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Optimizing the Production from Multizone Well by Selecting Appropriate Completion for

a Well of Tal Block Pakistan (Case Study)


Muhammad Rafique Arisar, IPNGE Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan.
rafique.arisar@gmail.com
Muhammad Zubair Hingoro, IPNGE Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan.
zubairmehranian@gmail.com
Faisal Najam Abro, IPNGE Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan.
Faisal.abro@hotmail.com
Sohail Nawab, IPNGE Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan.
sohail.nawab@faculty.muet.edu.pk
Imran Hullio, IPNGE Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan.
imran.hullio@faculty.muet.edu.pk
ABSTRACT
Well completion is the process of construction a well geared up for production or injection. This chiefly
involves preparing the bottom of the hole to the required conditions, running the production tubing and associated
downhole tools. Production from multizone well can be obtained from single tubing string as well as from dual
tubing strings but it depends on pressure difference, depth and fluid present in the formation. This paper is based on
the optimum well completions design for multizone well of Tal block region which contains four reservoirs of
different formations Lockhart (Limestone), Hangu and Lumshiwal (Sandstone), Samanasuk (Limestone) & Datta
(Sandstone) having pressures of 7432 psia, 7563 psia, 7843 psia and 7982 psia respectively. Well is producing four
zones (Multilayer well) and generate numerical model for each completion after that relate the results of single
string multizone and dual string multizone completions which demonstrate better performance and economically
feasible.
Keywords: Completion; Multilayer; Permeability; Single String; Dual String; Flowrate; Drawdown.
I. INTRODUCTION
Tal Block is an oil and gas field, located in Kohat District Pakistan. The field accounts for 20% of Pakistan's oil
production, amounting to 17,000 barrels per day [1]. Six discoveries have been made in this block, the first in 2002
and the most recent in 2011. The field has 55 percent as the success ratio of discovery in Tal Block, compared to 33
percent in other areas [2]. In Tal block region four reservoirs can be produced from one well due to low pressure and
depth differences between the layers and fluid present in the formations comprises similar properties. Formations are
Lockhart (Limestone), Hangu and Lumshiwal (Sandstone), Samanasuk (Limestone) & Datta (Sandstone). The
purpose of well completion is to connect reservoir to the surface in which fluid can be produced or injected securely.
Best completion design can be reduced the fluid losses due to friction and produced fluid efficiently. The production
from this multizone well can be either taken from single tubing string or dual tubing string.
Initial study related to this topic comprises that the discussion of a well completion design methodology to overcome
reservoir challenges. A wide-ranging well completion design methodology has enabled the stimulation and forecast
production performance [3]. The advance well completion solutions were used to satisfy specific reservoir and
production requisites. Study further described “Intelligent well completion” which contained Inflow control devices
and permanent downhole gauges [4]. Hydraulic fracture design and performance optimization which have been
studied broadly used for tight oil reservoirs to improve the permeability of the reservoir and designed well
completion improved the performance in case of hydraulic fracture [5]. The general idea of an engineering design
method utilized a tubular design which was supported by software program that offered an analytical method for
reviewing tubing loads, design reliability and buckling behavior under composite mechanical, fluid pressure and
thermal loading condition [6]. New Technology Provided Zonal Pressure Maintenance in Single Trip Multizone
Completions from that research it was concluded that single trip multizone completion utilized only one trip for
gravel pack or frac pack operation in a multizone well [7]. Further research was conducted on the well completion
which concluded that the production from multizone well can be either taken from single tubing string or dual
tubing string, but it depends on conditions. If pressure difference is low and fluid composition is similar, then
production can be taken from single tubing string. Intelligent well completion also known as smart well completion
which contains inflow control device and permanent gauges which control the zonal flow and permanent gauges
excludes the need of conventional wireline gauges [9].
II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1
Research methodology defines the step by step work on designing the well completion for multizone. Initial step
was to start of work based on previous study or reviewing literatures. A literature review surveys books, scholarly
articles, and many other sources relevant to issue were provided a description, summary and critical evaluation of
this work in relation to the research problem being investigated. After that data was collected from the reservoirs of
Tal Block and data was consisted on fluid and reservoir data. Table I presents PVT data which includes fluid
properties while table II presents Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) data which defines reservoirs properties.
Table: I- PVT Data

S. No Parameters Values
1 Solution GOR (Scf/STB) 3145
2 Oil Gravity (API) 39.4
3 Specific Gravity (60/60) 0.738
4 Water Salinity (ppm) 1000
5 CO2 (%) 1.5

