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UDC (uak) 81

l–631

ferdinand de sosiuris (1857-1913), rogorc Tanamedrove lingvisti-


kisa da struqturalizmis damaarseblis mniSvneloba ukavSirdeba
“zogadi enaTmecnierebis kursis” (Cours de linguistique générale) 1916
wlis gamocemas. manamde sosiuri iTvleboda iseT Teoretikosad,
romelmac Teoriuli swavleba ki SeimuSava, magram sakuTari wigni
ar dautovebia. mis 9000 gverdian memkvidreobaSi moiZebneba sruli-
ad gansxvavebuli Temebisadmi miZRvnili teqstebi, romelTac pir-
velad aq movuyareT Tavi. igi moicavs rogorc sosiuriseul sayo-
velTaod cnobil diqotomiebs, aseve misi Teoriis aqamde ucnob
iseT aspeqtebs, rogoricaa lingvistikis enobrivi Tu SemecnebiT-
Teoriuli sakvanZo problemebi. ase iqmneba sosiuriseuli azrov-
nebis yovlismomcveli suraTi, romlis ukana planzec ukve naTlad
ikveTeba poststruqturalistur da dekonstruqtivistul Canasax-
Ta mkafio konturebi.

iohanes feeri kiTxulobs enis Teorias ciurixis Sveicarul teqni-


kur umaRles saswavlebelSi.

1
ferdinand de sosiuri

lingvistika da semiologia

Canawerebi memkvidreobidan
teqstebi, werilebi da dokumentebi

Sekriba, Targmna da Sesavali daurTo iohanes feerma

Ferdinand de Saussure
Linguistik und Semiologie
Notizen aus dem Nachlaß
Texte, Briefe und Dokumente
suhrkamp taschenbuch wissenschaft

gamomcemloba PEG
SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

2
gamomcemloba PEG
Wanturias 8, 1008 Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti


kostavas 5, 0108 Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

ISBN 978-9941-0-2445-0

pirveli gamocema 2010

© Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt am Main 1997


© gamomcemloba PEG 2010

mTargmnelebi:
venera kavTiaSvili
nino popiaSvili
Sorena SamanaZe

redaqtorebi:
TinaTin bolqvaZe
irma ratiani
gaga lomiZe

wigni gamocema ganxorcielda Sveicariuli fondis ProHelvetia-s


finansuri mxardaWeriT.

mTargmnelma Sorena SamanaZem Robert Bosch Stiftung miiRo da wignis


Targmanze germaniis qalaq StralenSi muSaobda.

3
PEG Verlag
8 Tschanturia Str., 1008 Tbilissi, Georgien

Schota Rustaweli Institut für Georgische Literatur


5 Kostawa Str., 1008 Tbilissi, Georgien

ISBN 978-9941-0-2445-0

Erste Auslage 2010

© Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt am Main 1997


© PEG Verlag 2010

Übersetzer:
Wenera Kawtiaschwili
Nino Popiaschwili
Schorena Schamanadse

Redakteuren:
Tinatin Bolkvadse
Irma Ratiani
Gaga Lomidse

Die Herausgabe dieses Buches wurde durch finanzielle Unterstützung der


Schweizerischen Stiftung ProHelvetia möglich.

Die Übersetzerin Schorena Schamanadse hat während der Arbeit an diesem


Buch ein Aufenhalsstipendium der Robert Bosch Stiftung in Straelen
bekommen.

4
sarCevi

Sesavali.....................................................................................................................................................................9

nawili pirveli
sosiuri: lingvistikasa da semiologias Soris
Sesavali komentari
A. winaswari samzadisi.............................................................................................................................12
I. "sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli terminologiis
absoluturi umniSvneloba" – sosiuris eWvebi..............................................12
II. "ostatis sikvdilis Semdeg" gamomcemelTa
moqmedebis wesi...............................................................................................................................18
III. "idumalebis saburveli" – wakiTxvis aucilebloba
kiTxvis sazRvrebi......................................................................................................................26
B. enebi.......................................................................................................................................................................37
IV. ena da ena.............................................................................................................................................37
V. erTi da mravali............................................................................................................................49
VI. enis(ebis) cirkulacia.............................................................................................................61
G. niSnebi.................................................................................................................................................................76
VII. niSanTa Teoriis gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva.................................................76
VIII. simbolos sruliad axali mxare..............................................................................90
IX. xmovanTa ferebi...........................................................................................................................106
D. konturebi.....................................................................................................................................................129
X. gamoqveynebuli da gamouqveynebeli..........................................................................129
XI. vin saubrobs? ..............................................................................................................................136

meore nawili
ferdinand de sosiuris teqstebi
E. saredaqcio miTiTebebi da teqstis
kritikuli niSnebi.............................................................................................................................146
F. faqsimile, transkrifcia da xelnaweris
amonaridis Targmani.........................................................................................................................148
G. Canawerebi sosiuris memkvidreobidan.............................................................................152
I. Canawerebi zogadi enaTmecnierebisaTvis..............................................................152
# 1.1, # 1.2, # 1.3 `Canawerebi Jenevis sadebiuto
leqciisaTvis, noemberi, 1891~......................................................................152
# 1.1 `pirveli saaTi~.........................................................................................................152
# 1.2 `meore leqcia~...........................................................................................................164
# 1.3 `mesame leqcia~...........................................................................................................170
#1.4 `SedarebiTi gramatika~.....................................................................................178
# 2 `SedarebiTi gramatika~.....................................................................................179
# 3 `literatura, filologia, enaTmecniereba..................................180
# 4 `fonetikuri faqti~...............................................................................................181
# 5 `fonologia~.................................................................................................................181
# 5a `fonologia~.................................................................................................................182
# 6 `enis niSnebi~...............................................................................................................182
# 7 `morfologia~.............................................................................................................184

5
# 8 "mecnierul gramatikaTa dayofa"............................................................191
# 9.1. 9.2. 9. 3 "Canawerebi wignisaTvis zogadi
enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb"..................................................................................192
# 9.2. "TvalTaxedva"..............................................................................................................195
# 9. 3 "Sedareba enasTan"..................................................................................................196
# 10 "Canawerebi uiTnisadmi miZRvnili
statiisaTvis"...............................................................................................................197
#N11, # 12 "Status et motus. Canawerebi wignisaTvis
zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb"............................................................216
#N11 "Status et motus"................................................................................................................216
# 12 mdgomareoba da movlena..................................................................................217
# 13. N 13 a.............................................................................................................................................225
# 13 ' "sxva aRaraviTari figura!"...........................................................................225
# 13a ' "martivi gamonaTqvami"........................................................................................227
# 14 "artikulaciis Sesaxeb"'.................................................................................227
# 14a "implozia + implozia".....................................................................................228
# 14b "damarcvlis Teoria"..........................................................................................229
# 15 »Item«....................................................................................................................................234
# 16 »realurad arsebuli obieqtebi..............................................................250
# 17 »realurad arsebuli obieqtebis refleqsiebi«.....................250
# 18 »fiziologiis anatomia«.................................................................................250
# 19 »aforizmebi«................................................................................................................251
# 21 »a. seSes Teoriuli lingvistikis
meTodebis programis Sesaxeb Canawerebi«.....................................252
# 22.1 »Canawerebi Course II-is orobiTobebis
Sesaxeb«..............................................................................................................................255
# 23.1-7 »Canawerebi Course III-is Sesaxeb«.............................................................256
# 23.1. »leqciis Sesavali da geografiuli
enaTmecniereba«..........................................................................................................256
# 23.3 »nomenklatura«.........................................................................................................260
# 23.4 »realurad arsebuli obieqtebi da
misi Semadgeneli nawilebi«.........................................................................261
# 23.5 »sityva “terminis” mniSvneloba«.............................................................261
# 23.6 »niSnebis cvlilebis aucilebloba:
sinqronia da diaqronia«.................................................................................263
# 23.7 »enobrivi faseuloba«........................................................................................268
# 24a »semiologia«...............................................................................................................269
# fonologia.....................................................................................................................273
II. gabneuli fragmentebi.............................................................................................................275
Unde exsoriar.............................................................................................................................................275
`gajiuteba ar aris saWiro~...............................................................................................276
`Canaweri diskursisaTvis~...................................................................................................277
III. germanuli legendebis Sesaxeb
Canawerebidan......................................................................................................................................278
IV. nawyvetebi `anagramebis Sesaxeb gamokvlevebidan~...................................291

H. Teodor flurnuas mier gamoqveynebuli teqstebi............................................320


V. `feradi smenis Taobaze gamokiTxvis pasuxi~................................................320
VI. `qalbaton smiTis induri ena~.....................................................................................322

6
I. Jenevuri leqciebis stenografiuli Canawerebi......................................................334
VII. meore kursis a. ridlingeris mier
Sesrulebuli stenografiuli Canawerebi.......................................................334
VIII. III kursisaTvis J. degalies
stenografiuli Canaweridan......................................................................................340
J. werilebi da dokumentebi..............................................................................................................344
IX. werili..................................................................................................................................................344
X. dokumentebi.......................................................................................................................................349
alber ridingeri............................................................................................................................349
leopold gutie...............................................................................................................................351
anri odie...............................................................................................................................................352
alber kuni............................................................................................................................................353
paul f. regari.................................................................................................................................353
Sarl bali............................................................................................................................................355

nawili mesame
danarTi
K. ZiriTadi TariRebi ferdinand de sosiuris
biografiidan 1857 wlis 26 noembridan
1913 wlis 22 Tebervlamde..........................................................................................................357
L. bibliografia...........................................................................................................................................371
I. ferdinand de sosiuris nawerebi da
biografiuli dokumentebi.................................................................................................371
1. 1877-1913 ww publikaciebi..............................................................................................371
2. sikvdilisSemdgomi publikaciebi.......................................................................375
3. sosiuris werilebisa da amonaridebis CamonaTvali.....................379
4. dokumentebi...............................................................................................................................382
II. mokle Tematuri bibliografiebi...........................................................................384
1. enaTmecniereba me-19 da me-20 saukuneebSi..............................................384
2. "Jenevis skola”.......................................................................................................................384
3. zogadi enaTmecnierebis kursi..............................................................................384
4. semiologia da semiotika.............................................................................................385
5. sosiuris legendebis kvleva...................................................................................385
6. anagramebis kvleva..............................................................................................................385
7. Teodor flurnua – fsiqologia da
lingvistika, daaxl. 1900 w.......................................................................................385
8. struqturalizmis istoria da Teoria..........................................................385
9. enis Teoria.............................................................................................................................385
10. mecnierebis istoria........................................................................................................385
III. gamoyenebuli literatura..............................................................................................386
IV. bibliografiuli masalebi..............................................................................................397
V. Semoklebebi da bibliografiuli.............................................................................398
M. miTiTebebi epigrafebze.........................................................................................................................400
N. saxelTa saZiebeli...............................................................................................................................401
O. samadlobeli............................................................................................................................................406

7
warmarTe kvleva ise,
TiTqos sakuTari neba-survilis sawinaaRmdegod
moqmedebde da am gziT Seiqmeni saukeTeso
SesaZlebloba Senive eWvebis gamosaTqmelad.

f. de s.

