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Submitted to the Graduate Faculty

of Texas Tech University in
Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for
the Degree of


August~ 1987

During the study period of this thesis project many

people and offices both in the United States and in Saudi

Arabia have supplied research materials and ideas of Makkah.

Although it is not possible in this limited space to mention

their names, I am deeply grateful to them all.

Profound gratitude is due to the chairman of my thesis

committee, Dr. George T. C. Peng, Professor and Director of

the Institute for Urban Studies International <IUSI>, whose

constant guidance and encouragement made this project

possible. For their advice, comments and recommendation I am

also sincerely grateful to the other two members of the

thesis committee, Professor A. Dudley Thompson, Acting Dean,

and Professor James E. White, of the college of Architec-


Special thanks to Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi

Arabia, which provided generous funds for my graduate study


Also thanks are due to the Saudi Arabian Educational Mission

in the United States for its cooperative understanding and


In addition, I wish to acknowledge all the Saudi Ara-

bian Ministries, Agencies, and offices which provided me

with all the needed information, research materials, and

• •
maps. I would like to express my appreciation to The Hajj
Research Center~ Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Makkah Planning

and Development Office, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, for their

support of my study.

Also, I am indebted to the following students, Anwar

Ahmed Abidin, Azman Abdul Manaf, Idril Idris, Jamilah Oth-

man, Mohd Shaharain Jamaluddin, Nazuraileen Nordin, Ruhana

Abu Bakar, and Zurkinain Md Nor, who offered me great as-

sistance during the time of the study and preparation of the


Finally I would like to express my deep appreciation to

my parents, my parents-in-law and particularly to my wife,

Hanan Omar Bakarman, for their prayers, understanding, love,

patience, and encouragement to make my study in the United

States a success.

Now, I wish to dedicate this design to my home town,

the city of Makkah, as a service to the holy city of the

Islamic World.

• • •

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ii

LIST OF TABLES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • vi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • viii

I. INTRODUCTION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1

II. THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA . . . . . . . . . . . 8

A. Physiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
C. Socio-Economic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
D. Re 1 igious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
E. Law and Government . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

I I I. THE MAKKAH REGION . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • 30

A. Physical Resources • • • • • • • • • • • • 30
B. Human Resources • • • • • • • • • • • • • 40
C. Man-Made Resources • • • • • • • • • • • • 45

IV. THE HOLY CITY OF MAKKAH • • • • • • • • • • • • • 56

A. The City and Its Environment • • • • • • • 56
B. Historical Background • • • • • • • • • • • 62
c. Socio-economic • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 67
D. Land-Use •- • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 72
E. Infrastructure • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 95

V. THE PILGRIMAGE <HAJJ) . . • • • • • • • • • • • • 101
A. The Origin of Hajj • • • • • • • • • • • • 101
B. The Hajj of Prophet Mohammed • • • • • • • 103
C. The Organization.of Hajj .. • • • • • • • 109

VI. DESIGN GUIDELINES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 114

A. Problems and. Needs • • • • • • • • • • • • 114
B. Goals and Strategies • • • • • • • • • • • 130
c. Programatic Design Criteria • • • • • • • • 132
D. Work Scope and Process. • • • • • • • • • • 144

VI I . SITE ANALYSIS . . . . . . . • . . ·. . . . . . . 146

A. Search for the Site . . . . . . . . . . I • 146
B. Site Condition . . . I • • • • • • • • • • 150
C. Site Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

VIII. DESIGN APPROACH • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 164
A.. Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
B. Design Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
C. Design Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
D. The Proposed Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

IX. IMPLEMENTATION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 207

A. Implementation Program • • • • • • • • • • 207
B. Financial Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • 208
c. Project Execution and Management • • • • • 210

X. CONCLUSION· • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 211

BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • • • • • • .• • • • • • • • • • 213


1. Generalised Land Use in the Makkah Region • • 36

2. Regional Water Balance . . • • • • • • • • • • 39

3. Household Population of Working age, Employed

residents, and Participation Rates . . . . • 41

4. Monthly Income in the Makkah Planning Region . 46

5. Distribution of Vilages, By Poulation Range. • 49

6. Estimate of Monthly Population Peaks in

Makkah <1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • 69

7. Sectoral Distribution of Employment,

By Nationality Group . . . . . . . . • • • • • 71 .

8. Land-Use Summary, Makkah • • • • • • • • • • • 74

9. Total Foreign Pilgrims 1345-1404 A.H.

(1925-1984) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • 116

10. Foreign Pilgrims By Mode 1385-1404 A.H.

(1965-1984) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • 117

11. Geographical distribution of External Pilgrims

From 1390 to 1404 A. H. <1970-1984) . . . . . 118

12. Pilgrims From the Kingdom 1390-1404 A.H.

(1970-1984) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • 119

13. Pilgrims From Makkah 1390-1404 A.H .

(1970-1984) . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • 120

14. .Number of Vehicles Used By Pilgrims By Type. • 121

15. Forcasts of the Number of Saudi Pilgrims • • • 122

16. Forcasts of the Number of International

Non-Saudi Pilgrims . . . . . . . . . . . • • 123

17. Forcasts of the Number of External Pilgrims. • 124

18. Forcasts of the Total Number of Pilgrims . . • 125

. :\.
19. Accommodation area <Space analysis ) . • • • • 137

20. Religious Facilities <Space Analysis) • • • • 138

21. Public Facilities <Space Analysis) . • • • • • 139

22. Emergency and Security Facilities

<space Analysis) . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • 140

23. Health Care _Facilities <Space Analysis). • • • 141

24. Commercial Facilities <Space Analysis) . • • • 142

25. Transportation Facilities CSpace Analysis) . . 143


\ .
• •

1. The Hajj in the Holy Book of Qur'an • • • • 2

2. The Holy Mosque, Makkah, S.A. • • • • • • • 3

3. The Prophet's Mosque, Madinah, S. A. • • • • 4

4. The Holy Mosque, Makkah, S. A ·. • • • • • • • 6

5. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. • • • • • • • 9

6. The Holy Capital of The Islamic World • • • 10

7. The Arabian Peninsula • • • • • • • • • • • 11

8. The People and the Society. S.A. • • • • • 15

9. Clothes, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 16

10. Arabian Cuisine, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • 17

11. Jewelry, S. A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 18

12. Journalism, S. A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 19

13. Energy, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 21

14. Industry, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 22

15. Agriculture, S. A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 23

16. The Pilgrimage <Hajj>, S. A. <Example 1) • • 26

17. The Region of The Holy City of Makkah • • • 31

18. Transportation, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • 51

19. Air Tranports, S. A. • • • • • • • • • • • • 53

20. The City of Makkah and Its Holy Environs • • 57

21. The Holy C,ity. of Makkah • • • • • • • • • • 59

22. Urban Development of Makkah • • • • • • • • 66

23. Makkah City Existing Land-Use • • • • • • • 75

• • •
24. Traditional Architecture, S.A. <Example 1) . 77

25. Traditional Architecture, S. A. <Example 2) . 78

26. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 1). 79

27. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 2). 80

28. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 3). 81

29. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 4). 82

30. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 5). 83

31. Contemporary Architecture, S.A. <Example 6). 84

32. Furniture, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 85

33. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S.A. <Example 2). • 88

34. Education, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 89

35. Health Care, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 90

36. Arts and Sculptures, S.A. • • • • • • • • • 93

37. Sports, S.A. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 94

38. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S.A. <Example 3) . . • 102

39. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S.A. <Example 4) . • 104

40. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S.A. <Example 5). • • 106

41. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S.A. <Example 6). • • 108

42. The Typical Procedure of Hajj • • • • • • • 111

43. General Hajj Statistics (a) • • • • • • • • 126

44. General Hajj Statistics <b & c) • • • • • • 127

45. General Hajj Statistics <d & e) • • • • • • 128

46. General Hajj Statistics <f & g) • • • • • 129

47. Urban Design of The Pilgrims Accommodation

Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, Worksc~pe .·
and Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

48. Site Selection Map • • • • • • • • • • • 149

.. ='.
....1 ,-.
Existing Condition of The Project Site . • 151
50. Project Site Views • • • • • • • • • • • • 153
51. An Areal View: The Project Site • • • • • • 154

52. Relationship to The Holy Mosque and

Accessibility . . . . . ..... . • • • 157
53. An Areal View: The Holy Mosque Area • • 158

54. An Areal View: The North Access to The

Project Site ........ .... . • • • 159

55. An Areal View: The South Access to The

Project Site . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • 160

56. An Areal View: The Holy Masque & The

Project Site . . . . . . . . . • • • • 161

57. Design Alternative I <Design Concept) • • • 170

58. Design Alternative I <Design Plan) . • • • 171

59. Design Alternative I <Design Illustration) . 172

60. Design Alternative II <Design Concept) . • • 175

61. Design Alternative II <Design Plan) • • • • 176

62. Design Alternative II <Design Illustration). 177

63. Design Alternative I I I <Design Concept) • • 180

64. Design Alternative III <Design Plan) . • • 181

65. Design Alternative III <Design Illustration) 182

66. Design Alternative IV <Design Concept) . . 186

67. Design Alternative IV <Design Plan) . . • • 187

68. Design Alternative IV

<Circulation and Landscape Plan) . • • • • 188

69. Design Alternative IV

<The Public Area Image) • • • • • • • • • 189

70. Design Alternative IV <Design Illustration). 190

71. Design Alternative IV
(Accommodation Unit Details) . • • • • • • • 191
72. Design Alternative IV <Design Illustration). 192

73. The Proposed Design <Design Concept) . • • 198

74. The Proposed Design <Urban Design Plan) • 199

75. The Proposed Design <The Public Area) • • • 200

76. The Proposed Design <Prtoject Views) . • • 201

77. The Proposed Design <Typical Housing Units). 202

78. The Proposed Design <Accommodation Units,

Isonometric View) . . . . . . . . . . . • 203

79. The Proposed Design <Design Illustration,

Family Section) • • • • • • • • • • • • • 204

80. The Proposed Design <Design Illustration;

Single Section) • • • • • • • • • • • • 205

81. The Proposed Design <Design Illustration,

Future Expansion) • • • • • • • • • • • • 206



Being a native and lifelong resident of Mak-

kah <internationally known as Mecca), Saudi Arabia, I

believe that the city of Makkah possesses a unique character

and image as the Holy Land for the Muslim population around

the world and as the religious capital of the Kingdom of

Saudi Arabia. E~ch year Makkah hosts the pilgrims during the

Hajj period <see Figures 1 to 3).

The Hajj is one of the pillars of Islam. I t is

obligatory for each Muslim who can afford it. This Hajj is

held each year in Makkah, where the Holy Mosque is located

and surrounded by the Holy Environs. Each year the city

hosts a large number of pilgrims who visit the city to

perform the Hajj.

The total number of Pilgrims increases each year due to

the convenience of world transportation. Recent statistics

show that a total of approximately two million Muslims

perform the Hajj yearly in Makkah. In addition to the Hajj

season, Makkah hosts the Muslim visitors who come to visit

and worship in the Holy Mosque during the year.

The Holy Mosque is situated in the center of the city

of Makkah, where most pilgrims and visitors wish to stay.



197. P.or f!ajj

Are the months well known.z···
If any one undertakes
That duty therein,
Let there be no obscenity,
Nor wickedness,
Nor wrangling
In the If. ajj.
And whatever good
Ye do, (be sure)
God knoweth it.
And take a provision 211
(With you) for the journey,
But the best of provisions
ls right conduct.
So fear Me,
0 ye that are wise.

~. ·· .\nd proclaim the Pilgrimage

.·-.mong men : they \vill come
·:-o thee on foot and (mounted)
· )n everv kind of c:tmel,
~... ean or{ accout of journeys
Through deep and dist~nt
\fountain high\vays; :. .,~

97. In it are Signs · ··

Manifest; (for example),
The Station of Abraham; •z•
Whoever enters it
. . •n
Atta1ns secuuty;
Pilgrimage thereto is a duty
1\len owe to God,-
Those who can afford
The journey; but if any
Deny faith, God stands not
In need of any of His creatur~s.

Figure 1. The Hajj in the Holy Book of Qur'an


• ..




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.~.ll::.. . :




Figure :~, . The P ropl1e t' s Mc. ::::; que ~ Ma_d i nah , ;~·. A.
The topography ·of the city with the nature of the mountains

and hills makes the center of th·e. city too congested during

the Hajj period. This is in addition to the new development

around the Holy Mosque, which resulted in demolishing a lot

of the housing area <see Figure 4).

The Government of Saudi Arabia takes part in hosting

the Hajj by taking care of the city. New facilities, new

constructions, and new improvements are taking place in Mak-

kah in order to develop the city so that it will be much

easier to handle the influx of pilgrims. The new ring roads

and the enlargement of the Holy Mosque are projects which

show the dimension of the developments .

The pilgrims prefer to stay near the Holy Mosque during

their visit to Makkah. This results in a concentration of

more than a million people at this center area. Lots of

difficulties were seen during the Hajj season ' in that area.

Transportation, services, pollution, and noise problems are

the main factors affecting the center area. A solution of

these problems is urgently needed and it is the topic of

investigation and research by the Government of Saudi Ara-


This thesis is an urban design project in Makkah

providing one solution for solving the above-mentioned

problems during the Hajj season and meeting the needs for

the city during the non-Hajj season. The project focuses on

accommodating part of the pilgrims away from the city center




Figure 4. The Ho l y Mo s que, Makkah, ~.A.

by encouraging them to live in a well-designed area. This

area will provide them with all of the necessities of good

living standards as well as a nice environment with easy

access to the Holy Mosque area. The proposed Pilgrims

Accommodation Center is designed not only for the pilgrims

during the Hajj season but also for the muslim visitors and
. .
local residents to use for other purposes during the

non-Hajj time of the year.

This thesis is divided into ten chapters. The first

five chapters describe and analyze the backgrounds of the

city and the project. The last five chapters explore the

project design. In detail, the first chapter is an intra-

duction to the thesis and the project. The second chapter

presents a br·ief picture of the country of Saudi Arabia. The

third chapter explains the region of Makkah. The fourth

chapter describes the background of the city of Makkah. The

fifth chapter defines the meaning of the Hajj in all its

aspects. The sixth chapter states the guidelines for design.

The seventh chapter defines and analyzes the project site

and its environs. The eighth chapter illustrates the design

approach of the project. The ninth chapter offers

recommendations of how to implement the project. And the

tenth chapter is a conclusion of the study of this project

and offers recommendations for future studies. All figures

in this document are a product of the author during the time

of the s~udy.


The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the Arabian

Peninsula which is southwest of Asia. It is one of the Mid-

dle Eastern countries. Saudi Arabia is located between 16

and 32 degree of latitude north. It is bordered by the Red

Sea on the west, on the north by Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, on

the east by the Arabian Gulf, Qatar, the United Arab

Emirates and Oman, and to the south by North and South Ye- .


Saudi Arabia with an area of about 870,000 square

miles, occupies the largest part of the Arabian Peninsula.

The western coast is more than 1,100 miles; the southern

. boundary is 300 miles; the northern boundary is 850 miles;

and the southern boundary is 800 miles <see Figures 5 to 7).

Geography. The geography of Saudi Arabia can be ~laced

into seven major categories:

1. Tihama Plain, a low coastal sandy plain on the Red

Sea of variable width with sedimentry rocks.

2. Sarawat Mountains, the main features of the

peninsula, consists
. of a series of mountains


Figure 5. Th~ Kingdoln o! Arabia





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F i g·ur e 6 . The Ho ly Capit a l of The Islami c World


. The Arabian Penin~ula

parallel to the Red Sea. They are of igneous and

~etamorphi.c rock of variable width.

3. The Central Plateau <Najd) extends between the lava

flows in the west and the Dahana Desert in the east

covering 640 km. It also extends from the Nafud in

the north and the Rub al Khali in the south for a

distance of 800 km.

4. The Northern Plateau extends from the Santran Valley

in the north to the Kuwait frontier in the east.

5. The Great Nafud is an extensive area of sand about

56,320 square kilometers. Its two sides are bordered

in the west by the Najad Plateau.

6. The Plateau and Plains of the Eastern Province are

hills of variable heights dipping toward the east.

They are followed by a series of elevated sand


7. The Rub al Khali <the Empty Quarter), a main feature

of Saudi Arabia, is a sand ocean extending between

16 and 22 degrees north latitude and 45 and 56

degrees east longtitude. Its area is about 640,000

square kilometers.

Climate. The location of Saudi Arabia falls within the

tropical zone. It is shielded from maritime influence on the

east and the west by two major continents, Asia and Africa.

The seas to the east and west of the Kingdom have only a

limited influence on the coastal area.


The western coast of the Kingdom, which faces the Red

Sea, normally has a subtropical climate. Its climate is

typical with warm summers and high humidity. The winters are

moderate and have light rain during the months of November

through February.

The Central Region has dry and relatively hot summers

and dry cold winters. Occasionally, the high altitudes of

the Najd Mountains are subject to cold spells.

The climate in the eastern region is similar to that of

the western region because it is so close to the sea and

other sources of water. The humidity is also very high in



In Saudi Arabia, before the advent of Islam, most of

the people belonged to the Bedouin tribes. The Bedouins were

known for their loyalty to their tribe. Their survival

depended upon their flocks of sheep and their ability to

find water and food. This involved moving from one place to

another in search of an oasis or pastures for their herds.

Saudi Arabia is located on the ancient trade routes

which connected it with varied civilizations including those

of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece.

The Quran <The Holy Book) was revealed to the Prophet

Mohammed about 613 A.D. The birth of·a new faith, Islam, is

considered one of the most important events in history.

During the Messenger Mohammed's lifetime, the first

social and political system was created on the Arabian

Peninsula. This system grew, developed and flourished during

the era of his successors, the Caliphs, until it became an

organized state.

The history of modern Saudi Arabia begins with the

family of Al Saud. The family of Al Saud reigned over most

of Arabia in the late 18th and early 19th centuries until

they lost part of their territory to the Turks and were

driven out of their capital, Riyadh, by the rival House of

Rashid. In 1902 Ibn Saud recaptured the city and began the

reconquest and unification of the country, a 23-year-long

undertaking. In 1927 Ibn Saud was proclaimed king. The

country's present name, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was

adopted in 1932.


Population. The first comprehensive and accurate census

carried out in Saudi Arabia in 1974 indicates that the total

population of · the Kingdom is 7,012,64 distributed into

fourteen administrative districts <see Figures 8 to 12).

Citizens of Saudi Arabia are classified into two ca-

tegories: fixed populations in urban and rural areas, and

migrant Bedouins. The majority of fixed inhabitants live in

the main cities of the Kingdom. The Saudi Arabian population

is composed of a number of tribes covering the whole Arabian




Figure 8 . The People and the Society, S .A.




Figure 9. Clothes, S . A.



Figure 10. Arabian Cui~iJe, S.A.


Figure 11. --~

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\it;lfjj - - JOURNALISM


Figuz-:e Journali s m,

Peninsula. Saudi Arabians share a common religion, Islam.

and a common language, Arabic. The homogeneity of the popu-

lation and the fact that Saudi Arabia has never been under

colonial domination have contributed to the political and

social stability of the country.

Arabic is the sacred language of Islam and one cif the

most spoken international languages in use today <used by

more than 120 million people in Africa and Asia). It is also

one of the greatest literary languages in history with its

immense range, power and beauty. Arabic is the official

language of Saudi Arabia, but English and other tongues are

widely spoken in the country.

Economy. Until the 1930's camel caravans traversed the

Arabian Peninsula trading at seaports. Agriculture and in-

come generated from the Hajj were important sources of

revenue, along with pearl fishing along the East Coast.

Dates were the main crop and the Bedouin raised sheep,

camels and goats.