Table: II- IPR Data of Multilayer Well


S. No Parameters Layer 1 Layer 3 Layer 5
1 Depth (feet) 12218 13940 16403
2 Layer Pressure (Psig) 7417 7521 7967
3 Layer Flowing Radius (feet) 0.354 0.354 0.354
4 Layer GOR (Scf/STB) 2321 3009 2067
5 Layer Permeability (md) 11.7 0.94 5.55
6 Skin Factor 42.8 36 22

Above data was concluded that Samanasuk formation was very tight formation having low permeability. So, it was
observed that this layer will not flow and other three layers will be produced. Glaso’s Correlations were used for
calculating Gas Solubility, Formation volume factor and Bubble point Pressure of volatile or light oil. Sutton and
Farshad (1984) concluded that Glaso’s correlation offers best accuracy for light oils when compare with other
correlations [10].

Gas Solubility:
1.2255
Υ 0.989
R s=Υ g
[( API

(T −460) 0.172 ) ( Pb ¿ )
] (1)

Pb¿ =10x
0.5
Where: x=2.8869−[ 14.1811−3.3093 log ( p ) ]

Formation Volume Factor:

log ( Bo −1 )=−6.58511+ 2.913219∙ log ( y )−0.27683 ∙ log ( y )2 (2)


Υ g 0.526
Where: y=R s
Υo ( ) +0.968 (T −460)

Bubble Point Pressure:


log ( Pb ) =1.7669+1.7447 ∙ ( x )−0.30218∙ log ( x )2 (3)
Rs 0.816 T 0.172
Where: Pb=10
log ( Pb )
and x=
Υg Υ 0.989
API
( )
Beggs-Robinson Correlation was used to calculate viscosity because this correlation is highly accurate among all
viscosity correlations. For volatile oil Begg’s correlation offers less error.

2
B
μob= Aμod (4)
−0.515 −0.338
Where: A=10.715 ( R s +100 ) and B=5.44 ( R s +150 ) Next
step was to generate Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) curves. “Multilayer-dp loss in wellbore” Reservoir
Model was used in this case to generate IPR curve for multizone well which shows that what reservoir can produce,
and each layer has its own IPR curve which shows their performance. Equation (5) which shows total pressure drops
in wellbore in case of multilayer well. ΔPT = ΔPHH +
ΔPf (5) Where:
2
ρg
∆ P HH = h and ∆ P f = 2 fρ υ L
144 gc 144 gc D
∆PHH represents Hydrostatic Pressure Losses while ΔPf represents frictional losses.
Begg’s and Bill’s Correlation was used in this case to design Surface Equipment which is most accurate correlation
to select optimum surface equipment to reduce losses at surface. After that vertical lift performance curves were
generated based on different variables which showed the well performance. Petroleum Experts 2 correlation method
is most proficient and simple to generate vertical lift performance curve to reduce pressure losses during vertical
flow. In this case correlation Petroleum Experts 2 was applied to generate vertical lift performance curves. It
includes the features of the Petroleum Experts correlation plus original work on predicting low-rate VLPs and well
stability. The Petroleum Experts 2 correlation has been tested for numerous high flow rate cases and found to
provide a good estimate of the pressure drops.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSION


After a critical methodology applied on the “Prosper” software the IPR curves were generated which showed the
performance of reservoirs of Tal Block which can be produced from multizone well and well completion was
designed, different tubing sizes were selected to check the production. From above data it was concluded that
Samanasuk formation was tight and it will not flow so in result other three formations are discussed. When Inflow
Performance Relationship (IPR) curves meet with Vertical Lift Performance (VLP) curve then it would achieve
operating point which shows that well will flow. Hence result would decide what production rate will achieve at
different tubing sizes. Production from multizone well can be taken from single and dual tubing sting.
Case: 1 Single String Multizone Completion:
IPR curves were generated for three producing layers, reservoir data in Table II was used to calculated IPR curve as
shown in Figure: 1. Simulation result shows that IPR curves for three layers which are producing and along with
IPR curve of multilayer well. From result it is observed that layer 1 st, 3rd and 5th are perforated while layers lies in
between these layers are unperforated. Production is observed only from these three layers. Absolute Open Flow
(AOF) shows that the maximum production from well which is not possible in real condition usually well produce
less than Absolute Open Flow. In this case AOF from layer 1 is 2936 STB/D, while from layer 3 is 179.8 STB/D,
and layer 5 shows AOF of 6905 STB/D. Layer 3 is tight which has low permeability and high skin value. It is
needed to be hydraulic fracturing in future. Overall IPR of well is 10021.4 which shows that well is producing
efficiently.