8
Sesavali

wigni aseTi dasaxelebiT _ „lingvistika da semiologia“ ferdinand


de sosiurs arasdros dauweria. Tumca misi disertaciis gamosvlis
Semdeg, romelic mecnieris sicocxleSi dabeWdil wignTagan meore da
ukanaskneli iyo, igi dauRalavad ganagrZobda kvlevas da weras bo-
lomde, anu 1913 wlis 33 Tebervlamde. mcire nawili gamoqveynebulia
statiebisa da mokle SeniSvnebis saxiT, magram mis memkvidreobas Se-
adgens TiTqmis 9000 furceli Canawerebis, monaxazebis, werilebisa da
dokumentebisa da gasaocaria am memkvidreobis ara mxolod moculo-
ba, aramed am xelnawerTa mxolod mesamedi Tu eZRvneba imas, rac sa-
yovelTaod lingvistikad iwodeba. maT garda moiZebneba uamravi Cana-
weri, romlebSic ganxilulia rogorc leqsmcodneobisa Tu indoevro-
pul poetikaSi bgeraTa gameorebadobis swavlebis (e.w. anagramuli po-
etikis), aseve nibelungebis simReris warmoSobis istoriis sakiTxebi.

Tuki samocian da samocdaaTian wlebSi safrangeTSi gamoqveynebuli


nawyvetebi sosiuris “anagramuli swavlebani“-dan ase Tu ise mainc Ca-
iTvala movlenad, rac saTanadod aisaxa kidec germanulenovan publi-
kaciebSic, ratomRac sosiuris „nibelungebis simRerisadmi“ miZRvnili
Sromebis STambeWdavi moculobis krebulis 1986 wlis italiuri gamo-
cema rogorRac TiTqmis SeumCneveli darCa germaneli mkiTxvelisaT-
vis. germanulenovan samyaroSi xom sosiuris is gamokvlevebic ki mi-
iviwyes, romlebic saerTod pirvelad gamovida germanul enaze: es iyo
misi statiebi, miZRvnili 1914 wels laipcigSi, mainerTan dabeWdili
Teodor flurnuas monografiisadmi _ „Jeneveli naTelmxilveli.
religiis, qvecnobieris da enis fsiqologiisadmi miZRvnili eqsperi-
mentuli kvlevebi“. arada, mecnierebis istoriis TvalsazrisiT, es
Sromebi namdvilad mniSvnelovani dokumentia. erTianobaSi isini aT-
valsaCinoeben sosiuris mcdelobas, mimoixilos lingvistikis Ziri-
Tadi problematika semiologiis WrilSi, rac sakmaod uCveulo da
saintereso perspeqtivaa enis Teoriis TvalsazrisiT.

winmdebare wignis mizania xelmisawvdomi gaxados sosiuris memkvidre-


oba mTeli Tavisi momxibvleli mravalSrianobiT da amiT Tavisi
wvlili Seitanos saukunis enaTmecnierisa da Teoretikosis naazrevis
ufro Rrma aRqmaSi. wigni aRWurvilia komentarebiT, romlebSic gad-
mocemulia teqstis mTavari azri,AagreTve axlavs moculobiTi bio-
bibliografiuli danarTi, ZiriTad nawilSi ki Tavmoyrilia sosiuris
enaTmecnieruli Tu sxva saxis xelnawerTa da dokumentTa uaRresad
farTo arCevani. _ Tumca, erTis garda yvela Targmnili teqsti ukve
gamoqveynebulia frangul enaze, am wignis saSualebiT im saxiT Sev-
divarT sosiuris memkvidreobaSi, jer rom arsad momxdara: nacvlad
imisa, rom Cveulebisamebr enaTmecnieruli teqstebi sxva saxis teqs-
tebisagan gamocalkevebuli da sxvagvarad ganxiluli iqnas, wignis
mTavari mizania, TvalsaCino gaxados gansxvavebul naSromTa Sinagani
konteqsti, Sinaarsobrivi Tu droiTi Tanaarseboba. upirveles yovli-
sa ki aRsaniSnavia, rom Targmnis Sedegad calkeuli xelnaweri (umete-
sad) srulyofili saxiT da awindeli redaqciiT warmogvidgeba da

9
kargi SesaZlebloba iqmneba maTi agebulebisa Tu Tematuri ganviTare-
bis gamosakvlevad. mizezTa da mizezTa gamo, romelTa Sesaxeb sauba-
ri namdvilad Rirs, sosiuris memkvidreobaSi arsebuli xelnawerebi
sakmaod fragmentulia: daumTavrebeli wignis monaxazebi, leqciebis-
Tvis gakeTebuli Canawerebi, mokle SeniSvnebi moxsenebisa Tu sta-
tiebisaTvis da sxv. xSiria Sua winadadebaSi azris gawyveta, gadaxaz-
va da zemodan damatebebisa Tu koreqturebis dawera. es, erTi mxriv,
sainteresos xdis kiTxvis (Tu Targmnis) process, Tumca garkveulwi-
lad sakmaod arTulebs kidec. yvelanairad Sevecade, winamdebare Tar-
gmanSi pativi mimego sosiurisaTvis esoden mniSvnelovani dausruleb-
lobisaTvis.

amis sapirispirod sruliad mizanSewonilad miviCnieT teqstebisTvis


iseTi komentaris darTva, romelic moaxdenda fragmentTa Soris arse-
buli sistematuri kavSirebis dadgenas da Tavmoyras rogorc Tavad
wignTan Cours de linguistique générale Tu Semdeg masTan dakavSirebul
lingvistur TeoriebTan, aseve mecnierul-istoriul konteqstTan mi-
marTebaSi. _ danarTSi naCvenebia qronologiuri kavSirebi sosiuris
xelnawerebsa da werilebs, gamoqveynebul Sromebsa da leqciebs So-
ris. amas mohyveba mis sicocxleSi Tu sikvdilis Semdgom gamoqveyne-
buli teqstebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli dokumentebis krebuli. bo-
los ki mocemulia im literaturis vrceli sia, romlis meSveobiTac
ufro gaioldeba am wignSi ganxiluli Temebis gageba.

im uamrav adamians, romelmac Tavisi dainteresebiT, rCeviT, mxardaWe-


riT, agreTve finansuradac Tavisi wvlili Seitana am wignis SeqmnaSi,
saTiTaod vasaxeleb wignis boloSi. _ wigns vuZRvni Sarlote iakobs,
Cems meuRles, romlis moTminebisa da mzrunvel-kritikuli yuradRe-
bis gareSec araferi gamomividoda.
erlenbaxi, 1995 wlis marti
iohanes feeri

10
nawili pirveli

sosiuri: lingvistikasa da semiologias Soris


Sesavali komentari

11
A.
winaswari samzadisi

Tqven TviTonve mSvenivrad dainaxavdiT da imaze


metadac, vidre me SevZeli TqvenTvis amis Tqma, rom
pirvel rigSi unda aRiWurvo raime saxis rwmeniT,
iqneba es rwmena mTlianobis albaTobisa Tu
"raimes" utyuarobisadmi.
1908 wlis 29 oqtomberi
leopold gotiesadmi miwerili baraTidan

I. "sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli terminologiis


absoluturi umniSvneloba" – sosiuris eWvebi

1894 wlis 4 ianvriT daTariRebul werilSi sosiuri Tavis yofil


mowafesa da Tanamoazres parizis skolidan Ecole des hautes Etudes Semdeg
dramatul striqonebs wers:
friad SeSfoTebuli var yvelaferi amiT da pirvel rigSi ki im sayovelTao
siZneliT, rac dakavSirebulia enobriv problemebTan _ SeuZlebelia, aTi
striqoni mainc dawero ise, rom gasagebi iyos. ukve ramdeni xania dakavebuli
var am problemebis klasifikaciiT, im TvalsazrisTa klasifikaciiT, romel-
Ta mixedviTac xdeba am problemebis ganxilva da sul ufro da ufro vrwmun-
debi, Tu ra uzarmazari samuSaoa Casatarebeli, raTa davanaxoT lingvists
is, rasac igi akeTebs; yovel operacias rogor uZebnis winaswar gaTvaliswi-
nebul kategorias; amasTanave im yvelafris amaoebasac kargad vamCnev, risi
gakeTebac saerTod SeiZleba lingvistikaSi.
bolos da bolos, me xom mxolod enis mxatvruli mxare mainteresebs, anu is,
riTac igi gansxvavdeba yvela danarCenisagan, is xom mxolod romelime erT
gansazRvrul xalxsa Tu gansazRvrul warmomavlobas ganekuTvneba. es TiTq-
mis eTnografiuli aspeqti warmoadgens swored Cemi interesis sagans: ufro
zustad ki is siamovnebis gancda gaxda CemTvis SeuZlebeli, rac Tan sdevs
amgvar kvlevebs, anu faruli ganzraxvis gareSe rom tkbebi im unikaluri
SemTxveviT, rac ukavSirdeba erT romelime gansazRvrul sferos; swored es
siamovneba damaklda yvelaze metad.
sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli terminologiis absoluturi umniSvneloba, iseTi
reformis aucilebloba, romelmac unda aCvenos, Tu rogor sagans warmoad-
gens ena zogadad, mifuWebs xolme mudmivad istoriul siamovnebas, Tumca ima-
ze metad arc arafers vnatrob, rom zogadad enasTan araferi mqondes sadavo
da sakamaTo.
Cemi survilis sawinaaRmdegod, es yvelaferi dasruldeba wigniT, romelSic
yovelgvari enTuziazmisa da mondomebis gareSe Sevecdebi avxsna, Tu ratom
ar arsebobs lingvistikaSi Tundac erTi iseTi cneba, romelsac me mniSvne-
lovnad miviCnevdi. vaRiareb, rom mxolod amis mere SevZlebdi Cemi samuSaos
im adgilidan gagrZelebas, sadac gavwyvite. 1

1
Cf. Saussure: "Lettres à Antoine Meillet", gamomcemeli e. benvenisti, periodul gamocemaSi
Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure "ferdinand de sosiuris dRiurebi" [CFS] 21, 1964. [SemdgomSi
citireba moxdeba Semdegnairad: LAM; Cems mier germanulad Targmnili ucxoenovani teq-
stebis pasaJebis adgilmdebareobis miTiTebas win daerTvis niSani >Cf< ], gv.95.