Oil was discovered in 1938, but large scale production

did not begin until 1945. Today Saudi Arabia is one of the

world's largest producers, and is the biggest exporter. The

Saudi oilfields are concentrated in the Eastern Region. The

Ghawar oilfield is the largest in the country.

Saudi Arabia has embarked on an ambitious plan to

develop its industrial and agricultural sectors <see Figures

13 to 15). The manufacturing sector is steadily developing.




13. Energy, S .A.



Figure 14. Industr y , S . A.




Fi CT·
r .. 1,r·-·
e 15.
A ,.,. r
nc i
cu i
u ..- c· · '
.A.. ... .

The agricultural sector has been one of the main

subjects of concern . for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Using

new technology and available resources help to develop the

farm lands.

Saudi Arabia is a good investment country, where the

private sector has the security and the freedom to invest

their capital for the good of the country.


Islam is the religion of the Kingdom and all the people

of the country. All Saudi citizens are Muslims. The heritage

of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as recorded in ancient and

modern history is based upon the Islamic faith. The Quran

and the Sunna, the traditions of the Prophet Mohammed, are

the sources of legislation in the country. The Arabic

calendar year is based on the date of the prophet's migra-

tion from Makkah to Medinah.

Islam, which means submission to the I will of God, is

one of the world•s great religions. Muslims ar·e the fol-

lowers and believers of Islam and the Quran, the sacred

scripture of Islam, was revealed in Arabic and universally


recited in that language. Islam is nat only a system of

religious beliefs and devotions but. also provides rules for

behavior in private, social and business life.

A Muslim has five duties called the Pillars of Islam:

first, the profession of faith <There is no God but Allah,

Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah), second. pray five times
a day facing the Holy Mosque in the city of Makkah, third,

to pay an annual religious alm to the needy people, fourth,

to fast during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the

Islamic calendar. The fifth duty is to perform Hajj <Pil-

grimage) to Makkah at least once in a lifetime, if possible

(see Figure 16).

Law and Government

The Shariah, the Islamic code of law based on the

Quran, is the basis of the legal system of Saudi Arabia. The

Quran itself is considered the constitution of the land, and

provides the country with ethical values .and guidance.

The legislative and executive powers in Saudi Arabia

are combined and vested in the Council of Ministers headed

by the King. The First Deputy Prime Minister is H.R.H., the

Crown Prince, who heads the Council whenever the King dele-

gates the authority to him. In the absence of the. First

Deputy Prime Minister, the authority is delegated to H. H.,

the Second Deputy Prime Minister. Other members of the

Council are all heads of Ministries, and other members ap-

pointed to sit on the Council's meetings in an advisory ca-

pacity. The Council exercises authority and supervision over

the various regional government agencies, concludes inter-

national agreements, and acts independently in all internal




\Ha __~_; · ) ·•
Figure "1 -
J.t>. The Pilgri1nage .J ' S. A.
The following are the Government Ministries in Saudi
Arabia: . ''

Ministry of Interior

Ministry of Defence and Aviation

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources

Ministry of Higher Education

Ministry of Hajj and Endowments

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Ministry of Communications

Ministry of Justice

Ministry of Information

M~nistry of Post, Telegraphs and Telephones

Ministry of Industry and Electricity

Ministry of Commerce

Ministry of Health

Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Planning

Ministry of Municipalities and Rural Affairs

Ministry of Housing and Public ·works

Ministry of Finance and National Economy

For administrative purposes Saudi Arabia is divided

into five provinces, each province being headed by a Gover-

nor or Amir. The five provinces· of Saudi Arabia are ~:the


1> Central Province <Naj d), with main cities of:

Riyadh, the national capital and center of all government

activities; and Buraida; Unaizah; and Hail the dynamic cen-

ters of agriculture and livestock-raising activities.

2> Western Province <Hejaz), with main cities of: Jed-

dah, the foremost seaport and commercial and diplomatic

capital of the Kingdom; Makkah and Medina, the holiest

cities of Islam; and Taif, a tourist resort, major agricul-

tural center and seat of the Government in summer.

3> Eastern Province <Al Ahsa); with main cities of:

Dammam, a major seaport and industrial center; Al Khobar, a

residential and commercial center; Dhahran, focus of oper-

ation of the Province's oilfields and site of the interna-

tional airport serving the eastern part of Saudi Arabia; and

Al Qatif and Hofuf which are located in oases of great

agricultural expansion.

4) Northern Province; with main cities of: Tabuk, a

city of remarkable agricultural and strategic importance;

and Al Jouf, a settlement of great antiquity, rich in his-

toric relics, and undergoing considerable agricultural


5) Southern Province <Asir>; with main cities of: Abha,

a beautiful tourist resort sitting beside a large artificial

lake at an altitude of 6,900 feet, and Khamis Mushait.


The Saudi Arabian flag is green with a sword centered

horizontally at the base. Over the sword there is the

inscription in Arabic <<THERE IS NO GOD BUT ALLAH, AND




Physical Resources

Geographical Setting. The region of Makkah is located

to the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is

located within the Sarawat Mountains inland from the Red


Makkah is situated in the center of the region at about

75 km from the Red Sea and about 277 meters above mean sea

level. The city is confined by relatively high hills and

mountains <see Figure 17).

The main gates of the region are on the Jeddab-Makkah

road where Jeddah serves the region with its Islamic Seaport

and King Abdulaziz International Airport.

Climatic Conditions. This region lies in a transitional

climatic zone. It comes under the influence of monsoon-type

climate during mid-spring, early summer and early autumn.

Convection.and resultant thunderstorms occur along the Taif

escarpement at these times. During the summer months, this

region comes under the influence of the advancing

inter-tropical front that normally reaches its northernmost

limit in the vicinity of the region. During late autumn and

early winter, this region comes under the influence of

. 30



..-- - - - -





[] Urban Area

~ The Hoty Environs

•• Haii Part<ing
Agriaiture Alea

rJ underground Water Supply

.. Industrial Anla

II Recreational Area

.... Checkpotnt

-- -
.. -.::: Quarantine
_,.. --- Makkah boundary
..c. :. -
0 Emin!lte Caprtal

VI ~tagH

S:eg-i on of Ho ly City

-r · Ma.kkah
Figure 17. T j-

Mediterranean conditions. Rainfall occurs during this period

as a result of localized cold or warm front conditions,


depending on prevailing conditions over the peninsula.

Air temperature reaches its peak during June and July,

then falls gradually to January. The lowest mean daily

temperature is about 15 degree C in January and the highest

is about 40 degree C in July. Evaporation is very high in

the region with a variation of about 11 mm per day. The

average daily evaporation rate may reach as high as 16 mm

during the hot dry summer months. During the winter months,

the daily evaporation rate reaches an average low of about 6


In most of this area, rainfall occurs during the winter

months. The average annual rainfall is about 250 mm in the

southeastern corner of the region and decreases rapidly to

about 50 mm in its western parts. In Makkah, the average

annual rainfall is about 115 mm. The relative humidity

follows a pattern inverse to that of temperature. However,

the annual variation in the relative humidity widens as one

moves further inland. There, the average relative humidity

ranges between 45 and 60 percent in Makkah.

The winter season is the only wet season. Of the winter

months, January has the heaviest rainfall. However, the

entire rainfall for a month may occur within one or two

days, causing · flash floods
. . There have been instances of

excessive rainfall causing considerable damage. Though such

damaging ~ain is infrequent, the last occurred in 1968.

In the summer season, the sun is perpendicular to the

Tropic of Cancer. Consequently, Asia has a low pressure belt

which influences the Arabian Peninsula where there is also a

low pressure belt since the percentage of occupied land in

this area is greater than the percentage of water bodies. In

contrast, the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea both

have high pressure zones. As a result, the Makkah region is

influenced by the following summer winds: the northwestern

winds which are mostly dry because of subsidence, and

because no large water bodies are present to serve as

sources of water vapor, the northeast trade winds which are

dry because they pass over the desert region o.f the Arabian

Peninsula; and the monsoon winds which come from the

southwest and cause occasional summer rainfall.

In the winter, a high pressure belt is located on the

Arabian Peninsula. The influence of the Azore•s high pres-

sure belt located in the Atlantic Ocean and the northern

Sahara is felt. Low pressure belts are located in the

Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean. Consequently, the Makkah

Region is influenced by the following winter winds:

1> The northeastern trade winds which do not affect

Makkah much since the mountains prevent them from

reaching the city.


2> The northwestern winds which bring occasional wet

storms from the Mediterranean Sea.

Topographical Features. The topography of the Makkah

Region is varied, ranging from a small portion of the

coastal plain, Tehamah, to a series of broken mountains.

Tihamah Plain is a low coastal sandy plain on the Red

Sea composed partially of sedimentry rocks. It is as narrow

as 25 km in the north and center and as wide as 45 km in the

south. Tihamah means 11

low place of high heat and calm

winds." The term is combined with the name of the area to

which it belongs, i.e., the Tihamah of Hejaz, and the Tiha-

mah of Asia. This coastal plain is interrupted by a number

of valleys extending from the al Sarawat Mountains.

The al Sarawat Mountains consist of a series of moun-

tains, parallel to the Red Sea. They are the main feature of

the peninsula, apart from the deserts. They are of igneous

and metamorphic rocks <covered in some places with

sedimentry rocks> of variable width ranging from 120 km to

200 km and reaching a maximum width between al Wajh and

Yanbo. Their elevation gradually rises from the north to the

south with an average height of 1,200 meters above sea level

between Aqaba and Makkah and 1,800 meters between Makkah and

Najran, with a maximum height of 3,000 meters above sea


Between the mountains lie wadis that generally drain

toward the Red Sea. Most of the development in the region is

restricted to these wadis, where ground water is available

and human settlements can be sustained. Prominent wadis

include Wadi Fatimah, Wadi Ibrahim, Wadi al-Mansuriyyah,

Wadi al-Uwainah, Wadi Uranah, and Wadi Numan.

There are several mountains in the region, ranging from

200 meters to 1,912 meters above sea level. Some of these

mountains have historical and religious significance <Jabal

al-Nour, Jabal Thour, and Jabal al-Rahmah).

The urbanized area of Makkah covers about 23,000 bee-

tars <ha>, only 6,120 of which are actually developed. Much

of the rest consists of hills and other undevelopable land.

Other towns and rural settlements cover an additional 2200

ha of the region area , and farms cover 9500 ha. The rest of

the region is unused ·except a small portion taken by the

roads <see Table 1).

Geologic and Hydrology. The Makkah region's geology is

complex and varied. This region contains rock formations as

old as the Precambrian and Quaternary ages. The predominant

rocks are granite, granite gneiss, diorite, granodiorite,

and metamorphized sedimentary formations.

The known metallic mineral resources of the region are

limited. Only iron ore, containing 44 to 50 percent iron, is

known to exist in the Hadda village cluster along the north

and south sides of Wadi Fatimah. These deposits are esti-

mated to contain more than 50 million tons of ore. Another

mineral resource found in abundance is stone-clay which is


Table 1: Generalized Land Use in the Makkah Region

ha o/o

Human Settlements
Makkah 23,200 2.9
Villages 2,200 0.3
Area Currently Farmed 9,500 1.2
Area Under Hills and Mountains
and Other Unused Land 767,100 95.6

Total Area of the Makkah 802,000 100.0

Planning Region

Source: Makkah Region Planing and Development Office


suitable for the construction industry. Unlimited quantities

of sand and gravel are also available and some quarrying is

done in this region. Some marble deposits are also available

south of Wadi Fatimah on the way to Ash Shuiaibah.

There are three major drainage basins present in the

Makkah region. They are from north to south, Wadi Asfan,

Wadi Fatimah, and Wadi Numan. Wadi Fatimah is the most 1m-

portant of the three. The drainage basins emerge from rea-

sonably well incised hill areas in the east and flow west-

wards towards the Red Sea.

The rainfall in any particular area is lost partially

to evaporation and partially to infiltration. The rainfall

excess will run over the land surface and may create flood

conditions. The flood flows in the region do not reach the

Red Sea as surface flows but rather as subterranean flows

after they infiltrate into the wadi beds. During this proc-

ess the underground water aquifers are recharged.

It has long been established that the perennial water

source in the Makkah region is the groundwater in the

alluvium under the wadi beds. The quantity and quality of

the groundwater depends on many· factors, among which are the

thickness and structure of the alluvim, the amount of

rainfall, the amount of water extraction, and the chemical

composition of the parent rock. The estimated volume of

groundwater in the region is 358 million cubic meters <MCM)


with 27 MCM in Wadi Asfan, 216 MCM in Wadi Fatimah, and 115

MCM·in Wadi Numan.

The origin of the various water sources in the Makkah

region is rainfall, an appreciable amount of which is lost

by direct evaporation. Since about 75 percent of the rain-

fall infiltrates into the wadi alluvial deposits where i t

replenishes the groundwater aquifers, the major natural wa-

ter resource in the region is groundwater.

Recycling of water is becoming more and more common in

the Kingdom in general and in the western region in

particular. Treated sewage effluent is used for irrigation

purposes and desalinated seawater for domestic water supply.

The capacity of the Makkah Sewage Treatment Plant is

45,000 cubic meters per day. Assuming a 75 percent recovery

factor over a growing season of 250 days per year, the use-

ful yield of the treated effluent would be about 8 MCM. This

could irrigate about 180 ha at current levels of efficiency.

The volume of useful treated sewage effluent will increase

in the future due to an increase in population and the sub-

sequent demand for water. This could become an important


The estimated current domestic water demand is 210

liters per capita per day <led) in Makkah and 85 led in the

rural area <see Table 2>.

During the Hajj season, estimated water consumption of

a single Hajji is 60 liters per day. The greatest water


Table 2: Regional Water· Balance

Water Demand (MCM)

Basin Village Cluster Water Balance
Supply (MCM)
Domestic Agri- Total
(MCM) culture

Asfan Hada ash-Sham 26.8 0.1 34.0 34.1 -7.3

Subtotal 26.8 0.1 34.0 34.1 -7.3

Fatimah Makkah - 60.0 2.8 62.8

Az-Zaimah 111.1 0.1 8.9
AI-Ju'ranah 8.9 0.1 6.9 7.0 1.9
AI-Jummum 70.0 0.6 86.3 86.9 -16.9
Bahrah and Hadda 25.8 0.6 10.5 11.1 14.7
Jeddah - 5.5 5.5 -5.5

Subtotal 215.8 66.9 115.4 182.3 33.5

Nu'man Wadi Nu'man 115.1 0.1 16.7 16.8 98.3

Other Rural Areas - 0.2 - 0.2 -0 .2

Subtotal . 115.1 0.3 16.7 17.0 98.1

Total 357.7 67.3 166.1 233.4 124.3

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office, Report 2, Volume 1, Table 2.9

Table 2: Regional Water· Balance

Water Demand (MCM)

Basin Village Cluster Water Balance
Supply (MCM)
Domestic Ag ri- Total
(MCM) culture

As fan Hada ash-Sham 26.8 0.1 34.0 34.1 -7.3

Subtotal 26.8 0.1 34.0 34.1 -7.3

Fatimah Makkah • 60.0 2.8 62.8 -62.8

Az-Zaimah 111.1 0.1 8.9 9.0 102.1
AI-Ju'ranah 8.9 0.1 6.9 7.0 1.9
AI-Jummum 70.0 0.6 86.3 86.9 -16.9
Bahrah and Hadda 25.8 0.6 10.5 11.1 14.7
Jeddah - 5.5 - 5.5 -5.5

Subtotal 215.8 66.9 115.4 182.3 33.5

Nu'man Wadi Nu'man 115.1 0.1 16.7 16.8 98.3

Other Rural Areas - 0.2 - 0.2 -0.2

Subtotal 115.1 0.3 16.7 17.0 98.1

Total 357.7 67.3 166.1 233.4 124.3

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office. Report2. Volume 1. Table 2.9

demand occurs during the Hajj season, followed · by the months

of Rajab and Ramadan, the most popular months for . performing

Omrah. The estimated current irrigation water demand is

45,000 cubic meters per ha per annum.

The total demand for domestic water in the region is

66.3 MCM annually. The demand of Makkah is 59 MCM annually,

or 88 percent of the demand of the region. The total demand

of the irrigation is 166.1 MCM annually, or about three

times the domestic water demand.

The water demand figures presented above are based on

the existing population and the extent of existing agricul-

tural operations, the latter being determined by the

socio-economic and agricultural surveys carried out in 1983.

Human Resources

Population Characterization. Estimates of population

derived from the Socio-Economic Household Survey indicate

that in 1403 H <1983) there were 673,060 persons living in

the Makkah region. Of these, 618,500 <93 percent) lived in

Makkah, and 54,560 were living in villages scattered

throughout the region <see Table 3.>.

It is estimated that the urban population has grown at

a compound annual rate of about 5.8 percent since 1394

<1983) when the national census was conducted. The propor-

tion of the region's population living in the rural area has.

decreased from 13.6 percent in 1394 H <1974) to 8.1 percent

Table 3: Household Population of Working Age. Employed
R·e sidents, and Participation Rates

Saudis Non-Saudis Entire population

Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total

134,500 126.100 260,600 59,200 40,200 99,400 193,700 166,300 360,000
Working·Age Population
Employed Residents
73,100 5,200 78,300 45,500 3,400 48,900 118,600 8,600 127,200
Participation Rate 0.54 0.04 0.30 0.77 0.08 0.49 0.61 0.05 0.35

Rual Area
Working~Age Population 15,110 14.230 29,340 2,000 1,240 3,240 17,110 15,470 32,580
Employed Residents 9,870 110 9,980 1,970 10 1,980 11,840 120 11,960
Participation Rate 0.65 0.01 0.34 0.99 0.01 0.61 0.69 0.01 0.37
Makkah Planning Region
Working-Age Population 149,610 140,330 289,940 61,200 41,440 102,640 210,810 181,770 392,580
Employed Residents . 82,970 88,280 47,470 3,410 50,880 130,440 8,720
5,310 139,160
Participation Rate . 0.62
0.55 0.04 0.30 0.78 0.08 0.50 0.05 0.35

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office, report 2, Volume 3, Table 3.7


in 1403 H <1983), which suggests a rural-to-urban migration


According to the results of the Socio-Economic House-

hold Survey:

--Males constitute 53.4 percent of the population.

--Non-Saudis constitute one-fourth of the population.

--Children up to age 11 constitute 35.11 percent of the


--Persons between 12 and 64 years of age who are not

students constitute 45.1 percent of the population.

Economic base and Labor Force. The principal activities

that drive the economy of the Makkah Region are the Hajj and

Omrah. In addition to the resources brought in by pilgrims,

public sector investments have been one of the most impor-

tant factors in the economy of the region. In many respects

they are aimed at expanding and improving facilities for the

Hajj and the Omrah.

The economy of the region

. is highly service oriented;

over 77 percent of its employment is geared toward providing

services. It is estimated that 8 percent of the mean

household income of 5490 Saudi Riyals <SR) is derived from

the provision of direct Hajj services. This point under-

scores the region's inherent role as host of the pilgrims. A

relatively small percentage of employment is within the

production sector. ·Agriculture provides only 1.8 percent of


the jobs in the region and 0.4 percent of the jabs in Mak-


The labor force may be defined as that portion of the

population whose age is above the age of compulsory

education and below the normal age of retirement, from 12 to

64 years. Some females hold economically productive jobs as

teachers and nurses, but the majority are housewives. The

actual number of employed residents totals 139,160 with

participation rates of 0.62 and 0.05 for males and females

respectively, and an overall participation rate of 0.35.

Agricultural Development. Although agriculture is not a

major source of regional income, it is a significant eco-

nomic force and deserves mention. Agriculture is limited to

small areas within the wadis and the overall area of some

9,500 hectars committed to agriculture is rather modest.

