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Endocrine System

Zulham Yamamoto
18 Maret 2019
Tujuan pembelajaran:
Setelah mengikuti perkuliahan ini, mahasiswa
diharapkan mampu untuk:
a. Mampu membandingkan struktur
mikroskopis kelenjar eksokrin dan
endokrin,
b. Mampu menjelaskan unsur sistem
endokrin,
c. Mampu menjelaskan struktur mikroskopis
kelenjar-kelenjar endokrin: (1) hipofisis, (2)
pineal, (3) tiroid, (4) paratiroid, dan (5)
supra renal, termasuk struktur yang
membentuknya (misalnya kapiler, folikel,
dan koloid), nama dan ciri sel yang
mensekresikan hormon, dan ciri khas
struktur kelenjar.
d. Mampu menyebutkan peran fisiologis
setiap kelenjar/sel endokrin sebagai
penghasil hormon tertentu.
1.
Subtopics
Endocrine system and cell to cell
communication
2. Endocrine system components
3. Endocrine glands Vs. Exocrine
glands
– Glands development
– Glands
• Exocrine
• Endocrine
4. Endocrine glands
1. hypophysis
2. pineal
3. thyroid
Referensi:
4. parathyroid 1. Gartner LP. Color textbook of histology.
5. Suprarenal 2nd ed. 2001
6. Pancreas (dibahas dalam blok 2. Kus I. Light and electron microscopic
digestive system)
examination of pineal glands in rats
7. Liver (dibahas dalam blok digestive
system) exposed to constant light and constant
darkness. 2004
3. Al-Hussain SM. The pinealocytes of the
human pineal gland: a light and electron
microscopic study. 2006
1. Endocrine System and
Cell to Cell Communication
A neuron has a long fiber that delivers
its neurotransmitter.
Cell Communications
• Necessary for integration of cell activities
• Mechanisms
– gap junctions
• pores in cell membrane allow signaling chemicals to move
from cell to cell; Example- cardiomyocytes
– Neurotransmitters
• released from neurons to travel across gap to 2nd cell;
Examples– Acetyl choline in neuromuscular junction
– Paracrine (local hormones)
• secreted into tissue fluids to affect nearby cells
– Hormones
• chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream . . .
(receptors)

Hormone
delivery

Synapse

(Neurosecretion)
O'Riordan et al., 2nd ed, page 5
Endocrine cells secrete a hormone
into the bloodstream.

(capillary)
2. Endocrine System Components
• Endocrine system
– endocrine organs/glands (thyroid, pineal, etc.)
– hormone producing cells in organs (brain (hypothalamus),
liver, kidney, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract)
• Endocrine glands/cells
– produce hormones
• Hormone
– chemical messenger secreted into bloodstream,
stimulates response in another tissue or organ;
– Composition/class: (1) protein/peptide, (2) amino-acid
derivatives, (3) steroid and fatty acid dericatives – lipid droplets
• Target cells
– have receptors for a specific hormone
3. Endocrine vs. Exocrine Glands
• Exocrine glands
– ducts carry secretion to a surface or organ cavity
– extracellular effects (food digestion)
– Example: saliva, sweat, pancreas, liver
• Endocrine glands
– no ducts;
– intracellular effects, alter target cell
metabolism
– Example: hypophysis, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid,
adrenal glands, pancreas, liver
Exocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands

Capillary

Basophil

Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH-9B3


Endocrine
Glands

Anterior
pituitary

Electron
Micrograph

Larry Kahn
Endocrine Glands (Zona fasciculata), Electron Micrograph

SER

Endothelium

Capillary lumen

Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/F/4


4. Microscopic Structures of
Endocrine Glands
(1) Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
• Suspended from hypothalamus by stalk
(infundibulum)
• Location and size
– housed in sella turcica of sphenoid bone
– 1.3 cm diameter
• Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
– arises from hypophyseal pouch (outgrowth of
pharynx);
• Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
– arises from brain

17-16
Posterior

Anterior
Hypothalamus
• Shaped like a flattened funnel, forms floor and walls of third ventricle.
• Regulates primitive functions from water balance, sex drive, . . .
• Regulate many functions carried out by pituitary gland

Anterior Posterior
Pineal
Hypothalamic Nuclei

Anterior nucleus Thirst; thermoregulation

gland Arcuate nucleus Regulates appetite: secretes


leaves hormones that
releasing
regulate anterior pituitary
Dorsomedial nucleus Rage and other emotions