12
cnobilia, rom sosiurs es wigni arasodes dauweria. amis miuxedavad,
am werilis daweridan ocdaori da sikvdilidan sami wlis Semdeg mi-
si saxeliT gamovida wigni, romelsac hqvia Cours de linguistique gènèrale 2 ;
wigni, romelic cdilobs >lingvists uCvenos, Tu ras akeTebs igi< 3 ;
wigni, romelic zustad imas exeba, ris Sesaxebac iyo laparaki weril-
Si: kerZod, >zogadad enas<.
yvelam icis, rom es Cours-i aris sosiuriseuli swavlebis rekons-
truqcia da pirvel rigSi eyrdnoba JenevaSi wakiTxuli sami leqciis
konspeqtebs zogadi enaTmecnierebis 4 Sesaxeb, agreTve sosiuris mem-
kvidreobidan im pirad Canawerebs, romlebic am TemasTan arian kavSir-
Si. am Cours 5 -is gamomcemlebi da, pirdapir Tu vityviT, avtorebi _
Sarl bali da alber seSe, romelTac Tavad ar mousmeniaT es leq-
ciebi, SesavalSi aRniSnaven _ SesaniSnavad esmiT, rom "avtori [...] nam-
dvilad iqneboda am gverdis gamoqveynebis winaaRmdegi". 6
magram avtoris nebis sawinaaRmdegod, yvela am faqtobrivi Tu savara-
udo orWofobis miuxedavad, es wigni mainc iqca "meoce saukunis al-
baT yvelaze citirebad enaTmecnierul naSromad". 7 am Cours-is safuZ-
velze daiwyo Semdgomi kvleva sosiurma, romelic Tavisi Tanamedro-
veebisaTvis "saxelganTqmuli indogermanisti [iyo], romelmac ukve 21
wlis asakSi warmoadgina Tavisi mTavari naSromi, gamokvleva winare
indogermanul xmovanTa Sesaxeb" 8 , da mTeli misi cxovrebis manZilze
marTlac rom gansacvifrebel rols TamaSobda:
Tuki aucilebelia, rom romelime pirovneba dasaxeldes Tanamedrove enaTmec-
nierebis damaarseblad, es iqneba didi Sveicarieli mecnieri ferdinand de
sosiuri [...]. dResdReobiT bevri lingvisturi skola arsebobs, magram yoveli
maTgani, pirdapir Tu iribad, ganicdis sosiuris Cours-is zegavlenas. 9

sosiuri, romelsac 1878 wels gamosuli Mèmoire-is Semdeg ramdenadme


mainc mniSvnelovani raime naSromic 10 ki aRar gamouqveynebia, sikvdi-

2 aq citirebuli sosiuris Sromebis zusti bibliografiuli monacemebi, agreTve Sem-


dgomSi gamoyenebuli Semoklebebis sia ix. danarTSi, 551 gverdidan, Sesabamisad gv. 595.
3 am niSniT gamoyofili sityvebi da sityvaTa jgufebi miekuTvneba citirebul teqstebs,
magram nawilobriv Secvlilia maTi sintaqsuri wyoba.
4 kerZod: 1906-1907: linguistique gènèrale, Cours I; 1908-1909: linguistique gènèrale, Cours II; 19010-1911:
linguistique gènèrale, Cours III.
5 Sead. R. Engler: "Die Verfasser des CLG" p. Smiteris mier gamocemul wignSi "enaTmecnierebis
istoriis daweris Teoriisa da meTodisaTvis. analizi da refleqsiebi", tiubingeni 1987,
gv. 141-161
6 Ch. Bally da A. Sechehaye: winasityvaoba wignis Cours de linguistique gènèrale pirveli gamocemi-

saTvis, 1916, gamocemaSi: GRF, gv.XI da CLG/D, gv.11 [SemdegSi citirebuli iqneba ase: Se-
savali 1916]. Sead. C. belis 1913 wlis 29 maisis werili. meilesadmi, wignSi: R. Amacker/
Bouquet (gamomcemeli): "Correspondance Bally-Meillet (1906-1932)", JurnalSi: CFS 43, 1989 (1990),
gv.102 f.
7
Cf. W. Manczak: "Critique du structuralismuse", in Folia linguistica 3, 1969, gv. 176f. Tavis statiaSi
"Lq thèorrie squssurienne en rètrospection" r. iakobsoni wers: sosiuris Cours-i aris genialuri
nawarmoebi da uaRresad mniSvnelovania TviT misi gadacdomebi da SeuTanxmeblobebic
ki. Cveni saukunis arc erT sxva wigns ar mouxdenia aseTi farTo da Rrma zegavlena
saerTaSoriso lingvistikaze" (cf. Linguisties 22, 1984, gv.165).
8
T. M. Scheerer: Ferdinand de Saussure, darmStati 1980, gv. XI; Seereri eyrdnoba sosiuris
Mèmoire le système pri,itif des voyelles dans les langues indo) europèennes, laifcigi, 1879 [1878], in: REC,
gv. 1-168.
9
J. I. Yons: Tanamedrove lingvistikis Sesavali, miunheni 1971, gv.39.
10
Seadr. amasTan dakavSirebiT Umrisse, gv.. 201 ff.

13
lis Semdeg aRiares mTeli mecnieruli mimdinareobis, Tu axali mec-
nierebis damaarseblad da mamamTavrad:
ferdinand de sosiuri aris Tanamedrove lingvistikis mamamTavari, igi aris
adamiani, romelmac moaxdina enis da enaTa Semswavleli mecnierebis imgvari
reorganizacia da SesaZlebeli gaxada meoce saukunis lingvistikis monapo-
varTan ziareba 11 .
magram es yvelaferi ar aris: ormocdaaTiani wlebis Sua xanebidan
moyolebuli, gansakuTrebiT safrangeTSi, sosiurs moixmoben xolme
gansxvavebuli humanitarul Tu anTroposofiul mecnierebaTa warmo-
madgenlebi, raTa sakuTar Tavs gansxvavebuli mecniuruli statusi
mianiWon:
Cven sulac ar gvexamuSeba sosiuris moxsenieba did filosofosTa Soris.
Tuki saqme marTla exeba imas, rom am mimoxilvaSi SeviyvanoT isini, romelTa
naazrevma, Tundac dasawyisSi uaRresad specializirebulma, raime kvali da-
amCnia azris istorias, maSin es adamiani zustad Tavis adgilze yofila; ada-
miani, romelmac, marTalia mogvianebiT, magram mainc udidesi zegavlena moax-
dina iseTi moazrovneTa qcevaze, rogorebic arian: merlo-ponti, levi-strosi,
anri lefevri, rolan barti, lakani, miSel fuko da gaamdidra isini, maTi
meSveobiT ki mTeli dRevandeli humanitaruli mecniereba [>sciences humaines<]. 12
sosiuris mniSvnelobis g. moniniseul Sefasebas mis mier dasaxele-
buli avtorebic adastureben. ase, magaliTad, kolejSi Colége de France
Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul leqciaze klod levi-strosi
amtkicebs:
masaSadame, ra aris socialuri anTropologia?
meCveneba, rom aravin ar yofila ise axlos mis definiciasTan, Tundac zeda-
pirulTan, rogorc ferdinand de sosiuri, roca man lingvistika warmoadgina
rogorc Camosayalibebeli mecnierebis nawili da am mecnierebas uwoda semi-
ologia da mas Seswavlis sagnad socialuri cxovrebis wiaRSi niSanTa sico-
cxlis gamokvleva dausaxa. 13
fsiqoanalitikos Jak lakanis naSromic rom aviRoT, igi savsea sosi-
uris mniSvnelobaze miTiTebebiT. 14 ufro metic: axleburi fsiqoanali-
tikuri Teoriis damkvidrebis mcdelobisas swored is cnebebi TamaSo-
ben centralur rols, romlebic Cours-idan momdinareoben. ase, magali-
Tad, fsiqozebisadmi miZRvnil lakanis seminarSi vkiTxulobT:
aRmniSvnelis da aRniSnulis safuZvlad Tu ar davsaxavT wyviladobas, maSin
SeuZlebeli iqneba fsiqoanalitikuri determinizmis aRqma. 15

11
Cf. J.Guller: Saussure, 1976, gv.7.
12
Cf. G.Mounin: Saussure ou le structuralisme sans le savoir, parizi 1968; gv 9; Seadr. agreTve J. C.
Milner: "Retour à Saussure" (in: Lettres sur tous les sujets 12, 1994, gv. 3-19), romelic Cours-s
axasiaTebs, rogorc "un classique de la culture" (gv.3).
13
Cf. Cl. Lévi-Strauss: "Le champ de l'anthropologie" in: ders., Anthropologie structurale deux, parizi 1973,
gv. 18. amasTan dakavSirebiT moxseniebis Rirsia agreTve a. j. greimasis "sosiurizmis aq-
tualoba" (A.J. Greimas "L'actualité du saussurisme"), romelSic igi miuTiTebs imaze, rom levi-
strosis Sromebma frang lingvistTa garkveul nawils stimuli misca sosiuris Tavi-
dan aRmosaCenad. Seadr.: Le français moderne 24, 1956, gv. 191 ff.
14
ix. J. Lacan: Ecrits, parizi 1966, gv. 446f., 467, 497, 502f., 594, 623; an: Lacan: "Radiophonie", in: Scilicet
²/3, parizi 1970, 55ff.
15
Cf. Lacan: Les psychoses. Le sèminaire III, parizi 1918, gv.136.

