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School of Management, Operations and


MGNT210: Managing Across Cultures

Subject Outline

Semester B 2020
Lecture Information:
Tuesdays, 10:00 – 14:00(Lecture &Tutorial), RTF506

Pre-requisites: MGMT110 plus 12 cps from 200 or 300 level Management or Marketing subjects
Co-requisites: Nil
Restrictions: Nil

Teaching Staff
Name Dr. Crystal Wu
Telephone 55958366
Consultation By appointment

Section A: General Information
Learning Outcomes

Course Learning Outcomes

Course Learning Outcomes can be found in the Course Handbook

Student Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this subject, students will be able to:

1. Appraise various theoretical perspectives on culture, cultural difference and cultural

change, and their implications for international business.
2. Explain management practices in different cultural environments.
3. Propose ways to manage cultural challenges in an international business context.
4. Discuss how to build more effective relationships with people from other countries in a
business context.
5. Effectively communicate orally and in writing.

Subject Description
This subject explores the influence of culture on management from an international business perspective. It
discusses major theories of culture and their practical application to effectively manage issues arising from
communication, negotiation, leadership, ethics and strategy across national and organisational boundaries
in an international business context.

Readings, References and Materials

Browaeys, M-J & Price, R, 2015, Understanding Cross-Cultural Management, 3rd ed, Pearson
(main text)
Samovar LA, Porter RE, McDaniel ER & Roy CS, 2017, Communication between Cultures,
9E, Cengage.

Key References

Almeida, S., Fernando, M., Hannif, Z. & Dharmage, S. 2015, 'Fitting the mould: the role of
employer perceptions in immigrant recruitment decision making', International Journal of
Human Resource Management, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 2811-2832.
Bhasin, S. 2013, 'Impact of corporate culture on the adoption of the Lean principles',
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol.4, no. 2, pp. 118-140.
Bird, M 2015, Merging two Global Company Cultures, Harvard Business Review, August.
Brimm, L 2016, What the Best Cultural Managers have in common, Harvard Business
Chakravorti, B. 2016, Lessons from Facebook fumble in India, Harvard Business Review,
Chamorro-Premuzic, T. & Sanger, M. 2016, What Leadership Looks Like in Different Cultures,
Harvard Business Review, May.
Cheng, B., Boer, D., Chou, L., Huang, M., Yoneyama, S., Shim, D., Sun, J., Lin, T., Chou, W. &
Tsai,C. 2014, 'Paternalistic Leadership in Four East Asian Societies: Generalizability and Cultural
Differences of the Triad Model, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 82-90
Cox Jr, T 1994, Cultural diversity in Organizations: Theory, research and Practice, Berrett-
Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.
Cox Jr, T & Belae, RL 1997, Developing Competency to Manage Diversity: Readings, Cases
and Activities, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.
Donaldson, T 1996, Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home, Harvard Business Review,
Chakravorti, B 2016, Lessons from Facebook fumble in India, Harvard Business Review, February.
Chamorro-Premuzic,T & Sanger, M 2016, What Leadership looks like in Different Culture,
Business Review, May.
Cheng, B S, Boer, D, Chou, L F, Huang, M P, Yoneyama, S, Shim, D, Sun, J M, Lin, T T, Chou,
W J & Tsai, C Y 2014, “Paternalistic Leadership in Four East Asian Societies:
Generalizability and Cultural Difference s of the Triad Model”, Journal of Cross-Cultural
Psychology, vol 45, no 1. Pp. 82-90.
Earley, C & Mosakawski, E 2004, Cultural Intelligence, Harvard Business Review, October.
Gelfand, M J, Leslie, L M, Keller, K & de Dreu, C 2012, “Conflict cultures in organizations:
How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences”, Journal of
Applied Psychology, vol 97, no 6, pp 1131-1147.
Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, F 1995, The Seven Cultures of Capitalism: Value Systems
for Creating Wealth in the United States, Britain, Japan, Germany, France, Sweden and the
Netherlands, Piatkus, London.
Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, F 2000, Building Cross Cultural Competences: How to
Create Wealth from Conflicting Values, John Wiley, UK.
Hewlett, SA 2016, The Attributes of an Effective Global Leader, Harvard Business Review,
Hinds, P 2016, Why Best Practices don’t Translate Across Cultures, Harvard Business Review,
Hofstede, G & Hofstede, GJ 2005, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind,
McGraw Hill, New York.
Hong HJ & Doz,YL 2013, Managing Multicultural Teams, Harvard Business Review, June.
Lerginger, O 2014, The global manager: contemporary issues and corporate responses,
Liu, L A, Friedman, R, Barry, B, Gelfand, MJ & Zhang, Z X 2012, “The Dynamics of consensus
building in Intracultural and Intercultural Negotiations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol
57, no 2, pp 269-304.
Molinsky, A 2015, Emotional Intelligence doesn’t Translate across Borders, Harvard
Business Review, April.
Ratanjee, V & Pyrka, A 2015, Fixing the Leadership Gaps in SE Asia, Harvard Business Review,
Shaw, J 1995, Cultural diversity at Work, Business & Professional Publishing, Sydney
Steers, RM, Nardon, L & Sanchez-Runde, CJ 2016, Management across cultures: developing
global competencies, Cambridge University Press, England.
Thomas, DA & Ely, RJ 2014, Navigating the Cultural Minefield, Harvard Business Review, May.
Trompenaars, F & Hamden-Turner, C 1997, Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural
diversity in Business, 2nd Ed, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London
Trompenaars, F & Hamden-Turner, C 2004, Managing People across Cultures, Capstone
Publishing, England, UK.
Thomas, DC & Peterson, MF 2015, Cross-cultural management: essential concepts Sage.
Yang, Y & Cremer, DD 2016, Cultural Stereotypes may make you a less Ethical Negotiator,
Harvard Business Review, January.
Yu, E, Yau, O, Ko, A & Au, A 2018, Strategic thinking that powered China’s remarkable growth,

