0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

1 Ansichten7 SeitenSynthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a very useful technique for signal
detection in interferometric sensors. The demodulation process is usually
accomplished using analogue circuits. Improved functionality can be
obtained by using a digital signal processor. In this paper, an expression is
derived for the sensor sensitivity where both laser phase noise and signal
acquisition quantization noise are considered. The demodulation technique
requires modulation of the laser frequency, usually accompl

Mar 23, 2020

© © All Rights Reserved

Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a very useful technique for signal
detection in interferometric sensors. The demodulation process is usually
accomplished using analogue circuits. Improved functionality can be
obtained by using a digital signal processor. In this paper, an expression is
derived for the sensor sensitivity where both laser phase noise and signal
acquisition quantization noise are considered. The demodulation technique
requires modulation of the laser frequency, usually accompl

© All Rights Reserved

0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

1 Ansichten7 SeitenSynthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a very useful technique for signal
detection in interferometric sensors. The demodulation process is usually
accomplished using analogue circuits. Improved functionality can be
obtained by using a digital signal processor. In this paper, an expression is
derived for the sensor sensitivity where both laser phase noise and signal
acquisition quantization noise are considered. The demodulation technique
requires modulation of the laser frequency, usually accompl

© All Rights Reserved

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

(http://iopscience.iop.org/1464-4258/4/6/387)

View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more

Download details:

IP Address: 128.119.168.112

The article was downloaded on 02/05/2013 at 07:22

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4 (2002) S400–S405 PII: S1464-4258(02)36470-5

Digital synthetic-heterodyne

interferometric demodulation

Michael J Connelly

Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick,

Limerick, Republic of Ireland

E-mail: michael.connelly@ul.ie

Published 4 November 2002

Online at stacks.iop.org/JOptA/4/S400

Abstract

Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a very useful technique for signal

detection in interferometric sensors. The demodulation process is usually

accomplished using analogue circuits. Improved functionality can be

obtained by using a digital signal processor. In this paper, an expression is

derived for the sensor sensitivity where both laser phase noise and signal

acquisition quantization noise are considered. The demodulation technique

requires modulation of the laser frequency, usually accomplished by

modulation of the laser current. An expression is derived for the

second-harmonic distortion caused by the laser power modulation. The

detection scheme was implemented on a digital signal processor and used to

detect dynamic pressure signals with a bandwidth of 550 Hz.

signal processing

(Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)

1. Introduction 2. Theory

Interferometric optical sensors can be used to detect a variety A schematic diagram of the sensor system under consideration

of stimuli including strain, temperature and pressure [1]. The in this paper is shown in figure 1. The output from a frequency-

basic principle is that an applied stimulus causes a phase modulated laser diode is transmitted down an optical fibre

shift between two light beams. Both beams are detected to an external cavity. The fibre end is partially reflective.

simultaneously and converted to an electrical signal, which is The output light from the fibre is collimated by a lens and

then processed to obtain a signal proportional to the stimulus. travels through air for a distance L and then reflected by a

Because the detection process is non-linear, relatively complex flexible membrane, with reflectivity R2 1. As the fibre

techniques must be applied to obtain a linear relationship end reflectivity R1 1, the cavity can be modelled as a two-

between an output electrical signal and the induced phase beam interferometer. If the membrane is displaced, the cavity

shift. Common techniques include pseudo-heterodyne [2], length is changed leading to a phase shift between the two

passive and active homodyne [3] and synthetic-heterodyne [4]. reflected light beams. The reflected light beams travel back

In this paper, we describe a digital implementation of the down the fibre and are detected by a photodiode. The detected

synthetic-heterodyne technique and use it to detect a phase photocurrent is converted to a voltage by a resistive load,

signal from an external cavity with includes a mirror mounted filtered, amplified and passed through an analogue-to-digital

on an accelerometer to simulate a phase disturbance [5]. We converter (ADC). The digital signal is then digitally processed

also derive new equations for the sensor sensitivity and second- using synthetic-heterodyne demodulation to obtain a signal

harmonic distortion (HD2) taking into account laser phase and proportional to the induced dynamic phase shift. This signal

signal quantization noise and laser power modulation. The can be further processed, displayed or converted to an analogue

particular application of the sensor in this study is to detect signal by passing it through a digital-to-analogue converter

dynamic pressure waves such as sound. (DAC) and a low-pass filter. The detected photocurrent can be

Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation

and low-pass filtered (detection bandwidth B) to give

I (t) = A{1 + V cos[θ (t) + φ(t)]} (1)

S1 = AV J1 (C) sin φ(t)

(11)

where S2 = AV J2 (C) cos φ(t)

A = R p Pin γ (R1 + R2 ) (2)

where J1 and J2 are Bessel functions of the first kind of order

where R p is the photodiode responsivity, Pin the laser output one and two respectively. Taking the time derivatives of S1

power and γ the fraction of power from the extrinsic cavity and S2 gives

coupler directed to the photodiode. The visibility V is given by

S3 = AV J1 (C)φ̇(t) cos φ(t)

√ (12)

R1 R2

V = . (3) S4 = − AV J2 (C)φ̇(t) sin φ(t).