14
Cours-is gavrcelebis kvaldakval, sosiuri iqca ara marto >Tanamed-
rove lingvistikis mamamTavrad<, aramed sxvadasxva anTroposofiuli
Tu humanitaruli mecnierebis momcveli moZraobis >fuZemdeblad<,
kerZod ki struqturalizmis. 16 lingvistikis istoriis dawerisas
sosiuris roli Sefasebulia "kopernikiseuli revoluciis" 17 darad,
humanitaruli mecnierebebisaTvis ki imave donis movlenad, rasac
warmoadgenda galilei zusti mecnierebebisaTvis. 18
rogori gasagebic ar unda iyos es paTosi, roca fiqrob, magaliTad,
levi-strosis gamonaTqvamze, romelic sosiurisSemdgom lingvistikaSi
xedavda yoveli socialur-politikuri naSromis models da apogeas 19 ,
mainc gansacvifrebelia es aRfrTovaneba, Tuki gavixsenebT zemoT xse-
nebul eWvebsa da TavSekavebas, riTac sosiuri udgeboda axali enaT-
mecnierebis damkvidrebas. am eWvma, albaT, imaSi pova Tavis gamoZaxi-
li, rom dResdReobiT, (franguli) struqturalizmis zeobis ocdaaT
wlisTavze, eWvqveS aris dayenebuli struqturaluri lingvistikis,
rogorc modelis, sxva humanitaruli mecnierebebisaTvis 20 vargisiano-

16
ra Tqma unda, es saerTo dasaxeleba amkvidrebs iseT erTeuls, romelic istoriulad
unda iqnas diferencirebuli. aqve da SemdgomSic Cven SevexebiT mxolod frangul
struqturalizms. sosiuris sikvdilisSemdgomi mamamTavrobis gansakuTrebulobas war-
moadgens is, rom Tavad mas dasaxeleba struqturalizmi arasodes gamouyenebia. ufro
r. iakobsonma SemoiRo es termini, isic mxolod 1929 wels da Semdgomi gavrceleba hpo-
va praRis lingvisturi wris (Cercle linguistique de Prague) meSveobiT. aqve sisrulisaTvis
Seadr. e. holenStaini: roman iakobsonis fenomenologiuri struqturalizmi, mainis
frankfurti, 1975, gansakuTrebiT ki gv. 22ff., "struqturalisturi mimdinareobebi XX
saukunis dasawyisisaTvis"; safrangeTSi arsebuli mdgomareobisaTvis: milneri 1994, gv.
3ff., aseve F.Dosse, Histoire du structuralisme, I. Le chant du cygne, 1945-1966; II. Le chant du cygne, 1967; à
nos jours, parizi 1991 da 1992 ww. sagulisxmo faqtia, rom dose am saTauriT mimoixilavs
mxolod franguli struqturalizmis istorias. [danarTSi, erT-erT Tematurad dajgu-
febul mokle bibliografiaSi gv. 571ff. mocemulia struqturalizmis istoriasa da Teo-
riasTan dakavSirebuli sxva literaturis monacemebi.]
17
ase magaliTad, g.c. lefSi (G.C. Lepschy) Tavis statiaSi "Sigmantica e linearità" wers: imis
miuxedavad, rom sosiuris zogi idea naklebad damakmayofilebeli SeiZleba iyos, zed-
metia imaze fiqris gavlebac ki, rom SesaZlebelia sosiuramdel mdgomareobaSi dabru-
neba. amasTan dakavSirebiT kopernikiseul revoluciaze laparaki sxva araferia, Tu ara
gacveTili WeSmaritebis tkepna" (cf. Studi e saggilinguistici V, piza, 1965, gv. 21).
18
Guller 1976, gv. 21).
19
levi-strosis programul statiaSi "struqturuli analizi enaTmecnierebasa da anT-
ropologiaSi" Semdegi ram weria: "enaTmecnierebas socialur mecnierebaTa saerTo kon-
teqstSi, romelTa ricxvsac igi ueWvelad miekuTvneba, ukavia gansakuTrebuli adgili:
igi sxvaTa msgavsi socialuri mecniereba ki ar aris, aramed iseTi ramea, romelsac
maTze bevrad meti warmateba aqvs mopovebuli; igi, ueWvelad, erTaderTia, romelic sa-
erTod imsaxurebs, rom erqva "mecniereba" da romelmac moaxerxa erTdroulad poziti-
uri meTodis Camoyalibebac da mis analizs daqvemdebarebuli faqtebis cnobac. amgvar
upirates mdgomareobas TavisTavad axlavs xolme garkveuli valdebulebebi: enaTmecni-
eri xSirad xdeba xolme mowme imisa, Tu rogor cdiloben misi momijnave, Tumca erT-
maneTisagan gansxvavebuli dargebis mkvlevarebi misgan magaliTis aRebas da mis kval-
dakval siaruls" (pirvelad gamovida in: Word. Journal of the Linguistic Circle of New York, 1945; aq
citirebulia Semdegi wignis mixedviT: Lévi-Strauss: Strukturale Anthropologie I, Frankfurt am Mein
1967, gv. 43).
20
farToa im literaturis moculoba, romelic dakavebulia franguli struqturaliz-
mis kritikuli gadamuSavebiT. Cven aq imiT davkmayofildebiT, rom mivuTiTebT mxolod
ramdenime naSromze, romlebSic gamaxvilebulia yuradReba sosiuriseuli lingvistikis
did rolze, kerZod: V. Descombes: Grammaire d`objets en tous genres, parizi 1983; Th. Pavel: Le mira-
ge linguistice, parizi 1988; M. Cauchet: "Changement de paradigmaen scienes sociales?" da "discours, struc-
ture", in: Le débat 50 1988, gv.165-170 an gv. 178-181. Semdegi monacemebi ix. danarTSi gv. 517f.).

15
ba; rom nacvlad ligvisturi gadatrialebisa (linguistic turn), laparakia
"lingvistur miraJsa" Tu "lingvistur inflaciaze". 21 amasTan dakavSi-
rebiT yuradRebis miRma ar unda dagvrCes is faqti, rom lingvistTa
mxridan (magaliTisTvis davasaxelebdiT monins) samociani wlebis mi-
wurulisaTvis ukve gamoiTqmeboda mZafri kritika lingvisturi cnebe-
bis sxva humanitarul mecnierebaSi gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg. 22 dReisaT-
vis, garkveulwilad, ufro saRad fasdeba TviT sosiuris mniSvnelo-
bac lingvistikisaTvis. 23 uecrad im kritikul xmebsac miugdes yuri,
romlebic Cours-is gamoqveynebisTanave gaisma da dRemde moyveba mas. 24
SemdgomSi, albaT, ar unda moxdes imis gansja, Tu ramdenad gamarT-
lebulia am SemTxvevaSi sosiuriT rogorc metismeti aRfrTovaneba,
aseve imedgacrueba. aq arc aris amis adgili da es sulac ar warmo-
adgens Cvens amocanas, sabolood ganvsazRvroT sosiuris mniSvneloba
enaTmecnierebisa Tu humanitaruli mecnierebebisaTvis. rac Seexeba mo-
ninis mier dasmul cota ar iyos polemikur sakiTxs levi-strosis,
lakanis Tu sxvaTa mier gamoyenebuli lingvisturi, gansakuTrebiT ki
sosiuriseuli terminebis koreqtulobis Sesaxeb 25 , amasobaSi Seiqmna
ramdenime gansxvavebuli, saintereso gamokvleva, romelic am proble-
matikas dawvrilebiT aSuqebs. 26 amitomac aRar wamoiWreba aq damate-
biTi diskusia am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi.
magram arc imis mcdelobas eqneba adgili, rom struqturalist sosi-
urs, romelic amJamad arsebuli wyaroebis mixedviT nawilobriv Cours-
is aRqmis produqti da damatebiTi koncepti aRmoCnda, davupirispi-
roT meore, cota ar iyos hermenevtikosi sosiuri, rogorc Seecadnen

21 Seadr. Pavel 1988; an: G. Hottois: L'inflation du langage dans la philosophie contemporaine, briuseli 1979.
22
G.Mounin:"Lévi-Strauss et la linguistique", in: ders., Introduction à la semiologie, parizi 1970, gv. 199-214;
an: "Quelqes remarques sur le style de Jacques Lacan", iqve, gv. 181-188.
23
ix.: L.-J. Calvet: Pour et contre Saussure. Vers une linguistique sociale, parizi 1975; da: "Lire Saussure
aujiord'hui"=Postface zu CLG/D, gv. 507-513; an: J> E. Schmidt: "sosiuris originaluroba –
legenda. axali gramatikis gavlena struqturalizmis warmoSobaze", in: FAZ, 2. 11. 1988, Nr.
256, gv. 3. – is, rom cognitive science-is programasa da ideologiaze orientirebul
lingvistebs sosiuris gageba uZneldebaT da Tundac is, rom amerikel lingvistTa uax-
les gamokvlevebSi, Comskis Tanaxmad, aqa-iq jer kidev SeiZleba Segvxvdes miTiTeba so-
siurze, sulac ar moaswavebs imas, rom mis Teorias siRrmiseulad da kritikulad aana-
lizeben; es ise, sxvaTa Soris.
24
ix. mag.: Hugo Suchardt-Brevier. Ein Vademecum der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft, zogadi enaT-
mecnierebis gzamkvlevi, Seadgina da Sesavali werili daurTo l. Spicerma, hale 1928,
gv. 329-331 da gv. 411f., aseve manCaki Manczak 1969; Cours-is aRqmis istoriis mokle mimoxil-
va ix. De Mauro, "Notes biographiques et critiques sur F. de Saussure"; ix. gansakuTr.: GLG/D. gv. 366ff.
25
lakanTan dakavSirebiT monini wers: "yvelaze Wkuissaswavlebeli magaliTi, albaT, is
terminologiuri wiTuraa, romelic drodadro Seeyreba xolme am esoden originalur
suls. Tundac lakani iyos erT-erTi bolo, visac es infeqcia gadaedo, miT ufro mZimea
misi mdgomareoba. mis magaliTze [...] SesaZlebelia nabij-nabij dakvirveba, Tu rogor
iqca es (franguli kulturisaTvis sruliad organuli) lingvisturi umecreba klasi-
kur mglur madad, dagvianebiT mosulisTvis rom aris damaxasiaTebeli" (cf. Mounin 1970,
gv.188).
26 saxeldobr, raTa dasaxelebul iqnas maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovani ori naSromi: R.

Gasché: "Das wilde Denken und die Ökonomieder Repräsentation. Zum Verhältniss von Ferdinand de Saussure
und Claude Lévi-Strauss" ("reprezentaciis impulsuri azrovneba da ekonomia. ferdinand de
sosiursa da klod levi-strosTan mimarTebiT"), in: W. Lepenies und H.H. Ritter (gamomcemle-
bi): Orte des wilden Denkens, zur Anthropologie von Claude Lévi-Strauss impulsuri azrovnebis ad-
gilebi, klod levi-strosis anTropologiisaTvis, mainis frankfurti, 1970, gv. 306-384.
Ph. Lacoue-Labarthe/J.-L. Nancy: Le titre de la lettre (une lecture de Lacan), parizi 1973. dawvrilebiTi
monacemebi ix. danarTSi, gv.574.