Most of the agricultural holding in the region consist of

small parcels of land. Of the 987 agricultural farm holdings

surveyed in 1403 H <1983>. some 97 percent were categorized

as small farms with an average holding of 4.3 ha. The main

crops are vegetables, fruits and fodder, and agricultural

productivity is considered lower than the national average.

Traditional farming techniques were employed in the

region until the recent introduction of modern agricultural

practices. Use of chemical fertilizers and farm equipment is

on the rise and intensive agricultural techniques, such as

greenhouse farming, are being introduced. Greenhouse farm-


ing, with its efficient use of water, may lead to the

establishment of agro-industries in the ~egion.

Poultry farming is becoming more popular. I t produces

an installed capacity of 6 million birds and 140 million

eggs annually. Some 4,000 camels and 82,000 sheep and goats
are also raised in the region. The poultry and livestock

farms are confined to the rural area. In addition to large

poultry farms in Al-Jamum, Ash-Shumaisi, Hadda, and Bahra,

many families in the rural area raise their own poultry for

domestic and limited commercial use. Improved methods could

enhance the economic potential of this activity.

Livestock breeding could play a large role in the eco-

nomy of the region. In 1403 H <1983>, more than a million

animals were sacrificed during Hajj. However, many animals

were imported from other parts of the Kingdom and from


Income Outlook. The estimation of income within the

region was based on the personal household incomes reported

by the respondents during the Socio-Economic Household Sur-

vey interviews in 1403 H <1983>. Median household incomes in

the urban and rural areas were lower than the mean income,

and showed disparities _between the two areas. Saudi house-

holds had higher incomes than non-Saudi households. In 1403

H <1983), the monthly income derived by the households in

the Makkah region stood at 628 mil·lion SR, of which 95

percent was earned in Makkah. The mean monthly household


income in the region was 5490 SR; the average monthly income

of·. a rural household <2900> was about one-half that of its

urban counterpart <5760) <see Table 4).

Customary items of expenditure by households are food,

clothing. housing, transportation, utilities, education,

health care. and entertainment. Between 51 and 56 percent of

household income is spent on these items by the urban Saudi

households and rural Saudi households. The corresponding

non-Saudi exp~nditures are 56 and 39 percent. The rest of

household income is probably used for consumer durable

goods. and some savings by Saudi households. Non-Saudi

households may also remit money to their home countries.

Man-Made Resources

Human settlement. The general pattern of settlement in

the Makkah region can be described in terms of the Holy City

and three concentric bands of villages centered around the

Haram. ·The first band is located 10 to 230 km from the third

band and about 40 to 60 km from the center.

The developed area of Makkah consists of a tightly-knit

pattern of residential sections at traditional scale, and

loose <but grid-patterned) new sections being developed,

mostly in the outskirts. The building of several new roads,

bridges and tunnels has created new opportunities for the

Holy City's expansion along the ~cads that radiate from the

city center. The visible difference in scale between


Table 4: Monthly Income in the Makkah Planning Region

Makkah Rural Area Region

Total household income (millions SA)

Saudi Households 442.0 28.2 470.2
Non-Saudi Households 153.7 4.1 157.8
All Households 595.7 32.3 628.0

Mean Household Income (SR)

Saudi Households 6,450 2,910 6,010
Non-Saudi Households 4,410 2,830 4,350
All households 5,760 2,900 . 5,490

Median Household Income (SR)

Saudi Households 4,830 2,490 4,560
Non-Saudi Households 3,530 2,480 3,490
All Households 4,370 2,480 4,200

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development office, report 2, volume 3, table 4.2

development of the original town and that of the new areas

is striking.

The first band of settlements includes villages of

suburban Makkah, which are properly part of Makkah but are

at a considerable distance from the center, and settlements

of the Al Juranah village cluster.

The Jeddah-Al Jumum-Taif route, which skirts Makkah to

the north, runs within the second band and function as a

transportation corridor linking the large and small

settlements along or near the route. It begins with Bahrah

in the west, continues northeast with Hadda, Al Jumum, An

Nazlah, and many smaller villages, then turns east passing

through Ain ar-Raiyan, Al Qabaiyyah, Al Ghanidiyyah, and Az

Zaimah. The villages in the second band are more scattered

toward the south.

The third band includes the Hadda ash Sham village

cluster and the scattered villages and hamlets of the Az

Zaimah village cluster. In the east and the south the

settlements become too scattered and insignificant to fit

into a geometric model.

As mentioned previously, the region contains Makkah and

some 142 villages of various sizes <including the larger

nearby urban settlements of Baharah and Al Jumum>. Most of

these villages are located along the wadis and are served by

regional roads. They vary considerably in size from a few

households to a few hundred households. Most of the villages

are located in clusters, and are identified by the major

town or the largest village among them. They have been

grouped into the following clusters: Al Jumum, Hadda, Bah-

rah, Az Zaimah, Al Juranah, Hada ash Sham, and Wadi Numan.

A striking characteristic of the village cluster is the

preponderance of vacant plots. While the proportion of

occupied residential plots ranges between 33 and 57 percent,

vacant plots constitute between 36 and 64 percent of the

total. A large number of vacant plots in an area indicates

that people expect development to occur there.

The settlement size distribution in the Makkah region

is dominated by Makkah, where 92 percent of the population

of the region resides. Excluding Makkah, Bahrah and Al Jumum

are the only settlements with population of more than 3000;

their 1403 H <1983) populations were 14,480 and 12,736, re-

spectively. There are no settlements in the region with

populations in the range of 3,000 to 9,000 <see Table 5).

Transportation Network. Over the past few years, the

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia bas made rapid progress in the field

of transportation. Presently, the Kingdom has a vast network

of asphalt and rural roads, extending in every direction and

connecting all important areas. The total length of these

roads has increased more than four-fold in the time span

from the first Five-Year Plan to now. As a result, most of

the urban centers are interlinked, thus facilitating move-

ment of the people and goods.


Table 5: Distribution of Villages, by Population Range

Population Range Mid-Range Number of Percentage of Total

Population Villages Number of villages

0-50 25 35 25
51 - 100 75 31 22
101-200 150 41 29
201 - 500 350 23 16
501 - 1000 750 5 4
1001 - 5000 3,000 4 3
50001 - 15000 10,000 2 1

Total - 141 100

Source: Makkah Planning Project. Socio-Economic Household Survey. 1403H (1983):

and Ruralland..Use Survey. 1404H (1984)

The region of Makkah has the modern network of highways

which connect the center of the region "Makkah.. with the

other important urban and nonurban areas. The Jeddah-Makkah

<90 km) Highway was constructed to supplant the old road

which served for all seasons, especially the pilgrimage

season. The Makkah-Taif <110 km) Highway is also a new one

which serves as a gateway to the east side of the Kingdom

and the southern part "Asir." The Makkah-Madinah <450 km)

Highway was constructed during the past five years, and

has· served since 1984. These are the main highways in the

Makkah region in addition to the large network of roads

which connect the urban with the nonurban areas <see Figure


The region of Makkah does not have any airport or

seaport, but as mentioned before, the region is serviced by

the nearby main cities of Jeddah and Taif. Jeddah contains

one of the important airports of the Kingdom and also an

important seaport. Taif is another city which serves the

region of Makkah by its airport.

The following are the main ports serving the Makkab


A. King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah: The

old airport of Jeddah was located in the center of the

residential area, but as the population increased and in

order to relieve the inhabitants of the noise and traffic

congestion caused by planes, the modern planning of Jeddah




Figure 18 . · Transportatiop,


facilitated its transfer <as King Abdulaziz International

Airport> to the present location at the n6rtheast end of .the

city. This allowed the passage of arriving and departing

planes to be far from the urbanized part of the city, thus

abating noise and other pollution hazards as well as traffic

jams. Consideration was given . to anticipate future increases

in the importance of air transport and various services as

well as the importance of Jeddah as a center for communi-

cation with the different cities throughout the world.

The airport occupies an area of 105 square km and can

accommodate 10 million passengers yearly. Electricity is

provided by 3 power stations totalling 225 megawatts for the

daily supply, plus an additional 60 megawatts for

emergencies. The fresh water supply is provided by a sepa-

rate desalinization plant. The total capacity is 10 million

gallons per day. Effluent from the sewage treatment plant

provides enough water to irrigate the green spaces on-site

and surrounding the airport as a green belt of wind breaks

to control sand dune formation and other forms of erosion.

The installation of the airports presents an exquisite

architectural masterpiece . . They are equipped with the most

up-to-date modern technology in the field of civil aviation

that is available today. Their design was inspired by

Islamic architectural art <see Figure 19).

The airport is also equipped with an integrated network

of utilities and public amenities, a modern alarm system and


·._.,- '-" ..........., .._ ~ ...
. ~

\ . I




~-igure 19 . Air Tra n ports , S.A .


safety measures against fire-outbreaks, security, civil

defense, rescue work, and emergencies.

B. Taif Airport: This airport is located 30 km east of

Taif at Al Hawiah. It is an international airport. The

airport is very busy because of the large number of visitors

during the summer period. ·A new highway connects the airport

with the city of Taif.

C. Jeddah Islamic Seaport: Jeddah was in the past, and

still is the most important center in the Kingdom for the

delivery of commodities, pilgrims, visitors, and those per-

forming Omrah. The port of Jeddah has enlarged and developed

into an integrated city on its own merits. Operated 24 hours

daily, the port represents the most important economic link

between the region and the world at· large. The development

of the Islamic Port of Jeddah also includes a network of

navigational and nautical aids and another network of

maritime radio-communication. Several improvements were also

introduced on the system of buoys in the harbor by


introducing equipment that would help in locating the exact

positions of ships by radar. The pilot's station was also

enhanced by adding automatic-recording equipment. Also, two

lighthouses are being built. In addition, all the informa-

tion . available regarding the ships approaching the harbor as

well as those at anchor and all other information pertaining

to the ~aily work in the harbor is stored in a data center.


The Port Authority has . also devised a training and

up-dating program to raise the efficiency of its staff with

the net result that the port is able to handle at present

almost 2.5 million tons of goods and equipment monthly. This

represents about 50 percent of the yearly capacity of

merchandise handled by the Port Authority of the Kingdom.

Jeddah Islamic Port is even considered one of the largest in

the world for handling livestock <2.6 million heads in



MAKKAH ALMUKARRAMAH <The Blessed> is the center of the

Islamic world <for its Haram, or the Great Mosque>,which now

includes the sacred hills of al Safa and al Marwa. The

Prophet Muhammed was born in a house east of the Masa

Market. Within the Haram is the Kabah, or Bait Allah.

The City and Its Environment

Locational Image and Landscape. Makkah is located 75 km

from the Red Sea, and i t is situated in the hilly terrain of

the Sarawat Mountains, where the coastal plain meets the

foothills of the Hijaz Mountains. As mentioned before, Mak-

kah is the center of the region. The major access to the

Holy City is through Jeddah which serves as its entry port.

Taif, a hill town and the summer capital of the Kingdom,

lies about 80 km southeast of Makkah <see Figure 20).

· Makkah, the Holy City as well as the spiritual capital I

• I ,

of Islam, embraces the ancient House of God, the Holy Kaa-

bah, which stands in the middle of the Great Mosque. The

Holy Kaabah, is the giblah, or direction, towards which

Muslims turn in prayer five times a day. During the pil-

grimage season, Makkah is the destination for Muslims from






"---- ExPressway

- Arterial



Secondary Road

Pedestrian Way

Projected Artenal Road

Proteeted Main Road

ProjeCted Secondary Road

---~ PrOJeCted Pedestrian Way

----:r ~ .... ProjeCted Tunnel

'~. ~
..• c Mosque I H1$toncal S1te

•• Holy Souodari e s



... ,.r
~ ....
....... _ ~... •"4'~~
.- \


Figure 20 . 1~s Holy Environs


all over the world. The Mosque and the area surrounding it

have been greatly expanded; new roads, bridges, .tunnels,

buildings, and hotels have been erected. There are approxi-

mately two million Muslims who come to Makkah every year

from outside and inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to wor-

ship and perform a moving act devotion. Makkah also

comprises al Safa and al Marwa, close to the Kaabah, and

Jabal al Ruhmah <The Mountain of Mercy> in Arafat which is

25 km to the east.

Mina and Muzdalifah are two other places between Makkah

and Arafat where the pilgrims gather in holy adoration in

order to f.ulfill the final rituals of "Hajj" on the Muslim


Urbanscape. The landscape of Makkah and its environs is

characterized by hills. Although some of the hills have been

covered with dwellings they contribute a certain visual

quality to the townscape. Interesting vistas open up as one

approaches Makkah from the several roads converging on the

Holy City.

The physical environment of Makkah is comprised of four

distinct spatial sections: the central area around Al Haram

<the Holy Mosqu~) within the First Ring Road; the tradi-

tional areas covering the hills around the Haram; new deve-

lopment at the edges of Makkah; and the Holy Environs of

Mina, Muzdalifah and Arafat <see Figure 21).


= ---
- "7




. ..

..... I :!D .... •

.:...... . Holy I
- ,

\ _; j...

1..,..: 'l

In the center of the city, the main environmental

issues arise from the presence of the Holy Kaabah within the

Haram. The physical space available is greatly constrained

by the surrounding topography and this results in a number

of environmental problems that are further attentuated by

vehicular traffic and the proliferation of high-rise build-


The development of a large number of subdivisions has

shown little respect to natural terrain and topography.

Hilltops have been destroyed in Makkah itself; in the

outlying and peripheral areas, entire hills are quite often

levelled, disturbing the natural drainage patterns in the


The topography of Makkah has numerous mountains with

unique historical and physical characteristics:

1) Hira Mountain, also called "light mountain," is

located to the northeast of Makkah. It rises to an elevation

of about 634 meters above sea level, and has rough slopes in

all directions. Hira Mountain contains a cave facing the

Holy Mosque where the Prophet Mohammed meditated before he

became the messenger of Allah. It was in this cave that he

received the first message of the revelations which were to

become the Quran.

2) Thawar Mountain is located to the south of Makkah.

This peak rises to an elevation of about 759 meters. Thawar

Mountain contains the cave in which the Prophet Mohammed and

his friend Abu Baker. who became the first Caliph, hid from

the people of Makkah who rejected his message. It was from

this cave that Mohammed left secretly for Medina, an event

known as the Hijra.

3) Abu Qubays Mountain is located to the east of the

Holy Mosque. This mountain rises to an elevation of about

372 meters. At the peak of Qubays Mountain there is the

Bilal Mosque, an old historical landmark which dates from

the time of the Prophet Mohammed. Since this mountain is

located very close to the Holy Mosque, many people have

built their houses on its slopes. These houses are clustered

so compactly that it is necessary to build stairs to reach

the houses.

4) Qalat Jiyad Mountain is located to the southeast of

the Holy Mosque between Jiyad and al Mi~fala Streets. It

rises to an elevation of 406 meters and slopes gently

towards the north. This mountain is named for the castle

which is located on the peak of the mountain.

5) Umar Mountain is the name used for the northern part

of the mountain chain and is parallel to the Qalat Jiyad

Mountain chain. Umar Mountain rises to an elevation of 380

meters. It is very densely settled, especially on the parts

facing the Holy Mosque.

6> Kaba Mountain is located to the northwest of the

Holy Mosque. It rises to an elevation of 340 meters -·and

slopes gently in all directions.


Historical Background

Growth of Makkah before Islam. According to Muslim

belief, Allah <God) selected this isolated and lonely place

in the midst of the barren foothills of the Arabian Penin-

sula to be a new residence for Abraham's family. After the

well of Zamzam was miraculously created. and before Abraham

began to build the Kaaba, the Arab tribe of Beni Jurham

settled there, with the permission of Ismail and his mother.

Ismail then intermarried with the Jurham tribe. After his

death the Jurham inherited the well and the Kaaba.

Afterwards, the tribe of Kuzaca possessed the Kaaba for

about three centuries. Qusay Ibn Kilap, one of their

successors, took advantage of the Kaaba as a place respected

by the Arab tribes, and encouraged his tribe to build their

own houses around the Kaaba. He started by building

the common council house of the Chiefs of Makkah,

Dar-al-Nadwa. In these houses the tribe of Qusay lived

during the day, but in the evening they always returned to I

their tents pitched upon the neighboring mountains.

The successor~ of the Beni Qusay at Makkah were the

Beni Quraysh. The Quraysh had built a small town around the

Kaaba which they respected so much that no one was permitted

to raise the roof of his house higher than that of the

sacred structure. The pilgrimage to this holy place, which

the pagan Arabs had instituted, was continued by Islam. When

the Prophet Mohammed entered Makkah he destroyed the images


in the temple and abolished the idolatrous worship by his


Makkah During Caliphates Periods. Omar Ibn Al-Katab,

the second caliph, first built a mosque around the Kaaba in

the year 17 after Hijra <A.H.) about 638 A.D., having pur-

chased from the Quraysh the small houses which enclosed it,

and built a wall around the area.

Uthman Ibn Affan in 27 A.H. <about 684 A.D.>, enlarged

the square. By the year of 40 A. H. <661 A. D. ) , the size of

the built-up area in Makkah was about 164,000 square meters

<16 ha).
During the Ummayad Caliphate, Makkab experienced little

growth as occurred during Ibn Al-Zubayr•s reign as caliph.

He enlarged the enclosure of the wall by purchasing

properties from Makkah's residents, and after leveling the

houses, included these sites within the mosque.

The size of Makkah by the end of Ummayad's Caliphate in

132 A.H. (752 A.D.>, was 346,000 square meters. The boun-

daries of Makkah at that time were Al Raya Mosque on the

east and Shubayka Square on the southwest.

During the Abbasid's Caliphate, many of Makkah's resi-

dents emigrated to Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and Morocco. But du-

ring the Abu Jaafar Al-Monsur Caliphate, in 139 A.H. (659

A.D.>, the north and south sides of the mosque were enlarged

to twice its previous size.


In 163 A. H. (793 A. D. ) , the Caliph Al-Mahdy again added

to the size of the mosque by buying lan~ required to in-

crease the size of the mosque. That was from Makkab's resi-

During the Fatimid's Caliphate, Makkah experienced

little settlement growth, although many_castles were built

by the caliphs. The size of Makkah by 923 A. H. <1513 A.D.)

was 588,000 square meters.

Up to 1000 A.H. <1689 A.D.), Makkah was a good example

of an Arabian muslim town, where the mosque and squares

represent the basic center of the city, where Islamic

instruction, guidance and social affairs were conducted.

Afterwards mosque and squares that surrounded the ruler•s

houses functioned as basic centers for their activities and

collective behavior. By this time Makkah contained an

, /
~ + ~

important core, the Holy Mosque. The open square around the l ~ .

Holy Mosque was bounded by residential buildings. Smal .l

shops filled in wherever possible and smaller mosques were

scattered throughout the city.

Turkish architectural styles started to appear every-

where in Makkah during the Ottoman period <1000 A.H. to 1343

A.H.)(1699 A.D. to 1924 A. D. ) . In this same period new

construction increased considerably to meet the

ever-encreasing number of people resulting from the growing

number of pilgrims who had better access to Makkah due in

part to the completion of the Hejaz Railway from Syria to


Medina. During this period the size of Makkah grew to 1,400

square meters.

Modern Makkah. During the period of Saudi Government

between 1393 A.H. and 1375 A.H. <1924 A.D.-1955 A.D.) with

the discovery of oil in the Kingdom and the establishment of

a stable nation-state, Makkah witnessed a considerable boom

in its growth, growing 7,121,000 square meters. Easier and

quicker methods of .transportation have helped contribute to

rapid expansion and growth.