Online reference sources

Information on the culture of different nations is available on the web.

a) One site we will use is 'Kwintessential', which contains guides on culture, customs and etiquette
appropriate in countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, East Asia and
Australia. The link is

b) Another valuable site is The Hofstede Centre, which contains information on national culture,
organizational culture and cultural insights. The link is

c) A third site that may be useful is The Grovewell LLC site, which introduces the GLOBE Project.
The link is

Access to and use of the information on these sites should help students prepare for tutorial exercises and
undertake other assessments.

This is not an exhaustive list of references. Students should also use the library catalogue and databases to
locate additional resources.
Seminar Schedule
Sem Date Seminar Topics and Class Activities Pre-seminar Readings & Preparation
i (Tue.)
1 Jan Course Introduction Introduction, Pages 3-8
14 Determinants of Culture Chapters 1 & 2
Dimensions of Culture in Business
Chapters of the main textbook by Browaeys
Activities: & Price
The instructor will explain the course objectives,
teaching & learning approach, seminar plan and Identify key facets, levels and determinants
assessments of the course. of culture that help you analyse the national
cultures of your client and target firms

2 Jan Business Cultures in the West Chapters 3, 4 and 5

21 Business Cultures in the East
Cultural Dimensions and Dilemmas Identify the main characteristics of:
European, American, Australasian, Asian,
Activities: African and Middle East business cultures.
Essay issues discussion
Group formation (finalised)

3 Feb Culture and Styles of Management Chapters 6, 7

11 Corporate Structures and Cultures and 8
Culture and Leadership
Identify and analyse key determinants
Activities: that shape styles of management and
Essay issues discussion corporate cultures

4 Feb Culture & Corporate Strategy Chapters 9 ,10 and 11

18 Cultural Change in Organisations
Culture & International Marketing Examine and assess the cultural impacts
Management on strategy formation and post-
acquisition management success. Reason
the dynamics that caused the changes
between organisations and cultures.
Essay issues discussion

5 Feb Cultural Diversity in Organisations Chapters 12 & 13

25 Business Communications Across
Cultures Identify and analyse key cross-cultural
factors that may shape marketing strategies
Activities: and communication of your target firms.
Discuss Case 1 – Airbus (pp 86-91) Leading
Team (1) Prepare Case 1 Airbus (pp 86-91) for class
(See Assessment 1 for assessment criteria) discussion
6 Mar 3 Barriers to International Chapters 14 and 15
Negotiating Internationally Prepare Case 2 Shell’s Reorganisation (pp
254-257) for class discussion.
Discuss Case 2 – Shell’s Reorganisation (pp 254-
257) Leading Team (2)

7 Mar1 Conflicts and Cultural Differences Chapters 17 and 18

0 Developing Intercultural
Communication Competence Prepare case 3 Alizee airlines (pp 170-181)

Discuss Case 3 – Alizee airlines (pp 170-
181) Leading Team (3)

8 Mar
17 Activities: Prepare Case 4 IKEA (pp 313-317) and Case
Discuss Case 4 IKEA (pp 313-317) – Leading 5 Vechtel (pp 443-450) for class discussion

Discuss Case 5 Vechtel (pp 443-450) – Leading Essay presentation preparation

Team (5)

Essay Issues and Key Lessons Presentation

Subject review and examination

1st Final Examination Period Exact date and time to be announced
Case PPT files shall be uploaded on designated section on Moodle 24 hours before
the presentation time.