16
amas sul cota xnis winaT l. iegeri da sxv. 27 yvelaze ufro, rac gva-
interesebs misi memkvidreobaSi arsebuli teqstebisa da dokumentebis
am komentarSi, albaT, aris sakiTxi, Tu saidan modis is daJinebuli
daeWveba, ris gamoc sosiuri uars ambobda Tavisi enaTmecnieruli Te-
oriebis gamoqveynebaze. nuTu saqme exeba mxolod sosiuris pirovnul
Taviseburebas, romelsac safuZvlad udevs mxolod biografiuli
garemoebebi? an iqneb mizezi ufro Rrmaa, Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT
ufro safuZvliania, Sinaarsobrivia, rac esoden damaxasiaTebelia mi-
si azrovnebisa Tu muSaobis stilisaTvis?
mis memkvidreobaSi Cveni eqskursis dros SevecdebiT ufro Rrmad gan-
vixiloT is sakiTxi, xom ar unda aRviqvaT sosiuris daeWveba im si-
dided, romelic arsobrivad enis bunebis miseul gagebas da masTan
dakavSirebul enaTmecnierul problemebs ukavSirdeba; an iqneb es yve-
laferi ara misi sisustis gamoxatulebaa, romelic unda gamoswor-
des, aramed misi azrovnebis siZliere da kiTxvis dasmis is radika-
luroba, mas rom agrerigad gamoarCevs. Tuki dadasturdeboda saqmis
aseTi garemoebani, maSin metismetad saeWvo gamartivebad CaiTvleboda
eWvis gafantva im mizniT, rom sosiuris Teoria warmosaxuliyo das-
rulebuli sistemis saxiT. ucbad sul sxva SuqSi gamoCnda rogorc
aRfrTovanebulTa, aseve imedgacruebulTa mosazrebani: kerZod, ro-
gorc reqcia swored am gamartivebaze, rogorc erTgvari pozitiuri,
Sesabamisad negatiuri eqo gafantul eWvze.
maSasadame, Cveni mizani ar gaxlavT sosiuriseuli, anu Cours-Si Semu-
Savebuli sinTezis avtoriseuli, lingvistikis ubralod ganmeorebi-
Ti, memkvidreobiT miRebuli Canawerebis gavrcobili, sistematuri
gadmocema 28 . ufro, albaT, SevecdebiT Cours-Si dasrulebuli swavle-
bis saxiT warmodgenili sistemidan im elementebis warmoCenas, rom-
lebic ewinaaRmdegebian am sistemis Caketilobas da gzas uxsnian fu-
Zemdebluri sakiTxebis dayenebas enasTan yoveli ukuqceviTi dapiris-
pirebis dros. amave dros Cven ara marto e.w. Cours-is wyaros masa-
lebs 29 daveyrdnobiT, aramed Tanmimdevrulad SemoviyvanT sosiuris
im teqstebsac, romlebic ar xvdebian mis mier zogadi enaTmecnierebis

27 Seadr.: L. Jäger: Zu einer historischen Rekonstruktion der authentischen Sprach-Idee F. de Saussures,


inaguracia-disertacia, diuseldorfi 1975, agreTve am TemasTan dakavSirebuli sxva, uf-
ro axali Sromebi.
ra Tqma unda, savsebiT SesaZlebelia eWvqveS dadges is debuleba, rom sosiuri aris
struqturalizmis mamamTavari. magram aseve mizanSeuwonlad migvaCnia is midgomac, rom
sosiuris "avTenturi enis ideis (authentische Sprach-Idee, Jäger)" (iegeri) gamo, ubralod, erT
etikets SevcvliT meoreTi da sosiurs sruqturalizmis mamamTavris nacvlad, hermenev-
tikis naTliad, an sulac naTlulad SevracxavT. es mcdelobebi imitomac iwveven Cvens
undoblobas, rom eyrdnobian mxolod da mxolod Cours-is masalebs da Tanmimdev-
rulad ugulvebelyofen sosiuris im naSromebs, romlebic ukanasknel xanebSi gaxda
xelmisawvdomi.
28 Seadr. r. amakeris gadmocema: Linguistique saussurienne, Jeneva 1975.
29 es dasaxeleba modis r. godelisa da misi friad sayuradRebo mTavari wignidan, Les

sources manuscrites du Cours de linguistique générale de F de Saussure, Jeneva 1957, 1969²è [SemdgomSi
citireba moxdeba SM/G], romelmac ormocdaaTiani wlebis Sua xanebSi sosiuris
memkvidreobidan teqstebisa da dokumentebis gamoqveyneba iTava. godelma moawesriga da
katalogSi moaqcia sosiuris memkvidreoba, Tumca mis saxelsve ukavSirdeba, agreTve,
mravali TvalsazrisiT problemuri mcdeloba: sosiuris memkvidreobidan mxolod imis
gaTvaliswineba, rac Cours-is retrospeqtuli gadasaxedidan faseuli gamoCndeboda, Se-
sabamisad ki yvelaferi imis ugulvebelyofa, rac ar Seesabameboda Cours-s, sosiuris
azrovnebis am implicitur saboloo mizans.

17
Sesaxeb wakiTxuli sami leqciis uSualo velSi, _ an ufro frTxi-
lad da zustad Tu vityviT, romlebic aqamde ar yofilan ganxilul-
ni am velSi: germanuli legendebisadmi 30 miZRvnili Canawerebi, Jeneve-
li fsiqologis Teodor flurnuas 31 publikaciebisadmi miZRvnili mi-
si statiebi da misi anagramuli swavlebani 32 . amiT, ra Tqma unda, eWv-
qveS ar unda dadges sosiuris lingvistikis Rirebuleba. magram im
dros, roca Cven am fragmentul Canawerebsa Tu sxva, agreTve Seuq-
mneli wignebis monaxazebs, romelTa wignad gaformeba droSi nawi-
lobriv emTxveva mis sam saxelganTqmul leqcias, _ vakavSirebT sosi-
uriseul viwro da mkacri gaebiT lingvistur swavlebebTan, aucile-
belia yvelasaTvis cxadi da TvalsaCino gaxdes sosiuris azrovnebis
dinamika, misi teqstebis mniSvnelovneba; igi xom am teqstebSi exeba
iseT problemebs, romlebic cdebian lingvistikis CarCoebs; maT
gaaCniaT enis filosofiiseuli da SemecnebiT-Teoriuli mniSvneloba
da maTi gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia nebismieri humanitaruli kvle-
vis Sesrulebis dros.
imis mcdeloba, rom Cours-is teqstis redaqcias SeveSvaT da mis sxva-
dasxva SeniSvnaze dayrdnobiT sosiuris naazrevs mxolod im kuTxi-
dan mivudgeT, saidanac gamomdinareobda misi eWvi da TavSekavebuloba
sakuTari enaTmecnieruli swavlebisadmi, albaT, gaucxoebamde migviy-
vans. magram sosiuris TiTqmis enobriv detalSic ki sagrZnobi eWvi
mis Canawerebs aniWebs (es gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia Cours-is sistemu-
ri aRqmis kontrastSi) gamorCeul faseulobas, romlis damuSavebac
moxdeba winamdebare sakiTxavSi. amasTanave, rogorc zemoT iTqva, Sem-
dgomSi namdvilad Rirs Cours-is gamomcemelTa misamarTiT ufro yu-
radRebiT yofna, romelTa mier redaqtirebuli teqstebidan sosiuri-
seuli eWvis amokiTxva mxolod aqa-iq, sasxvaTaSorisod, striqonebSua
TuRa SeiZleba.

II. "ostatis sikvdilis Semdeg"


gamomcemelTa moqmedebis wesi

Cours-is SesavalSi bali da seSe dawvrilebiT aRweren im problemebs,


romlebic wamoiWra maT winaSe am wignis gamocemis dros:
visac ki wilad xvdomia amgvari Sinaarsiani leqciebis mosmena, aucileblad
sinanuls gamoTqvamda xolme, rom maTi wignad gamocema ver moxerxda. maest-
ros gardacvalebis Semdeg Cven vimedovnebdiT, rom mis xelnawerebSi [...] vipo-
vidiT am uaRresad mniSvnelovani leqciebis gadamuSavebul, an ukidures
SemTxvevaSi iseT eskizur variants mainc, romlis safuZvelze da studentTa
konspeqtebis daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda misi gamoqveyneba. magram
didi imedgacrueba gveloda: ar aRmoCnda araferi, an TiTqmis araferi msgavsi
mis msmenelTa Canawerebisa. f. de sosiurs wesad hqonda mxolod wasakiTxi
leqciis monaxazis keTeba, romelsac mere anadgurebda xolme. misi saweri ma-

30 dReisaTvis maTi yvelaze sruli saxiT mopoveba SesaZlebelia a. marinetisa da m.

melis mier momzadebul italiur gamocemaSi (sosiuri: Le leggende germaniche, Este 1986
[SemdgomSi citireba moxdeba: LEG], agreTe mis momdevno, cal-calke gamoqveynebul Cana-
werebsa da dokumentebSi. (Seadr. Texste, gv.417-436, Sesabamisad danarTSi, gv.573)
31
ufro dawvrilebiT ix.: Zeichen, gv. 213ff.
32 ix.: Umrisse, gv. 213ff (Texste, gv. 436-477, Sesabamisad CanarTi, gv. 573).