Makkah in the last two decades has seen a new era of

development and expansion. Modern planning has been applied

during this period with the focus on modern communication,

public services and other improvements <see Figure 22).

Makkah has expanded along the roads through the moun-

tain valleys away from the city's center. Expansion has been

accomplished by the construction of new streets in different

parts of the city. Houses near the Holy Mosque have been

raised to thirteen stories, and are surrounded by open

spaces and wide streets. Pilgrimage accommodations are not

limited to the city center but are spread out to reach the

peripheries in the quarters of Al Zahir and Al Zuhra.

Makkah in 1970 is more compact in the old city than in

the newly developed residential areas. New projects have

enlarged t~e area of the Holy Mosque and new and wider roads

have been constructed. The above projects have forced



{lj~~-J;j> ~
. ...
. , .. ,;

--·_-....__ ---


PHASE 1 UP TO 1•05 H

clearing in the city's center and pushed expansion to the

periphery of the city.

By the end of 1975 Makkah extended over the mountains

located within the city and also along the main streets that
led outside the city. Such streets are Al Azuzuyya Street

towards the northeast about 11 kilometers from the city

center; Al Tanim Street towards the northwest about 8 km, Al

Misfala street toward the south about 4 km, Jiyad Street

toward the east about 2 km; and Um Al Daraj street toward

the west about 8 km from the city center.

Socio-Economic ·

Population Characteristics. The population of Makkah is

unusual in that its level varies significantly over the

year. Even during the off-Hajj period it may change from

day-to-day as Omrah visitors come and go. There are also

fluctuations from month-to-month because the months of Rajab

and Ramadan are preferred for performing Omrah. During the

annual Hajj season the population of the Holy City increases

by four to five times its permanent resident population ..

Population may even change from daytime to nighttime because

people prefer to perform Omrah at different times or they

wait until the late evening or night.

The 1403 A.H. <1983 A.D.) permanent household population

of Makkah has been estimated to be 573,500 persons in

102,550 households, with an average household size of 5.5


persons. Of this population 73.1 percent were Saudis. The

school-age population <5 to 14 years) has been esti~ted at

26.4 percent of the residential population. In addition to

the household population, it is estimated that in 1403

A.H. <1983) there were an additional 45,000 undocumented

persons living in Makkah <see Table 6>.

Income and Expenditure Patterns. The economic ·life of

Makkah is influenced by its position as the religious center

for Muslims throughout the world. It is the religious role

of Makkah that provides the foundation of its economy. In

particular, the influence of the annual pilgrimage, Hajj, is


The provision of goods and services by the residents of

Makkah to those performing . Hajj and Omrah constitutes

invisible exports. The unique religious resource of Makkah

has attracted substantial investments from outside,

especially from the government. Investment in this infra-

structure has provided a vital economic link between the


local and national economy by the transfer of resources. In

addition, Hajj contributes to the level of economic activ-

i ty. Expenditures by Hajj canst i .t ute between 45 to 50

percent of the total volume of private consumption expendi-

t ures · in Makkah.

The pattern of household income was analyzed from the

data gathered by the Socio-Economic Household
. Survey, 1403

A.H. <1983>. Estimated monthly household income in Makkah


Table 6: Estimate of Monthly Population Peaks in

Makkah <1983)

Month Household Non-Household Omrah/Hall Total Service

Population Population Population Population

Muharram 573,000 45,000 283,000 901,000

Safar 573,000 45,000 113,000 731,000
Rabia I 573,000 45,000 113,000 731,000
Rabia II 573,000 45,000 113,000 731,000
Jumada I 573,000 45,000 113,000 731,000
Jumada II 573,000 45,000 113,000 731,000
Rajab 573,000 45,000 396,000 1 ,014,000
Shaban 573,000 45,000 226,000 844,000
Ramadan 573,0QO 45,000 566,000 1,184,000
Shaw aI 573,000 45,000 226,000 844,000
Dhul Oudah 573,000 45.000 283,000 901,000
Dhul Hiliah 573,000 45,000 2,300,000 2,918,000

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office, Socio-Economic Household Survey,
1403H (1983)

averaged 4.830 SR and 3.530 SR for Saudis and non-Saudis.

respectively. ..

For Makkah. the major expenditure seems to be food <44%

to 47 percent> and housing <24 to 29 percent) followed by

roughly 8 to 9 percent on clothing. Except for housing. the

expenditures of Saudi households are higher on all items

than that of non-Saudi households.

Urban Saudis save about 40 percent of their household

income, where as non-Saudis save about 44 percent. A

substantial part of unspent income is presumably sent by

expatriates to their countries in the form of remittances.

Public Investment and Employment. Public investment for

developing infrastructure and Hajj-related activities has

generated a great deal of employment in a number of ancil-

lary activities, particularly in construction. Various

ministeries have regular budget allocations for Hajj and

considerable amounts are spent every year on facilitating

pilgrimage; over the years these funds have become a sig-

nificant economic resource for Makkah <see Table 7>.

An idea of the scale of public sector investments may

be gained from the Mina Development Project which spent some

3367 million SR between 1395 · and 1403 A.H. <1975-1983). The

Makkah Municipality spent an estimated 3,929 million SR to

1403 A. H. <1983), and plans for the future envisage

investments of 1,568 million SR. The Water and Sewage

Authority spent 119 million SR during 1401-1402 A.H.

(1981-1982); their plans envisage allocation of more than

2,200 million SR in the next five years. The desalination

plant for Makkah and Taif will cost 400 million SR over five

years. Expenditurs on schools during the fiscal years

1402-1403 A.H. <1982-1983) was 142 million SR. All these

investments have a substantial multiplier effect that

ge~erates considerable economic activity and employment in

the private sector, the most important impact being on

housing and retail business.

The bulk of the total employment of around 127,000 jobs

in Makkah is concentrated in the trade and service sectors.

There is a preponderance of small establishments of which

the smallest size category accounts for some 64 percent of

all establishments, which controls over 29 percent df em-

ployment. The 47 percent of large establishments employed

34.6 percent of all productive employment. The establishment

survey also revealed as many as 24,500 self-employed resi-

dents in Makkah, indicating a high level of one-man enter-



Land-Use Pattern. The City of Makkah has a unique

situation because of its religious characteristics . For

Makkah the Holy Mosque may be seen as an alternative to tbe

Central Business District <CBD). It is the center of Makkah

and the focus of urban life. Grouped around it are the main

Table 7: Sectoral Distribution of Employment,

by Nationality Group

Sector Saudi Non-Saudi Makkah

Agriculture 386 156 542 0.4

Mining and Quarrying n.a. n.a. 68
Manufacturing n.a. n.a. 12,110 9.4
Utilities 1,319 1,801 3,120 2.5
Construction 2,97·2 8,900 11.872 9.3
Trade 12,810 7,734 20,544 16.2
Trans~ort 8,216 2,251 10,467 8.2
Finance and Banking 2,109 1,217 3,326 2.6
Other Services 47,109 18,024 65,133 51.2

Total 74,921 40,083 127,182 100.0

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office, estimates based on Socio-Economic Household
Survey, 1403H (1983)
(1981-1982); their plans envisage allocation of more than

2,200 million SR in the next five years. The desalination

plant for Makkah and Taif will cost 400 million SR over five
years. Expenditurs on schools during the fiscal years

1402-1403 A.H. <1982-1983) was 142 million SR. All these

investments have a substantial multiplier effect that

ge~erates considerable economic activity and employment in

the private sector, the most important impact being on

housing and retail business.

The bulk of the total employment of around 127,000 jobs

in Makkah is concentrated in the trade and service sectors.

There is a preponderance of small establishments of which

the smallest size category accounts for some 64 percent of

all establishments, which controls over 29 percent of em-

playment. The 47 percent of large establishments employed

34.6 percent of all productive employment. The establishment

survey also revealed as many as 24,500 self-employed resi-

dents in Makkah, indicating a high level of one-man enter-



Land-Use Pattern. The City of Makkah has a unique

situation because of its religious characteristics. For

Makkah the Holy Mosque may be seen as an alternative to the

Central Business District <CBD). It is the center of Makkah ·

and the focus of urban life. Grouped around it are the main
religious, civic, social, cultural, and commercial

activities of the city.· Surrounding the mosque are parking

facilities, around which there is a mixture of land uses,

including large blocks of apartments and private homes com-

bined with retail shops and professional offices. These

buildings are tall, most of which have up to twelve floors.

Beyond this zone the growth proceeds along transportation

routes which radiate from the center. Makkah also takes on

the aspect of several nuclei in the quarter or neighborhood

system. Each quarter has its own business activities which

serve the local residents <see Table 8 & Figure 23).

The desire of pilgrims to live close to the Holy Mosque

has generated pressure .to develop even the steep hillsides

around it. The Urban Land Use Survey of 1403 A.H. <1983)

indicated that there were 75,937 puilding plots in Makkah,

of which 67.647 <89 percent> had been built upon. Of these,

47,351 plots were residential plots and nearly half of them

<47.3 percent) were smaller than 100 square meters in size,

reflecting the compact form of traditional development in

the older parts of Makkah. More than 60 percent of all

buildings in Makkah are single story, but lately a large

number of high-rise buildings have emerged in the central

areas of Makkah. Outside the central area, however, there

are some multi-story structures but this is not the predo-

minant form.

Table 8: Land-Use Summary, Makkah

Land Use Area (ha) Percentage of Percentage of Area per 1 ,000

Developed Land Total Land persons (ha)

Residential 975.20 17.09 9.66 1.73

Commercial 178.87 3.13 1.77 0.32
Institu tio nal 307.66 5.39 3.05 0.55
Industrial 92.24 1.62 0.91 0.16
Transportation 1,723.05 30.20 17.07 3.10
Utilities and
Communications 36.34 0.64 0.36 0.06
Vacant land 2,012.96 35.28 19.94 3.58
Other Uses 379.90 6.66 3.76 0.67

Developed Area 5,706.22 100.00 56.52 10.17

Hilly Area 4,389.92 43.48

Total 10,096.14 100.00 I

Source: Makkah Region Planning and Development Office, Urban Land-Use Survey. 1403J~ (1983)

-----". r __ -
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...,...... _..JL







~ Government

A Friday Mosque

• Educational

~ Universit•es

• Health

' •
. Hospitals

' _.. ~ -
lt.l Recreatton Sport

ffil Cemetery

~ "· -..;._ /
_F ·o
lnterctty Terminctl
......·:=~ ----_-_":.-.....



•• Water Stor3Qe

·o Sc r apyard!S

D Roads under
w HajJ P3rkmg

F igur ~

Residence and Housing. The housing stock in Makkah

consisted of 114,800 dwelling units in 1403 A.H. <1983). Of

these, nearly 90.4 percent were occupied and the remaining

9.6 percent were vacant. The vacancy rate is much higher

closer to the Holy Mosque, where most of the pilgrims stay

during . Hajj, and where many buildings are vacant or

under-used for the remainder of the year <see Figures

24 to 32).

The average household size is 5.5 persons. Through an

overwhelming majority <95.24 percent> of family dwelling

units in Makkah contain only one household, nearly two-third

of all housing is in multi-unit buldings. Twenty-four

percent are traditional-type dwellings and villas <single or

two-family> which comprise 8.5 percent in all. No more than

3.5 percent of dwelling units are one-room dwellings.

Three-room dwellings seem to prevail all over the Holy City.

Nearly 56 percent of the dwellings, according to the

Socio-Economic Household Survey. are tenant-occupied and the

remaining 44.0 percent are owner-occupied. All dwellings

within Makkah have water available either through the mu-

nicipal supply system or by water-tankers. Eighty-six

percent have flush toilets. The provision of facilities

within the houses seems to be quite satisfactory.

More than 54 percent of all buildings in Makkah are

less than ten years old and only a small proportion <3.3

percent> were 50 years or more in 1403 A.H. <1983>. Also, 42


\ \

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~ Ar ch i t ec·t ur-=- . ·~ . M. '

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Fig dre 26. Contempor~:ry Arc;lli tec.ture, S. A. C.c: -: ..3.::-:::l;-l "~ 1 )


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F i g_· u r .=: 27 . ~ - n +.... e m-

-_,o p or a y.
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Figure 28. ·...../ IJ

-·h 1· +. ., =
ror.1+ empora1-y Ar- l__.. - .-+--
~ - L.- L '•_l· ..L· ··.=:.
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Figure 29. Cont .:::. mporar y Ar c: hi tee t, S . A.




F i :-5 u r e 3 0 . Con t e nrp or a r y Ar c h i "t e •= --= 1_;_ r e , ~3 . A . · ( .L: xa rnp l e :::. )


IT~~ -; -~

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r: L-_) 0 r .~
~ r h .._.: A
:;;_ u r E: ''
F l. '...I .5 1 • ·- , r-1t.- e mr
\....,.. u '"'-1
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...1.... - . .-
e '
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,--., -
Yurniture, o . A.
percent of all the buildings were found to be in fair con-

dition and 30 percent in good condition.

The total residential area is about 975 ha. While the

average density in Makkah comes to 570.2 persons per hec-

tare. There are wide variation in part due to the topography

and the contrasting styles of old and new dwelling layouts.

From a low density of 102 persons per hectare, the density

can go as high as 4146 persons per hectare. As a rule, high

densities are found in areas closer to the Holy Mosque,

ranging from 782 to 4,146 persons per hectare. In new and

outlying areas, the density ranges from 102 persons to 1203

persons per hectare.

. .. I
Public Facilities. The public facilities in the city of

Makkah could be distinguished to the following types:

--Religious Facilities

--Educational Facilities

--Health Facilities

--Commerical Facilities

-~Cultural and Recreational Facilities

--Government and Administrative Facilities

These public facilities serve both the residents and

the pilgrims.

--Religious Facilities. The term religious facilities

refers to mosques at three hierarchical levels: Local, Juma

and Eid. In Makkah, ·the Holy Mosque affects the demand for

religious facilities by attracting a proportion of local


worshippers who would otherwise pray at local mosques. This

proportion varies according to the time of prayer and,

consequently, from Local to Juma and Eid Mosque Csee Figure


--Educational Facilities. The educational facilities

comprise two levels of services. The local level covers all

types of schools for general education: nursery,

kindergarten, elementary, intermediate and secondary

schools. These facilities are considered to be part of the

neighborhood and community centers. City-wide educational

facilities include teacher's colleges, Quranic schools, and

technical, vocational and specialized schools.

In Makkah there is only one University which serves the

region of Makkah and other parts of the Kingdom. Umm Al-Qura

University also accommodates a lot of international students

from all the Islamic World <see Figure 34).

--Health Facilities: The health facilities in Makkah

may be classified as fallows: health units and dispensaries

provided at neighborhood and community levels as social and

medical services, and hospitals and specialized medical

centers provided as city-wide or regional facilities Csee

figure 35>.

--Commercial Facilities: Commercial facilities refer to

space for retail shops, wholesale markets and private

business act'ivities. T.}le commercial activities are provided

predomin~ntly by the private sector and the role of the


:,,_ ' a.-. - ;""
. .. .



Figure 3 3 . The l-j :_ l g r ..L ma g e ( f-1 a j j ) ( E :·.: a rnp 1 e 2)




Fi 6 u re 3 4. Ed u c a t io n, S .A.

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._,~~ ~

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Health Cal"-

government is limited to providing infrastructure networks

as needed. Existing commercial facilities are distributed

along major streets in the form of corridor development.

Commerical and residential uses are mixed.

The classification of commercial centers can

be summarized as follows:

--Local commercial centers, in three hierarchical


--Cornershops to serve residential clusters,

neighborhood centers serving larger populations, and

community centers to provide a wide range of retail

shops and private offices.

--Wholesale and specialized markets representing the

city-wide commericial facilities. The existing

wholesale areas are scattered around Makkah, creating

a mixed land-use within the residential housing areas.

--Cultural and Recreational Facilities. Being the

religious center of the Islamic world, Makkah is also the

center of Islamic culture. It has a great responsibility to

reflect the culture of Islam in the international context

as well as in everyday life. Makkah is already the head-

quarters of a number of international islamic countries, the

Organization of Islamic Capitals, and Rabta• Alam Al-Islami.

In addition to these broader concerns, Makkah provides

cultural and recreational faci·li ties for 1 ts own residents.

There are about 46.9 ha of land available for recreational


purposes, including two football stadiums. There are two

libraries in the city center <see Figures 36 ~nd 37).

--Government and Administrative Facilities: One of the

most important functions of the Government is to ensure that

law and order are enforced, that city life functions

properly, and that the lives and property of its citizens

are protected from hazards .. The following fac.ilities help to

achieve this:

--Post and Telegraph

--Telephone and Telex

--Traffic and Security Police

--Civil Defense

--Municipal Offices

All of these facilities serve the people of Makkah

besides the visitors and the pilgrims during the Hajj sea-


--Post and Telegraph: A central post and telegraph of-

fice close to the city center offers post boxes and tele-

graph services. There are many branches which serve the

other parts of the city. For the Hajj purpose temporary

branches are opened to he~p· . in serving the pilgrims.

--Telephon and Telex: The head office of the telephone

department is presently located at Al-Taneim. and is well

equipped to function adequately for the next 20 years.

Public telephone offices for international calls are pro-

posed to be located at community centers.




F i gur e Ar --:.~=- and S . A.




--c:;- -i ,-, 1] ...-. - ,-, • -, ~ -, - -- t :~

- , C' ,.
~ .... G L~ ...:.J l , -=-l ..t-' L r ~-> • P.... •

--Traffic.Police Offices and Security Police Stations:

The existing traffic police headquarters are located on the

old Makkah/Jeddab road. Other traffic police offices are

proposed to be located in community centers along with the

security police stations.

--Civil Defense Centers: Civil defense centers are

located at accessible locations at the community level .

Additional centers are provided during the Hajj season to

help in serving the pilgrims.

--Municipal Offices: The central offices of Makkah

Municipality have recently moved to a new building in

Al-Maabdah. It is well planned and no further space is


There are twelve sub-municipality offices in Makkah.

They are distributed as follows: Shib Ali, Jarwal,

Al-Misfalah, Al-Maabdah, Al-Utabiyyah, Al-Mansure,

Al-Aziziyah, Al-Omrah Al-Rasaifah, Al-Haram, Al-Mashair, and



Transportation and Traffic Circulation~ The circulation

networks in Makkah are well developed and are connected to

the rest of the region and other parts of the Kingdom by six

expressways. Makkah has 114.6 km of primary and secondary

roads providing approximately. 496 lane~kilometers. Many
local streets and lanes provide access to individual lots.

Some lanes are very narrow and winding, particularly those the .billy areas. Some are sets of steps for

pedestrians only. In contrast, the newly developed areas,

have wide, landscaped roads and streets of contemporary

standards. During the last decade, a network of tunnels has

significantly improved accessibility to the Holy Mosque from

the Holy Environs and other outlying areas.

The availability of motorized vehicles has made it

possible for people to live in areas away from the central

area of the Holy City. The system of ring roads <loops) and

tunnels makes it possible to reach the center of the city in

less than 30 minutes. In 1403 A.H. <1983), there were 107,176

vehicles used by residents of Makkah, including over 15,511

vehicles owned by commercial establishments. Of the total,

78,091 were private automobiles.

Makkah has a well-organized public bus system compris-

ing 18 routes and running 2684 bus trips daily. The average

ridership in 1403-1404 A.H. <1983-1984> was just over 80,000

passengers. Most routes serve the Holy Mosque area. An an-

nual subsidy of almost 46 percent is paid by the Government.

On an average working day. the permanent household

population of Makkah makes 493,500 trips, of which 41

percent are home-based work trips with either the origin or

destination being home. Another 57 percent are home-based,

non-work trips. While private vehicles are used for 40

percent of the trips, and an almost equal number of journeys


were performed on foot. Only 11 percent of inner city trips

are made by pub~ic buses and five percent by taxi. The

school bus accounts for only three percent of the trips.

