge

(pp. 350-377). Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Kennedy, X. J. 1979. Literature: an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.New

York: Little Brown and company, p,495.

P.V. Zima. Deconstruction and Critical Theory. (R. Emig, Trans.). New York:

Continuum, 2002. (Original workpublished 1994)

Khan, A.B., Raffique, S. &Saddique, G. (2014).“Stylistic analysis of the poem the

onset “By Robert Frost. European J, H.A ournal of Language Studies, 1, 29-34.

Kaplan, c.a. &simon. (1990) "In search of insight". Cognitive Psychology,vol. 22, pp.

374-419.

129
Kenndy, an analysis of figurative language used in lyrics of alan

walker's selected songs: a formalism studyegya fahrezy - 2018 -

eprints.unram.ac.id

Kennedy, X.J, and Gioia, Dana. 1995. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction,Poetry

and Drama, Sixth edition. Harper Collins. New York.

Leech, G. & Short, M.H. (1981). Style in Fiction: A linguistic introduction to English

Fictional prose. London: Longman.p, 75-82.

Leech, G. & Short, M.H. (1981). Style in Fiction: A linguistic introduction to English

Fictional prose. London: Longman.p, 13, 78-79, 74, 75, 82.

Leech, N.Geoffery. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry.Longman, 1969. Print..

Leech, G. N. (1969). A Linguistic guide to English poetry. London: Longman.p

Lehman, P.W. 1996. Descriptive Linguistics: An Introduction. New York:Random

House, Inc.p,303.

Mahmood, %., Iqbal, H., & Ahmad, S. (2015). Stylistic Analysis of Poem

“Decomposition” by”

Mansoureh, A.N. (2012). An Analysis of Dialogue in Eliot's The Waste Land from the

View Point of Gadamer's Hermeneutics. Advances in Natural and Applied

Sciences, 6, 110-115.

McArthur, T. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford:

OUP,1996...p.348.

130
Mugair, S.K. (2013). A Stylistic Analysis of “I Have a Dream”. International Journal

of English and Education, 2, 315-322.

Muzama,Batool, “Foregrounding the theme of shallowness in the hollow men, a

stylistic analytics ”A European Centre for Research Training and Development

UK.s Vol.5, No.6, pp.1-1

M29.McRae, J. (1997). Literature with Small “l”.Hemel Hempstead,U.K.:

Prentice.HallRichard Ohman.“Generative Grammar and Literary Style”.

Linguistics and Literary Style ed.

Donald C. Freeman New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1970: 264. Print.

(ibid)

Povey, J.F.(1967), Literature in TESOL Programs: The language and the

culture.21.TESOL quqrtrly,1,40-46.

Perrine, L. 1984. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. 6th ed. Fort Worth:Harcourt

Brace College Publications.p.65.(ibid) p.102.(ibid), P.62.

Jakobson, r. (1960) "Closing statement: linguistics and poetics" in T. Sebeok(ed.),

Style in Language, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.p.358.

Sangi, M.K., Soomro, A.F., &Gopang, A.S. (2012). T. S. Eliot’s Indigenous Critical

Concepts and “The Hollow Men”. Language In India, 12, 473-483. British

Journal of English Linguistics.

Sell, r. d.(ed.) (1991) Literary Pragmatics. London & NY: Routledge.

Sinclair,j.mch.(1982b) “The integration of language and literature in the English .

SELL, R. D.(ed.) (1991) Literary Pragmatics. London & NY: Routledge.

131
Short, M. 1996. Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose. London:Addison.

Wesley Longman Limited.p.356.(Ibid) p.76-78.

Simpson, P. 2004. Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routledge.p3.

Sol Saporta. “The Application of Linguistics to the study of Poetic Language”. Style

inLanguage ed. Thomas S. Sebok New York: The Technology Press of

MassachusettsInstitute of Technology and John Wiley & Sons. 1960: 93. Print.

Spears, Monroe K.The Poetry ofW. H. Auden: The Disenchanted Island. New York:

oxftoolan,m. (1990) The Stylistics of Fiction. A Literary-Linguistics

Approach.

Sinclair,j.mch.(1982b) “the integration of language and literature in the english

Curriculum” in R.Carter &D.Burton (eds.)Literary Text and Language Study.

London: Edward Arnold, pp.9-28.

Urquhart, T. (2001). Eliot's the Hollow Men, The Explicator. Routledge, 4, 199-201.

Widows, H.G (1984), Explorations in Applied Linguistics, Oxford, Oxford University

press, p.161.

Widdowson, H.G. (1975). Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature. London:

Longman.(ibid).p.3(ibid)..p.75.(ibid)..p.76.(Ibid)..p.80.