Attendance Requirements
We expect all students to attend all classes as we strongly believe that students who attend
them usually learn more and perform better in assignments and examinations.

Section B: Assessment
1 Tutorial tasks with Group Case Analysis and Presentation 20%
.2 Authentic task-Individual Essay Presentation 10%
3. Individual Essay on integrated cross-cultural management issues 30%
.4 Examination 40%
Assessment & Assignment Due Dates:

Dates Group Case Analysis and Individual Essay Presentation (all group members, 5
mins for each member of the group)

Feb 25 Group 1
Mar 3 Group 2
Mar 10 Group 3
Mar 17 Group 4 & 5
Mar 17 Essay - Issues and Key Lessons Presentation 5 Mins

Assessment 1: Group Case Analysis and Presentation (20%)

Marking Criteria Marks (out of a total of 20) will be awarded to the team presenting and
discussing the allocated cases. Marks will be awarded according to Table 1.
Marking rubrics for Case Analysis and Presentation

Length 20-25 minutes for the presenting team. 

Weighting 20%
Assessment Due 18 Feb: Group 1
25 Feb: Group 2
3 Mar: Group 3
10 Mar: Group 4 & 5

Type of Collaboration Group work

Style and Format Oral presentation and in-class discussion 
Assessment and Submission Oral presentations and in-class discussions will be delivered during an
assigned tutorial.
Groups will be selected and assigned their tutorial presentation week during
the second lecture.
Detailed information Task details

The lead group have to upload their PPT file to designated Moodle location 24
hours before their presentation time. All students are expected to study and
analyse all selected cases. Students should actively participate in the
discussion by reconciling their analyses with those of the presenting group.
The presenting group explores and interprets the case and events, answers
related questions found in the set text, and must be prepared to answer
questions from their audience in the class.

The questions from class members are designed to challenge the group's
presentation, pointing out weaknesses, and/or omissions. The responses will
amplify learning and facilitate further in-class discussion on the case study
and the theory associated with it.

Students who cannot present the case with their team on the allocated day due
medical issues or other circumstances should apply for Academic
Consideration. They will be invited to present a make-up case before the final

In general, all group members would receive the same score, unless any of
you fails to attend the presentation, or is reported by the majority of the
group as a free-rider. By one week after your presentation, you can submit a
written request signed by at least majority of the group members to me at
any time if there is severe free rider problem. If any students fail to pull his
or her weight in the case analysis presentation, those individuals’ case
analysis presentation grades will be adjusted downward appropriately, by up
to one letter grade. If any students contribute nothing to the group, a zero
mark will be given to the individual’s case analysis portion of the course
Table 1. Marking rubrics for Group Case Analysis and Presentation
Marking rubric HD D C-P F
Organisation of content Logical, Logical and Some logical Weak in logical,
coherent clear sequence and coherence and
and clear flow of flow of analysis clear but more clarity. Without
analysis but coherence is stuck with Q & directly
rather weak A format analysing main
Addressed the Apart from All given issues Most issues were issuesmain issues
questions clearly were adequately were not
addressed all adequately addressed but directly or
given issues, addressed in more depth and clearly
additional good depth clarity are addressed
important needed
issues have
identified and
tackled in
Argument Articulated with Logical and Arguments were Unclear
logical, coherent clear not entirely clear arguments and
and clear arguments but and or supported supported with
arguments and they needed to with relevant little or no
supported with be supported analyses relevant
relevant with more analyses
Subject knowledge analyses
Apart from case All relevant Some relevant Little or no
and provided related knowledge related
examples to justify informati knowledge and knowledge
analyses and on, and examples or
arguments relevant examples from have examples have
additional the case have been analysed to been analysed to
knowledge or been analysed to justify justify arguments
Application of Accurately Accurately Some Little or
relevant academic applied most applied many relevant no
concepts/theories relevant relevant concepts and related concepts or
concepts and concepts and theories have theories have been
theories to theories to been applied applied
analyse or analyse or
Referencing support
Excellent support
Good Attempted to Little or no
referencing referencing make referencing
citations with Harvard referencing
throughout with style but with but not in proper
Harvard style. some omissions. academic style
and with many
Presentation Verbally Good clarity in omissions
Fairly clear and Lack of clarity and
skills articulated, delivery and direct in delivery fluency in
excellent clarity answered and answering delivery. Did not
in delivery and questions questions though answer directly or
answered accurately lack of fluency correctly.
questions from though can be
the floor more direct and
Assessment 2: Authentic Task-Individual Essay Presentation (10%)