Parking problems occur as a result of the large number

of retail shops on the ground floors of almost all buildings

on the major roads. New shops are built along the major

roads. New shops are built along the major highways without

any obligation of the part of the owners to provide space

for off-street parking. The traffic accident rate is quite

high, and accidents often involve pedestrians.

Water Supply. According to the estimates furnished by

the Water and Sewage Authority, 98,000 cubic meters of water

were supplied to Makkah in 1403 A. H. (1983). The

Socio-economic Household Survey indicated that 86.5 percent

of all houses in Makkah are connected to the water supply

network; the remaining 13.5 percent have to arrange for wa-

ter through private points or by tankers. Water shortages

during certain periods of the year have been reported from

several localities within Makkah.

The existing water storage facilities are being aug-

mented as the present storage is barely sufficient for three

days. The Hajj and Omrah rituals impose overloads on the

water services in Makkah and the Holy Environs. At present,

the total storage capacity of all reservoirs in Makkah is

103,000 cubic meters and 432,000 cubic meters in the ~. ·Holy

Environs. All the mains in Makkah are interconnected with

the Holy City's trunk supply network. Five new storage

reservoirs are currently under construction by the Mina

Development Project and will have a combined capacity of

some 1,609,000 cubic meters.

Wastewater Collection Treatment. The central area of

Makkah is presently served by a sewage system composed of a

series of minor sewer and trunk lines. Sewage is taken to

the treatment plant to the south of Al Misfalab. The current

wastewater network does not cover all parts of Makkah and

some localities still rely on septic tanks or cesspools to

dispose of their sewage. Plans have been made to extend the

sewage system to the outskirts of the Holy City to service

new developments.

Although the existing sewage treatment plant is not

operating at full capacity, it will not be able to cope with

the total sewage flow once the collection network and its

extensions have been completed. A new and large sewage

treatment plant is now projected in Wadi Uranah, about 10 km

south of the existing one.

Solid-Waste Management and Stormwater Drainage.

Solid-waste collection and disposal is carried out to each

of the sub-municj.palities of Makkah. Residents are asked to

put their refuse in the containers distributed throughout

the Holy City. Garbage is collected at least once daily by

means of specially designed vehicles.


Solid waste is disposed off by incineration in Al

Muaisim near Mina. However, garbage is also found dumped in

other areas on the outskirts of Makkah. Two automatic in-

cinerators <each with a capacity of 15 tons per hour) are

currently under construction, one in Al Muaisim, the other

in Al Misfalah. This method of disposal creates air pollu-

tion. Collection and disposal of solid waste from the Holy

Environs during the Hajj season is normally contracted to

specialized firms, each given charge of a particular area.

Makkah experiences severe flooding incidents. Though

the Holy City is provided with a storm-water drainage

scheme, it still does not fully cover all areas. Several

drainage links are currently under construction. Studies are

being carried out to develop a storm-water drainage scheme

to cover all the new residential and commercial areas on the

outskirts of the Holy City.

Electricity and Telecommunication. The installed

generating capacity in Makkah was 800 MW in 1404 A.H. <1984).

The system is fully integrated within the Western Region

Grid. The HV network has been reinforced with the addition

of 110 KV transformer substations in Makkah. Projects and

studies are being carried out to increase the generation and

transmitting capacities to meet projected demands. The

supply of power is considered to be sufficient for the ex-

isting demand.

There were 63.602 telephone and telex lines in oper-

ation in 1404 A.H. <1984), quite adequate for existing

needs. <1984). The new exchange on Madinah Road is now fully

operational. Projects for extension of the inter-kingdom

network are currently being implemented while the number of

international circuits is being augmented. P~rformance of

the telephone system is rated as excellent by internation-

ally acceptable standards. Additional lines are installed in

Makkah and Mina during the Hajj season.



The Origin of Hajj

Al Islam is the last of the five still living great

religions of Revelations. Its message is collected in the

Holy Book "readings" <Arabic Quran) which consist of 114

chapters <Arabic Sura). It is a sacred book for the Muslims,

because it directly contains God's words, as it was

the Prophet. The Quran <Koran) was compiled and established

in its present order by Calif Othman.

Acpording to the Quran, every Muslim is required to

observe the Five Pillars of Islam: to profess that there is

no God but Allah and that Mohammed is his Prophet; to pray

five times daily; to give alms; to fast during the month of

Ramadan; and to perform the pilgrimage <Hajj).

The final pillar and one of the finest institutions of

Islam is the Hajj or pilgrimage to Makkah. The performance

of the Hajj is obligatory, at least once in a lifetime, upon

every muslim, male or female, who is mentally, financially,

and physically fit. The financial security here means that

he should have enough to cover his own expenses and those of

his dependents, and to pay his debts, if he is in debt, un-

til he completes the course of Hajj <see Figure 38).




.. ~----· ·- · -- - -- - --

The Hajj of Prophet Mohammed

The Hajj, which the Prophet undertook in his last year,

has been described most accurately in the Hadith <order and

talks of the Prophet Mohammed) and is a standard for all

pilgrims. Its form is established in the canonical law, the

Shariah. This follows more or less precisely the example of

the Prophet, which is related here without claim to

theological exactitude. In a place called Dhu al Huleifa,

near Medina, about 5 days before the end of the month Dhu al

Hijjah in the 9th year of the Hijra, the Prophet donned Ih-

ram, the garment of the Pilgrims, consisting of two unsewn

white sheets. For the sacrifice he bad seven camels and twa

goats, adorned with garlands. When he arrived ten days later

on the night of the 4th day of the Hajj month in the area of

Makkah, he pitched his tent in a place named as Sarif, about

six miles from Makkah. Early the next morning he left his

tent to perform the Omrah. This Omrah consisted of the Tawaf

and Saai, the seven circumambulations of the Kaaba and seven

times going back and forth between Safa and Marwa <see

Figure 39).

At this point he requested those pilgrims who had not

brought any sacrificial animals to take off their vestments

of pilgrimage after the Omrah and gave them permission to do

all those things forbidden by the oath of the pilgrims until

they would clothe themselves again for the beginning of the

proper Hajj.



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At Tarwiya <the day of departure>, the 8th day of the

month of the Hajj, the prophet mounted on his camel, went to

Muna after he had offered at dawn the Fajr prayer. He

pitched his camp where today stands the Kheif Mosque. He

stayed there until he had offered the Dhuhur <midday), the

Asr <afternoon>, the Maghrib <evening), the Aiysha <night),

and again the Fajr prayer (see Figure 40).

Immediately after that he departed for Arafat which he

reached without interruption and went into his tent which he

had ordered to be erected beforehand, in a place where today

stands the Namira Mosque. Towards midday he delivered his

famous farewell speech with directions for the social life

of Muslims. He then offered the two prayers Dhuhur and Asr

in a combined form. Later in the day he went to stand at

Jabl ar Rahma, the Mountain of Mercy, but he designated the

whole valley of Arafat as such a palace of Hajj.

He then prepared himself for the departure from Arafat

and waited in the saddle of his white female camels before

setting out for Muzdalifat at a brisk pace straight after

sundown. During this exodus <the Nafra) he invoked God's

presence and calmness for the believers. He did not stay for

the Maghrib prayer, but offered it when he arrived in

Muzdalifat, combined with the night prayer. In Muzdalifat he

collected small stones which were to be thrown during the

next days on the Jimar <Pillar of Jamara), the symbols of

the devil. He allowed the weak ones of the pilgrims to go




Figure 40. The Pilgrimage <Hajj), S. A. \E:-: ampl ·:: 5)


direct to Muna, whereas the others stayed over night in

Muzdalifat. The next morning the Prophet led them, earlier

than usual, in the Fajr prayer.

Then on the day of Nahr, the day of the sacrifice, the

lOth day of the Hajj month, he went to Muna and immediately

stoned one of the three symbols of the devil, the Jamarat al

Akaba, where there used to stand a tree. As the prophet

threw the seven pebbles, the way to the Kaaba lay to his

left and Muna to his right. After this he sacrificed his

animals. As is recorded, he also gave a speech in which he

emphasized the unimpeachable principle of life, property and

honor of the Muslims. Asked about the sacrifice, Jamarat,

clipping of the hair, Tawaf al Ifada, etc., he said that

they could be placed in any order. After this, the Prophet

went to Makkah to complete the Tawaf al lfada, circling the

Kaaba another seven times. With this the rites of the Hajj

were ended and after this everything that had been forbidden

to the pilgrim in the state of Ihram was once again allowed.

He rested and then went back to Muna where he spent the

night <see Figure 41>.

The next day was a day of rest and the Jimar, now all

three of them in sequence were stoned, but not before the

midday prayer.

The day after, the day of Nafr, the 12th day of the

Hajj month, he left Muna, after stoning the Jimar in the

same way as before in the afternoon and _pitched his camp in




Th-== Pi lgrimag e <.Hajj), S. A. <Example 6)


al Muhassab, a valley between Makkah and Muna~ so that he

could depart early· the next morning to Medina. Even before

the dawn of the next day the Prophet went on his way to ac-

complish a last circumambulation of the Kaba <the Tawaf al

Wida) before he finally left Makkah.

The Organization of Hajj

Pilgrimage in Islam is not a touristic activity in

which a tourist chooses when to go on his journey. Pilgrim-

age in Islam has its specific time and place.

The course of Hajj is another unique characteristic of

Islam. It is enjoined by God to serve many purposes among

which are the following:

1) It is the largest annual convention of faith where

Muslims meet to know one another, study their common affairs

and promote their general welfare. I t is also the greatest

regular conference of peace known in the history of mankind.

2) It is a wholesome demonstration of the universality

of Islam and the brotherhood and equality of the Muslims.

From all walks of life, from all trades and classes, and

from every corner of the globe, the Muslims assemble at

Makkah in response to the call of God.

3) It is to acquaint the pilgrims with the spiritual

and historical environment of the Prophet Mohammed, so that

.• .
they derive warm inspirations and strengthen their faith.

4) It is a reminder of the Grand Assembly on the Day of

Judgment when people will stand equal before God, waiting

for their final destiny, and where no superiority of race or

stock can be claimed.

The Hajj <pilgrimage to Makkah) is essentially a series

of rites performed in Makkah <see Figure 42) and in nearby

Arafat, Muzdalifah, and Mina. The Hajj must be made between

the eighth and the thirteen day of the twelfth month,

Dhual-Hijjah, of the Muslem lunar year. The required rites

of Hajj are as follows:

1) White cloth for all male pilgrims: in pilgrimage,

all male Muslims wear the same kind of cloth. Each male
pilgrim wears two white and seamless pieces of cloth. The

white color is a symbol of sinlessness and cleanliness of

body and soul. All male pilgrims are in white seamless

cloth, the poor and the rich, the old and the young. As for

the women, they can perform pilgrimage in their normal


2) Donning the Ihram: at the moment of donning the Ib-

ram the pilgrims enter a state of grace and purity in which

they may not wear jewelry or perfume or other personal


3) Performing the Tawaf: the pilgrims then proceed

directly to the Holy Mosque to circle the Kaaba. The Tawaf

is the act of circling the Kaaba on foot seven times.

Turning around the Kaaba stands for the fact that all

, On the 8th of ltw HajJ ITIOirth lDhu't Hi)J•hl. thi

ptlgrlm$ move to whet• they ~ fl\le Pfll~nl

The pllgrifn& .,.,.. from out-Ide ol M.kka to c.rry

out the Umra

After suneet , the p.!vfims mOYe trom

Ar.tat to Muzdalifah

The pitgrims move to MMkllh , At Muzdatilah , the pllgr•ms gather

and ~ the nigtlt there

, The pilgrims c:ut and lh•n off


s ol the HIIJI ere now

cd end the p.tgrims
- thetr homeland

On the 12 th of Dhu'l Hljjetl, the Je!Wiaret

•• ftoned ...- •• Munll THE PROCEDURE OF HAJJ
The PlltniM pertonn TewM .,ound the
K. . . . . . IIMIIM

F i gure 4 ."- j
T· -~ -. ~
... .L.......i.. "= Typical Proc edure of Hajj
Muslims have the same purpose and the same center of wor-

ship. It is also a symbol of the unity of all those who

believe or have beli~ved in Allah.

4) Performing Saay between Safa and Marwa: after the

pilgrims perform the Tawaf, they perform the Saay <the

running) where they run between the hills of al Safa and

al Marwa seven times. This goes back to the incident where

Hajur, Abraham•s wife, ran between those two places several

times looking for water for her son, Ishmael. This act sym-

bolizes patience.

5) Going to Mina: in the morning of the eighth day of

the last lunar month all pilgrims move to Mina where they

pray five praye~s and then move to Arafat.

6) To Arafat: on the ninth day of that month, all

pilgrims move to Arafat . . Pilgrims spend that day wor-

shipping. This period of Arafat is called the day of stand-

ing . Here on Arafat, all pilgrims have to spend the whole

day together in the same place at the same time wearing the

same type of cloth, with no differences between races, co-

lors, and countries in a practical exercise of equality.

7) Toward Muzdalifah: after sunset, the pilgrims

proceed from Arafat to a place called Muzdalifah. In this

place pilgrims worship and sleep. There they gather a number

of pebbles for use during the rites on the following days .

8> Going to Mina: after midnight of the ninth day, the

pilgrims move from Muzdalifah to Mina, where they remain for


three days. There on the first day they throw seven pebbles

at the great Jamara. The P.i llars which they stone on this

occasion represent devils. The throwing of the pebbles

symbolizes the pilgrims' repudiation of evil. On the

succeeding days the pilgrims throw twenty-one pebbles a day

at the pillars.

9) Ead Al Adaha: the feast of sacrifice starts the

morning of the tenth day of Dhu al Hijjah, that is the first

day at Mina, where the pilgrims who can afford it sacrifice

a sheep, cow, goat, or other animal. Some pilgrims share in

the sacrifice of a single animal. They all give a portion of

the meat to the poor.

10> Releasing from Ihram: after completion of the rites

of Kina, the pilgrims have completed a major part of the

Hajj. Both men and women now cut off or clip some of their

hair. For men it is recommended that they have their heads

shaved. At this point the pilgrims may remove the Ihram.

11) Tawaf al Ifadah: all pilgrims now go to the Holy

Mosque and circle the Kaaba a final seven times. This is

called Tawaf al Ifadah. Then the pilgrims return to Mina for

three days. All of the rites of the Hajj are now completed.


Several studies with the support of the Government of

Saudi Arabia were conducted in the city of Makkah to elabo-

rate on the effects of Hajj <the Pilgrimage) on the city

development. The studies show that the concentration around

the city center where the Holy Mosque is located concern the

planning and development authorities.

The project with which this thesis deals is to parti-

cipitate with a recommendation which will assist the city in

handling the increasing number of pilgrims.

This chapter elaborates on the design guidelines,

illustrates the needs for the project, defines the goals and

strategies, and explains the design criteria.

Problems and Needs

The city of Makkah is a uniqe city; not only with its

topography but because of its nature as a Holy City of the

Islamic World.

The Hajj as explained before, is one of the pillars of

Islam. It is obligatory upon each Muslim who can afford it.

Each year the city hosts a large number of pilgrims who

visit the city to perform the Hajj.


The total number of the pilgrims increases each year

due to convenient world transportation. Recent statistics

show a total of some two million Muslims performing the Hajj

each year in Makkah <see Tables 9 to 18 and Figures 43 to

46). Besides the Hajj season, Makkah also hosts the visitors

who come to visit the Holy Mosque and worship during the


The Holy Mosque is situated in the center of the city,

where most of the pilgrims and visitors like to stay. The

topography of the city with the nature of the mountain and

hills affects the center of the city within a condition that

is too congested during the Hajj time.

The government also developed many projects to expand

the capacity of the Holy Mosque during the last years. As a

result of that, many housing units were demolished in the

process of enlarging that area.

The need for developing a new area where the pilgrims

can stay and live away from the city center is the focus of

this thesis project.


Table 9: Total Foreign Pilgrims 1345-1404 A.H.


Year Year Number of Year Year Number of

(A.D.) (A. H.) Pilgrims (A.D.) (A.H.) Pilgrims

11. 6.1927 1345 90,662 18. 7.1956 1375 220,722

29. 5.1928 1346 96,212 8. 7.1957 1376 215,575
19. 5.1929 1347 90,764 27. 6.1958 1377 209,197
8. 5.1930 1348 81,666 17. 6.1959 1378 207,171
27. 4.1931 1349 39,045 4. 6.1960 1379 253,369
16. 4.1932 1350 29,065 25. 5.1961 1380 285,948
5. 4.1933 1351 20,181 14. 5.1962 1381 216,455
26. 3.1934 1352 25,291 3. 5.1963 1382 199,038
15. 3.1935 1353 33,898 22. 4.1964 1383 266,555
4. 3.1936 1354 33,830 11. 4.1965 1384 283,319
21. 2.1937 1355 49,517 1. 4.1966 1385 294,118
10. 2.1938 1356 76,224 21. 3.1967 1386 316,226
30. 1.1939 1357 59,577 9. 3.1968 1387 318,507
20. 1.1940 1358 32,152 27. 2.1969 1388 374,748
9. 1.1941 1359 9,024 16. 2.1970 1389 406,295
28.12.1941 1360 23,863 6. 2.1971 1390 431,270
18.12.1942 1361 24,743 26. 1.1972 1391 479,339
6.12.1943 1362 62,590 14. 1.1973 1392 645,182
25.11.1944 1363 37,857 3. 1.1974 1393 607,755
15.11.1945 1364 37,630 24.12.1974 1394 918,777
4.11.1946 1365 61,286 13.12.1975 1395 894,573
25.10.1947 1366 55,244 30.11.1976 1396 719,040
13.10.1948 1367 75,614 19.11.1977 1397 739,319
2.10.1949 1368 99,069 9.11.1978 1398 830,236
23. 9.1950 1369 107,652 31.10.1979 1399 862.520
12. 9.1951 1370 100,578 18.10.1980 1400 812,892
31. 8.1952 1371 148,515 7.10.1981 1401 879,368
20. 8.1953 1372 149,841 26. 9.1982 1402 85;3,555
9. 8.1954 1373 164,072 16. 9.1983 1403 1 ,005,060
30. 7.1955 1374 232,917 4. 9.1984 1404 919,671

Source: Pilgrim Statistics 1398, 1401, 1402, 1403 and 1404A.H.


Table 10: Foreign Pilgrims by Mode 1385-1404 A.H.