3
IPR p lot MultiL a ye r - d P L oss In We llBo re

8172.4
AOF : 10021.4 ( STB/day)
AOF ( Layer 1) : 2936.0 ( STB/day)
AOF ( Layer 3) : 179.8 ( STB/day)
AOF ( Layer 5) : 6905.5 ( STB/day)
C ompaction Per m eabili
Re
Layer 1 Absolute
6314.72
R es
P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

Layer 3

Layer 5

4457.05

2599.37

741.7
-290.528 2287.45 4865.42 7443.4 10021.4

R ate ( STB/day)
E:\7th Semester \Softw ar e\Mbal, Pr osper and Gap\Exer cise- Lee\pr osper \r afique ipr.Out
Figure 1- IPR curves for three layers and multilayer well

Noddle analysis is the combination of IPR and VLP curves and sensitivity analysis is based on different tubing
sizes. Figure: 2 shows the system performance which is the combination IPR and VLP curves which define the
production rate from single tubing string. The system shows that production rate from single string multizone is
5327 STB/D from tubing size of 2.875 inch. While using tubing size of 3.5 inches then production rate is 6702
STB/D. From Noddle analysis it is observed that erosional velocity will be achieved at the earlier stage which
will wear the downhole equipment in case of 2.875” and 3.5” tubing sizes, so mostly 4.5” and 5.5” tubing sizes
are preferred in this case and production rate is observed 8020 STB/D and 8697 STB/D respectively.
Inflow (IPR) v Outflow (VLP) Plot

E
7416.76 Va
E 1:Tubing/Pipe Diamet
000 2:First Node Pressure
E 3:Tubing Roughness (
1
E 0=2.88 0
1=3.50
E 2=4.50
E 3=5.50
5562.57
E
P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

E
E
E 100
E
E
E
E

3708.38

200

300
300
1
2
1854.19 000

0
10.0214 2510.85 5011.69 7512.52 10013.4

Liquid Rate (STB/day)

PVT Method Black Oil


Fluid Oil
Figure 2- Flowrates at different tubing sizes for single string multizone
Bottom Measured Depth16500.0 (feet)
Bottom True Vertical Depth 16500.0 (feet)
Flow Type Tubing
Surface Equipment Correlation Beggs and Brill
Well Type Producer
Vertical Lift Correlation Petroleum Experts 2
Artificial Lift None
Case: 2 Dual String Multizone Completions:
Lift Type
Predicting Pressure and Temperature (on land)
Solution Node Bottom Node
Left-Hand Intersection DisAllow
Compaction Permeabil
Temperature Model Rough Approximation R
Company MOL Pakistan
Absolut
Field Tal Block
Res
Location
Well Makori East 3
Analyst
Date 01/03/2013
E:\7th Semester\Software\Mbal, Prosper and Gap\Exercise-Lee\prosper\rafique ipr.Out
4
In this case well is produced from two tubing strings, two zones are produced from one tubing string and rest of the
one zone is produced from another tubing. In this case IPR curve is generated separately for each tubing string
production.
For Tubing 1:
In this case IPR curve is generated for two zones which are produced from one tubing string shown in Figure: 3. The
IPR curves show the performance of two zones which are going to produce from one tubing string. The AOF from
layer 1 is 2936.4 STB/D, while layer 2 is producing with AOF of 180 STB/D. These two zones commingled show
AOF of 3116.18 STB/D.
IPR p lo t Mu ltiL a ye r - d P L o ss In We llBo re

7936.73
AOF : 3116.5 (STB/day)
AOF (Layer 1) : 2936.4 (STB/day)
AOF (Layer 3) : 180.1 (STB/day)
Layer 1
C om paction Perm ea

6137.98 Layer 3 Abso


P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

4339.22

2540.46

741.701
- 18.5404 765.218 1548.98 2332.73 3116.49

Rate (STB/day)
E:\7th Sem ester \Software\Mbal, Pr osper and Gap\Exer cise-Lee\pr osper\single ipr.Out
Figure 3- IPR curves for two zones
Figure: 4 shows that two zones are producing from one tubing string by using sensitivity analysis. Simulation
result shows that production rates are observed 2281.9 STB/D, 2568.5 STB/D, 2777 STB/D and 2868 STB/D
from tubing sizes of 2.375 inches, 2.875 inches, 3.5 inches and 4.5 inches respectively.
Inflow (IPR) vs Outflow (VLP) Plot

7316.52 V
1:Tubing/Pipe Diam
2:Tubing Roughness
3:First Node Pressu
1
0=2.38
1=2.88
2=3.50
3=4.00
5487.39
P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

000

3658.26

100

200
000
1
2
3
1829.13 300

0
3.11649 780.837 1558.56 2336.28 3114

Liquid Rate (STB/day)