Widdowson,H.G.(1978). Stylistc Analysis and Literary Interpretation.In

Spencer,C.&Wimsatt, W. K. The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of

Poetry. Kentucky:Univ. of Kentucky Press, 1954.

Wimsatt,W. “Style as Meaning”. Essays on the Language of Literature ed. Chatman

andLevin Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967: 235. Print.

132
T.F. Davis and K. Womack. Transitions: Formalist Criticism and Reader-Response

Theory. New York: PalgraveWren and Martin. 1990. High School English

Grammar and Composition. NewDelhi: S.Chand and Co Ltd.p.341.

Gregory,M. (Eds.),Linguistics and Style. Oxford University Press.Approaches to

teaching literature in EFL classroomsAN Padurean - Journal of Romanian

Literary Studies, 2015 - ceeol.com

Yimwilai, S. (2015), An Integrated Approach to Teaching Literature in an EFL

Classroom, in English Language Teaching, vol. 8, No. 2, p. 15.

133
7. APPENDICES

1-A Decomposition

1. I have a picture I took in Bombay

2. of a beggar asleep on the pavement:

3. grey-haired, wearing shorts and a dirty shirt,

4. his shadow thrown aside like a blanket.

5. His arms and legs could be cracks in the stone,

6. routes for the ants' journeys, the flies' descents,

7. Brain-washed by the sun into exhaustion,

8. he lies veined into stone, a fossil man.

9. Behind him there is a crowd passingly

10. bemused by a pavement trickster and quite

11. indifferent to this very common sight

12. of an old man asleep on the pavement.

13. I thought it then a good composition

14. and glibly called it "The Man in the Street,"

15. remarking how typical it was of

16. India that the man in the street lived there.

17. His head in the posture of one weeping

18. into a pillow chides me now for my

19. presumption at attempting to compose

20. art of his hunger and solitude.

2. B point in Metaphysics

134
1. The two public clocks in Blauvac

2. express a two-minute difference

3. when sticking the hour, providing

4. thus two minutes of timelessness

5. or the deceiving impression

6. that the hour had never struck or

7. that the past is retrievable.

8. public clocks in Blauvac

9. express a two-minute difference

10. when sticking the hour, providing

11. thus two minutes of timelessness

12. or the deceiving impression

13. that the hour had never struck or

14. that the past is retrievable.

15. Butterflies hung above the flower-pots

16. in their short, sharp movements

17. as if pinned to needle,

18. the air quaking around them, when

19. the first clock slowly struck the hour;

20. fallen figs lay on the roadside

21. like deflated balloons with flies

22. plucking at strings of their juice;

23. the bees, pursuing the perfumed

135
24. air, turned from lavender to thyme;

25. the hills, pipelined with rows of vines,

26. were reservoirs for the sun’s

27. overflow that Provencal noon.

28. And then the second clock struck,

29. Tricking the consciousness into

30. Thinking that nothing had happened

31. Or every thing must happen

32. Again and again

33. That the insects,flowers and trees,

34. Extracting one another’s juices

35. In a common dependence on earth

36. Had a timeless origion

37. Or had begain now,at this hour.

2- Political Science

“We shall cede with a brotherly embrace”,


determined Shivaji, the insurgent
king of Marathas. Below the fortress,
Afzal Khan encamped with ten thousand men.

136
“We shall give in to Emperor’s will,”
spoke Shivaji to his assembled court.
“This sudden mushroom growth below our hill
outnumbers our swords: a war would be short

“As a swim in a tempestuous sea.


We must erect cunning’s dyke. Lords, nobles,
leave me with the Brahmin in privacy.
We shall pray for an end to our troubles”.

Shivaji said to Brahmin: “you shall


go to Afzal Khan and invite him here.
I shall embrace him by the garden wall
and resign my will to the Emperor.

“When low sunlight combs the wild jungle’s hair,


I shall wait for him in my garden seat.
When the evening whispers its coolest air,
say we shall be lovers if hen we meet.”

Afzal Khan encamped with ten thousand men ,


deputed by the emperor to raze
Shivaji’s fame which built its monument
by stealing bricks from the empire’s walls

Afzal Khan thus answered the Brahmin’s


offer of peace: “if Shivaji accepts
defeat, then it is his reason which wins.
If our firmness, our strength he interprets

“As his weakness, then he is wise .but say


he must surrender all arms and become
a tributary which will flow always
to Delhi. If he agrees, we shall welcome

“His embrace. Say sunset or gay sunrise,


his word we accept as of that rich hue,
our faith in it will be butterfly’s.
Say, if he loves us, we shall him, too.”

Trumpets rang through the halls of Shivaji’s court,


the Generals assembled for his speech.
“Afzal Khan has agreed to come; his escort

137
will be two officers. Thus, I shall reach,

“With outstretched arms and the love I profess,


his heart under the homeward flight of crows.
When we embrace, bosom to bosom pressed,
I shall sign a treaty with the tiger’s claws

“On the stiff parchment of his chest. The dark


falls quickly this time of year. Each rose bush
shall have glow worms of my men, each tree’s bark
will breathe with the secret sap of ambush.”