Year Air Sea Land Total


1385 (1966) 90,980 101,406 101,732 294,118

1386 107,078 113,311 95,757 316,226
1387 119,184 83,984 115,339 318,507
1388 129,744 94,248 . 150,792 374,784
1389 144,972 90,992 . 170,331 406,295
1390 208,663 84,547 138,060 431,270
1391 238,658 99,023 141,658 479,339
1392 328,478 137,187 179,517 645,182
1393 356,953 130,566 120,236 607,755
1394 (1974) 463,639 177,390 277,748 918,777
1395 496,239 113,374 284,960 894,573
1396 374,751 80,906 263,383 . 719,040
1397 461,450 63,663 214,206 739,319
1398 505,808 68,791 255,637 830,236
1399 513,695 66,648 282,177 862,520
1400 572,292 50,552 190,048 812,892
1401 649,224 56,668 173,476 879,368
1402 523,425 55,735 174,395 853,555
1403 724,029 61 ,381 219,650 1 ,005,060
1404 (1984) 698,223 52,928 168,520 919,671

Source: Pilgrim Statistics 1387, 1391, 1395, 1396, 1398, 1400, 1401, 1402. 1403 and 140-1A.H.
ble 11: Geographical Distribution of External Pilgrims
from 1390 to 1404 A. H. <1970-1984)

Nationality 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1317 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404
(1971) (1972) (1973) (1974) (1974) (1875) (1876) (1877) (1178) (1979) (1980) (1981) (1982) (1983) (1984)

Arab Asian 152,510 1s2.n9 169,492 136,330 217,103 18,912 182,394 175,761 315,229 333,872 235,003 208,344 180,299 249,243 171,958
Arab African 56,973 106,893 154,200 150,213 254,302 211,052 154,832 174,352 163,688 179,259 206,899 209,682 216,583 260,040 261,059
Non-Arab Asian 161,045 141,592 240,256 244,427 351,671 358,411 284,539 249,864 260,041 257,564 257,766 322,601 :M1,139 385.562 421,405
Non-Arab African 56,914 71,930 78,904 71,614 91,366 19,569 93,861 135,324 17,124 87,111 107,379 132,997 110,390 104,627 50,975
European 3,703 4,531 2,106 5,006 4,143 3,618 2,394 3,482 3,533 4,121 4,785 4,829 4,240 4,374 4,794
American 84 137 201 140 182 354 102 484 517 401 929 776 700 960 1,276
AustraJian - -
14 16 g 3 22 11
29 27 33 59 71 118 204
Others 41 8 9 1 1,654 896 74 65 98 80 133 136

Total 431,270 479,339 645,1&2 607,755 111,1n 894,573 718,040 73&,319 130,23& 862,520 112,892 179,368 853,555 1 ,005,060 119,671

Source: Pilgrims Statistics for 1391, 1396, 1401, 1402, 1403 and 1404 A.H.


Table 12: Pilgrims from the Kingdom 1390-1404 A.H.



Year Saudi Non-Saudi Total

1390 404,186 244,304 684,490

1391 353,480 209,208 562,688
1392 352,955 218,814 571,769
1393 309,853 204,814 514,790
1394 322,761 243,437 566,198
1395 306,159 357,135 663,294
1396· 302,303 435,089 737,392
1397 392,129 496,141 888,270
1398 400,179 669,005 1 ,069,184
1399 344,757 872,412 1,217,169
1400 292,276 844,466 1 '136,472
1401 224,299 839,513 1 ,063,812
1402 238,985 919,015 1,158,000
1403 292,962 1,204,833 1,497,795
1404 218,589 526,218 744,807

Source: Statistical Year Book 1395 A. H. Tot~l Statistics of AI-Hall1401, 1402,

1403 and 1404 A.H.


Table 13: Pilgrims from Makkah 1390-1404 A.H.



Year Saudi Non-Saudi Total

1390 10-6,836 48,204 155,040

1391 128,347 50,031 178,378
1392 132,178 50,957 183,135
1393 102,205 59,870 162.075
1394 111,978 54,756 166,734
1395 120,190 55,703 175,893
1396 121,031 56,092 177,123
1397 121,878 56,482 178,360
1398 122,725 56,876 179,601
1399 123,578 57,273 180,851
1400 140,037 64,897 204,934
1401 70,752 104,749 175,501
1402 73,583 108,941 182,524
1403 84,619 123,097 207,716
1404 88,000 128,016 216,016

Source: Statistical Year Book 1395 A.H. Total Statistics of AI-Hall

from 1390 to 1404 A.H. ·


r·able 14.: Nu1nber· o:f Vehir.:;les u~ed t1y Pilg·r·ims by r·ype

Year Sedan Jeeps& . Small Large Lorries Others Total

Wan nets Bus Bus

1390 15,039 13,575 2,977 9,410 7,289 1,700 50,044

1391 19,734 18,138 2,799 7,676 4,627 1,097 54,071
1392 18,470 23,008 2,973 9,910 5,472 923 60,756
1393 19,615 28,808 4,029 9,833 5,220 778 68,283
1394 25.• 319 33,152 3,932 13,120 5,194 805 81,522
1395 21,968 43,253 3,311 14,517 5,521 1,165 89,735
1396 31,012 55,811 4,866 12,736 6,465 919 111,809
1397 37,682 50,802 7,929 11 '184 6,550 891 115,038
1398 46,444 64,506 8,879 10,594 7,812 766 139,001
1399 43,914 31,837 15,680 14,848 6,172 1,239 113,690
1400 15,202 21,706 25,844 16,349 6,443 1 '147 86,691
1401 12,273 15,770 40,376 16,996 8,977 1,445 95,837

Source: Statistical Year Books 1395, 1398 A.H. Total Statistics of AI-Hall1401 A.H.

Table 15: Forecasts of the Number of

Saudi Pilgrims

(in OOO'S)

Year Unmber of Pilgrims

1410 (1990) 345

1415 (1995) 383
1420 (2000) 434

Source: Forecasting demand for HaD up to 1420 A.H ••

Haj Research center Report

Table 16: Forecasts of the Number of International

Non-Saudi Pilgrims

(in OOO'S)

Year High Estimate Low Estimate

1410 (1990) 1.048 707

1415 (1995) 1.345 876
1420 (2000) 1.636 975

Source: Forecasting demand for Ha~ up to 1420 A. H••

Hajj Research canter Report

Table 17: Forecasts of the Number of

External Pilgrims

(in OOO'S)

Year High Estimate Low Estimate

1405 (1985) 1,378 1,299

1410 (1990) 1,664 1,565
1415 (1995) 1,955 1,837
1420 (2000) 2,256 2,122

Source: Forecasting demand for Hail up to 1420 A.H.,

Hajj Research center Report


Table 18: Forecasts of the Total Number of Pilgrims

(in ooo·ooo·s >

Year High Estimate Low Estimate

1405 (1985) 2.5 2.3

1410 (1990) 3.1 2.6
1415 (1995) 3.7 3.1
1420 (2000) 4.3 3.5

Source: Forecasting demand for HaD up to 1420 A.H.,

Hall Research center Report

.>- --.- -
~ ~- -C
; ~ - -- ...

PILGRIMS Re&ldents Pig.,.

-. ·- .
--, -
_.. -
1390 91 92 93 94 98 99 03
Year (t3S.OaUHll!l)

r ·i 7Ure 43.
L~ <..a)


BY MODE . L.,s-

(1 100-000t
1 391 92 94 95 96 97 98 99 01 02
Year (1391 ~ 1988,


NOf1 S.ludl

113 97

·tr~"-"'., I-e
..... f_J 1-: ajj Cb & C)

es ...


TotOll Rb
f.xetgn Re&
Tot•l of au Plg.a

no. of
(1 so 000)

LEGEND : ~ Saud•
Non Saudi


91) ~' 04

Fi!J:'ure 4~. ··=· ta t

~ .~
1. c
r:·J 1· .-...~
-. <.d



Je-a~~ & Wenncts
Laroe au.
e Lorr1es
• Tot•l

no. of

11 10.000)1
97 1400 01
year (1398 1Q76)


1' ,-,.
-'- -S
u ..•- -.":1
---- 4 t::.. Ha ·-'' ~J, <.f {)! cr)


Goals and Strategies

Goals are the basic reason to plan and design; they are

long-range aims to be accomplished through planning and

design. Goals should·be rational; they should form a good

balance between needs and resources. To transform goals into

reality, it is necessary to recommend strategies for plan

implementation and goal attainment. Strategies serve as the

answer to how goals may be obtained. They are the

collectively directed efforts at translating goals into ef-


Goals. On the basis of the background analysis and

interviews with government officials, planning commissioners

and individual citizens on local problems and needs, the

following are the goals of the project:

1) To encourage pilgrims to live away from the city

center during the Hajj time.

2> To promote an attractive cit_y core as the heart of

the new development around the project area.

3) To enhance orderly growth and balanced development

in the city.

4) To provide an adequate accommodation center which

will serve the city all around the year.

5) To develop the project area to facilitate the

public needs of a good living environment.

6) To design an easily readable, ·· functioning project.

Strategies. Looking at the goals of the

project strategies could be developed to help in achieving

these goals. The following are the strategies of design:

1) Review existing building codes and housing codes

in relation to the ten-year plan.

2) Consolidate and strengthen the image of the

central public area in the project by making the

mosque the focal point.

3) Develop scenic linkages between the center areas

and the residential areas through the creation of

pedestrian walks and greenb~lts.

4) Establish future high-density housing and housing

for the elderly at suitable locations with easy

access to the public area.

5) Classify the project streets into parkways, scenic

drives, arterial/collector streets, local streets

and pedestrian paths.

6) Establish a procedure for street paving and


7) Establish a structure for the police and fire

department at a suitable location within the

project area.

8) Establish a health care center in the public area.

9) Develop natural areas in the project as parks,

green areas or conservation areas.


Design Criteria
Th.e project of the pilgrims accommodation center has to

deal with all the standards and rules of the Kingdom of

Saudi Arabia in terms of the design and planning criteria.

This section will illustrate the major standards and crite-

ria for general design and site planning. The requirement of

the project will be discussed in the project facilities.

General Design Criteria and Standards. This chapter

establishes general design criteria and standards which

apply to many individual facilities throughout the Hajj

center. These standards should be used when applicable and

they are as follows:

1> Public Assembly Areas: Most community faclities

include areas that are open to the public. General criteria

for these areas must be considered in the design and con-

structian of all facilities.

Existing norms and standards in Saudi A.rabia indicate

that in many instances separate entries must be provided for

men and women or far single men and families. All public

entrances must have vestibules. Doors for public facilities

must allow for free-flowing movement.

Existing standards in Saudi Arabia indicate that in

most instances separate lobbies and/or lounges must be pro-

vided for men and women or for single men and families.

2) Prayer Rooms: Based on existing norms and standards

in Saudi Arabia, prayer rooms must be provided in all public

. 133

facilities and major private buildings. The provision of a

mosque rather than a prayer room should be considered when

significant volume of use is anticipated.

3) Toilet Rooms and Showers: All community facilities

should have both eastern and western toilets. The ratio of

eastern to western toilets sh.ould be 1:2 or 2:3.All showers

. .
and changing rooms should provide full privacy.

4) Parking and Service Areas: Most facilities will

require on-site parking facilities. At least a third of all

surface parking spaces for each facility must be covered in

order to provide protection from direct sunlight.

Drop-off areas for special visitors are required for

some facilities. All facilities will require a separate

service· area for deliveries, service vehicles, and emergency

access. Where appropriate, individual service areas in the

commercial area may be combined.

5) Handicapped Access: Access for the handicapped must

be incorporated into the design and construction of all

public facilities. The special needs of the deaf, the blind,

the ambulant disabled, and handicapped persons confined to .

~ ~ ~

wheelchairs should be accommodated. Site planning and inte-

rior planning should allow for adequate access for the han-


Public toilets require special attention. At least one

toilet stall equipped for the disabled should be provided in

all public toilets rooms and in public toilet buildings.


6) Trash and Garbage Storage Area: Hygienic storage of

garbage and trash is required in order to minimize health

hazards associated with insects and rodents, and adverse

impacts on the environment such as odors or visual pollu-

tion. Interior storage areas must be adequate for normal

daily accumulation of trash and garbage. The storage area

must be in a suitable location for convenient trash pickup.

In public areas, an adequate number of well-placed, well-

designed trash receptacles must be provided.

General Site Planning Criteria. All the facilities must

conform to the following general site planning criteria:

1> Grading and Drainage: Site must be graded to direct

all runoff water away from buildings, off walks, roadways,

and parking lots. All runoff water is to be collected by

surface storm drains and removed from the site by means of

an underground drainage system connected to the city storm

drainage system.

2> Water Supply: All facilities are to be provided with

a single water supply system for both potable water and fire

protection. Fire hydrants will connect directly to the dis-

tribution system.

3) Sanitary Sewer: Each facility will be connected to

the municipal sewage system. Sewage will be collected from

all buildings by a gravity flow system connected to the city

system ..

4) Electricity Supply: Electric power will be provided

from the city source throughout the site to all buildings as

required. All electric services will be underground.

5) Telecommunication: All facilities will be provided

with a telecommunications system with underground

infrastructure connected to the city system.

Project Facilities. The Pilgrims Accommodation Center

at Makkah is a project which will serve part of the pilgrims

besides the residences of Makkah. The facilities requirement

is to develop a center that attract the people to stay; to

live; to pray; to shop; to rest; to dine; and to relax.

The Project Facilities are classified as follows:

--Housing Facilities

Accommodation Areas <families / singles)

--Religious Facilities


--Public Facilities

Public Administrative Offices

Post Office

Exhibition Area

Public Toilets

--Emergency and Security Facilities

Police Station

Fire Station

--Health Care-Facilities


4) Electricity Supply: Electric power will be provided

from the city source throughout the site to all buildings as

required. All electric services will be underground.

5) Telecommunication: All facilities will be provided

with a telecommunications system with underground

infrastructure connected to the city system.

Project Facilities. The Pilgrims Accommodation Center

at Makkah is a project which will serve part of the pilgrims

besides the residences of Makkah. The facilities requirement

is to develop a center that attract the people to stay; to

live; to pray; to shop; to rest; to dine; and to relax.

The Project Facilities are classified as follows:

--Housing Facilities

Accommodation Areas (families / singles)

--Religious Facilities


--Public Facilities

Public Administrative Offices

Post Office

Exhibition Area

Public Toilets

--Emergency and Security Facilities

Police Station

Fire Station

--Health Care - Facilities


--Commercial Facilities <shopping mall)


Private Offices

Financial Branches

--Transportation Facilities

Bus Terminals

Parking Areas
<For details see Tables 19 to 25).

Table 19: Accommodation Area <Space Analysis )

Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remart<

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m sq.ft

FAMILY 20,000 4,000 50 538.2 200,000 2,152,800 5 persons per

Livinglspleeing 4,000 45 484.4
Restroom 4,000 5 53.8
Comrrunal kitchen 200 50 538.2 10,000 107,640 1 kitchen per
20 units

SINGLE 20,000 4,000 50 538.2 200,000 2,152,800 5 persons per

Living/sleeping 4,000 50 538.2
ComrnJnal restroom 400 50 538.2 12,500 134,550 1 restroom per
10 unit
Comrn.~nal kitchen 200 50 538.2 10,000 106,740 1 kitchen per
25 units

PARKING 500. 18.6 200 9,300· 100,000- Cirwlation area

700 13,020 ... 140,000 excluded

Total building area: 432,500 sq. meters (4,955,430 sq.ft.)

- - I

Table 20: Religious Facilities <Space Analysis)

Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m sq.ft

FRIDAY MOSQUE 3,500 1 4,160 .u,n8.o

Praying area .1 4,000 43,055.7 4,000 43,055.0
Ablution space 2 60 645.8 120 1,291.6
Restroom 2 20 215.3 40 430.6

LIBRARY 500 160 1,722.1 160 1,722.1

Book collection 1 80 861 80 861.0

Lecture 1 50 538.2 50 538.2
Multii)Urpose room 1 30 322.9 30 322.9

PARKING 90- 18.6 200 1,674- 18.000- Minus

100 1,860 20,000 Circulation

Total building area: 4.320 sq. meters (46,500 sq.ft.)



Table 21: Public Facilities <Space Analysis)

Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m aq.ft

ADMINISTRATIVE 10 220 2368.0

lnfo/Recept 1 40 430.6 40 430.6

Lobby 1 50 538.2 50 538.2
Director 1 30 322.9 30 322.9
Secretrary _ 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Staff 1 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Staff2 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Staff3 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Conference 1 30 322.9 30 322.9
Praying room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Restrooms 2 5 53.8 10 107.6
Storage 1 10 107.6 10 107.6

POST OFFICE 5 30 322.9

Service room 1 10 107.6

- 107.6
Telephone area 1 20 215.3 215.3
EXHIBmON RCIUTY 3 60 645.8

lnfotRecept 1 10 107.6 10 107.6

Display area 1 50 538.2 50 538.2

18.6 200.0 Circulation area

PARKING 20 4,000.0

Total building area: 310 sq. meters (3,336.7 sq.ft.)


Table 22: Emergency and Security Facilities

<Space Analysis)

Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m sq.ft

POLICE STATION 8 130 1,399.2

Offtee 1 30 322.9 30 322.9

CeU 1 10 107.6 20 215.3
Multi-purpose room 1 30 322.9 30 322.9
Storage 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Praying room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Restroom 1 5 53.8 5 53.8
Garage 1 25 269.0 25 269.0

FIRE STATION 6 105 1 '130.1

OffiCe 1 30 322.9 30 322.9

Equip. room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Praying room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Restroom 1 5 53.8 5 Jl 53.8
Garage 1 50 538.2 so 538.2

PARKING 15 18.6 200 279 3,000.0 Minus

ciraJiation area

Total building area: 235 sq. meters (2.529.3 sq.ft.)


Table 23: Health Care Facilities <Space Analysis)


Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m sq.ft

CUNIC 8 65 699.6

Reception 1 10 107.6 10 107.6

Office 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Treatment room 1 15 215.3 15 215.3
Multi-purpose room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6

PARKING 8 18.6 200.0 148.8 1,600.0 Minus


Total building area: 65 sq. meters (699 sq.ft.)


Table 24: Commercial Facilities <Space Analysis)

Capacity No. of Area/unit Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m sq.ft

STORES 840 9,041.4

Drug Dept 5 1 50 538.2

Gift shop 5 1 50 538.2
Bookstore 5 1 50 538.2
Hardware 5 1 50 538.2
Appliance 5 1 50 538.2
Laundry 5 1 50 538.2
Grocery 10 2 100 1,076.4 200 2,152.8
Restaurant 10 3 80 861.0 240 2,583.0

PRIVATE OFFICES 5 3 20 215.3 60 645.9

FINANCIAL CENTER 5 3 50 538.2 150 1,614.6

Operation (Office) 1 30 322.9 30 ... 322.9

Public space 1 10 107.6 10 107.6
Praying room 1 10 107.6 10 107.6

PARKING 70 18.6 200.0 1,302 14,000 Minus


Total building area: 1,050 sq. meters (11,301 sq.ft.)


Table 25: Transportation Facilities <Space Analysis>

Capacity No.of Aleavunb Sub total Remark

(person) unit sq.m sq.ft sq.m SQ.ft

BUS TERMINAL 20.000 3.460 ~7.243.2

Info/ticket 1 10 . 107.6 10 107.6

Waiting area 1 60 645.8 60 645.8
Bus loading/unloading 1 50 538.3 50 538.2
Restroom 2 10 107.6 20 215.3
Praying room 2 15 161.5 30 323.0
Shops 2 20 215.3 40 430.6
Bus parking 50 50 538.2 2,500 26,910.0 Minus
Drivers' Wing qtrs 10 30 322.9 300 3,229.0

PARKING 50 18.6 200 930 10,000.0 Minus


TotaJ building area: 3,460 sq. meters (37,243 sq.ft.)


Workscope and Process

The workscope of the Pilgrims Accommodation Center

design is divided into four phases <see Figure 47):

1) Project orientation and basic preparation.

2) Data collection and analysis.

3) Planing and design development.

4) Planning design presentation.

Urban Design Project. The policy of the urban design of

the Pilgrims Accommodation Center is to concentrate on the

traditional schemes of architecture at Saudi Arabia and

Makkah in particualar.

In this process design alternatives should be developed

and a proposal design which will activate the idea.

Final Production. The final production of this study 15

going to be classified as follow:

-Written report <this thesis).

Background studies.

Urban design project design.

- Exhibition and presentation.

Maps, plans, and graphics.

3-Dimentional mo4els.

Set of color slides.

.... ...... ....... ....... ........