18
gidis ujrebma gamogvimzeura mxolod Zveli monaxazebi, romelTac umniSvne-
los ver uwodeb, magram ase ubralod ver gamoiyeneb da leqciebis Tematikas
ver daukavSireb 33 .
ra gamosavali arsebobda am rTuli mdgomareobidan? bali da seSe
asaxeleben sxvadasxva SesaZleblobas, romelTa awon-dawonisa da
uaryofis Semdeg midian SedarebiT >gabedul<, magram amave dros
racionalur >gadawyvetilebamde<:
Tuki Cven mxolod romelime erT-erTi leqciiT SemovifarglebodiT _ ise,
mainc romeli unda amogverCia? _ maSin wigns movaklebdiT im uamrav faseu-
lobas, rasac uxvad Seicavda danarCeni ori leqcia. TviT mesame saleqcio
ciklic ki, romelic yvelaze axlos idga saboloo redaqciasTan, ver iZleo-
da srulyofil warmodgenas f. de sosiuris Teoriebisa da meTodebis Sesaxeb.
iyo SemoTavazeba, rom gansakuTrebulad saxasiaTo monakveTebi ucvlelad
dagvetovebina; es azri Tavidan Zalian macduneblad gveCvena, magram male aR-
moCnda, rom amiT zarali miadgeboda Cveni maestros swavlebas, radgan sams-
javroze gamovidoda mxolod misi azrobrivi nagebobis mxolod fragmentebi,
arada maTi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis aRqma xom mxolod mTlianobaSia
SesaZlebeli.
Cven mivediT erT gadawyvetilebamde, romelic SeiZleba SedarebiT gabeduli
Candes, magram samagierod, Cveni azriT, ufro racionaluria: kerZod, Cven miz-
nad davisaxeT aRdgena da sinTezi, rasac safuZvlad daedeboda mesame leqcia
da Cvens xelT arsebuli yvela masala, TviT sosiuris piradi Canawerebic ki.
anu saqme exeboda raime nimuSis mixedviT rames Seqmnas, rac imiT iyo garTu-
lebuli, rom srul obieqturobas moiTxovda. saWiro iyo yovel calkeul mo-
sazrebas ZirisZirobamde Cahyolodi da misi saboloo formis aRqma unda mom-
xdariyo mTliani sistemis TvalTaxedvidan; agreTve unda momxdariyo misi ga-
Tavisufleba im cvalebadobasa da meryeobebisagan, rac Tavs iCens xolme ze-
piri moxsenebis dros; Semdeg unda momxdariyo yoveli mosazrebis moTavseba
misTvis bunebriv garemoSi da misi yoveli nawilis imgvari wesiT mowodeba,
romelic Seesabameboda avtoris survils da es im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac
avtoris survili ufro varaudis da ara zusti codnis doneze ganisazRvreboda. 34
am mosazrebaTa tonaloba gasagebia: balis da seSesTvis mTavari iyo
gamoemuSavebinaT iseTi >saboloo varianti<, romelic Seqmnida >sabo-
loo STabeWdilebas< sosiuris Teoriis Sesaxeb. maT mizans warmoad-
gens swavlebis iseTi >sinTezi<, romelic >sruliad obieqturi< unda
yofiliyo. rac maT warmoedginaT, es iyo >mTliani sistema Tavis sa-
boloo formiT<, iseTi >wesrigi<, romelic Seesabameboda avtoris
survils, Tan maSinac ki, roca >es survili ufro nagulisxmevi iyo,
vidre naTlad garkveuli<.
r. godeli, vinc ormocdaaTian wlebSi pirvelma mohkida xeli Cours-is
teqstis da misi wyaroebis dadgenas, eTanxmeba gamomcemelTa
gadawyvetilebas:
es mizezebi, udavod, dasabuTebulia da studentTa rveulebisa Tu sosiuris
piradi Canawerebis Rrma Seswavlam damarwmuna imaSi, rom gamomcemelTa mier
maSin arcTu uyoymanod da sindisis qenjnis gareSe miRebuli gadawyvetileba
iyo yvelaze metad gabeduli, risi miRebac ki maT SeeZloT. 35

33 Sesavali 1916, in: GRF, gv. VIIf.; CLG/D, gv. 7f.


34 Sesavali 1916, in: GRF, gv. IX.; CLG/D, gv. 9.
35
Gf.SM/G, gv.9.

19
rogorc Cans, r. engleric uerTdeba balis da seSes naSromis sayo-
velTao pozitiur Sefasebas, roca Cours-is Tavisi gamocemis winasity-
vaobas Semdegi sityvebiT xsnis: "es kritikuli gamocema aris wignis
Cours de linguistique générale da misi wyaroebis sinTezi da ara antiTeza." 36
ueWvelad sworia, rom Cours-is ukve moxseniebuli araordinaruli gav-
rceleba da zemoqmedeba balisa da seSes swored am arCevanis damsa-
xurebaa. Tuki sosiurs SeiZleba ewodos Tanamedrove lingvistikis
"damfuZnebeli", an "mamamTavari", es misi publikaciebis 37 Tu leqciebis
an, Tundac, piradi Canawerebis damsaxureba ki ar aris, aramed pirvel
rigSi balisa da seSes mier gamoqveynebuli Cours-isa. Cours-is gareSe
dRes indogermanistikis sferoSi momuSaveTa garda, Znelad Tu vinme
dainteresdeboda sosiuris naRvawiT. amiT aris gamarTlebuli is di-
di filologiuri, istoriuli Tu Teoriuli yuradReba, riTac Cours-i
sargeblobs. 38
magram amasTan erTad unda aRiniSnos, rom balisa da seSes im qmede-
bas, rac gamoixateba sosiurTan dapirispirebaSi, aucileblad Tan ax-
lavs iseTi sirTuleebi, romelTa verSefasebac, albaT, ar Rirs; sir-
Tuleebi, romelTa amokiTxvac SesaZlebelia balisa da seSes dasaw-
yisSi ukve citirebuli Sesavlis striqonebSua. 39
SemoTavazebas >calkeuli monakveTebis ucvleli saxiT gadmotanis
Sesaxeb<, gamomcemlebi im sababiT ar exmaurebian, rom >es usamarT-
loba iqneboda Cveni maestros swavlebis mimarT, Tuki mkiTxvels misi
naazrevis mTliani nagebobidan mxolod namsxvrevebi miewodeboda<. ma-
Ti azriT, teqsti unda gaTavisufldes >ryevisa< da >mimoqcevisgan<.
radgan isini momdinareoben >zepiri moxsenebis< gansakuTrebuli for-
misgan. Tumca bali da seSe imazec miuTiTeben, rom "swored f. de so-
siuri [iyo] is kaci, romelic mudmivad icvleboda" 40 :
misi Sexedulebebi yovelTvis kalapotSi iyo moqceuli, romlis gareSec is
winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda sakuTar TavTan. 41

36
Gf. R.Engler: "Préface", in: Saussure: Cours de linguistique générale, edition critique par Rudolf Engler,
Wiesbaden 1967ff. [SemdegSi citireba moxdeba: GLG/F] gv.IX
37 dawvrilebiT amis Sesaxeb. ix.: Umrisse, gv. 201ff.
38
Seadr.: R. Harris: Reading Saussure. A critical commentary on the Cours de linguistique générale, La
Salle/Illinois 1887.
39 ase, magaliTad, l.iegeri wers Tavis wignSi: "Der sausuresche Begriff des Aposéme als

grundlagenbegriff einer hermeneutischen Semiologie" (aposemis, rogorc hermenivtikuli semiolo-


giis sabaziso ideis sosiuriseuli gageba): "is, rom bali da seSe am Canawerebs
icnobdnen – amas mowmobs furclebis mindvrebze maTi xeliT gakeTebuli minawerebi –
da amis miuxedavad Cours-is gamocemisas mainc ar gaiTvaliswines, amis mizezi, Cemi az-
riT, ufro sxva rameSi imaleba da ara imaSi, rasac engleri varaudobs; gamomcemlebma
sosiuris Teoriis fragmentebi metismetad swrafad Seamowmes da maTSi ver aRmoaCines
zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili leqciebisaTvis mosamzadebeli samuSaos kvali.
am, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, gamoZevebis mniSvnelovneba saTanadod ar aris Sefasebuli, Tu-
ki godelTan erTad vivaraudebT, rom gamomcemlebma am Canawerebs Notes inédites imitomac
ar miaqcies yuradReba, radgan >ganixiblnen imiT, rom saqme SeeqmnaT iseT fragmenteb-
Tan, romlebic moklebulni iyvnen yovelgvar qronologiur klasifikacias<" (in: Zeichen
und Verstehen. Akten. des Aachener Saussure-Kolloquiums (niSani da gageba. sosiurisadmi miZRvnili
aahenis koloqviumis aqtebi) 1983, gamomcemlelebi: l. iegeri dak. Steteri, aaheni 1986, gv.
8f.); Seadr.: f. gadetis enamoswrebul Sesavals Saussure. Une science de la langue, parizi 1987,
gansakuTrebiT ki gv. 16-28 Tavi "Comment le >CLG< est fait". winasityvaoba 1916, in: GRF, gv.IX;
CLG/D, gv.9.
40
Sesavali 1916, in: GRF, gv.IX; CLG/D, gv.9.
41 iqve.

20
sosiuris azrovnebis stilisa da gadmocemis unaris am daxasiaTebas
sruliad eTanxmeba a. meies aRwerac, romelic man sosiurTan dakavSi-
rebiT Tavis gamoxmaurebaSi mogvca:
misi poeturi azrovneba [>pensée de poète<] xSirad aniWebda xolme leqcias iseT
xatovan formas, romlis daviwyebac SeuZlebeli iyo. mis mier mowodebuli
erTi detalis miRma SeiZleboda gevarauda sayovelTao ideebisa da STabeW-
dilebaTa mTeli samyaro; sxvaTa Soris, iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneboda, rom
is arasdros modioda leqciaze mza WeSmaritebiT; igi guldasmiT amzadebda
yvelafers, risi Tqmac undoda, magram Tavis ideebs saboloo formas aZlevda
mxolod maSin, roca laparakobda; da Tavis formulirebebsac im momentSi na-
xulobda, roca ayalibebda; msmenelic mijaWvuli iyo am formaTa cvliT mim-
dinare azrovnebaze, romelic mis Tvalwin iqmneboda da romelic TviT im
momentSic ki, roca yvelaze ufro zusti da saintereso saxiT gamoixateboda,
kidev ufro zusti da ufro saintereso formulirebis molodins aRZravda. 42
amitomac gasakviri ar aris, rom imaTi mxridan, vinc JenevaSi pira-
dad moismina zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili sosiuris leqci-
ebi, garkveuli sapirispiro mosazrebani wamoayenes Cours-is teqstTan
dakavSirebiT:
gana leqciis cocxali Canawerebis gamoqveynebas, Tundac ramdenime gameorebis
fasad, ar eqneboda is upiratesoba, rasac ferdinand de sosiuris azrovnebis
mTeli siZlieriTa da originalobiT Cveneba hqvia? an gana gansakuTrebulad
saintereso ar iqneboda TviT is ryevebi da Zvrebi [>variaciebi<], romelTa
Cvenebasac gamomcemlebi aSkarad SeuSindnen? 43
maSasadame, problemaTa pirveli wre Semdegi saxiT gamoikveTa: ra da-
mokidebulebaSia es sosiuris >mudam kalapotSi moqceuli< azrovne-
bisaTvis, albaT, mainc damaxasiaTebel im >ryevebsa< da >mimoqceveb-
Tan<, romlebic Cours-is gamomcemlebma im ganzraxviT, rom gadmoecaT
>mTeli sistema Tavisi saboloo formiT>, rogorc xelisSemSleli
ram, saerTod amoiRes teqstidan? iqneb saqme, ubralod, exeba sosiu-
ris iseT zedapirul, stilistur Taviseburebas, romelic nebazea miS-
vebuli? an iqneb es >ryevebi< da >mimoqcevebi< Sinaarsobrivadac mi-
ekuTvnebian imas, rac sosiurs >zogadad enasTan< dakavSirebiT aqvs
saTqmeli? 44

