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G. S.

Sanyal School of Telecommunications

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Assignment 8: Solution to Link Budget Calculation

Due date: Max. marks: 20

Parameter Notation
Wavelength λ
Speed of light in free space c
Frequency f
Bandwidth B
Bit Rate Rb
Free space path loss Lf s
Implementation loss Li
Transmit power Pt
Noise figure F
Boltzmann constant k
Temperature T
Minimum SNR required at receiver (SN R)rmin
Minimum transmit power required Ptmin

Table 1: Table of notations

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1. Consider a system with operating bandwidth of 500 MHz, center frequency of 60 GHz,
is 40 dBm, implementation loss is 6.3 dB, and the receiver noise figure is 10 dB. The
modulation scheme employed is BPSK, and the minimum SNR required at the receiver
is 9.6 dB. Assume, k = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K and temperature, T = 290 K. The free space
path loss is:
3×108
Solution: Wavelength, λ = c
f
= 60×109
= 5 × 10−3 m
 2  2
4πd 4π×10
Free space path loss, Lf s (dB) = 10 log10 λ
= 10 log10 5×10−3
= 88 dB
(correct option ii.)

Solution: Pr = Pt − Lf s = 40 dBm −88 dB = −48 dBm
(correct option iv.)

3. Referring to question 1, the receiver thermal noise power is:

Solution: Operating bandwidth, B, for BPSK with 500 Mbps data rate = 500 MHz
Nt = kT B = 1.38 × 10−23 × 290 × 500 × 106 = −87 dBm
(correct option iii.)

4. Referring to question 1, the total noise power or noise floor (including receiver noise
figure) is:
Solution: Given, Noise figure = F = 10 dB
Total noise power Nf loor = Nt + F = −87dBm +10 dB = −77 dBm
(correct option i.)

5. Referring to question 1, the receiver sensitivity is:

Solution: Given, Implementation Loss = Li = 6.3 dB
Minimum SNR required at receiver, (SN R)rmin = 9.6 dB

Receiver Sensitivity = Sr = Nf loor + (SN R)rmin + Li

= −77 dBm + 9.6 dB + 6.3 dB = −61.1 dBm
(correct option ii.)

6. Referring to question 1, the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is:

Solution:
(SN R)r = Pr − Li - Ntotal = −48 dBm −6.3 dB − (−77 dBm) = 22.7 dB
(correct option iii.)

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7. Referring to question 1, the link margin of the system is:
Solution:
Link Margin = (SN R)r − (SN R)rmin = 22.7 dB − 9.6 dB = 13.1 dB

or alternatively

Link Margin = Pr − Sr = −48 dBm − (−61.1) dBm = 13.1 dB

(correct option i.)

8. If the link margin obtained as answer to question 7 is reduced by 2 dB, the maximum
achievable transmission distance (all other parameters remaining same) is:
Solution:
The result in 1(g) yields an original link margin of 13.1 dB. A further allowance (reduc-
tion) of 2 dB would mean a new link margin requirement of (13.1 dB − 2 dB) = 11.1 dB.
Since all other parameters are same and we need to determine the maximum achievable
distance, the original path loss obtained in 1(a) (i.e. 88 dB) which contributed to the
result in 1(g) is now allowed to be increased to 90 dB (i.e. 88 dB + 2 dB) due to the

 2
4πd
Thus, Lf s (dB) =10 log10 λ
= 90 dB

Therefore, d = 12.58 m
(correct option iv.)

9. Determine the transmit power required for a 500 Mbps QPSK modulated bit stream
if the minimum SNR desired at the receiver is 12 dB. Assume receiver noise figure of
10 dB, carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz, transmission distance of 100 m, and a wireless
channel with a fading margin of 8 dB. Assume, k = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K and temperature,
T = 290 K. The required operating bandwidth is:
Solution:
Given, data rate, Rb = 500 Mbps For QPSK modulation,
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Required bandwidth, B = R2b = 500×10
2
= 250 MHz
(correct option ii.)

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10. Referring to question 9, the receiver thermal noise power is:
Solution:
Nt = kT B = 1.38 × 10−23 × 290 × 250 × 106 = −90 dBm
(correct option i.)

11. Referring to question 9, the receiver noise floor is:

Solution:
Given, Noise figure, F = 10 dB
Receiver noise floor = Nf loor = Nt + F = −90 dBm + 10 dB = −80 dBm.
(correct option i.)

12. Referring to question 9, the minimum power required at the receiver is:
Minimum SNR required at the SNR is given as, (SN R)rmin = 12 dB
Minimum power required at the receiver = Prmin = Nf loor + (SN R)rmin
= −80 dBm + 12 dB = −68 dBm
(correct option iii.)

13. Referring to question 9, the free space path loss is:

3×108
Solution: λ = fc = 2.4×10 9 = 0.125 m
 2  2
4πd 4π×100
Free space path loss, Lf s (dB) = 10 log10 λ
= 10 log10 0.125
= 80 dB
(correct option iii.)

14. Referring to the specifications in question 9 and the results obtained in question 10-13,
the minimum required transmit power:
Solution: Given, Fading Margin = Lf m = 8 dB.
Ptmin = Prmin + Lf s + Lf m = −68 dBm + 80 dB + 8 dB = 20 dBm.
(correct option ii.)

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