R1 + R2

Multiplying S1 by S4 and S2 by S3 gives

The visibility is maximized if R1 = R2 . It is assumed that the

reflected light beams have identical polarizations. θ (t) is the S5 = −(AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)φ̇(t) sin2 φ(t)

phase difference between the reflected beams due to the optical (13)

S6 = (AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)φ̇(t) cos2 φ(t).

carrier frequency and φ(t) the externally induced phase shift.

In the synthetic-heterodyne technique θ (t) is modulated. Subtracting S5 from S6 gives

This modulation can be achieved in many ways but one of

S0 = (AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)φ̇(t). (14)

the most convenient is to modulate the laser frequency by am-

plitude modulating the laser drive current. The laser frequency S0 can be integrated to obtain a signal proportional to φ(t). S0

modulation is converted to phase modulation by the non-zero depends on the product J1 (C)J2 (C), which reaches its maxi-

cavity path difference. The instantaneous laser frequency is mum value of 0.22 when C = 2.37. This condition dictates

the magnitude of the modulation current used for a given laser

dν and cavity length.

ν = ν0 + i (t) (4)

dI

where ν0 is the unmodulated laser frequency and i (t) the laser 3. Sensitivity

modulation current. The laser phase is then

t 3.1. Output noise power

θ (t) = 2π ν(t) dt There are a number of noise sources that limit the sensor

0 sensitivity. In practice receiver dark current noise and

dν t

= 2π ν0 t + i (t) dt . (5) signal shot noise are negligible in comparison with other

dI 0 noise sources. The dominant noise sources are receiver

If sinusoidal modulation is applied to the laser current then thermal noise, laser phase noise induced intensity noise and

quantization noise, which arises when digital signal processing

i (t) = Im cos(ω0 t) (6) is used. The thermal noise current spectral density (A2 Hz−1 )

is

where Im and ω0 are the laser modulation current amplitude 4kT F

G th = (15)

and angular frequency respectively. Hence (5) becomes RL

where k is the Boltzmann constant, T temperature, R L the

dν Im

θ (t) = 2π ν0 t + sin(ω0 t) . (7) photodiode load resistance and F the receiver postamplifier

dI ω0 noise figure. An expression for the noise spectral density

of the light intensity from a two-beam interferometer in the

Hence

case of a monomode laser source is derived in [6]. Using this

θ (t) ≡ θ (t + τ ) − θ (t) = 2πν0 τ + C cos(ω0 t + θ0 ) (8) expression, it can be easily shown for the setup of figure 1 that

the photocurrent noise spectral density due to the laser phase

where τ = 2L/c is the cavity round-trip time. For ω0 τ < 1 noise is given by

we can make the approximation G p = 8γ 2 R1 R2 τc f (τ/τc )Pin2 R 2p (16)

C ≈ 2π

dν

Im τ where τc is the laser coherence time and f (τ/τc ) is the

dI (9) coherence function [6] given by

θ0 ≈ 0.

τ

f (τ/τc ) = 1 − exp(−τ/τc ) 1 + (17)

τc

Equation (1) can now be written as

f (τ/τc ) can be approximated by

I (t) = A{1 + V cos[C cos(ω0 t) + φ(t)]}. (10) 2

1 τ , τ τc

Equation (10) can be expanded into a series of sidebands that f (τ/τc ) ≈ 2 τc (18)

contain the signal of interest φ(t). In synthetic-heterodyne 1, τ τc

demodulation, the first two sidebands of (10) are mixed with

S401

M J Connelly

dc bias

Bias-tee

Modulation current

i (t ) = I m cos ω 0t Isolator Extrinsic cavity

DFB laser R2

Splitter Optical fibre R1 Pressure

wave

Lens

I(t) Flexible

Digital L mirror

Optical Output signal

receiver signal

processing proportional to

dynamic pressure

FIR low-pass

X filter

Amplifier

From Anti-aliasing Cos(w0t)

optical filter ADC

receiver Cos(2w0t)