- Project orientation - Problems/needs & ... Compilation of - Completion of et
~ final report;
.,0 ... Project organization goals/policies research reports "'"0
(') - City inspection - Potential design - Delamination of ... Graphic presentation ~
0 projects design projects - Project models ::l

i - final Presentation at -
Texas Tech University
-Jan. 1986 ... Aug.1986 Aug. 1986 - Oct. 1986 Oct1986- May 1987 May 1987- Aug. 1987

n Working bip to Decision-making Planning design Presentation methods 9t
--< >
Makkah, Saud Arabia on design projects concepts formulation and technology cu


\ ~ ' ~ . ~
·~ ~ ~

Proiect Des1 J;lation Project Organization P reject Selection Project Completion Project Presentation

Figure 47 . Urban Design of The Pilgrims Accommodation

Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, Workscop~
and Process t-'



Search For The Site

This particular project is dependent on the site

location and the surrounding. Many factors made it difficult

to locate different sites and to choose one of them to be

the project site. The complexity of the city and its

mountain topography besides the existing planning and new

development all around the city, narrows the alternatives.

Criteria For The Project Site. This section describes

the criteria and the limits needed for achieving the highest

quality of living conditions for the people living in the

area, specifically the goals of optimizing environmental

quality and convenience. The other criteria is concerned

with the aim of minimizing the financial and other costs of

development without the loss of standards, specifically the

goals of minimizing implementation difficulties and

disturbance to existing features.

The capacity of the project is designed to reach up to

40,000 people plus the facilities needed to handle this

number, all of these require a vast site with a suitable



The criteria for evaluating and selecting the site

could be follows:

-The location's suitabilty for mixed use development.

-The location's ability to satisfy the required facil-

ities and parking independently.

-The location accessibility to transportation, the

Holy Mosque, and other activities in the city.

-The location's image as an area conducive to the

project activities.

Site Alternatives. According to the city conditions and

its natural topography, it was too difficult to asign

a particular site acceptable for the project .

By taking the Holy Mosque as the center and the four

ring roads (loops), this gives the distance image of the

location of the site and was thus defined as search areas.

The first area is between the Holy Mosque and the first

ring road (first loop>. This area is considered to be the

city center area. Most of the pilgrims like to stay in

Makkah. because of the Holy Mosque. This area can't be our

search area because the objective of the project is to

encourage the pilgrims to live away from the city center.

The second area is between the first and the second

ring roads <loops). This area is also an extension of the

first area where it accommodates the pilgrims during the

Hajj period. By searching for a location in this area wi.thin

the existing conditions it is difficult to find a suitable


site. The only choice is to asign a part of the residential

area· which can be demolished and cleared for the project.

So, this is also not a search area.

The third area is between the second and the third ring

roads <loops). This area is considered to be the development

area of the city. · The Third Ring Road was formerly a

boundary for the city, but now new development areas have

been exceeding this limit. In this area, as shown in the map

of Makkah, there isn't a vast area that could be used as the

project site. At Al Misfalah there used to be a vacent area,

but the municipality has asigned this area to be developed

as a recreational park for the city. Since the aim of the

project is to activate the city in a better way, the idea of·

asigning part of the residential area and demolishing it for

the project is out of this research. To the south of the

Holy Mosque there is an open area which is suitable for the

project activities. This area is vacant during the year but

it used to be a parking lot tduring the Hajj period.

Site selection. The criteria of the project site

.has defined the location

. in which the project site can be

selected. The selected site should meet the criteria limits

and reach the point of satisfaction with the need for such a

location <see Figure · 48).

This site had been selected after a survey of the

·existing condition of the city. The idea of choosing a site

which will not add any conflict to the city condition




, ...'"
..r.•• ._-.-..



, ~
........ -.......... ....

4~ • • ~..
• f irst Search Area

[] Second Search Area

•••. D
•....,.... . ··-··-.... --- .........-
. .....

• •• -- ... -----....
.... '·--· ..-··- ,....• .;: ..-J

Third Search

Alternat1ve Site

ed Proposed Site

Fi ug u::.-e 4 0 \....).
··..:.! -i
t_e- Map

directs the search. The selected site is located to the

south of the Holy Mosque. The· point here is to get the ad-

vantages of an existing facility in the city which is the

tunnel connecting the selected site with the Holy Mosque


Site Condition:

This section describes the selected site and analyzes

all its condition in a way that a clear picture would be

available by the end of the section.

Location Image. The selected site has a history of

dealing with the Hajj season through its existing function

as a parking lot for the large buses which transport the

pilgrims to Makkah. Even the Makkah residents used to call

this particular location "The City of Pilgims" <see Figure

49). The project is going to deal with accommodating part of

the pilgrims, then the location will not be a strange ac-

tivity in Makkah, and the people will 'define it almost with

the same name. The other image of this location is its lim-

its and boundaries which gives it a natural identity.

Site Area and Ownership. The proposed site covers an

area of 450,000 square meters <111.15 acres). This area is

divided into three parts by the roads that goes through.

The site is owned by the Government of Saudi Arabia

under the administration of the Ministry of Pilgrimage and

Endowments. Since the site is owned by the Government, this




D Main Road

I ! Secondary Road
LJ Existing Resid&ntial Building

Q Existing Public Facilities

- ----- .,__
Secunty FAnce


,., u.,... ;-·· 4 q

F ·• '--'
..... :a. ~ - - ..

g1\. es a positive
znat-k to the site. becau~e the 1~sue of

taking land which is owned by local people and.demolishing

their existing structure is avoided. This site is used by


the Ministry of Pilgrimage and Endowments as a huge parking

lot for the buses of the pilgrims because these buses are

not allowed to stay in the city for the Hajj period to avoid

congestion and air pollution. During the rest of the year

the area is vacant <see Figure 50).

Physiographical Condition. The proposed site is

surrounded by a chain of mountains. These mountains for1n a

natural fence which defines the boundaries, and encircles

a flat topography where no type of vegetation is found. The

slope varies from one area to another because of the sur-

rounding mountains <see figure 51).

Existing Establishment. The site is really ready for

the project. It is clear from the aerial photograph which

shows the proposed site that the site is vacant in terms of

structures. Since this site is used as a parking lot, the

land was maintained clean and clear. There are only six

small structures for public toilets. The roads are the main

ezisting structures which might be changed in the design

process to provide better access. There is a fence around

the area to protect the area and to identify its boundariP~.

Accessibility. Pilgrims arrive to Makkah through five

points which are recognized as the main entries to the Holy

City. Those who came from Jeddah "the 1nain por·t of Saudi

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~~cc©~~©[d)~u~©rNJ (C~~u~l?d
!Ral~~~~[f{]9 ~&;,lUJ[Q)~ ~I:Ri..L~DJ.\



Figure 50. Project Site Views

Ar·abia 011 the Red Sea'• car1 e11ter· the city from the west side

of the c~it. y . b~y Uoir1g· tl1e tWO fl1a·

. fr·o1n .Jeddab. . to ?fLakkai1.

the old one, and the new express which has been extended

from King Abdulaziz International Airport and Jeddah Islamic

Seaport. The others who come from the east side of the

country enter the city by using . the new highway from Taif to

Makkah. For those who come from the north they can use the

new express from Medina. From the south the entrar1ce •


through Al Laith Road. All of these highways meet with tt1e

third ring road.

The Third Ring Road <the third loop) is one of the new

projects which was completed two years ago and it serves the

local residents other than the pilgrims and visitors. As the

connection with the Third Ring Road, new bridge construe-

tions were provided to soften the traffic movement.

The proposed site is located in the inner part of the

Third Ring· Road, so 1 t wi 11 be easy for the pilgrims and the

other people who come to the city to reach the project area

by using the Third Ring Road until they reach the connection

of Kudi road, where they can ~nter the proposed area. This

is an easy and a safe access to the site location from in

and out the city.

Other accesses from inside the city are through Al

Misfalah Road, Ajeyad Road, and the new tunnels in front of

the Holy Mosq·ue. The map of Makkah shows these access roads

in a clear manner (see Figures 52 to 56).


Ar·abia 011 the Red Sea'• ca11 en.ter· the city from the west .side

of the city . by usi11g· th.~ two 111a·t.1.Wa~ys

'-' .
fr·o1n J~ddah. to Makk:ai-1.

the old one, and the new express which has been extended

from King Abdulaziz International Airport and Jeddah Islamic

Seaport. The others who come from the east side of the
country enter the city by . the new highway from Taif to

Makkah. For those who come from the north they can use the

new express from Medina. From the south the entrar1ce


through Al Laith Road. All of these highways meet with tb.e

third ring road.

The Third Ring Road <the third loop) is one of the new

projects which was completed two years ago and it serves the

local residents other than the pilgrims and visitors. As the

connection with the Third Ring Road, new bridge construe-

tions were provided to soften the traffic movement.

The proposed site is located in the inner part of the

Third Ring· Road, so 1 t wi 11 be easy for the pilgrims and the

other people who come to the city to reach the project area

by using the Third Ring Road until they reach the connection

of Kudi road, where they can ~nter the proposed area. This

is an easy and a safe access to the site location from in

and aut the city.

Other accesses from inside the city are through Al

Misfalah Road, Ajeyad Road, and the new tunnels in front of

the Holy Mosq·ue. The map of Makkah shows these access roads

in a clear manner <see Figures 52 to 56).

Relatio11 to the Holy Mosque. The idea of accoirunoda-r:in.g

part of the pilgrims in the proposed project away from the·

city center <Al-Haram) made the search for the proposed site

hard. This is because of the importa11ce of the Holy Mosque

to the pilgrims and the desire to perform all the five

prayers at the Holy Mosque. This meant that the proposed

site should be at a reachable distance and a short reaching

time to the Holy Mosque <see Figures 52 to 56).

By looking· at the map of Makkah and the aerial photo-

graph which shows the section of the proposed site with

relation to the Holy Mosque, it is clear that there are

three main connections between Al-Haram area and the pr·o-

posed site.

The first access is J eyad Raa·d , the second is through

Al-Misfalah Road, and the third is through the new tunnels

which were constructed two years ago. These tunnels have a

special advantage to the proposed site. They go directly

from the s+te to a point which is in front of the main

entrance of the Holy Mosque. These tunnels were constructed

to take three lines of traffic in each direction and pro-

videsa vast space for pedestrians. Walking through the tun-

nels takes only fifteen to twenty minutes.

Site Development

Development Potential. The proposed site of the project

has a great development potential in the horizontal and the


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t- =-=F.-=-
- -

_.:.__ --=- __.: . _



I' I
._,'- ... '
1 r11 r• 'I \
'---\ r---.


, ~

" I


- Artmiat Road

Main Road

- Pedestrian Road

•••• Pro;ected Arterlill Road


Figure h2
J • F' '-2 lations h i p to ~
1'- ; ~--1
L .i.. ~-~

, ,.--.. - c ·==»
n --- ~-· -=, _, b 1- 1; + ...-·,
.-... ,-.
....L .J ...L t_. •

Figure 54. • ·.:.- (: l ; ·_: = i_ :_


,_ -
en l
•• 0::
~ ~

_. 0
<:( ~
w >
cc ...J
0 Figure 56. An Areal View: The Holy Mosque & The
<:( ::I: Project Site
<:( 1-

vertical direction. For the ·short range, the existing area

is ready for development from the north part where the en-

trance of the tunnels is located down to the open area at

the south. The plan is to start with this area and to leave

the rest of the area for future expansion.

The project will accommodate about 35,000 - 40,000

pilgrims during the Hajj period. For the rest of the year

the project will serve the residents of Makkah plus the

visitors of the Holy Mosque.

The natural mountains surrounding the project area

could be ~eveloped either above or beneath the site. As a

traditional architecture of Makkah where constructing on the

edges of the mountains is a common feature, the project

could take this point to develop on the edges of the moun-

tains on the site.

In the design process the site could be utilized to

develop many functions. The existing condition might change

to accommodate these £unctions. The road which divides the

site into two parts might be diverted underground or as a

bridge above the ground. The original path might also be

changed either by developing a loop around the area · or

assigning a new path.

According to the project facilities and its needs the

site might be developed to serve many schemes. The main en-

trances to the project should be defined in a way that ac-

cess to or egress from the project will be easy.


Preparation for Development. The site will be prepared

for development as the· first stage to imple.ment the project.

The requirement of the design should be considered in the

preparatio~. All existing structure should be removed. The

grading or the change in the topography also will be part of

the preparation. The new infrastructure networks should be

installed and connected to the city's main networks .



Design Philosophy

The design philosophy for this project is based on the

relationship between man, the Muslims, and Allah, God.

According to the role of Islam, the pilgrims, or the

visitors of the Holy Mosque, have a special character which

is different from the visitors of any other city in the

world. The pilgrims are not common tourists; they are

Muslims coming to Makkah for the purpose of worship; prayer;

and receiving the benefits o~ spending much of their time

in the Holy Mosque.

The objective of these pilgrims to reach Makkah is to

obey the order of God to perform the Hajj rites. The project

is related to one of the main activities of the Islamic

belief. The project should serve to satisfy the need of the

city and the role of the religion itself.

In Islam the human being is attached to God in a

relation through both his soul and body. The belief is the

submission to worship God as if the person is seeing God and

God is seeing the person. The relation of the Muslims to the

City of Makkah as .-. ·. the focal point of their direction of

prayers is to obey the order of God, because God chose it

for that purpose. The physical relation and the soul are

belived to be attached to the daily prayers and during the

performance of the Hajj also.

This belief of the worshipers is a necessity for the

continuation of true muslim behavior. The muslim believes

that he has been created for one purpose in this life which

is to worship God at all times, in all aspects of life, not

only with prayers but also in all of life's activities.

·The design of this project is to help those pilgrims

and the visitors to perform their worshiping in the city.

This project will. be as part of the worshiping and all of

those who will participate in the building of this project

will take a reward from God if the intention here is to

worship God and to help those who worship.

The relation of the project site with the Holy Masque

which is through the tunnels reflect the invisible relation

between the man and God. The difference of light and shade

degrees outside and inside the tunnels also reflect the

soul's attachment with God.

The site itself represents a body of a person. In a

body there are many different parts which work for different

functions and for separate activities at certain times. In

the project also many functions are working together and the

facilities are attached with a relation to fit the need of

the people at different times.


The project will be divided into several parts as of

a human body. The upper part symbolizes the head where the

two tunnels direct the people and the traffic toward the

Holy Mosque. The public area will be as the heart of the

body where the Mosque will function as the soul of the

project. The rest of the project, the accommodation section,

will represent the rest of the body.

Design Concepts

The pilgrims and the visitors to the Holy Mosque are

the important issue of the design of this project. Besides

the citizens of Saudi Arabia and the residents of Makkah the

pilgrims arrive in Makkah fr·om all over the world with

different backgrounds including nationalities, languages,

cultures, and other differences.

The primary purpose of the project is to accommodate

portions of the entire number of the pilgrims during the

Hajj season. During the rest of the year the project will

function to serve local residents and visitors for many

other purposes.

How to deal with all these different purposes of users

during and off the Hajj season will be based on the concepts

of design. These concepts are guided by the philosophy of

Islam. The project has a particular relation with the

people, with the traditions, with the facilities, with the

functions; and with the surroundings.


The people who will live with and/or visit the

facilities are the important users for ·:the design concern.

The project should be designed for the users in a way that

will be convenient to walk or move to identified directions

and locations in order to reach different facilities. These

might be accommplished by using international symbols;

signs; colors; and specially-designed structures and land-


The functions of the center are different according to

the time in terms of during and off the Hajj seasons. During

the Hajj time, the main function is the accommodation of the

pilgrims. So it is the design part which will show the type

of accommodation units that could handle a huge number of

the pilgrims at one time in one place. During the rest of

the year the center will be used for additional functions .

This is to get the benefit of the project instead of closing

and locking up the project. It could be used as a hotel for

the visitors of the city or any other suitable function. The I

public area will function for both the pilgrims and the

local residents. In this area the people will be attracted

to the center any time of the year.

The facilities of the project are based on the required

functions of the center. The center represents a small com-

munity inside the Holy city as a new town-in-the city. Any

good community should provide its residents with all the

facilities they need. In this aspect the people need housing


for living; Mosque for worshiping; facilities for public

safety. security. and health. infrastructure for transpor-

tation. and utilities, facilities for shopping, dining and

social activities. These facilities will be a major issue to

be identified, analyzed and determined before the project


The surroundings of the project site plays a major role

in the design approach. The surroundings are the natural and

man-made resources such as land form, topography, landscape,

and existing development. Particularly the existing

access roads and topographic changes are of major concern in

site planning. The environmental conditions should be

carefully utilized in a way so that the people of Makkah

will not feel strange-because of changes in the city, and

let them feel that an acceptable development is welcome.

The Islamic traditions and the local images of Makkah

should be preserved and further developed through architec-

tural and urban design. In addition, the project should

promote and provide family privacy and individual respect

which represents the Islamic life.

One of the most important elements in the project

design is the Mosque and its relationship to the people. In

most of the Islamic cities the Mosque dominates all the

functions in a central location. The people_go to the Mosque

to pray five times a day and also perform the main prayer on

Friday. The mosque is also used as a teaching place where a


library could be attached to it. The people on the way to or

from it can reach nearby public areas such as shopping and

commercial areas. So, in the design of the center this issue

should be considered and the Mosque will be the focal point

of the center.

Design Alternatives

The initial approach to the design was to generate

several ideas which could work as alternatives for

developing a final or proposed design for this project.

During the study period four alternatives were developed and

in each alternative a complete set of graphic presentations

was prepared to explain each idea. Each set of alternatives

consists of a design concept; a design plan; and design


Design Alternative I. The first alternative deals

basically with a simple concept by dividing the project into

three parts: the family housing; the singles housing; and

the central facilities. These three parts are connected by

an internal road system which intersects the major freeway

at two points as the two major entrances to the project <see

Figures 57 to 59).

