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Ohio Trafficking in Persons Study Commission

Demand Reduction Sub-Committee


Report on Prevention and Intervention to Address Human Trafficking in Ohio
To Attorney General Richard Cordray

December 15, 2010

Demand Reduction Sub-Committee Members

Jewel Woods, Sub-Committee Chair, Renaissance Male Project


Norma Ryan, Sunrise Center
Erin Michel, National Association of Social Workers – Ohio Chapter
Kae Denino, Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition
Debra Seltzer, Ohio Dept. of Health Sexual Assault & Domestic Violence Prev. Program
Maggie Billings, Lucas County Human Trafficking Coalition
Michael Allbritain, Columbus City Attorney’s Office
Noel J. Bouché, pureHOPE
Kathleen Davis, Polaris Project
Tabitha Woodruff, Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition
Theresa Flores, Gracehaven
Marlene Carson, Rahab’s Hideaway
Nancy Sin, Cleveland Anti-Trafficking Coalition
Kristin Braddock, End Slavery Cincinnati
Jerry Miller, Columbus Area Church Council
Danielle Smith, National Association of Social Workers – Ohio Chapter
Trish Smouse, Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition
Christina Conrad, Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition
Nancy Miller

Attorney General’s Office


Abbey Mortemore
Todd Dieffenderfer
Table of Contents

Executive Summary ...........................................................................................................3


Demand for Human Trafficking.......................................................................................4
Introduction....................................................................................................................4
Background Information...............................................................................................4
Prevention...........................................................................................................................5
Short Term .....................................................................................................................5
Addressing sex trafficking by educating youth and community members..................5
Recommendations ..........................................................................................................6
Long Term ......................................................................................................................6
Addressing sex and labor trafficking risk factors ........................................................6
Recommendations ..........................................................................................................7
Intervention ........................................................................................................................7
Short Term .....................................................................................................................7
Addressing sex trafficking through deterrence strategies............................................7
Addressing labor trafficking through enforcement of labor laws and consumer
education ......................................................................................................................9
Recommendations ........................................................................................................10
Long Term ....................................................................................................................11
Addressing sex trafficking through policy.................................................................11
Recommendations ........................................................................................................12
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................12
Future Research ..........................................................................................................12
Summary.......................................................................................................................12
References.........................................................................................................................13

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Executive Summary

The primary task of the Demand Reduction Sub-Committee of the Trafficking in


Persons Study Commission is to make recommendations that will lead to the
elimination of demand for forced labor and compelled commercial sexual activity. In this
report we offer short-term recommendations and outline suggestions for long term
solutions. We have begun to compile a bibliography of related resources. Considerable
work remains to be done to identify direction for this work in Ohio.

Recommendations for the Ohio Attorney General:


• Collaborate with the Department of Commerce Bureau of Labor and Workers
Safety to enforce labor laws and hold employers accountable
• Continue efforts to monitor and prosecute those involved with child pornography
• Serve as the lead statewide in coordinating human trafficking efforts
• Continue efforts to train law enforcement personnel and encourage coordination
with community organizations to respond to human trafficking.

Recommendations for city prosecutors’ offices:


• Support establishment or strengthening of John Schools for first time offenders
• Appoint leaders or community organizations to facilitate John Schools
• Build relationships with leaders and members of community organizations in
order to provide strong safety nets for victims and ensure adequate John School
presenters

Recommendations for law enforcement agencies:


• Focus enforcement efforts on the buyers of prostitution
• Increase statewide collaboration with respect to investigations of human
trafficking
• Establish leadership among law enforcement to reach out to the Ohio law
enforcement community on the response to human trafficking
• Build relationships with leaders and members of community organizations in
order to build strong safety nets for victims and community-level collaboration
• Assign officers to present at John School sessions for first offenders

Recommendations for communities (community organizations, schools, faith based


groups, youth serving organizations, health and human services)
• Create on-going community programming targeting youth and adults
• Train staff to identify risk factors for human trafficking and how to provide
assistance to victims
• Build relationships with law enforcement officers to address demand
• Assign employees or volunteers to present at John School sessions
• Share in statewide community of learning about best practices to reduce demand

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Demand for Human Trafficking

Introduction

The purpose of this report is to propose measures that address the demand for sex and
labor trafficking in the state of Ohio. Demand for labor trafficking is briefly discussed.
Recommendations for the Ohio Attorney General, law enforcement agencies,
prosecutors’ offices and community organizations are stated at the conclusion of each
section.