42
Cf. A. Meilet: "Notice", in: Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), Jeneva 1915 (SemdegSi citireba
moxdeba: F.d.S], gv. 77.
43
G. gv.95. Cven >variaciebs< vTargmniT >ryevebad da mimoqcevebad< h. lomelis mixedviT,
romelic aris Cours-is mTargmneli; Seadr.: gv. GRF, gv. IX. rogorc amasobaSi gamoqveyne-
buli balisa da meies mimoweridan irkveva, Tavidan regars hqonda proeqti, leqciebis
sakuTari Canawerebis meSveobiT Seeqmna sosiuris swavlebis gamoxatuleba. magram, ro-
gorc Cans, es proeqti CaifuSa balis cxare winaaRmdegobis gamo, miuxedavad imisa, rom
Tavidan meie mxars uWerda mas (Seadr. amakeri da buke 1990, gv.102 da Semdg.). Cours-is re-
daqciiT ukmayofilebis gamoxatvas regari mogvianebiT Seecada, kerZod ki ukve nax-
senebi, 1919 wels gamosuli wignis SesavalSi da scada imis moxazva, ramac esoden mo-
xibla misi saTayvanebeli maswavleblis leqciis dros (Seadr. regari 1919, gv. 3-12, an
teqstebi, gv. 527 Semd).
44 am saCoTiro sakiTxs godeli Semdegnairad miudga: "albaT, gamomcemlebs ar SeeZloT

sxvagvarad moqceva; sxva SemTxvevaSi, mouwevdaT, saerTod uari eTqvaT am wignis (Cours
de linguistique générale) gamocemaze. magram aravin miayenebs arc maT da arc sosiuris xsov-
nas Seuracxyofas, Tuki Seecdeba gadmosces maestros naazrevi ara >saboloo formiT<,
aramed SesaZleblobis farglebSi warmoaCens misi formirebis, meryeobis da eWvebis
process; es miT ufro, Tuki amiT naCvenebi iqneba, rom is garkveuli sirTuleebi, razec
kritikosebi ormoci welia miuTiTeben, ar gamoparvia arc mis maxvil mzeras" (cf. SM/G, gv.131)

21
am kiTxvebze pirvel da uaRresad saintereso miniSnebebs iZleva so-
siuris dRemde SemorCenili is mciredi gamonaTqvamebi, romlebSic igi
Tavad afasebs zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil sakuTar leqciebs.
erTi saubris ridlingeriseul CanawerSi, romelic mas 1909 wlis ian-
vars, meore leqciis periodSi, sosiurTan hqonda, sxvaTa Soris, aseTi
mosazrebac gamoikveTa:
is Sesavali, romelic batonma sosiurma zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil
leqciaSi mogvca, sxva araferia, Tu ara maslaaTi. amas rom leqcia mohyolo-
da, maSin sul sxvanairi iqneboda. batoni sosiuri wels Seexeba indoevropul
enebs da im problemebs, rac am sakiTxis kvlevas mohyveba. es iqneba enaTmec-
nierebisadmi miZRvnili filosofiuri leqciis mosamzadebeli etapi. batoni
sosiuri kategoriulad uars ambobs ori wlis manZilze am saqmeze xelis
mokidebaze. mgoni, mowafeebzea damokidebuli misi dayolieba. rac Seexeba am
TemasTan dakavSirebul wigns, amaze fiqric ar Rirs: rogorc batoni sosiuri
ambobs, am wignma unda gadmosces misi avtoris saboloo naazrevi. 45
erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba yvelaferi is, rasac aq sosiuri ambobs, gamo-
mcemelTa ganzraxvis dadasturebad CaiTvalos. magram es, rogorc
Cans, aranakleb gapirobebuli iyo misi naazrevis >saboloo< formiT,
an rogorc ramdenime striqoniT zeviT aris aRniSnuli, >daxuruli
sistemis< xedviT:
Temas arTulebs is, rom, geometriuli Teoremis msgavsad, masac SeiZleba mi-
udge sxvadasxva kuTxidan: yvelaferi erTmaneTs mosdevs statikur enaTmecni-
erebaSi: razec ar unda laparakobde, iqneba es erTeulebi, gansxvavebebi, opo-
ziciebi Tu sxv., bolos mainc iqamde mixval. ena aris daxuruli sistema da
Teoriac iseTive daxuruli sistema unda iyos, rogoricaa ena. aq iqmneba swo-
red sirTule. radgan verafers mouxerxeb gansxvavebul mtkicebulebebs, erTi
meores rom mosdevs da enis kvlevis meTods rom Seexeba; yvelafris koordi-
nireba unda xdebodes erT mTlian sistemaSi. 46
maSasadame, misi Teoriuli mcdelobis gamocxadebuli mizania >daxu-
ruli sistema<. Tumca arc imis ugulvebelyofa SeiZleba, rom am mi-
zans sosiuri meore leqciis periodSi bevrad ufro daSorda, vidre
bali da seSea. >rac Seexeba am Temisadmi miZRvnil wigns, amaze fiq-
ric ar Rirs.< sosiurisaTvis yvelaferi, rac ki aqamde leqciad wa-
ukiTxavs, >mxolod laybobaa<. >leqcia rom gagrZelebuliyo, sul
sxvanairi unda yofiliyo<. erTi >filosofiuri leqcia enaTmecniere-
bis Sesaxeb< mainc rCeba gegmaSi. >musie de sosiuri kategoriulad ar
uaryofs imis SesaZleblobas, rom or weliwadSi Seudgeba amis
ganxorcielebas.<
mesame leqciis dasasrulis periods emTxveva erTi saubris Canawerebi,
romelic gaimarTa l. gotiesa da sosiurs Soris. sosiurma am dro-
isaTvis nawilobriv ukve Seasrula Tavisi danapirebi >enaTmecnierebi-
sadmi miZRvnili erTi filosofiuri leqciis< Sesaxeb; igi Tavis leq-
ciebSi exeboda sityvebs Soris: langage, langue(s) da parole arsebul gans-
xvavebebs, ganixilavda enobrivi niSnis bunebas, qmnida semiologiis
proeqtis gegmas; Tumca winandeburad uaRresad ukmayofilo iyo Tavi-
si naazrevis gamoxatvis formiT. misi msmenelic mouTmenlad eloda
misi sistemis dRis sinaTleze gamotanas:

45
Cf. SM/G, gv.30.
46
Cf. SM/G, gv.29, Sriftis gamoyofa damatebulia.

22
_ kvlavac Zalian vewamebi am Cemi leqciiT, zogad enaTmecnierebas rom eZR-
vneba. (me vuTxari, rom xalxs erTi suli aqvs, rom Tundac erTi elements ma-
inc gaecnos enis filosofiis miseuli sistemidan.) _ ara mgonia. eg yvelafe-
ri jer sakmarisad ar aris damuSavebeli. (me vekiTxebi, verThaimeris sikvdi-
lamde am TemebiT xom ar iyaviT dainteresebuli-meTqi.) _ piriqiT, ara mgonia,
rom mas mere rame mimematebinos. es is Temebia, romlebic me upirveles yov-
lisa 1900 wlamde mainteresebda. wels bevri vimuSave enis gareSe sakiTxebze,
amaze muSaoba zamTarSi daviwye; magram es ar aris sakmarisi. dilemis winaSe
vdgavar: an unda gavSalo Tema mTeli Tavisi kompleqsurobiT da mTel Cems
eWvebze uari vTqva, rac SeuZlebelia im leqciis farglebSi, rac sagamocdo
masalad unda iqces; an unda gavakeTo rame ufro gamartivebuli, aralingvis-
ti msmenelisaTvis ufro Sesaferisi. magram nebismieri nabijis gadadgmisas
eWvebi mipyrobs. sanam rame gadawyvetilebamde mividode, Tveebis manZilze gan-
sakuTrebuli fiqri damWirdeba. 47
bevri ram iqcevs aq yuradRebas: erTi mxriv, sosiurs aq jer kidev
(anu zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili mesame da, rogorc mere
aRmoCnda, bolo leqciis damTavrebamde cota xniT adre) >sakmarisad
ar hqonia damuSavebuli< Tavisi >enis filosofiis sistema<. meore
mxriv, vigebT, rom sosiuri didi xnis winaT, kerZod ki, bevrad adre,
vidre zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb leqciebis kiTxvas Seudgeboda
>dakavebuli iyo am problemiT< da arc ki hgonia, rom >mas Semdeg,
anu 1900 wlis mere saerTod rame miamata im namuSevars<. Cven vigebT,
agreTve, rom arsebobs raRac dilema, romelic dgas sosiuris winaSe:
>gaSalos es Tema mTeli Tavisi kompleqsurobiT<, >ukuagdos yvela
eWvi<, Tu >rame ufro martivi moimoqmedos<, rac >sagamocdo masalad
daideboda< da ufro >misaRebi iqneboda aralingvisti msmenelisaTvis<?
Tuki sosiuriseul Sefasebas mivyvebiT, maSin sul sxva SuqSi gamoCn-
deba zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili misi Jenevuri leqciebi,
romelTac efuZneba Cours-i: sakmaod problemurad gamoiyureba preten-
zia imis Sesaxeb, rom studentTa mier leqciebze gakeTebuli konspeq-
tebis bazaze Camoayalibo sosiuris >mTeli sistema Tavisi saboloo
formiT<. 48 imis eWvic Cndeba, namdvilad iyo Tu ara es leqciebi, rom-
lebic >sagamocdo masalad iyo gansazRvruli,< sosiuris enaTmecni-
eruli mcdelobebis kulminacia?
amasTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia agreTve erTgvari istoriuli ga-
yalbeba, rac SeiniSneba Cours-is gamomcemelTa mxridan, razec yurad-
Rebas gaamaxvila g. rodelma.
TavianT winasityvaobaSi bali da seSe gvarwmuneben, rom sosiurs er-
Ti suli hqonda, rodis ganacxadebda leqciaSi Tavis Sexedulebebs
zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb da rom amaSi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi
xels uSlida gareSe faqtorebi:

47
Cf. SM/G, gv.30
48
beli da seSe, garkveulwilad, acnobierebdnen am problemas: "Cveni mTavari safiqrali
iyo dagvedgina organuli kavSiri da ar gamogvrCenoda rame iseTi, rac xels Seuwyobda
Tavis TavSi Caketili sistemis STabeWdilebis Seqmnas. Tumca swored es iqca, albaT,
gaormagebuli kritikis mizezad. jer imas gvsayvedurobdnen, rom es >mTlianoba< ar
aris sruli. f. de sosiurs arasdros gamouTqvams pretenzia imaze, rom Tavisi peda-
gogiuri moRvaweobiT man srulad moicva, an Tanabar doneze mainc ganixila enaTmec-
nierebis yvela nawili; amisaTvis mas arc materialuri mdgomareoba ar uwyobda xels"
(GRF, gv. X; CLG/D, gv.9f.).