FIR low-pass

X filter

Analog

d output

X to low-pass

dt Amplifier

filter

+ Integrator DAC

d

X

dt Reset Range check

switch

1 If the input phase signal φ(t) is sinusoidal with amplitude D

τc = . (19)

ν and angular frequency ωs , then the detected signal power, after

The quantization noise current spectral density is given by integration of S0 , is given by

2 (AV )4 [D J1 (C)J2 (C)]2

V A– D /2 Q S= . (23)

Gq = (20) 2

6Ts R 2L

The sensor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), from (22) and (23) is

where V A– D and Q are the voltage range and number of bits of

given by

the digital signal processor input ADC. Ts is the sampling time

S [AV J1 (C)D]2

(inverse of the sampling frequency). In (20) it is assumed that SNR ≡ = . (24)

unity strength sampling pulses are used in the ADC quantizer. N ηB

The total current noise spectral density η (single-sided) at The sensor sensitivity can be defined as the phase amplitude

the ADC input is simply the sum of the individual uncorrelated Dmin required for an SNR of unity. From (24) we get

noise spectral densities, i.e. √

η

η = G th + G p + G q . (21) Dmin = rad Hz−1/2 . (25)

AV J1 (C)

η can be considered to be white noise over the bandwidth of If laser phase noise induced intensity noise is dominant, then

the detection process. It is an elementary but tedious process, Dmin is proportional to the cavity length.

using techniques described in [7], to calculate the output noise

power N after synthetic-heterodyne demodulation. We simply

4. Second-harmonic distortion

state the result here:

[AV J2 (C)]2 η B The laser power varies as the current is modulated. This can

N= . (22) cause phase errors [8]. In synthetic-heterodyne demodulation,

2

S402

Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation

oscillator

S3

4.8 kHz local

oscillator

S4

Input to

upper filter

S1 x S4

Input to

lower filter

S2 x S3

S1

So

Figure 3. Internal signals on the DSP card. The vertical axes are normalized to the maximum signal amplitudes for clarity. The lengths of

the horizontal time axes are 20 ms.

Figure 4. Optical receiver output and detected phase signals. The ramping of the phase signal is due to the laser power modulation. The

vertical axes are normalized to the maximum signal amplitudes for clarity. The lengths of the left and right horizontal time axes are 7 and

29 ms respectively.

the laser power variation causes terms proportional to cos φ(t) where

and sin φ(t) to be present in S1 and S2 respectively and d Pin Im

α= . (27)

also terms proportional to φ̇(t) sin φ(t) and φ̇(t) cos φ(t) to dI Pin

be present in S3 and S4 respectively. An advantage of If φ(t) = D cos(ωt) is small compared to unity then (26)

the synthetic-heterodyne technique is that these potentially becomes

degrading terms cancel out when S0 is calculated. There is also S0 = −(AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)ω D sin(ωt)

a constant term in S1 , caused by the laser power modulation. α

If this effect is included in the analysis then (14) becomes × 1− D cos(ωt)

2V J1 (C)

= − (AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)ω D

α α

S0 = (AV )2 J1 (C)J2 (C)φ̇(t) 1 − sin φ(t) (26) × sin(ωt) − [1 + sin(2ωt )] . (28)

2V J1 (C) 4V J1 (C)

S403

M J Connelly

If S0 is integrated (to retrieve φ(t)) then the constant term written that allows the internal DSP signals to be monitored.

in (28) will give rise to a signal that increases linearly with time. Some of these signals are shown in figure 3. The optical

There is also a second harmonic present in (28), which may receiver output signal and resulting detected phase signal at

interfere with other signals within the demodulation scheme 100 Hz are shown in figure 4. The phase signal is as expected,

detection bandwidth. The HD2 can be defined as the ratio a sinusoid at 100 Hz. The waveform exhibits sharp jumps

between the amplitudes of the fundamental and its second that are due to quantization effects inherent in the sampling

harmonic, i.e. process. These can be removed if the signal is converted to

an analogue signal and passed through a smoothing low-pass

αD filter. The waveform also has a component that increases

2HD = 20 log dB. (29)

8V J1 (C) slowly with time. As described above, this is caused by

the laser power modulation. In this case phase resets were

5. Digital implementation and experiment required approximately every 5 s, i.e. the reset waveform is

a triangular function with a period of 5 s. This means that

The basic experimental setup is shown in figure 1. A block the lowest frequency that can be detected by the sensor is

diagram of the synthetic-heterodyne demodulation technique approximately 1 Hz (assuming frequency components above

as implemented on a digital signal processor (dSPACE the fifth harmonic of the reset waveform are negligible). Other