Background Information

Human trafficking continues to thrive because there is a global market demand (U.S.
Dept. of State, 2009). Sex trafficking profits are estimated to be worth $27.8 billion, and
labor trafficking profits are estimated to be worth $31.6 billion globally each year
(Belser, 2005). The demand for commercial sex, which includes prostitution, stripping,
pornography and other sexual services, is driven by the limitless profits that traffickers
and pimps generate from repeatedly selling sexual services of those under their control.
Individuals benefit from labor trafficking because they are able to earn higher profits
from minimizing the cost of wages.

Traffickers facilitate the demand for sex trafficking, and consumers drive the demand.
Traffickers may serve as pimps involved in prostitution and escort services, managers of
strip clubs and massage parlors, producers and distributors of pornography. Consumers
include any purchaser of commercial sex.

Several research studies have been conducted on men that purchase sexual services from
prostitutes (these men also referred to as Johns). These studies have provided important
information on demographic and descriptive characteristics, the reasons why men solicit
sex from prostitutes, and attitudes toward prostitution that may be linked to violence
against women. According to the National Opinion Research Center, one-fifth of men in
the U.S. visited prostitutes at least once during their lives (Monto, 2004). One study of 70
Johns found that on average each John paid for 10 encounters with a prostitute in the last
12 months. The average age of Johns in this study was 35. The men ranged in ages from
23 to 61. More than half of the men in this study were also found to be in a committed
relationship (McKegany, 1994). Another study found that Johns are typically adult males,
employed full-time, in their late 30s, and un-married or separated (Monto, 2004).
Additionally, studies have found that the racial and ethnic identities of Johns are similar
to the demographic areas in which they are arrested. Johns were also found to be more
likely to have more sexual partners, more sexual encounters, and to have consumed
pornography in the past year (Monto, 1999).

Traffickers serve an array of functions that may include one or more of the following:
“recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor
services through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to
involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery” (P.L. 106-368 §103 [8]).

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Research has not yet revealed a typical profile of a labor trafficker. Owners and/or
managers of factories, agricultural camps, brick kilns, mineral mines, and fishing boats
exploit the labor of trafficked victims and keep them in servitude through the use of
violence, threats, and insurmountable debts. Individuals also exploit labor through
domestic servitude where victims are restricted to the home in which they work. In
countries affected by violent political conflict, warlords and militiamen force children as
young as 7 into a life of brutal combat (U.S. Dept. of State, 2009). While all these forms
of labor trafficking do not exist in Ohio, it is still a problem in this state (Wilson &
Dalton, 2007).

Prevention

Short Term

Addressing sex trafficking by educating youth and community members.


Members of the Demand Reduction Sub-Committee have built consensus on the needs
for educating youth and instituting community action. The resources for doing so can be
mobilized immediately utilizing networks already established in the state of Ohio.

Many individuals and organizations focused on human trafficking have begun creating
programming and curricula for youth. Complete elimination of sex trafficking and other
forms of sexual violence requires adoption of societal norms and positive youth
development that support healthy relationships. In working toward these outcomes,
human trafficking prevention overlaps with other prevention efforts such as sexual and
intimate violence prevention, sex education, alcohol and drug prevention, and others.
Some of these areas of prevention have developed a body of research and resources that
can be drawn from to inform anti-trafficking work. The Guidelines for the Primary
Prevention of Sexual Violence and Intimate Partner Violence, for example, which is
produced by the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Action Alliance, provides
guidance based on extensive review of the literature related to priority risk and protective
factors that have been demonstrated to impact sexual violence and intimate partner
violence.

As we learn more about who those involved in the “demand” side of human trafficking
are and how that demand is sustained, we need to apply this information to the work we
do with youth and our community where trafficking promoters live and work. One area
of focus should be the pornography industry because of its influence on cultural, social
norms, sexual behavior and economic legitimacy it is a strong force that drives demand
for the commercial sex industry (Dines, 2010; Jeffreys, 2009; Estes & Weiner, 2001).