Mammillary nuclei Relay between limbic system


and thalamus; involved in long-
term memory

Paraventricular Produces oxytocin (involved


nucleus in childbirth, lactation, orgasm);
controls posterior pituitary

Posterior nucleus Functions with periaqueductal


gray matter of midbrain in
emotional, cardiovascular, and
pain control
Preoptic nucleus Hormonal control of reproductive
functions
Suprachiasmatic Biological clock; regulates
nucleus circadian rhythms and female
reproductive cycle
Pituitary gland Supraoptic nucleus Produces antidiuretic hormone
(involved in water balance);
controls posterior pituitary

Ventromedial nucleus Satiety center (suppresses


hunger)

(b) Hypothalamus
Posterior Anterior
Anterior/Posterior Pituitary Circulation
Blood flow to pituitary gland is via a portal circulation the hypophyseal portal
system. Arterial flow is via superior and inferior hypophyseal artery into
capillary beds in series.
Pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia
Pars distalis

Neurohypophysis
Median eminence
Infindibular stalk
Pars nervosa
Adenohypophysis
• Regions:
Using HE:
– Pars distalis
• Acidophils:
– Pars intermedia • Orange to red granules
– Pars tuberalis • Basophils:
• Histology structure pars distalis • Blue granules
– Connective tissue: fibrous capsule, • Chromophobs are degranulated
reticular fibers around large sinuoidal chromophils
capillary • Folliculostellate cells: supporting or
– Blood vessel: fenestrated endothel communication of cell function
– Parenchymal cells
• Chromophils
– Acidophils, using EM/IHC:
» Somatotroph: increase cellular
metabolic rates
» mammotroph: prolactin
– Basophils, using EM/IHC:
» Corticotroph: ACTH and lipotropic
hormone
» Thyrotroph: TSH
» Gonadotroph: FSH and LH
• Chromophob
• Folliculostellate cells
Endocrine Glands

Capillary

Basophil

Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH-9B3


Adenohypophysis
Pars intermedia
• Cuboidal cell line, colloid
containing cyst (Rathke’s
cyst)
• Basophils synthesizes
propiomelanocortin:
melanocyte-stimulating
hormon (MSH),
corticotropin, b-lipotropin,
and b-endorphin
• In human, MSH stimulate
the release of prolactin.
Adenohypophysis
Pars tuberalis
• Surrounds the
infundibular stalk
• Arachnoid-like
connective tissue
separates it from
infundibular stalk
• Basophils secrete FSH
and LH.
Neurohypophysis
• Develops from downgrowth of
the hypothalamus
• Divided into: median
eminence, infundibulum, pars
nervosa
• Pars nervosa
– Axons from
hypothalamohypophyseal
tract end in the pars
nervosa and store
neurosecretions
– Herring bodies, distention
of the axons
• Granules: vasopressin
(ADH) and oxytocin
– Support by glia-like cells,
pituicytes
Herring bodies
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
ADH and oxytocin are secreted by neurosecretory cells in the
paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus and are
transported to posterior pituitary via hypothalamohypophyseal
tract.
(2) Pineal gland
• Neuroendocrine gland whose secretions are influenced by light
and dark period of the day.
• Is covered by piamater, forming a capsule from which septae
extends and divide pineal glands into incomplete lobules.
• Blood vessels enter the gland via connective tissue septae.
• Cells: pinealocytes and interstitial cells
• Contains concretions of CaPO4 and CaCO3, called as corpora
arenace (brain sand)
• No afferent and efferent fibers; innervated by postganglionic
sympathetic nerve
• Melatonin is released into the connective tissue spaces to be
distributed by blood vesselss, whereas serotonin is taken up by
presynaptic axon terminal
Pinealocytes Interstitial Cells
• subtype: I (light), II (dark, • To be astrocyte-like neuroglial
predominant at birth), and III cells
• Basophilic cells with 1 or 2 long • Nuclei: deep staining, elongated
processes whose terminal nuclei
dilatations approximate • Cytoplasma: rER and glycogen
capillaries and other parenchymal
cells
• Nuclei: spherical with prominent
nucleolus
• Cytoplasma: sER, rER, golgi,
mitochondria, cilia (as
photoreceptor fx), small
secretory vesicles (type I), and
pigment (type II)
• Synaptic ribbons (type I):
• Cell activity increases in constant
darkness
• Hormone: melatonin and
serotonin
L= type I (light pinealocytes)
D = type II (dark pinealocytes)
Increased on vesicles (lipid droplets) in
pineal gland exposed to constant darkness Pinealocytes
(3) Thyroid
Thyroid Gland
– The gland is surrounded by
irregular connective tissue
capsule. Septa derived from the
capsule subdivide the gland into
lobules.
– Septa provide rich blood and
lymphatic vessels, and nerve
fibers.
– Thyroid follicles are filled with
colloid and lined with simple
cuboidal epithelial (follicular cells)
that secretes two thyroid
hormones (TH): Triiodothyronine
and Thyroxine
• Control of TH secretion is in
response to another
hormone from the pituitary
called TSH
– Follicular and parafollicular cells
are separated by a thin lamina
basal.
Follicular (Principal) cells
• Normally, simple cuboidal ep.
• Short villi into the colloid.
Thyroid gland cells
• Numerous small vesicles
• During great demand for thyroid hormone (active
state), follicular cells extend pseudopods into the
follicles to absorb the colloid.  simple columnar
• When demand for the hormone declines
(hypoactive state), the amount of the colloid in the
follicle lumen increases.  simple squamous.
• T4 and T3 are released at the basal plasmalemma of
the follicular cells, entering connective tissue, and
distributed through bloos vessels.

