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Government College University

*Department- Political science & international Relation

Assignment Of Subject - Gender and Human Rights

Teachs by-
Doctor .Professor Muhammad Azhar.
Social Construction of Gender.
*Historicizing Constructionism
*Is “Sex” socialy determined ,too?
*Masculinities and Feminisim
*Nature versus Culture :A Debate in Gender Development
Course Code:::: 304
Cradit Hours:::: 3
Program:::: Bs(Hons)Political Science .
Semester :::: 2nd
Session:::: 2017 to 2021
Issued By:=
Students Names
1: Sajjad Ali(14028) 2:Osama Ashraf(14030)
3:Reesham Abid(14037) 4:Mahnoor Rizwan(14018)
5:Rimsha Pervaiz(14029) 6:Anas Niaz(14025)
Social Construct:

The term has been adopted in several terms like (sociology,social
psychology,history,anthropology, etc. ) it is begin with the creation of (ADAm and Eva.)
OR run by society to society.
Social construct is the norms or that knowledge that we experience around us
and are not real. They exist because we give them reality through social
For Example :
Things Like Book , Nation , Even money or cash .
We consider ourself a social construct too that is created by intraction with other
people by expectation of society .
Another central idea .
Social interaction are important in knowledge construction process .
How Social construct are Begin? …
The social construct are by following methodology.
Social and cultural context .
Learning from Adults and ancestors.
Both individual and Social constructivism.
How knowledge Constructed ?
The knowledge are form by three Major methods .
1)Information Process.
Information are gain by surroundings .
For Example ;
Butterfly Development Process .
2)Internal process.
Thing about anything by your internal views.
For Example
Big Bang theory.
3) Proving Process.
Gain knowledge by prove Ideas that are may be internal or external.
For Example .
Mendal Law.
Main IDEA :
There is nothing Bad or
Good in this world but
Social construct Make
sense about what is
good or Bad .
Historicing Constructionism
All About(Preface);
Social Construction has been helpful in remodeling grounded theory . society is
viewed as existing both as a subjective and objective reality.Meaning is shared, thereby
constituting a taken-for ground reality . Grounded theorists understand knowledge as beliefs in
which people can have reasonable confidence;if it isb accepted that social constructionism is
not based on a relativist perspective ,Then it is suitable with Grounded theory methodology.
The term (contructionism) introduced in 1980s by Seymour papert to stand for Pedagogy
That concretizes and builds upon any of the ideas of progressive education practiced by
American John Dewey at the start of 20 th century in his experimental school at the University of
Chicago. Dewey wanted to put much of the responsibility for learning back onto the students
who are born with the gift of Learning and creative Knowledge on his own terms .
*Social contruction is debateable.

*Social constructionism also emerged during 1980s and further developed during 1990s.

*Social constructionism originated as an attempt to come to terms with nature of reality.

*Its origin also in sociology because it is also formulated about 32 years ago .

*Given its current and Great influence on grounded theory ,

Realism and Relativism :-

Realism ;(The attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth .)
Relativism;(The philosophical doctrine that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and
situation involved.)
The main criticisms again social contrustionism can be summarized by its perceived
conceptualization of realism or relativism. It is accused of being anti-realist,in denying that knowledge is
a direct perception of reality.Bury (1986) maintains that social constructionism challenges biomedical
reality and questions apparently self-evident and stable realities,but he offers little evidence to support
this contention.
As an Example
Bury claims that it views the discovery of diseases as themselves social event rather than
having an objective reality.This criticism of social constructionism not recognizing an objective reality is
both widespread an also common .
If it is accepted that researchers themselves construct a social world rather than merely representing
some independent reality ,then this is the sourse of tension between realism relativism.there is
increasing tendency within qualitative research.Bothe realism and relativism problrmatic for qualitative
research.CRAIB(1997), a sociologist and psychotherapist , suggest that like interactionism , social
constructionism is no more than a coping mechanism for dealing with rapid change : that social
constructionists embrace change in order to avoid having to defend or justify their position , or any
other ,is just another social construction no precedence over any other. He views social constructionism
as a form of intractionism.It is suggested that craib has a selective understanding of social
constructionism and that all social constructionism and that his criticism arise from this partial
understanding.his arguments assume that all social constructionists hold a relativist position .
social constionism accepts that there is an objective reality . it is concerned with how knowledge is
constructed and understood. It is therefore an epistemological not an ontological perspective.
Criticisms and misunderstanding arise when this central fact is misinterpreted.This is mostly evident in
debates and criticisms surrounding realism and relativism.
Difference between Constructionism and Constructivism.

Constructionism views the world as being internally created through constructs, or
internal models. We thus views the world as being internally created through these constructs and
which have significant and often unrealized effect on our perceptions.
There are two parts of construction :The elements themselves and the connection /relationships
between them> Construction can thus involve adding new elements or making new connections .
Removing and changing are also options.
The idea of constructs goes back to Lao Tzo and Buddha and was picked up in more recent philosophy
by Immanuel Kant, Who noted the patterning in how we think and talked about Categories.

Social Contructionism
Social Constructionism considers the creation of constructs and understanding between people and
with in societies.
we build our international models in pseudo-Shared way in response to our perception of perceived
constructs we receive from others .
Construction can be seen as a social process that is constructs from ongoing conversation and
Education,Constructivism and constructionism .
in education , piaget described constructivism as being the process where by students constructed
their own unique system of knowing , in consequence of which the teacher should focus on this
individual process of initial construction rather than standing at the front and spouting their own
models .
Seymour Papert , a student of piaget ,expanded on this to describe constructionism in term of helping
the student produce constructions that others can see and critique.
Both constructionism an constructiovism are physical.
Gender As A Social Construct .
So on above we may discussed that what is the social construct . Now we discuss, what is the
relationship of Social construct with Gender .
For starting debate on the Given Topic of relationship of Gender with Social construct,it is necessity To
understand the Term Gender.

Gender .
Gender is social and divergent of Sex . Gender is those term that are Based upon the social idea ,not
having reality Because it is social construct . Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to ,and
differentiating between,masculinity and femininity . Depending on the context , Characteristics may
include biological sex , sex based social structure or gender identity .
Gender determined by musculinity and Femininity.
Qualities associated with men(strongness,Maleness,toughness,Handsome)
Quality associated with Females(Caring,Beautiful,Softness,Humble ,)
Relation of Gender with Social Constructs.
According to this society and Culture Create Gender Roles ,And these Role prescribed as ideal
behavior for a person of that specific sex.
Some supporters of this theory argued that the differences between men and women are entirely
social construct.

But other believe that behavior is influenced by universal biological factors . The theory of social
construct is relate by Gender are given by (Alsop ,Fitzsimons and Lenon in 2002).
The discrimination Of |gender is started by the starting of Social consructivism Theory .
The Social Constructionism is also give the idea of Male and female by sociologically.
For Example .

Twins ,One Girl and other Boy.At the age of 3 year,The sibling was same Face structure
but when they going toward puberty The social constructionist view produce social change in their
way of talking , Clothing etc.

The Example of female Foot Ball Player of South Africa named (………………………..).
She was seemed as a Boy but actually she is a Female.
Is SEX is socialy Determined Too?
We know , sex is Biologicaly Determined and also determined by physical aspects. Genitalia also
showns major difference between MALE and FEMALE >
In Biologicaly Term the Sex Can be an actual code of Life . In Human, Total number of Pair
chromosomes are (23) in which 22 are Autosomes and remaining pair of 23 rd Chromosomes
Determined the Sex .(MALE or FEMALE ). Also called Sex chromosomes.

is Sex socialy or Not?

No .