Primary prevention of human trafficking (i.e. stopping it before it starts) will require
individual education and awareness. However, it will also require the integration of
lessons learned in other important areas like: community organizations, among teachers,
mentors, and other youth advocates, health and mental health providers, faith
communities, organizational practices, and through our community policies and laws.

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Recommendations

1. Best practices for prevention programs should be developed including:


a) Objectives for programming for youth related to human trafficking
b) Essential content areas, which may contain information on the harm and
risks of pornography and prostitution, awareness of human trafficking,
risk reduction for vulnerable individuals, media literacy, and how to avoid
being a “bystander” and intervene with peers

2. Work with “allied prevention programs,” such as sexual and intimate violence
prevention, sex education, alcohol and other drugs prevention, etc. to
integrate and reinforce messages consistently.

3. Work with school systems (administrators, school boards, teachers, and youth
leadership, and parents), faith-based organizations, youth-serving organizations,
and other community groups to generate support for integrating this information
into lesson plans.

4. Review and expand relevant school policies to address these issues related to the
essential content issues.

5. Work with national, state, and local organizations with focus on teaching young
men about respect and responsibility and working with adult men to model and
mentor respectful relationships with women. More information can be accessed
at: http://toolkit.endabuse.org/Home/.

Long Term

Addressing sex and labor trafficking risk factors. By understanding the


motivations of traffickers and consumers of sexual services in combination with factors
that make women and children vulnerable, it is possible to address human trafficking at
the root of the problem. The primary motivation for perpetrators of human trafficking is
the profit they receive from recruiting, harboring, or transporting individuals into
servitude (Davis, 2006). Findings from a study of 70 men who solicited prostitutes
revealed the following reasons for doing so: buying specific sexual favors, having sexual
contact with a large number of women, anonymity without obligations to continue the
relationship, and looking for particular physical characteristics (McKegany, 1994). The
Ohio Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention (OSIP) Consortium identified risk
factors for perpetration of violence against women. These risk factors include a need for
power and control in relationships, hyper-masculinity and/or beliefs in strict gender roles,
exposure to violence, and hostility and anger toward women. (OSIP Consortium, 2009).
Women and children compose the majority of human trafficking victims (U.S. Dept. of
State, 2009). Several risk factors for being a victim of human trafficking have been
identified and they include: histories of mental, physical, and/or sexual abuse, family
dysfunction, runaway status, homelessness, poverty, illiteracy, disability, non-English

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speaking, lack of political rights, and lack of economic opportunities (Hodge, 2008; U.S.
Dept. of State, 2009).

Recommendations

1. Because of these vulnerability factors, child sexual abuse prevention and


increasing economic opportunities for women are highly important. Further
research is needed to analyze current prevention measures and best practices.

2. Health and human service organizations, schools, faith-based organizations, and


youth-serving organizations should train staff to identify risk factors for human
trafficking, how to provide assistance to victims, and how to work with youth and
community members to decrease factors which support perpetration.

Intervention
Short Term

Addressing sex trafficking through deterrence strategies. Community action


will require collaboration between community organizations, prosecutors’ offices, law
enforcement agencies, and the Ohio Attorney General’s office in order to address demand
for commercial sex. First offender programs, commonly referred to as John Schools,
address demand for commercial sex. Currently, there are four John Schools operating in
Ohio. Each has its own structure and collaborative partners. Other deterrents targeting
Johns are also discussed below.

The majority of Johns Schools in the United States are based on the model developed by
the Standing Against Global Exploitation Projects (SAGE Project) which established the
First Offender Prostitution Program in 1995. The purpose of a John School is to educate
individuals who purchase sex about the negative consequences of their actions. Each
John School lasts approximately eight hours- from the beginning of the registration
through the end of completing the class evaluation or survey. On average, each John
School has five hours of instruction from a curriculum that consists of six content areas:
Prostitution Law and Street Facts, Health Education, Effects of Prostitution on
Prostitutes, Dynamics of Pimping, Recruiting, and Trafficking, Effects of Prostitution on
the Community, and Sexual Addiction. Evaluation of the program found that 98% of men
who participated in the John School were “rehabilitated” (Fischer, Wortley, Webster, &
Kirst, 2002). Another evaluation revealed that Johns reported a statistically significant
increase in awareness of negative impacts of purchasing sex from prostitutes and an
understanding of the adversity facing women who are prostituted. At the same time,
however, participants in the program did not learn problem-solving skills to make
different decisions or address emotional or behavioral issues (Shively, Jalbert, Kling,
Rhodes, Finn, Flygare, Tierney, Hunt, Squires, Dyous, & Wheeler, 2008).

Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton, and Toledo conduct John School diversion programs for
those who are arrested for purchasing sex, also called ‘johns.’ Although modeled after the
First Offender Prostitution Program in San Francisco, each John School in Ohio is

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structured differently and operates independently from one another. Each program is
summarized below.

The John’s Education Program (JEP) in Cincinnati began in 2006. The JEP is a one-day
educational class with presentations about legal consequences, criminal aspects and
violence, sexually transmitted infections, impacts on businesses and families, sex
addiction, and personal stories from former prostitutes. The purpose of the program is to
provide information to men who are arrested for solicitation in order to change attitudes
toward prostitution and for them to make different choices, with the ultimate goal of
reducing recidivism. The JEP has a sliding scale fee that ranges between $250 to $500,
depending on income level. Half of the fee is distributed to Off the Streets, a program that
helps survivors of prostitution. Not only must the men participate in the JEP, but they
also are mandated to pay restitution and probation fees, as well as fulfill community
service requirements. The Hamilton County Department of Pretrial and Re-entry Services
conducts the JEP. Only first-time offenders qualify for the JEP and may participate only
if approved by a judge (Cincinnati Union Bethel, 2010). In addition to other elements of
the diversion program, johns may have their cars impounded, costing them $500 at their
own expense (Willoughby, 2008). Upon successful completion of the program, charges
are eligible to be expunged (Cincinnati Union Bethel, 2010).

Like the Cincinnati JEP, the Columbus John School (CJS) is a one-day educational class,
and the presentations cover the same topics mentioned above, with the addition of a
presentation on healthy relationships. The CJS began in 2007, and the purpose of the
program is strictly on providing information to men arrested for purchasing or attempting
to purchase sex. The objective of the CJS is not reducing recidivism. Men attend the CJS
as part of their negotiated sentencing at no additional cost. The Columbus City
Prosecutor’s office facilitates the CJS. Increased awareness is measured by an evaluation
administered at the end of the 8-hour session.

The Dayton John School (DJS) began in 2008. Sessions are held bi-monthly and last six
hours. Presenters from the Prosecutor’s Office, Vice-Squad, local health department,
Sunrise Community Center, Weed & Seed, and a survivor cover similar topics as the JEP
and CJS. Johns pay a $250 fee to attend the class, and these monies go into a fund to be
used for supportive services for prostituted women. The Dayton Municipal Court
Probation Department oversees the DJS, which admits 15 to 18 johns per session
including three seats reserved for Johns from Butler County. The DJS has a mandatory
attendance requirement for first time offenders in addition to probation for one-year and
sometimes completion of community service. The arrest and conviction remains on
record and only on rare occasions can a record be sealed. Additionally, every six months
the names of the Johns are listed in local newspaper and on an informational-cable
television channel. To measure the increase in knowledge, johns answer pre- and post-
test surveys According to the Dayton Southeast Weed and Seed (2010), only one out of
100 men who participated in the DJS has been re-arrested for prostitution.

The first session of the Toledo John School (TJS) was held in 2010. The format of
presentations differs from the other John Schools in that it begins with discussion about

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what it means to be a John. Next, is a session on pimping and human trafficking that is
followed by the video “Bait & Switch” and a related discussion. Lastly, the health
department does a presentation about sexually transmitted infections. Presenters are
required to complete a training to be eligible to participate. In addition to paying a $300
fee, johns’ cars are impounded for a charge of $150, if they are caught soliciting from
their cars. Men participating in the TJS answer pre- and post-test surveys. Additionally,
they receive mandatory rapid HIV testing. Their records are expunged upon successful
completion of the course. Furthermore, to measure success, one year from the time of an
arrest there is to be a check through the records database to see if they re-offended.