Parafollicular cells (Clear cells, C cells)


• Pale-staining cells which do not reach the lumen of
follicle.
• 2-3x larger than follicular cells
• Dense secretory granules containg calcitonin
located in the basal cytoplasm.
• Function:  blood Ca2+, promotes Ca2+ deposition
and bone formation especially in children
– Osteoblasts more active
– Osteoclasts are inhibited
(4) Parathyroid Glands
• Each gland is enveloped in
thin collagenous capsule.
• Produce parathyoid hormone
which helps regulate blood
Ca++ levels.
• Target organs of PTH are
bone, kidneys and intestines.
• Extensions of capsule enter
the gland as septa,
accompanied by blood
vessels, lymphatic and nerves.
• The septa supports the
parenchyma, consisting of
cords of epithelial cells
surrounded by reticular fibers.
• The parenchyma contains
numerous small chief
cells and rare large
oxyphilic cells.
• Chief cells
– Slightly eosinophilic cells
– Granules: lipofuscin and
PTH
• Oxyphil cells
– Less numerous but larger
cells
– More deeply stained with
eosin than chief cells
– Oxyphilic cells are probably
inactive or immature chief
cells.
(5) Suprarenal Glands
• The parenchyma is divided into:
• Cortex
– Produced corticosteroid, which are
synthesized from cholesterol
– is regulated by ACTH
• Medulla
– Produced epinephrine and
norepinephrine
– is Related and regulated by the
symphatetic nervous system
Blood supply: • Each develops from a different
Arterial branches pass over the capsule, embryological origin and
penentrate it and form a subcapsular perform a different role.
plexus. In the cortical parenchyma, form a
network of sinusoidal fenestrated • Supported by capsule that
capillaries. In the deep cortex, capillary contain large amount of adipose
become confluent with a venous plexus. tissue.
Small venules arising from this area pass • Septa enter the parenchyma,
through the suprarenal medulla and drain accompanied by blood vessels
into a suprarenal vein. and nerves.
Suprarenal cortex
– Developed from mesoderm
– Hormones are synthesized from cholesterol which is
taken up from blood
• Zona glomerulosa
– Small columnar cells are arranged in cords and
clusters, whose 1 or 2 nucleoli, well developed golgi
complex and abundant sER, lipid droplets are
dispersed in the cytoplasm.
– Secretes mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) and
deoxycorticosterone
• Zona fasciculata
– Sinusoidal capillaries are arranged longitudinally
between the column and parenchymal cells
(spongiocytes).
– The parenchymal cells are polyhedral, larger than
cells in zona glomerulosa, arranged in radial columns,
1 or 2 layers thick, and stain light acidophilic.
– The parenchymal cells have many lipid droplets,
appear vacuolated, so called spongiocytes.
– Secretes glucocorticoid hormones: cortisol and
corticosterone
Zona reticularis
• The darkly staining acidophilic cells are arranged in anastomosing cords.
• Similar to spongiocyte but are smaller with fewer lipid droplets.
• Contain large lipofuscin granules with pyknotic nuclesi suggesting degenerating parenchymal cells
• Secretes androgens: dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione.
Suprarenal medulla
• Develops from ectodermal
neural crest, contains
chromaffin cells and
sympathetic ganglion cells.
• Chromaffin cells
– Large epitheloid cells,
arranged in cluster or short
cords, contains granules
(catecholamin) that stain
with chromaffin salts
– Catecholamin (epinephrin
Cytoplasm is light basophilic with and norepinephrin) are
H&E stain. secreted by chromaffin cells
Chromaffin reaction: Tissue in response to stimulation by
fixation with potassium preganglionic symphatetic
bichromate shows fine brown
granules in the cells of medulla.
splanchnic nerve.
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