Marking Criteria Marks (out of a total of 10) will be awarded to the individual essay presentation.
Marks will be awarded according to Table 2. Marking rubrics for Individual
Essay Presentation

Length 5 minutes, Number of PPT slides allowed: 5

Weighting 10%
Assessment Due 17 March 2020
Type of Collaboration Individual assessment
Style and Format Oral presentation
Assessment and Submission Each student needs to individually do the presentation.

Detailed information Task details

This presentation is based on your preparation of Assessment 3- Essay on

integrated cross-cultural management issues. Students need to highlight the key
issues of the essay, the analysis for addressing the issues and key lessons learned.

Table 2. Marking rubrics for Individual Essay Presentation

Marking rubric HD D C-P F
Organisation of Logical, Logical and Some logical Weak in
content coherent and clear flow of sequence and logical,
clear flow of analysis clear but more coherence and
analysis but coherence is stuck with Q & A clarity. Without
rather weak format directly
analysing main
Addressed the Apart from clearly All given issues Most issues were Most main issues
questions addressed all were adequately adequately were not directly
given issues, addressed in addressed but or clearly
additional good depth more depth and addressed
important issues clarity are needed
have been
identified and
tackled in good
Subject Apart from case All relevant Some relevant Little or no
knowledge and provided related knowledge and related
examples to information, knowledge and examples have knowledge or
justify analyses relevant examples from been analysed to examples have
and arguments additional the case have justify arguments been analysed to
knowledge or been analysed to justify arguments
examples have justify arguments
analysed to
justify arguments
Application Accurately Accurately Some relevant Little or no
of relevant applied most applied many concepts and related concepts
academic relevant concepts relevant concepts theories have or theories have
concepts/theories and theories to and theories to been applied been applied
analyse or analyse or
support support
arguments arguments
Presentation Verbally Good clarity in Fairly clear and Lack of clarity and
skills articulated, delivery and direct in delivery fluency in
excellent clarity answered and answering delivery. Did not
in delivery and questions questions though answer directly or
answered accurately though lack of fluency correctly.
questions from can be more
the floor precisely direct and
and concisely. articulated.
Excellent images, Good images,
graphics and graphics and
other creativity some creativity
attempts attempts

Assessment 3: Individual Essay (30%)

Markin Marking rubric HD D C-P F
g for essay
Organisation Logical, Logical Some logical Little or no
of content intuitive sequence of sequence of logical
and response sequence of information information, but sequence of
to information. but message message and flow information
the questions Message and and flow of of content need to and message
flow of content need be much more and flow of
content are to be clearer clear and direct. content are
clear and and more seriously
Addressed Clearly Most Addressed the Did not
the addressed questions questions address the
questions and analysed were vaguely. Answers questions
all the addressed but need more depth clearly.
questions in need more of analysis.
depth. depth in
Argument A clear and A good The argument is No clear
explicit argument not clear or not argument in
argument is coherently the
communicated communicated presented. essay.
to the reader. to the reader.
Subject Subject Subject Some subject Subject
knowledge knowledge is knowledge is knowledge is knowledge is
and evident evident in evident. not evident.
examples to throughout. much of Some information Informati
justify All the product. is confusing, on is
arguments information is Most incorrect or confusin
clear, information is flawed. Few g,
appropriate, clear, relevant examples incorrect
and correct. appropriate, used. or
Excellent and correct. flawed.
examples used Some No
to compare good examples
and contrast examples used.
Application of Quality of refl
Quality of There is little There is
relevant ction reflection demonstrated inadequate
academic indicates a indicates a understanding of understandin
concepts/theor deep sound the relevant g of the
ies to analysis understanding understanding areas and very relevant
of relevant of relevant limited areas and
areas and application inadequate
areas thorough of theory to application
and application of justify arguments. of
the theory/concep
strong theory/concepts ts to justify
application of to justify arguments.
The quality Excellent arguments.
Very good The quality There is
and quantity quality and quality and and quantity of inadequate
of the research quantity of quantity of the the research application
and sources research and research and and sources used of research
and sources. sources. is little. Basic and sources. No
Good referencing
referencing Excellent in- Referencin attempt is made style applied
Techniques text g style with respect to throughout.
referencing applied referencing style
used Minor but there are major
throughout, omission in gaps in reference
reference list text list, citations or
Submit essay Clean Essay Submitted Essay was
into Turnitin Turnitin with submitted to essay into not
and correction no academic Turnitin with Turnitin and submitted to
integrity some minor revised a few Turnitin on
of academic
problems. academic issues noted on time or
integrity integrity issues. the report. submitted
problems but issues
were not
Length 1500 words (+/- 10%)