Other deterrence strategies include naming and shaming tactics, reporting through law
enforcement websites, vehicle impoundment, and road changes. Examples of naming and
shaming tactics are john websites, John TV and newspaper listings, and “dear john”
letters. Men who have been arrested and/or convicted of solicitation have their names,
photographs, year of birth, and city of residence posted publicly. “Dear john” letters are
sent to men’s homes warning members of the household of the health risks the men have
been exposed to by purchasing sex with prostitutes. Although proponents believe such
tactics are effective deterrents, they are controversial because they are believed to harm
families, reputations, and may actually provoke men to continue purchasing sex. Some
law enforcement agencies have programs where community members can submit
complaints over the Internet. Vehicles are seized for those arrested for solicitation
because they are considered a means to carrying out the offense. Road changes, such as
one-way streets, cul de sacs, road bumps, and road barriers, are used to redirect traffic
and reduce prostitution-related traffic (Willoughby, 2008).

Addressing labor trafficking through enforcement of labor laws and


consumer education. Enforcement of labor laws in America, regardless of immigrant or
trafficking victim status, is lax. Adequate wage enforcement is directly related to labor
trafficking because if employers are continually allowed to withhold wages from
employees without government intervention, employers receive the message that they can
continue this practice. This enables employers to hire workers and hold them in fear of
retaliation. The alarming figure of $19 billion dollars is estimated to be illegally withheld
from workers in America in cases of unpaid overtime, minimum wage violations, and
labor trafficking of immigrant workers who are in the States legally (Levine, 2010).

When the Government Accountability Office (GAO) assessed the Wage and Hour
Division’s (WHD) investigation practices, it found that the WHD did not investigate a
violation of child labor laws, nor was the complaint recorded in the database, despite the
statement in Wage and Hour Division’s (WHD) policy that child labor laws are its
highest priority (GAO, 2009). Policy Matters Ohio reported that enforcement of labor
laws initiates increased rates of compliance among employers, promotes workers’
security and overall wellbeing, and works to eliminate employers’ advantages over
workers and competing businesses (Schiller & DeCarlo, 2010).

Enforcement of labor laws is especially important to victims of labor trafficking because


their servitude is not likely to be detected by authorities unless the employer is reported

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or the victims escape. Stricter enforcement of laws increases the risk to employers for
unfair labor practices and labor trafficking.

Promising practices from around the country include campaigns to support businesses
which decline to benefit from selling products that contribute to human trafficking, as
well as fair trade options for consumers. For example, the Minnesota based “Men’s
Action Group” has asked that

business, public/private organizations, and municipalities


modify their meeting facility policy to clarify that meetings
and conferences will be held in facilities that do not offer
in-room adult pay-per-view pornography, and that travel
policies be amended to reimburse employees’ lodging costs
only when staying at hotels that do not offer in-room adult
pay-per-view pornography…. In this way we collectively
remove our support for the mainstreaming of this sexually
violent material and begin changing the environment which
supports violence against women, girls and boys
(Minnesota Men’s Action Network, 2010).

Many non-profit organizations that work to fight human trafficking have promoted sale
of fair trade items made by survivors of violence as a way to both support those who have
been hurt and to offer an alternative source of goods that consumers can rely on to be
produced ethically. A quick review of anti-trafficking organizations world-wide shows a
multitude of examples of such efforts. A future step of the Demand Reduction Sub-
Committee would be to further assess the range of such efforts and work with Ohio
organizations to support these efforts.

Recommendations

1. There is no uniform John School program or combination of deterrence strategies


to apply to all communities. It is recommended that each community mobilize
organizations and resources to address the unique needs of each community.

2. It should be noted that the deterrence strategies discussed in this section are
usually executed to address street prostitution. It is recommended that law
enforcement agencies also investigate commercial sexual exploitation perpetrated
through escort services and websites like Craigslist on the Internet if they are not
doing so already.

3. Develop coordinated efforts between human service organizations and branches


of the criminal justice system (i.e. law enforcement agencies, prosecutors’ offices,
county and state courts, etc) in order to establish vital safety nets to protect
victims of human trafficking.

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4. The Ohio Attorney General has excelled at ensuring law enforcement officers are
trained on the issue of human trafficking. It is recommended that the office
continue to oversee law enforcement’s response to human trafficking, including
training of personnel and coordination with community organizations to respond
to human trafficking.

5. Prosecutors’ offices are recommended to support establishment or strengthening


of John Schools for first offenders and to appoint leaders or community
organizations to facilitate John Schools.