DS1102) is shown in figure 2. The output signal from the frequencies, within the detection bandwidth of 550 Hz, were

optical receiver (R L = 1 k) is passed through a dc blocking successfully detected.

capacitor, anti-aliasing filter (bandwidth equal to ω0 /π + B), The thermal noise limited sensitivity is 0.2 µrad Hz−1/2 .

amplified (so the receiver output signal range is equal to the If a typical laser linewidth of 10 MHz is assumed, the

ADC voltage range) and converted to a digital signal. The theoretical sensitivity (in the absence of quantization noise)

digital signal is then processed using synthetic-heterodyne from (25) is 7.8 µrad Hz−1/2 . The quantization noice

demodulation. The DSP card has a 16-bit ADC and operates at introduced by the 16-bit ADC is for the dominant noise source,

a sampling frequency of 12 kHz. The digital filters are finite- leading to a theoretical sensitivity of 0.49 rad Hz−1/2 . This

impulse response (FIR) filters. Differentiation is approximated theoretical sensitivity was not confirmed experimentally in the

by prototype system. The quantization noise can be reduced to

d f (t) ( fn − f n−1 ) less than the laser phase noise induced intensity noise by the use

≈ (30) of a 32-bit ADC. There is some distortion of the output signal;

dt Ts

however, it was difficult to determine if this is due to additional

where f n and f n−1 are samples of a function f at times t and

reflections from the cavity, the laser power modulation or the

t + Ts . Integration is approximated by

accelerometer.

n

f (t) dt ≈ Ts fj. (31) 6. Conclusions

j =0

A prototype of a digital implementation of the synthetic-

Due to the laser power modulation, there is a dc component heterodyne technique, with a detection bandwidth of 550 Hz,

in the signal prior to integration. This will eventually cause has been demonstrated. Important practical limitations,

an overflow error in the processor. To avoid this problem, including laser phase noise, signal quantization noise, laser

the integrator output is reset to zero if it exceeds its allowed power modulation and second harmonic distortion were

range. If required, the demodulated phase signal can be further analysed.

processed or converted to an analogue signal using a DAC and

smoothing low-pass filter. Acknowledgment

A prototype system was constructed using a temperature-

stabilized DFB laser operating at a bias current of 90 mA, with This work was carried out while the author was a visiting

an output power of 1 mW. The side-mode rejection ratio of the researcher at the European Commission Joint Research Centre

laser was greater than 35 dB and so is a monomode source. (JRC), 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy. The author thanks Dr Maurice

At the bias point chosen, dν/dI = 850 MHz mA−1 . A 10 cm Whelan of the JRC for assistance with the experimental set-up

long external cavity was used. An external low-reflectivity and useful discussions.

mirror mounted on an accelerometer was used to simulate a

flexible reflective membrane. For evaluation purposes, the References

accelerometer was driven by a sinusoidal voltage at 100 Hz

to simulate a cavity displacement. The laser modulation [1] Giallorenzi T G, Bucaro J A, Dandridge A, Siegel G H,

current had a frequency of 2.4 kHz. The current amplitude Cole J H, Raleigh S C and Priest R G 1982 Optical fiber

sensor technology IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18 625–65

of 3.6 mA was chosen to give the optimum value of C (2.37) [2] Jackson D A, Kersey A D, Corke M and Jones J D 1982

for the particular cavity length used. The fibre uncoated Pseudo-heterodyne detection scheme for optical

cleaved end reflectivity is 0.04. The mirror has a reflectivity interferometers Electron. Lett. 18 1081–3

approximately equal to 0.1. γ = 1. A low-noise optical [3] Dandridge A, Tveten A B and Giallorenzi T G 1982 Homodyne

receiver (R p = 0.9 A W−1 ) was used to detect the return signal demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase

generated carrier IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18 1647–62

from the external cavity. This signal was then passed through [4] Cole J H, Danver B A and Bucaro J A 1982

an anti-aliasing filter, dc blocking capacitor and amplified Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation IEEE J.

before acquisition and digital signal processing. Software was Quantum Electron. 18 694–7

S404

Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation

synthetic-heterodyne detection of a fibre cavity sensor Proc. [7] Taub H and Schilling D L 1987 Principles of Communication

3rd Topical Meeting on Optoelectronic Distance Systems (New York: McGraw-Hill)

Measurement and Applications, ODIMAP III (Pavia, Italy) [8] Onodera R, Ishii Y, Ohde N, Takahashi Y and Yoshino T 1995

pp 331–6 Effect of laser-diode power change on optical heterodyne

[6] Petermann K and Weidel E 1981 Semiconductor laser noise in interferometry IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

an interferometer system IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13 675–81

S405

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.