They sprinkled water on the lawns ,his walk


towards Afzal Khan would be soft: hw would
sway weakly in the air like a flower stalk
and tip poisonous pollen into the blood

of Afzal Khan .the last crow choked his cry


when the shadows became discarded cloaks
upon the lawns. The sun, ballooned in the sky,
was about to burst. Frogs coughed their silly jokes.

Only Shivaji’s men behind the trees


noticed that what burst was Afzal Khan’s heart
and the short cough of hate was Shivaji’s
as he unscrolled the fag of Afzal’s shirt

With the gale force of his dagger’s point.


In the court, the lords prayed, tapping the sticks
of their throats at their god .they rose then to join
in praise of Shivaji’s shrewd sense of politics.

4-D Egypt

138
3- Descending towards, Cairo, an arid land,
4- is like a misted mirror, its haze the diffused image of the sun,Egypt is
5- Straw to the sun’s flame, its monuments are slipping into the flood water
6- Like beasts come to drink from the dry interior.
7-

Crane absurd as science fiction creature, stand

Where slaves once tore their muscles so that kings

Might lie entombed in cool ,musk smelling darkness,

Mummified, perfect as butterfly specimens:

The more advanced a civilization,

The subtler, the refinement of vanity.

The same old Egypt holds its sun wearied earth

Together with transfusions from the Nile.

The concrete lifts its pharaoh head above

The people in Cairo, compelling submission

To the hours of the work. The sky is the scrap of iron.

A scholar hurries to a museum,

A tourist points his zoom lens at the flies

Sticking to a cluster of dates in a bazar.

Second hand vision records Egypt myths

Endure. The same old Egypt contracts like

A dried fig in the heat of the Jet’s ascent.

139
5-E The Attack on Sialkot

Grandfather, eighty now, his pilgrimage

to Mecca over, still lives there, at peace

with his Muslim conscience. At our last meeting

he sat in the courtyard of a mosque, still

as an idol, while I stood outside, garish

as a poster against the whitewashed wail

in my mohair suit and corduroy hat,

advertising my patient secularism.

Gunfire made Sialkot a kiln to fire

Pakistan’s earthen-pot faith, I listened

to the news hour after hour the whole month

and saw maps in newspapers~ an arrow

pointed at Sialkot. Grandfather’s breast-plate

of Islam had become fragile as china

in the intruding heresy of tanks.

I see that arrow still : aimed at grandfather.

It was a messy, a child’s pudding-plate

of a town during nay first seven years.

I pulled at grandfather’s beard and dragged down

his turban when he carried me to school.

He turned five times a day to Mecca, bowed

low in prayer and at night swung me round

the bed so that my feet did not insult

the holy direction, the one truth he knew.

140
From east and southeast the tanks, from the air

the jets converged all month on Sialkot

in a massive pilgrimage, bloodier than

the sacrifice of goats at the end of Ramadan.

Grandfather, the landmarks are falling, which

way will you turn now? Islam, Islam, that’s

all you cared for, stubborn as a child, while

I had gone westward, begun to eat pork.

Grandfather, if the old house falls, if you

die where you built and Sialkot collapses~

I shall have no Mecca to turn to, who

admire cathedrals for their architecture.

l~eligion is irrelevant to grief:

you will not agree~ nor will Pakistan~

finding in this war the old Islamic

pride rise like a

congression in the mosque.

References

Abbasi, Abu Ul Wafa Mansoor Ahmed, "Paradigms of Style: A Study of Zulfikar

Ghose's b

Abrams, M. H. 1999. Glossary of Literary Terms: Fourth Edition. New YorCarnell

University,:9600.

141
Ahmad Munir, ‘English language and literature study’ PR theses and

dissertations.British Journal of English Linguistics Vol.5, No.6, pp.1-15,

November 2017.

Azuike, M.N. (1992) “Style: theories and practical application”. Language

Sciences,vol.14,no.1/2,pp.109-1

Barry, P. 1995. Beginning Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

`Beach,R.,Appelman,D.,Hynds,s.,&Wilhelm,j.(2011).Teaching literature to

adolescents,2nd ed.New York:Routledge.

Brumfit, c.j., &Carter, R.A (1986).literature and language teaching. Oxford university

press.Cadorath, J., and S. Harris. “Unplanned Classroom Language and

TeacherTraining,” ELT Journal 3, (1998): 52-188.