The family housing consists of buildings in a form to

provide open spaces in between. It will be a six-story high

building and in each floor the accommod~tion units will b~

distributed. Each unit has its own toilet and bath area. A

nr· r;., ~ • - 11 - - n - r.=
rr~rc r. •
tbv~~:;>u{~u' I "<~;\Q) ~ ((=~ ~.f T

Famtly Housing

Single Houa•ng



Figure 57. I )e ·.,= :ig·n A ' + t::

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- - - n1. a-
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L ~
..L. ~v7 t-:!
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UrHl~ [p)~[L@~~[Mil~
~~~(Q)[Mil[Mil(Q)~u~©WJ ~~~U[ErR
[}¥1]~[}([}(ffi,\1}={]9 ~~J1J][Q)~ ~~~ tA~]~

fQ)~~~~[M [p)[L~~~

• 0 1(1) ZiJ 2"'1




0 Family Unila

0 Single Units



•• Mosque

Transportation Station


__,. / Administration
Administrative Offices
Post Office
Exhibition Space

-- • \ I
( ' '-..._I Emergency & Security

\ ~ ~,.:.:_/ ' Pollc• Stn.
) "' '
Fire Stn.
1 I (I ·-
'\I _ (/ /
/ I I I \ Commercial
' j I

(!] Bua Stopa
) / • Rest Area Facility
~ Landscaping

Figure 58! Design Alternative I · <Design Plan)


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[M1]~~~~[}=l] 9 ~~LUJ[Q)~ ~~~~~~

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.': ....... : ·.


Figure 59. Design Alternative I <Design Illustration )

coinmon kitchen will be provided for a certain number of

units. A central open area is located in the middle of the

family housing area to function as a meeting place for

social and recreational activities.

The single housing units are similar to those of the

family housing except providing a common toilet units to

replace individual toilets. The accommodation units will be

separately arranged so that they will share a common kitchen

and a common toilet facility. Open spaces were provided in

between the units.

The central facilities are located in the central part

of the project between the family and the single housing

areas. The central area includes the Mosque; the adminis-

tration offices, commercial, security, and transportation


There is no change in the existing major freeway system

except a bridge is added to provide a connection beneath it


between the single housing area and the rest of the project.

A pedestrian circulation to different facilities is also

provided. The other parts near the tunnel entrances will

be developed as park and resting areas. The southern part of

the site is available for future expansion.

Design Alternative II. This second alternative has a

unique idea to develop an enclosed community. A loop system

will connect the major freeway and the existing road area.

The loop will be one-way traffic to provide for easy

circulation around the project. The new road system will be

laid out along the edges of the mountains.

By developing this community scheme the area will be

flexible for development. Two main entrances are assigned to

the project; one of them is to serve those who come from

Jeddah or the Third Ring Road; and the second entrance will

be for those who come from the Holy Mosque area and the

inner city of Makkah <see Figures 60 to 62).

The project site is divided into three majors areas;

the families; the singles; and public facilities. The fami-

lies area is organized in the northern part of the site; the

singles at the southern part of the site; and the public

facilities are centralized between them. The public area

will serve both areas with its facilities and also for the

people from outside.

In this alternative the idea of the courtyard plays

a role in the design. The whole project represents a large

courtyard surounded by the loop system. There are three

major open areas provided to function as family, single, and

central area.

In this alternative the design of pedestrian circu-

lation is carefully arranged so the people can move from one

part to another without any difficulties. This was a result

of developing the loop system around the project where no

major traffic is going through the site.



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ffi\CCCC(Q)lKYJJ~(Q)[Q)ffi\m(Q)~ CC~[NJU~ [%
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[Q)~~u@!M CG©u4l(CE[];u

A. Plan Elevation

The ..... .... farce. .tt.c:ting the .,.. are ; /

Subdivision of fac:llltlea into three m ..n areas. Internal The moaque acts as the focal po1nt w,th an approach
the ~~ape. the roada. the P'ftence ot a site uia M..or ac:c:..s edmetted on alttwr ••de . route on the wast .
..:roM ttw Slape.

Function Of A coun,.,d : Aa a modifier in hot arid a,.as. outdoor activities
weth protection from wind , dust and aun .

lnteuor Courtyard

l....-..;.......ji...-.....O.......;.........L....-_ __.1.....,. .........


! •.,

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lntar101 Courtyard

bii. .ICf E..t
A. Femlly Haualnl Units B• s,,... Houal,_. untts C. D.
c:our.,..... •e cleerly defined,
The . . . .
llllkllll the clfculatloll
••em wtttltft the
Tile ~Dation fac:llitlea a,. ,... formal!, ordered and .,.
c:luatered In compec:t lfoupe around a C*ttral court,ard . This Ia a
,....,..n orlenled communtt, .
The tower confiiuratlon tor houseng consists ot an
average ot 24 un1t1 f'8l floor .

Figure 6 0. De s ign Alternative II <Design Conce p t)

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- Major Artery
- Minor Artery

• Family Housing
D Single housing
D Commercial
• Mosque
D Bus Terminal
~ Administration
• Medical I Security
• Fire Station
~ Park I Landscaped Area
D Topography
~ Gateway

Figure 61. Design Alternative II <Design Plan)


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~~~~9 ~~(LJJ[Q)~ ~~~~~~

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o.tew., to .._ PfOteCt

View of courtrerd lnaide unit

Courtyerd locelion on alte plen

Figure 62. Design Alternative II <Design Illustration)


The central area is designed to accommodate all the

public facilities to serve the community. The mosque is

located in an area where it will be visible from the two

entrances. Landscape and green areas are assigned in most

parts of the project to beautify the environment and to

shade the pedestrian circulation. Three gates define the

limits of the project.

Design Alternative III. The third alternative reflects
the concern of developing a community as a human organisim.

The concept of this design is a form of a human figure based

on the natural shape of the site. The concept separates the

functions and distributes them in an organic system. The

head represents the activities. The public

area is assigned on the · middle part of the site. The

accommodation areas are arranged into parts of the rest of

the body.

As in the other alternatives the accommodation areas

a~e divided into two distinct parts; one is for the

families; and the other for the singles. The family section

is designed in the upper area to the east of the major road.

The single section is in the south of the site to the west

of the road. The public area is also in the middle part

between the accommodation areas.

There was a change in the road system. The main road

was elevated by a bridge beside the public area to provide a

connection between the two parts of the site. An internal


circulation network is designed to provide an easy access to

the accommodation units and · the other facilities. The road

from the tunnels is extended as a continuous road to the

accommodation area. An inner loop is also established in the

project to serve different parts of the project.

The courtyard concept is also applied in the design.

The accommodation units are arranged in a form of providing

open spaces. The courtyards are surrounded by the living

units <see Figures 63 to 65>.

The upper area of the project is asigned to the admin-

istration offices; transportation station; and the clinic

and security facilities. This part will serve the residents

of the project and the outside visitors. It will be easy to

identify these facilities because they are located on the

main entrance at the north. The public area contains the

Mosque and the commercial facilities. It also serves as a

rest area and meeting place where the people can pray five

times a day and shop and sit in this area. The Mosque is

located beside the major road and can be seen from outside

for those who drive through the project area.

The project will be surrounded by landscaped or green

areas to provide a nice environment. The tunnels area is

assigned as park areas for the public. All the open spaces

in the project especially in the accommodation areas will be

landscaped and diff~rent kinds of t~ees will be planted to

provide shade for the pedestrians.


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vc \\fi

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Administrative / /
~ Centre / /
/ /

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\ IIPrimarY
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-- -- _j

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Figure 63 . Design Alternative III (Design Concept )

, .

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~©©@~~~lrW ©mlr~~


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( 0
Family housing

0 Single housing

D Moeque


O!J Tranaport Station

\\ \ \
•• Administration

Medical / Security Service

0 Fire Station

Figure 64. Design - Alternative I~I <Design Plan)

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Figure 65. Design Alternat~ve III <Design Illustration )


Design Alternative IV. The fourth alternative is to

accommodate the pilgrims during.· the Hajj time and to serve

local citizens for the rest of the year. The main function

is to design the project to serve as an exhibition center

beside the accommodation areas which will serve as hotels.

The public area will serve the pilgrims and the visitors all

year around.

The main concept is to establish a residential

community and common area to serve the public. The site is

divided into three parts; the upper area is beside the

tunnel entrances; the middle area is to the east of the ma-

jor road at the north; and the third part is to the west of

the road at the south. The main areas to develop the commu-

nity are the last two areas which are on the east and the

west of the road. A tunnel is proposed at the road where the

two areas could be connected. So there will be no change in

the road except the tunnel which will direct the flow of

vehicles in an easy manner without any stop or traffic

light. Before reaching this new tunnel area there will be an

entrance and exit from both north and south sides. These

entrances and exits will direct the vehicle flow to or from

the project area. The inner circulation system is connected

to these entrances and exits through a network that connects

the project facilities with each other.

The residential community is divided into three parts;

The family, the single, and the public area. The family area

is at the east side of the road, the singles area on the

west side of the road, .and the public area in the middle

part as a connection between the family and the single

areas. The new tunnel is designed to go underneath the

public area.

As anyone enters the project site either from the north

or from the south, one will notice that he/she is driving in

a one-way loop surrounding the public area. From this loop

the families or the singles areas could be reached. The in-

ternal circulation is designed to provide an easy access to

each facility for the buses and the private cars. A pedes-

trian circulation is also designed to separate pedestrian

from automobile traffic for safety and conveniently reaching

any part of the projec~ site.

The family units are arranged into six building com-

plexes. Each complex consists of a structure in a form of an

octagon-shaped star. The center of the building is the tower

which accommodates the lobbies; stairs; elevators; and

information desks. The octagon-shaped building consists of

accommodation units. Every two or four family units share a

common kitchen. The layout of the single units are similar

to the structure of those of the family. In the single units

common kitchens and toilets are shared. The accommodation

units are arranged to six floors with landscaped courtyards.

The first floor is left open to be used as shaded parking


The public area includes the mosque, the commercial,

administration, health, security, and transportation

facilities. The mosque is located in the center of the loop

surrounded by landscaped green areas.

This alternative as explained before was dealing with

utilizing the project to be used all year around. This is

what was accomplished in the design process. The ground

floor was left open to be used as an exhibition hall.

Usually in Saudi Arabia many exhibitions take place during

the year such as motor, industrial, construction, and

cultural events in specific open areas. So in the project

this will be a suitable area with all the public facilities

and the internal circulation which will make it easy to

service the exhibition function. The accommodation units

will serve as hotels and the public area will be open for

the public use at any time <see Figures 66 to 72).


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D Fubn Expansion

• Residential

• PWic


Figure 66. Design Alternative IV <Design Conc ept )


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~~~(Q)[t¥1][t¥1](Q)lQ)ffi\U~(Q)[N] ~~[N]U~[R1
~~m~ ~ffi\LUJ[Q)~ ffi\~ffi\~~ffi\


,-- ~(

)~ I
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\ I

( ll 1.._
~.r r [!]
Family Housing Units

Single Housing Units

W Commercial Facilities

C!J Mosque

0 Administration

C!J Bus Terminal

0 H-aith & Security Facilities

W Gat.way

W Parking & Rest Ar. .

0 Hajj Buses Perking


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Figure 67. Design Alternative IV (Design Plan)


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• Main road

~ Internal street
D Landscaping
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• Bus loading LW~Iolldlng
• Resting and J)8rking area

0 Fountain

~ Parking
II Hajj buMs parking I future expansion I


0 Tranaportation station

Figure 68. Design Alternative IV

<Circulation and Landscape Plan)


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1 Moeque
2 Adn*li8tretlon Building
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I Clinic

Houelnl .......

Figure 69. Desig~ Alternative IV

<The Public Area Image )

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Figure 70 . Design Alternative IV <Design Illustration )


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Figure 71. Design Alte rnative IV

<Acco mmodation Unit Details)

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Figure 72. Design Alternative IV (Design Illustration )

The Proposed Design

The proposed urban design plan for the Pilgrims Accom-

modation Center in Makkah is a concluding presentation of my

thesis project. It is the final product of the analysis of

resources research, the adoption of alternative concepts and

the creative of my design ideas.

The design concept. The basic concept of this design is

based on the adoption philosophy of .. man and God." The

relation of the project site to the Holy Mosque and the

relation of the project facilities to the project mosque is

reflecting the attachment of men, the Muslims, to God.

The proposed design for the development of the project

is derived from the. organic composition of: 1> areas, 2)

lines, and 3> points, which form a geometric concept.

The areas in this project .are represented by the five

different land-use patterns: public. commercial, open

spaces, family, single sections. The lines include the

traffic roads and utility lines. The points are major fa-

cilities such as the mosque, transportation station, open

theater, shopping mall, and administration building.

The geometric diagram illustrates seven squares, each

square represents one specific function. The blue square is

for the public area which includes the mosque, administra-

tion, and the resting facilities. The red square represents

the commercial section where the shopping mall and the

restaurant and other commercial facilities are located. The


two orange squares represent the transportation station and

the buses parking areas. The station in the north and the

parking areas are for the internal use of the project. The

parking in the south is provided for the outside and the

pilgrim buses. The other three squares are for the housing

_function, the green one for the families, the yellow one for

the singles, and the light blue one is a multi-purpose area

and could be used for the family, the single or the workers

in the project. This depends' on the needs at different


The geometric concept is formulated to reflect the at-

tachment of different facilities to the main square <The

Mosque). This represents the attachment of the city to the

Holy Mosque, or the relation of man to God.

Urban Design Plan. The urban design plan for the

project development is derived from the geometric concept

as applied to the project site. During the time of design

much concern was on the layout of the areas, lines, and


points in an organic and functional relationship.

The main concern also was to design a scheme which is

easy to construct and also easy for people to use. The

result of the design stage was a production of an urban

design scheme which reflects the simple struct.ure and - a

unified scheme.

In the urban design plan the public area is locat·ed in

the center part of the project site. It represents the heart

of the project where the mosque is located and all other

parts are attached to it.

The transportation stations are located on the north

part of the site adjacent to the tunnels. The family section

is underneath the transportation station to the right side

of the main road. The multi-purpose section is to the left

side underneath the previous areas. The single section is in

the south part of the site to the left side of the road. On

the other side of the road the shopping mall is located. The

lower part of the site is reserved and designed to function

as a parking area for the buses.

At the area outside of the tunnel entrances, the design

is to utilize the area to be used for the transportation

station. Thi~ area is divided into two parts, the one on the

right to be used for the waiting area for the buses driving

directly to the Holy Mosque. The other part on the left side

is for the buses for parking, resting and living units for

the drivers. The fire station also is attached to the left

side where its service is available to the project and to

the city in general. The transportation areas are connected

to the · accommodation areas and to the rest of the project by

three underground pedestrian tunnels.

The accommodation areas are divided into three sec-

tions: family, single, and multi-purpose sections. The fam-

ily section is in the north part of the site to the right

side of the main road. This area is very suitable for the
housing units of the family because of the nature of this

area and its capacity to handle the requirement of the fam-

ily section. This area is designed to form open spaces and

courtyards between the units. There are sixteen unit

structures, each unit is one building and those buildings

are connected with walking balconies or bridges to make the

sixteen structures form one architectural complex. Each

building consists of four to twelve stories. The open

spaces are landscaped and also to accommodate the parking


The single section is designed to accommodate the needs

and the requirements of this area. Nine structures are

forming one huge complex, being connected with each other.

Up to five stories the outside form and the balconies are

the main scheme of this area. The open spaces are with the

units and in front of them.

The multi-purpose units are designed to acco·m modate the

immediate needs of either one of the families or the single

section. This section consists of five structures which are

connected by walking bridges.

The shopping mall is designed to form a uniqe structure

which will provide enough space for the commercial estab-

lishments. An e ·nclosed environment is developed and the

spaces are arranged inside the mall to direct the inner-

movement. The mall opens directly to the public area to get

advantage of the Mosque.


The public area is designed to ref'lect the importance

of the mosque to the people by assigni~g the middle area of

the project for this function. The plaza where the mosque is

located will be raised from the ground floor to give it an

image of attachment to the sky. The shopping mall and the
administration building are the main structures surrounding

the plaza. The administration structure is accommodating all

the public functions such as the main administration, police

station, post office, clinic, information, and an exhibition


An inner circulation is designed to join the project

facilities to the main traffic flow. The main traffic road

also is subject to change and the three circles are to ease

the movement of the traffic.

The proposed design is designed to accommodate about

40,000 people during the Hajj time and to accommodate the

same number of visitors during the non-Hajj season. For the

future needs of change and expansion, this project will

conveniently add more stories for vertical expansion. This

depends on the evaluation of the future needs. Also the

southern part of the project could be designed for new

structures and could continue the same concept and forlMt of

design (see Figures 73 to 81).


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F i g ur e 73 . Th e Pro p o sed Design (Desig n Co n cept)

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Figure 75. The Proposed Design <The Public Area )

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Figure 76. The Proposed Design (Prtoj ect Views>


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Figure 77. The Proposed Design <Typical Housing Units )


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Figure ·· 78 . The Proposed Des.ign <Acc ommodation Unit s ,

Isonametric View)

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~~~~~9~~~~0 ~~~


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Figure 79 . The Proposed Design <D~sign Illustration,
Family Section)

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Figure 80. The· Proposed Design <Design Illustration,

Single Section)

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Figure 81. The Proposed Design <Design Illustration,

Future Expansion)


Implementation Program

The implementation of the project is a very important

issue which needs more attention from all the parties in-

valved in it. A program should be developed to organize and

to explain the responsibilty of each organization. The pro-

gram should deal with the project development and the

procedure to work the project.

The release of the site from the Government through the

Ministry of Hajj and Endowments is a major part of this

program. The central Government's support to this project

will make it easy to deal with all the different agencies in

the city providing assistance to the development and

management of the project.

The project is divided into several stages for im-

plementation according to whatever resources are available

at that .time. The city should be consulted during the

preparation of the time schedule of the construction to

avoid any conflict with the city's policies and activities.

Cleaning the site and the preparation for the develop-

ment will be the first stage . to commence the construction of

the project. This is an important stage because during this


period the city will not use this access for a period af

time and this might have some effect on the near neighbors

whose cooperation is necessary at that time.

Financial Sources

The financial sources for developing this project could

be identified from the amount of work scope, work project

and time schedule for project execution. Design requirements

and policies will also play an important role in determining

the capital program and sources.

To determine the financial sources many alternatives

could be worked out, such as: 1) government option, 2)

public or private investment; and 3) a mix investment

between government and private sectors.

The government option ~s the first to be considered and

it could be utilized in many different ways. The government

could take the responsiblity of building this project as one

aspect of its hosting to the pilgrims and the visitors of

the Holy Mosque. Many branches of the government could work

the implementation program and supply the resources for it.

This option will give the agency or the government branch a

real investment for a period of years.

As example for a government branch is the Ministry of

the Hajj and endowments could take the project as one of its

duties towards the pilgrims and the city of Makkah. This


Ministry owns the project site and this is what makes it

viable to suggest this ministry.

The Imirate of Makkah could be also responsible for the

project financing. There are other ministries which have a

relation with construction such as the Ministries of Housing

and Municipalities.

The second option despite the Government option is to

introduce it to the private investment. This is usually the

custom of developing such a project in all parts of the

Kingdom. This project will be a good investment to the pri-

vate sectors where a continuous income could be generated

during the years. This option could be utilized in two ways:

either to establish a new public investment company or

development cooperation where the private sectors invest in

it, or to use existing companies to handle the project. The

new established company of Makkah for the construction and

development is one viable option to work the project.

·The third option is to divide the responsibility among

the Government and the private sectors. The government could

contribute with the project site and the services for the

project as its share of the capital. ·The private sectors

could invest money for project construction. The total

project could be shared between the government and private


Project Execution and Management.

The management o·f the project operation needs

cooperation of many agencies in the city and private sec-

tors. A development organization must be developed to be

responsible for the project development and management.

The development cooperation should work with the city

of Makkah to establish a good public relation and to achieve

the goals of the project. The project execution and manage-

ment will depend on the effectiveness of the organization of

the development cooperation.



The city of Makkah has a unique image as the Holy

Capital of the Islamic World. The city should develop its

existing resources to provide adequate and high quality fa-

cilities for the pilgrims and the visitors to the city. The

area around the Holy Mosque needs to be released from the

concentration of the pilgrims and visitors. They should be

encouraged to reside in other parts of the city.

The Pilgrims Accommodation Center is one example of

providing living facilities for the pilgrims and visitors to

reside away from the city center. The project is designed to

function during the Hajj period and for the rest of the


To avoid any problems to the city a careful search for

the site was conducted and the advantage of using existing

facilities such as tunnels was a primary concern. The

project design is according to the Arabian traditional ar-

chitecture and urban development.

The project needs support from all parties concerned

with the city of Makkah including the central government,

local administration, and the private sectors. A primary


effort should be given to transfer this idea from paper to


Depending on the evaluation of the project after its

construction and utilization, this project could stand as a

sample of future pilgrims centers and a landmark for the

city of Makkah.

This thesis project includes a thesis and a design of

an urban complex for the Holy City of the Islamic world. It

represents a two-year study of my graduate work at Texas

Tech University and is offered as a service to my hometown

of Makkah. This thesis is only part of the work needed for

this project and it is only a small picture which identifies

the road on which the final destination of developing the

city could be reached.

Working on this thesis project has provided me with

great pleasure and good experience. I think this is the

least gift I could return to my home town, Makkah. I would

like to present this project to the Government of Saudi

Arabia and to the people of my home town of Makkah. I would

like to complete this effort and the work of this study

further, and I wish to see this project realized one day.


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