6. Law enforcement agencies are encouraged to continue arresting consumers of


prostitution and to collaborate across the state on investigations of human
trafficking. To increase awareness of the problem of human trafficking, law
enforcement agencies could designate leaders to reach out to the Ohio law
enforcement community on the response to human trafficking, specifically to
promote training on this crime. Furthermore, it is recommended that agencies
assign officers to present at John School sessions.

7. It is recommended that the Ohio Attorney General’s office rigorously enforce


labor laws and to collaborate with the Department of Commerce Bureau of Labor
and Workers Safety in order to hold employers accountable for legal, responsible,
and just labor practices.

8. With passage of Substitute Senate Bill 235, language pertaining to aspects of


labor trafficking, such as involuntary servitude and confiscation of government-
issued identification documents, will become prosecutable offenses. It is
recommended that law enforcement officers include these elements in their
investigations. Moreover, it is recommended that prosecutors enforce the human
trafficking law when applicable to labor trafficking.

9. It is recommended that further research be conducted to explore options for


consumer education campaigns in Ohio.

Long Term

Addressing sex trafficking through policy. Public policy changes would also
serve to curb demand, particularly for sex trafficking. According to research conducted
by the Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Violence the most effective strategy to deter
demand for prostitution, including sex trafficking, is to raise the penalties for purchasing
sex and decriminalize the selling of sex (Willoughby, 2008). A model to do this is found
in Sweden where they have implemented a law that decriminalizes the selling of sex by
women and minors involved in prostitution and other commercial sex. Higher penalties
for purchasing sexual services in turn curtail the demand, and thus the sex trafficking
market becomes less profitable (Ekberg, 2004). As a result of this law, the Swedish
National Criminal Investigation Department found that traffickers are less likely to traffic
victims to Sweden (Willoughby, 2008).

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At the same time, the Swedish law presents a dilemma for protecting victims. Women
and children who are prostituted are often identified by law enforcement officers who
arrest them. If they are no longer arrested, then there is a risk that they may not be
recovered and receive the services they need to thrive.

Recommendations

1. It is recommended that strong deterrents be imposed with respect to the


purchasing of sexual services. In addition to more aggressive enforcement of
existing law as it applies to johns, those who are first-time offenders should be
ordered by the courts to attend John Schools education programs.

2. In order to have a far-reaching impact on the prevalence of human trafficking, it is


recommended that a statewide community of learning be maintained. This
organization will facilitate the opportunity to further investigate and propose best
practices to reduce demand.

Conclusion

Future Research

The risk factors associated with victims of human trafficking (histories of mental,
physical, and/or sexual abuse, family dysfunction, runaway status, homelessness,
poverty, illiteracy, disability, non-English speaking, lack of political rights, and lack of
economic opportunities) are complex and entrenched in societal structures. As a result,
more research is needed to identify best practices that reduce the vulnerability of women
and minors. Additionally, there has been very little research done on the risk factors
associated with the perpetration of human trafficking. Therefore, a comprehensive and
robust research agenda is needed to determine the effectiveness of a wide range of
prevention and intervention strategies which include naming and shaming tactics,
reporting through law enforcement websites, vehicle impoundment, and road changes.
Finally, extensive research about labor practices, economic structure, and government
regulation and enforcement may provide valuable information about combating labor
trafficking.

Summary

The Demand Reduction Sub-Committee adopts the stance that ultimate solution to human
trafficking is to eliminate the demand for both labor and commercial sex. Curtailing the
demand for sex and labor trafficking will involve both prevention and intervention
strategies. In the short-term, intervention strategies that discourage the demand for sex
trafficking must involve limiting the consumption of sexual services- especially
prostitution. Research studies consistently demonstrate that in addition to various
deterrence strategies, one of the most effective strategies for reducing demand is arresting
the men that participate in commercialized sex. In the long-term, preventing sex and
labor trafficking requires addressing deep-rooted causes that fuel the demand for

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exploited labor and sexual services, and limiting the supply of vulnerable populations.
Labor trafficking can be addressed through stricter enforcement of labor laws. Research
studies also demonstrate that sex trafficking can be further mitigated by focusing on the
penalties for the purchase of sexual services. We offer these recommendations to the
Ohio Attorney General’s office, prosecutors’ offices, law enforcement agencies, and
communities to address sex and labor trafficking in Ohio.

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