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The objective of our project is Tripping Mechanism of over Voltage or

Under Voltage Systems using microcontroller

Brief Methodology:

This project is designed with,

Hardware Requirements:

 Microcontroller
 LCD display
 Current Sensor
 Voltage sensor
 Oscillator Circuit
 Relay driver
 Relay
 Power Supply

Software requirements:

 MPLAB Software
 Embedded C

The aim of this project is to develop a low voltage and high voltage tripping
mechanism to protect the load from damage. The fluctuation in AC mains supply
is frequent in homes and industries.
The sensitive electronic devices in these conditions can get easily damaged.
It is preferable to have a tripping mechanism to protect the load.
This proposed system will trip the load in the event of the input voltage
falling below/above a set value. Two 555 timers are used as window comparator.
This delivers an error output if the input voltage to them crosses the range
beyond the voltage window.
A relay is then operated to cutoff the load for safety reasons. A lamp is used
as load in this project.
The concept in future can be extended by integrating an alarm, which
sounds when voltage fluctuations occur. It can also be interfaced with a GSM
modem to convey alert message to the user via SMS to take appropriate action.


PIC Microcontroller

 PIC is a family of modified Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by

Microchip Technology
 The PIC initially referred to “peripheral interface controller”.
 High –performance RISC CPU.
 Only 35 Signal word instructions to learn.
Operating Speed:

 0– 20 MHz Clock input.

 0 – 200ns instruction cycle
 Timer: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit pre scalar.
 Timer1: 16-bit timer /counter with pre scalar can be incremented during
sleep via external crystal /clock.
 Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8 bit period register, prescaler and
 10-bit multi-channel analog-to-digital converter.


This is the first interfacing example for the parallel port. We will star with something
simple. This example does not use the Bi-directional feature found on newer ports, thus it
should work with most, if no all Parallel Ports. It however does not show the use of the status
port as an input. So what are we interfacing? A 16 Character, 2 Line LCD Module to the Parallel
Port. These LCD Modules are very common these days, and are quite simple to work with, as
all the logic required running them is on board.


 Interface with either 4-bit or 8-bit microprocessor.

 Display data RAM.
 Character generator ROM.
 160 different 5 X 7 dot-matrix character patterns.
 Character generator RAM
 8 different user programmed 5 X 7 dot-matrix patterns.
 Display data RAM and character generator RAM may be
 Accessed by the microprocessor.
 Numerous instructions
 Clear Display, Cursor Home, Display ON/OFF, Cursor
 ON/OFF, Blink Character, Cursor Shift, Display Shift.
 Built-in reset circuit is triggered at power ON.

Current Transformer

A current transformer is an instrument transformer, used along with

measuring or protective devices, in which the secondary current is proportional to
the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs from it by
an angle which is approximately zero.

Current transformers perform the following functions:

 Current transformers supply the protective relays with currents of

magnitude proportional to those of power circuit but sufficiently reduced in
 The measuring devices cannot be directly connected to the high magnitude
supplies. Hence current transformers are used to supply those devices with
currents of magnitude proportional to those of power.
 A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from high
voltage circuits.

Voltage measurement
Voltage is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an
electrical or electronic circuit, expressed in volts. It measures the potential energy
of an electric field to cause an electric current in an electrical conductor.

Most measurement devices can measure voltage. Two common voltage

measurements are direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC).

Although voltage measurements are the simplest of the different types of analog
measurements, they present unique challenges due to noise considerations.


A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a relatively small electric

current that can turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of a relay
is an electromagnet (a coil of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when
electricity flows through it). You can think of a relay as a kind of electric lever:
switch it on with a tiny current and it switches on ("leverages") another appliance
using a much bigger current. Why is that useful? As the name suggests, many
sensors are incredibly sensitive pieces of electronic equipment and produce only
small electric currents. But often we need them to drive bigger pieces of
apparatus that use bigger currents. Relays bridge the gap, making it possible for
small currents to activate larger ones. That means relays can work either as
switches (turning things on and off) or as amplifiers (converting small currents
into larger ones).

A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an
electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of
electrical energy to another.

 Transformer:
Steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC.

 Rectifier:
. A rectifier is used to convert the transformer output voltage to a varying DC

 Filters:
An electronic filter to convert it to an unregulated DC voltage. The filter removes
most, but not all of the AC voltage variations; the remaining voltage variations are
known as ripple.

 Regulator:
The function of a linear voltage regulator is to convert a varying DC voltage to a
constant, often specific, lower DC voltage. In addition, they often provide a current
limiting function to protect the power supply and load from over current (excessive,
potentially destructive current).