Weighting 30%
Assessment 28 March 2020, 6 pm via Moodle Turnitin

Type of Individual assessment

Style and Please use a cover page. Use font size 12 and 1.5 spaced and include the word count on the front
format page. Please attend to the issues highlighted on the Turnitin report. Resubmit the revised version
into the Turnitin link until you are happy with the Turnitin score. Please allow at least 48 hours to
generate the report. DO NOT WAIT UNTIL THE DATE OF SUBMISSION. Further details will
be provided in the week 9 tutorial.
Assessment This assessment task has been set up to be checked by Turnitin, a tool for checking if it has
submission unreferenced content. This may not apply to all assignments. You can submit your assessment
task to Turnitin prior to the due date and Turnitin may give you an originality report. You may
then make any changes that may be required and re-submit your final version by the due date.
Guideline Research and find out as much information about two organisations you know well in any two
countries, e.g., China and the US. The organisations must be operating in the same industry,
e.g., automobile manufacturers (BYD and Tesla). Select two or three questions from the list
below to analyse the two organisations and use the results to compare and contrast them.

1.Apply Hofstede’s 6-dimension cultural approach (ref chapter 2 and Hofstede’s country-
comparison website) to critically analyse the two organisations. What are the similarities and
differences you see in the two organisations? Discuss the key factors that may influence these
similarities and differences.
2.Use Figure 6.3 a Model of culture in chapter 6 to critically analyse the two organisations.
What are the similarities and differences you see in the two organisations? Discuss the key
factors that may influence these similarities and differences.
3.Use Figure 7.2 Cultural web in chapter 7 to critically assess the corporate culture of the two
organisations and analyse these similarities and differences across the two organisations.
Discuss the key factors that may influence the similarities and differences.
4.Use Figure 10.1 Competing values framework and Table 10.3 to critically analyse the two
organisations. What are the similarities and differences you see in the two organisations?
Discuss the key factors that may influence the similarities and differences.

To pass the assessment of your essay with good grades you must make extensive use of:
1. Relevant academic journal articles
2. Relevant journal articles sourced via databases such as the Web of Science, Scopus or
ABI/INFORM Complete via UOW library.
3. Relevant chapters from your textbook and/or other academic books.
4. Relevant and specific examples from organisational websites and other sources such as annual
5. Good collection of data of your target companies, their cultural and other external
environmental factors.

Other guideline:
 Write about 400-600 words for each section (depending on the number of questions).
 The introduction and conclusion in total should be about 250 words.
 Use a minimum of 8 academic references (journal articles or books) in addition to company
websites and other web-based references.
Assessment 4: Final Examination (40%)
Marking Criteria 1. Organisation of answer - Logical, intuitive sequence of
information. Message and flow of content are clear and direct.

2. Addressed the questions - Clearly addressed and analyzed the

questions in depth.

3. Subject knowledge and examples used to justify arguments - Subject

knowledge is evident throughout. Examples are used to compare and
contrast view points and analysis.