Carter,R.A. & long, M.N. Teaching literature: Longman Handsbooks for Language

Teachers.New York: longman, 1991.p.2. 1988 (ibid, 4)(ibid,10)

Carter (1988:10) (style as meaning a stylistic analysis of wh auden s poemsChapman,

R. 1973. Linguistics and Literature: An Introduction to LiteraryStylistics.

London: Edward Arnold Ltd...p.11.

Day, T. (2008). Between the conception and the creation’: T’S’Eliot,the Hollow men.

English, 57, 235-244.

Fish, S. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities,

(HarvardUP). 1980

Fish, S.E. ‘What is Stylistics and why are they Saying such Terrible Things aboutit?’

In Essays in Modern Stylistics. D.C. Freeman, ed. London:Methuen, 1981.

142
Frederik, J. T. 1988. English Poetry, an Introduction to Indonesian Students.Jakarta:

P2LPTK..p20.

Galperin, I. R. 2010. English Stylistics. Moscow: URSS Publisher, p.62.

Giroux, James A. & Williston, Glenn R. 1974. Appreciation of Literary Forms.Rhode

Island: Jamestown Publishers.

Geoffrey, L. (2000). ‘A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry’ Foreign Language.

Teaching and Research Press.

Hwang, D.,&Embi,M.A(2007). Approaches employed by secondary school teachers to

teaching the literature component in English. Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan,

22,1-23.

k.Lindblom. Teaching English in the world:Literature and Public Discourse in Times

of Global Unrest. The English Journal, 2003, 39(1):96-99.Retrived from

http://www.jstor.org/

Galperin, I. R. 2010. English Stylistics. Moscow: URSS Publisher.

Gill, R. 1995. Mastering English Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan.p.25.(ibid),

p.30.

Holman, C. H., and W. Harmon. 1986. A Handbook to Literature. 5th ed. NewYork:

Macmillan.p.202(ibid) 210.

Halliday, M. A. K. "Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies." Linguistic and

LiteraryStyle. ed. Donald C Freeman. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston

Inc., 1970: 65-80. Print.

143
Jakobson, R. (1960). Linguistics and Poetics. In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Langauge

(pp. 350-377). Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Jakobson, R. (1960). Linguistics and Poetics. In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Langauge

(pp. 350-377). Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Kennedy, X. J. 1979. Literature: an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.New

York: Little Brown and company, p,495.

P.V. Zima. Deconstruction and Critical Theory. (R. Emig, Trans.). New York:

Continuum, 2002. (Original workpublished 1994)

Khan, A.B., Raffique, S. &Saddique, G. (2014).“Stylistic analysis of the poem the

onset “By Robert Frost. European J, H.A ournal of Language Studies, 1, 29-34.

Kaplan, c.a. &simon. (1990) "In search of insight". Cognitive Psychology,vol. 22, pp.

374-419.

Kenndy, an analysis of figurative language used in lyrics of alan

walker's selected songs: a formalism studyegya fahrezy - 2018 -

eprints.unram.ac.id

Kennedy, X.J, and Gioia, Dana. 1995. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction,Poetry

and Drama, Sixth edition. Harper Collins. New York.

Leech, G. & Short, M.H. (1981). Style in Fiction: A linguistic introduction to English

Fictional prose. London: Longman.p, 75-82.

Leech, G. & Short, M.H. (1981). Style in Fiction: A linguistic introduction to English

Fictional prose. London: Longman.p, 13, 78-79, 74, 75, 82.

Leech, N.Geoffery. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Longman, 1969. Print..

144
Leech, G. N. (1969). A Linguistic guide to English poetry. London: Longman.p

Lehman, P.W. 1996. Descriptive Linguistics: An Introduction. New York:Random

House, Inc.p,303.

Mahmood, %., Iqbal, H., & Ahmad, S. (2015). Stylistic Analysis of Poem

“Decomposition” by”

Mansoureh, A.N. (2012). An Analysis of Dialogue in Eliot's The Waste Land from the

View Point of Gadamer's Hermeneutics. Advances in Natural and Applied

Sciences, 6, 110-115.

McArthur, T. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford:

OUP,1996...p.348.

Mugair, S.K. (2013). A Stylistic Analysis of “I Have a Dream”. International Journal

of English and Education, 2, 315-322.

Muzama,Batool, “Foregrounding the theme of shallowness in the hollow men, a

stylistic analytics ”A European Centre for Research Training and Development

UK.s Vol.5, No.6, pp.1-1

M29.McRae, J. (1997). Literature with Small “l”.Hemel Hempstead,U.K.:

Prentice.HallRichard Ohman. “Generative Grammar and Literary Style”.

Linguistics and Literary Style ed.

Donald C. Freeman New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1970: 264. Print.

(ibid)

Povey, J.F.(1967), Literature in TESOL Programs: The language and the

culture.21.TESOL quqrtrly,1,40-46.

145
Perrine, L. 1984. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. 6th ed. Fort Worth:Harcourt

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