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Textile Mill Utilities I

Thermal Power Plants

DEFINITIONS OF POWER PLANT:

 A place where electricity is generated.


 A human-made industrial system composed of machinery,
equipment, and structures designed to convert various energy
resources into electricity, usually on a large scale. Examples
include coal-fired and nuclear power plants and hydroelectric
dams.

DEFINITION OF THERMAL POWER PLANT:

 A facility to produce electric energy from thermal energy released


by combustion of a fuel or consumption of a fissionable material

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT:

 The basic principle is that heat liberated by burning fuel is


converted into mechanical works by means of a suitable working
fluid.
 The mechanical work is converted into electrical energy by the
help of generators.
 A working fluid goes through a repetitive cyclic change
 This cyclic change involving heat and work is known as the
thermodynamic cycle.
 Thus a thermodynamic cycle is a series of operations, involving a
heat source, a heat receiver, a machine or utilizer between the
source and the receiver and a working substance.
 In a steam power station heat is released by burning fuel, this heat
is taken up by water which works a working fuel.
 Water is converted into steam as it receives heat in a boiler.

Dr. Fareha Asim


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Textile Mill Utilities I
Thermal Power Plants

 The steam then expands in a turbine producing mechanical work


 Which is then converted into an electrical energy through a
generator.
 The exhaust steam from the turbine is then condensed in a
condenser and condensate thereafter pumped to the boiler where it
again receives heat and the cycle is reapeated.

CLASSSIFICATION OF POWER PLANT CYCLES:

 Thermal power plants, in general, may work on vapor power cycles


or gas power cycles.

VAPOUR POWER CYCLES CLASSIFICATION:

1. Rankine Cycle
2. Reheat Cycle
3. Regenerative Cycle
4. Binary Vapour Cycle.

GAS POWER CYCLE CLASSIFICATION:

1. Otto cycle
2. Diesel cycle
3. Duel combustion cycle ( Open cycle, closed cycle)
4. Gas turbine cycle.

Dr. Fareha Asim


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Textile Mill Utilities I
Thermal Power Plants

CARNOT CYCLE

 The Carnot cycle is the most efficient heat engine that can operate
between two fixed temperatures TH and TL.
 The Carnot cycle is described by the following four processes.

1-2 Isothermal heat addition

2-3 Isentropic expansion

3-4 Isothermal heat rejection

4-1 Isentropic compression

LIMITATAIONS OF CARNOTE CYCLE:

 Though car note cycle is (thermodynamically) simple and has


highest thermal efficiency for given values of T1 and T2
 yet it is extremely difficult to operate in practice because of
following reasons;

Dr. Fareha Asim


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Textile Mill Utilities I
Thermal Power Plants

1. It is difficult to compress a wet vapor isentropically to the saturated


state as required by the process 3-4
2. It is difficult to control the quality of the condensate coming out of
the condenser so that the state 3 is exactly obtained.

RANKINE CYCLE:

The main feature of the Rankine cycle, shown in Figure

 It confines the isentropic compression process to the liquid


phase only (Figure points 1 to 2).
 This minimizes the amount of work required to attain
operating pressures and avoids the mechanical problems
associated with pumping a two-phase mixture.

Dr. Fareha Asim


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Textile Mill Utilities I
Thermal Power Plants

 Rankine cycle is a heat engine with vapor power cycle. The


common working fluid is water. The cycle consists of four
processes:

 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine)


 2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser)
 3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump)
 4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler)

 The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle


but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic.

Dr. Fareha Asim


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