4. Application of theory/concepts - Strong application of theory and

concepts to justify arguments.
Length 3 hours
Weighting 40%
Assessment Due To Be Announced
Type of Collaboration Individual assessment
Detailed information This assessment evaluates how well you have understood the subject in
terms of the key elements of major theories about culture, and related
concepts and their implications for working in organisations. For further
information about the exams, you are urged to attend the seminar 9

Assessment Learning Outcome Matrix

Measures - Assessment weighting

Assessment 1 - Assessment 2 –
Assessment 3 Assessment
Group in-class Individual
Learning Outcomes - Essay 4
assessment presentation

(20%) (10%) (30%) (40%)

Appraise various theoretical perspectives on
culture, cultural difference and cultural
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
change, and their implications for international
Explain management practices in different
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
cultural environments.
Propose ways to manage cultural challenges in
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
an international business context.
Discuss how to build more effective
relationships with people from other countries ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
in a business context.
Effectively communicate orally and/or in
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Minimum Performance Requirements

To be eligible to pass this subject, students must complete all assessment tasks for this subject. In
addition, you must achieve a total mark of 50% or over and obtain a minimum of 50% in the final
examination or major piece of assessment (where there is no final exam).

Where a student gains a mark of 50 or greater and does not meet the specified level in an
assessment task required to pass the subject a Technical Fail (TF) grade will be given. Where a
Technical Fail is given the following applies:

a. Failure of the subject;

b. a TF without a mark will be granted;
c. a TF will be presented on the student's academic transcript;
d. The allocated mark of 49 will be used as the WAM calculation for subjects at all levels.

Failure to complete all assessment tasks will normally result in failure of the entire subject,
other marks notwithstanding.

Students should note that UOW policy equates 1 credit point with 2 hours of study per week that
includes lectures and tutorials/workshops/practical. For example, in a 6 credit point subject, a total
of 12 hours of study per week is expected.

Students who fail a subject may be eligible for a supplementary exam depending on the final mark
obtained for the subject and the final exam mark, or for other extenuating circumstances as approved
by the relevant Head of School and Faculty Assessment Committee in line with University of
Wollongong and Faculty of Business guidelines. Students who believe they may be eligible, and who
have not already been advised accordingly, should consult their lecturer or subject coordinator.
Submission, Retention and Collection of Written Assessment
Assessed work must be handed in by the date and time listed under each assessment task. All assessment
tasks must represent the enrolled student's own ORIGINAL work and must not have been previously
submitted for assessment in any formal course of study.
If a student does not attend a required in-session test/examination, and also fails to produce satisfactory
medical or other reasons for this (See Section C: General Advice for Students), a deferred examination will
NOT be offered, and the student may be deemed to have failed the subject, other marks notwithstanding.

Submitting Assessment Tasks

Students are required to submit original work which will provide a basis for the certification of
competence in this subject. These assessments may include: examinations, tests, take-home examinations,
quizzes, assignments, essays, laboratory reports, demonstrations, folio of creative works, performances,
tutorial presentation and participation.

A Faculty of Business assignment cover sheet must be attached to each piece of written assessment task.
This cover sheet can be obtained from the website:
Students should ensure they receive a receipt of submission and retain this for proof of submission.

Faxing, Posting and Emailing Assessment Work

Students may not e-mail, post or fax assessment tasks unless specifically requested by or with the prior
approval of the subject coordinator.

Late Submission of Assessment Tasks

Assessed work handed in late will be penalised by the deduction of 20 percent of the maximum possible
mark for that assessment per working day or part thereof. The operation of this rule will not result in a
negative mark being carried forward.
This penalty for late submission may be waived upon presentation of a medical certificate of illness for a
relevant period, or upon evidence of untoward or approved circumstances that fall under the Student
Academic Consideration Policy (See Section C: General Advice for Students).

Assessment items will normally be returned to students within three (3) weeks of the due date. Assessment
tasks which are relevant to the final examination for the subject will be marked and available for collection
prior to the study week before the final examination.

Marks awarded for any assessment task or part of any assessment task, including an examination may be
subject to scaling at the end of the session. Marks will be scaled only when unpredicted circumstances occur
and in order to ensure fairness of marking across groups of students. The method of scaling will depend on
the type of scaling required by the circumstances. When scaling is deemed necessary, it will follow a
detailed consideration by the Unit Assessment Committee and/or the Faculty Assessment Committee of the
marks of the group of students concerned. Scaling will not affect any individual student's rank order within
their cohort.
For more information please refer to Assessment Guidelines - Scaling for details.

Students are responsible for submitting original work for assessment, without plagiarising or cheating,
abiding by the University's Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Policy as set out in the University
Handbook, the University's online Policy Directory and in Faculty Handbooks and subject guides. Re-
using any of your
own work (either in part or in full) which you have submitted previously for assessment is not permitted
without appropriate acknowledgement.