PVT Method Black Oil


Fluid Oil
Figure 4- Flowrates at different tubing sizes for dual string
Bottom Measured Depth16500.0 (feet)
Bottom True Vertical Depth 16500.0 (feet)
For Tubing 2: Flow Type Tubing
Well Type Producer
Surface Equipment Correlation Beggs and Brill
Vertical Lift Correlation Petroleum Experts 2
Artificial Lift None
In this case IPR is generated for one other zone which is produced from other tubing string in case of dual string
Lift Type
Predicting Pressure and Temperature (on land)
Solution Node Bottom Node
Left-Hand Intersection DisAllow
Compaction Permeab
multizone completion is shown in Figure: 5. This IPR curve shows the performance of one other zone which is the
Temperature Model Rough Approximation
Company MOL Company
Field Tal Block
Absol
R
Location
Well Makori East 3
Analyst
Date 01/03/2013
E:\7th Semester\Software\Mbal, Prosper and Gap\Exercise-Lee\prosper\single ipr.Out 5
deepest and occupies high pressure as well. The AOF of this deepest zone is 6933.5 STB/D which shows that it has
high reservoir pressure and low skin.

IPR plo t Vo ge l Me th o d

7967
AOF : 6933.5 ( STB/day)
For m ation PI : 1.57 ( STB/day/psi)

C om paction Per m e
P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

5975.53
Abs

Tes

3984.07

1992.61

1.14135
0 1733.37 3466.73 5200.1 6933.46

Rate ( STB/day)
E:\7th Sem ester \Software\M bal, Pr osper and Gap\Exer cise- Lee\pr osper \single 2.Out
Figure 5- IPR curve for one zone

Figure: 6 shows one deepest zone is producing from other tubing string in case of dual string multizone
completion. The production rates are observed 3416.6 STB/D, 4437.6 STB/D, 5283.2 STB/D and 5697.5
STB/D from tubing sizes of 2.375 inches, 2.875 inches, 3.5 inches and 4.5 inches respectively.

Inflow (IPR) vs Outflow (VLP) Plot

E
10947.5 Varia
E 1:Tubing/Pipe Diameter
000 2:Tubing Roughness (inc
3:First Node Pressure ( p
E 1 2
0=2.38 0=0
E 1=2.88
2=3.50
E 3=4.00
8210.63
P r e s s u r e ( p s ig )

E
E

E
E
E 100
E
E
E
E
5473.76 E

E
E
E
200
E

300

2736.88

300
1
2
000

0
6.93347 1737.18 3467.43 5197.67 6927.92

Liquid Rate (STB/day)

PVT Method Black Oil


Fluid Oil
Figure 6- Flowrates at different tubing sizes for dual string
Water Cut 0 (percent)
Bottom Measured Depth 16500.0 (feet)
Flow Type Tubing Bottom True Vertical Depth 16500.0 (feet)
Well Type Producer
Sur face Equipment Correlation Beggs and Brill
Artificial Lift None
Vertical Lift Correlation Petroleum Experts 2
IV. CONCLUSION
Lift Type
Predicting Pressure and Temperature (on land)
Temperature Model Rough Approximation
Solution Node Bottom Node
Left-Hand Intersection DisAllow
Compaction Permeability
Rela
This study totally focuses on the comparability of the single string multizone completion and dual string multizone
Company MOL Company
Field Tal Block
Location
Absolute O

completion for the well of Tal block region. From simulation study it is observed that production from single tubing
Re
Well Makori East 3
Reser
Analyst
Date 01/03/2013
string is 8020.2 STB/D from 4.5 inches tubing size. It is a quite good production in a cost-effective way. On the
E:\7th Semester\Software\Mbal, Prosper and Gap\Exercise-Lee\pr osper\single 2.Out

other hand, production from dual string is observed 6724.5 STB/D from the tubing size 2.375 inches and 2.875
inches respectively when using both tubing sizes of 2.875 inches production is 7010.4 STB/D. In the case of dual
string multizone completion production is low from the tubing size 2.375 inches and 2.875 inches which is not

6
suitable for comparison. It is viewed that production in case of dual string is good from both tubing string of sizes
2.875 inches. When comparison between single tubing string and dual tubing strings in this case production from
single string is 8020.2 STB/D from 4.5 inches tubing size which is quite good as compare to dual strings which is
7010.4 STB/D. For this multizone well of Tal block region single string completion is best and efficient to get
production.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We must send our special thanks to the whole staff of Institute of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Mehran
University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro for providing conducive environment for this research work.

REFERENCES

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