Plagiarism has led to the expulsion of students from the University.

Students should visit the following University website and become familiar with the University's policy on

Faculty of Business Plagiarism Prevention Policy

The Faculty of Business has introduced an e-learning module which aims to orientate you with the
knowledge and resources to:
• avoid problems related to plagiarism
• develop your capacity to integrate evidence into your arguments
• reference correctly.

The online module is openly available for use by students at any stage in their degree. You are strongly
encouraged to use the module to help in assessing the academic integrity of your written work. The
module can be accessed via


Why do you need to reference?

At university it is necessary to acknowledge the sources of information and ideas that you have
incorporated in your assessment tasks. Failure to do this thoroughly may result in accusations of
plagiarism: this is the academic equivalent of stealing (because by not acknowledging someone else's
work, you are presenting it as your own). Plagiarism is taken very seriously by the University and
may result in expulsion from the University.

Referencing is not only about acknowledging other people's work; accurate referencing and lists of
references are beneficial when researching a topic as they allow the reader to follow up information
and read further in the area. In a sense, references provide readers with clues to help them explore
different avenues of a topic. This aspect of referencing will become more valuable to you as you
progress in your studies.

There is a correct procedure that must be followed when referencing and using footnotes. Not
complying with these set techniques and format will most likely result in loss of marks. When
writing an essay it is easiest to reference as you go, making sure you are writing down all relevant
information. This will save hours trying to find the source again in the library.

The Harvard System of Referencing

The Faculty of Business uses the Harvard system of referencing. This system makes use of short
references within the body of the text. It is supplemented by a detailed list of references at the end of
the text, which provides all the information necessary to find the source material. In-text references
include the author and year of publication, and where necessary the page number(s).

It is the responsibility of students to ensure that they are familiar with the Harvard system of
referencing and that they use it accurately in all written work submitted.

Students should consult the following University Library website for a detailed explanation and
examples of the Harvard system of referencing

A referencing and citing guide is also available via the University Library
Citation of Internet Sources

It is necessary for students to reference all sources used in their written work, including file
transfer protocol sites, worldwide web sites, telnet sites, synchronous communications (MOOs,
MUDs, IRC, etc.) GOPHER sites, and email, Listserv and Newsgroup citations.

It is the responsibility of students to ensure that they are familiar with the accepted Faculty of
Business practice for referencing electronic material and that they use it accurately in all
written work submitted.

Students should consult the following University Library website for a detailed explanation and
examples of how to reference electronic material:

Section C: General Advice for Students

For general information on university policies and procedures relevant to students, and for details
about the range of student services available, please see General Advice for Students, which can be
accessed online at Hard copies of Section C:
General Advice for Students can be obtained from Business Central.

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Email Etiquette: Consultation with your subject coordinator and/or teachers via email
Your teachers receive many emails each day. In order to enable them to respond to your emails appropriately and
in a timely fashion, students are asked to observe basic requirements of professional

Consider what the communication is about

• Is your question addressed elsewhere (e.g. in this subject outline or, where applicable, on the subject's eLearning
• Is it something that is better discussed in person or by telephone? This may be the case if your query requires a
lengthy response or a dialogue in order to address. If so, see consultation times above and/or
schedule an appointment.
• Are you addressing your request to the most appropriate person?

Specific email title/ header to enable easy identification of subject related/ student emails
• Identify the subject code of the subject you are enquiring about (as your teacher may be involved in more than one
subject) in the email header. Add a brief, specific header after the subject code where appropriate

Professional courtesy
• Address your teacher appropriately by name (and formal title if you do not yet know them).
• Use full words (avoid 'text-speak' abbreviations), correct grammar and correct spelling.
• Be respectful and courteous.
• Academics will normally respond within 1-2 days. If the matter is urgent, you may wish to telephone the
Teaching Staff whose contact details are given in this subject outline or contacting the School.
• Please ensure that you include your full name and identify your seminar or tutorial group in your email so that your
teachers know who they are communicating with and can follow-up personally where appropriate.

A guide to eLearning 'Netiquette' is available at The

basic principles of Netiquette also apply to email communication.

Commonwealth of Australia Copyright Regulations1969 © 2018 University of Wollongong
The original material prepared for this guide is covered by copyright. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of private study,
research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written