23
sakmaod xSirad mogvismenia sosiurisagan, Tu rogor gamoTqvamda sinanuls
imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom enaTmecnierebam ver SeZlo Tavisi principebis da
meTodebis saTanado ganviTareba. Tavad igi ki, romlis brwyinvale niWmac
enaTmecnierebaSi hpova Tavisi ganviTareba, mTeli sicocxlis manZilze dauRa-
lavad ibrZoda im ZiriTadi kanonebis mosaZebnad, romelic am qaosSi gzas
gaukvlevda. magram mxolod 1906 wels, mas Semdeg, rac universitetSi iozef
verthaimeri Secvala, SeZlo wlebis manZilze momwifebuli mosazrebebis gad-
mocema; man samjer waikiTxa leqciebi zogad enaTmecnierebaSi, kerZod ki 1906-
1907, 1908-1909 da 1910-1911 wlebSi; am dros saswavlo gegmis moTxovnebi aiZu-
lebda, rom am leqciaTagan naxevari daTmoboda indogermanuli enaTmecnierebis
istoriasa da gadmocemas; misi sagani ki amis niadagze mniSvnelovnad Semcirda. 49
sruliad sapirispiros amtkicebs r. godeli:
Tuki winare istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT erTxel kidev wavikiTxavT Cours de
linguistique générale-is winasityvaobis dasawyiss, iseTi STabeWdileba dagvrCeba,
rom metismeti mowafuri gulmodginebis Sedegad balim da seSem maestros
mier ganvlili gzis iseTi aRweriloba Seqmnes, romelic seriozul gadamu-
Savebas saWiroebs: >magram mxolod 1906 wels, [...] SeZlo man wlebis manZilze
momwifebuli mosazrebebis gadmocema.< marTla ase mniSvnelovani iyo sosi-
urisaTvis yovelive es? da marTla ase mouTmenlad eloda, Tu rodis gamo-
uCndeboda amis SesaZlebloba? yovel SemTxvevaSi, namdvilad uzustobasTan
gvaqvs saqme mogvianebiT, rodesac laparakia "saswavlo gegmis moTxovnebze":
marTalia, 1906 wlis 8 dekembers, akademiur Tanamdebobaze damtkicebasTan da-
kavSirebiT sosiurs Caabares leqciebis kursi zogad lingvistikasa da Seda-
rebiT indoevropul enaTmecnierebaSi, magram yovelkvireul oTx saaTs Seda-
rebiT gramatikasa da sanskritSi daemata kidev ori saaTi axali sagnisTvis.
Sesabamisad, masze iyo damokidebuli, "Tavisi sagnis mniSvnelovani nawili"
ganeviTarebina, Tanac yovelgvari Semcirebis gareSe.
sinamdvileSi ki mas ufro is awuxebda, Tu rogori forma gamoenaxa, raTa Ta-
visi ideebi moumzadebeli studentebisaTvis gasagebi gaexada, axali sagani Se-
moeRo Tu erTian sistemaSi CaerTo Tavisi geometriuli idealis Sesabamisad [...].
kidev erTxel gavimeorebT: araviTari zewola ar yofila masze. roca yoveli
ori wlis ganmavlobaSi Tavis leqciebs kiTxulobda zogad enaTmecnierebaSi,
roca enis Teorias ar uTmobda mTel im dros, rac ki gaaCnda, es gamowveuli
iyo im eWvebiT, romelTagan nawili pedagogiuri xasiaTisa iyo, meore nawili
ki _ sruliad piraduli [...]. 50
am Sesworebas godeli amTavrebs sityvebiT:
rac ufro vcdilobT, rom sosiuris saqmianobisa da moRvaweobis meti kvali
aRmovaCinoT, miT ufro metad exveva misi pirovneba idumalebis safarvelSi. 51
SevecadoT da SevajamoT pirveli Sedegebi. enaTmecnierebis, kerZod ki
im droisaTvis gabatonebuli istoriuli enaTmecnierebis meTodebiTa
da principebiT ukmayofilo da >gavrcelebuli terminologiis abso-
luturi umniSvnelovnebiT< gulacruebuli sosiuri 90-iani wlebis
dasawyisidan muSaobs lingvistikis xelaxali dafuZnebis proeqtze,

49 winasityvaoba 1916, in: GRF< gv.VII; CLG/D, gv.7. amasTan dakavSirebiT ix. r. cvancigeris
"iozef verthaimeri. sosiuris erTaderTi winamorbedi samsaxurebrivad", danarTi mair-
hoferze: "asi wlis Semdeg. ferdinard de sosiuris adreuli nawarmoebi da misi aRqma
dRevandeli indogermanistikis Suqze", haidelbergis mecnierebaTa akademiis sxdomis
Canaweri, filosofiur-istoriuli klasi, 1918, 8, gv. 39-43.
50
Cf. SM/G, gv. 34f.
51
Cf. SM/G, gv. 35.

24
eZebs im principebs, romelTa safuZvelze garantirebuli iqneba misi
mecnieruloba.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, TavSi utrialebs Taviseburi >geometriuli sis-
tema<, sistema iseTi Teoremebisa, romlebic erTmaneTTan dakavSirebu-
li arian da romelTa "damtkicebac Rirs". 52 magram mas ar akmayofi-
lebs am mimarTulebiT ganxorcielebuli sakuTari mcdelobebi. ganu-
wyvetliv RrRnis jiuti, mZime eWvebi. amasTan dakavSirebiT r. godeli
wers:
iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom 1894 wlisaTvis enis bunebasa da lingvis-
tikis safuZvlebisadmi damokidebulebam sosiurisaTvis miiRo paTologiuri
[>obsédant<] xasiaTi da TiTqos amisgan gasaTavisufleblad, igi iZulebulia
ukve SemuSavebuli is ideebi, terminebi da definiciebi, romelTa vargisiano-
baSic darwmunebulia, erT wignSi moaqcios. mere ki, rogorc Cans, iseT dask-
vnamde midis, rom es wamowyeba jer ar momwifebula da saerTod daaneba Tavi
amaze fiqrs. 53
mogvianebiT, mas Semdeg, rac verthaimeri Secvala, gareSe faqtorebis
gamo, sosiuri iZulebuli gaxda, kvlav dabruneboda am Temas. Tavis
leqciebSi igi kvlav ubrundeba im mosazrebebs, romlebic erTxans im-
gvarad hqonda akviatebuli, rom safrTxe daemuqra filologiuri sa-
muSaoTi mogvril siamovnebas. 54 magram Tuki sosiuri kvlav imave eWve-
biTaa Sepyrobili da ukmayofiloa sakuTari naRvawiT, samagierod,
misgan mkveTrad gansxvavebulad aris ganwyobili msmenelTa is mcire
raodenoba, romelmac moismina zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili
misi leqciebi da moxibluli darCa misi SinaarsiT. aq namdvilad da-
ubera axalma siom. saubari exeboda axal mecnierebas – semiologias,
romlis meSveobiTac lingvistika, bolos da bolos, ipovida Tavis
kuTvnil adgils mecnierebaTa taZarSi. 55 Semovida axali cnebebi da
gansxvavebebi _ Langage, Langue da Parole, Synchronie da Diachronie, significant
da signifié da sxv., romelTa meSveobiT SesaZlebeli gaxda enebisa da
enaTmecnierebis Seswavlisadmi sruliad axali TvalsazrisiT midgo-
ma. sosiuris studentebi Zalian >cnobismoyvareebi iyvnen< da cdi-
lobdnen meti gaegoT >enis filosofiis miseuli sistemis Sesaxeb<
da Znelad esmodaT misi TavSekavebuloba, yoymani da gaubedaoba. isi-
ni gamudmebiT zewolas axdendnen masze, rom leqciebze naTqvamisaT-
vis wignis forma mieca da gamoeqveynebina, raTa swavleba Camoyalibe-
buli da xelmisawvdomi gamxdariyo. magram yvelaferi sul sxvagvarad
ganviTarda. mesame leqciis Semdeg sosiuri avaddeba da erTi wlis
Semdeg, 1913 wlis 22 Tebervals gardaicvala.
Tuki erTxel Tvals gavadevnebT Cours-is Seqmnis istorias, cxadi gax-
deba, rom balisa da seSesaTvis am saboloobis niSniT aRbeWdili
wignis Seqmnisas sosiuris nebis Sesabamisoba ar yofila upirvelesi
mizani. isini ufro iTvaliswinebdnen imas, razec Tavadve naTlad mi-

52 sosiurTan goties mier Caweril saubarSi vkiTxulobT: "am momentSi zogadi enaTmec-
niereba warmomidgeba geometriuli sistemis saxiT. dadixar iseT Teoremebamde, romel-
Ta damtkicebac Rirs. swored am dros aRmoCndeba, rom me-12 Teorema zustad igivea,
rac 33-e, oRond sxva formiT" (Cf. SM/G, gv. 30).
53
Cf.SM/G, gv.32 f.
54 Sdr.sosiuris 1894 wlis 4 ianvris ukve citirebuli werili meiesadmi, gv 17f, Sesaba-

misad teqstebi, gv.16ff


55 amis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix. qvemoT (niSnebi, gv. 117f.)

25
uTiTeben SesavalSi _ msmenelTa da sosiuris mowafeTa survils misi
swavlebis xelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb.
ar aris saWiro kidev erTxel aRiniSnos, rom maT es brwyinvale for-
miT moaxerxes. maTi wignis zemoqmedebis istoria amaze Tavad metyve-
lebs. magram is, rac am dros ara marto Riad rCeba, aramed saerTod
dafarulic kia, aris kiTxva, Tu ratom ver gadawyvita sosiurma Tavi-
si naazrevis wignad gamocema. rCeba kiTxva, risgan iyo gamowveuli mi-
si TavSekaveba, yoymani, TviT sasowarkveTac ki.
sosiuris memkvidreobaSi arsebuli da aq motanili Canawerebi da do-
kumentebi saSualebas iZleva am sakiTxs CavuRrmavdeT. ufro metic: is
garemoeba, rom teqstTa didi umravlesoba warmoadgens arSemdgari
wignebis da gamokvlevebis monaxazs, gvaiZulebs imazec vifiqroT, Tu
ram gamoiwvia muSaobis uecari Sewyveta. es imasac niSnavs, rom aq da-
ismeba kiTxva agreTve sosiuris biografiuli garemocvisa da aseve
aranakleb mniSvnelovani – mis namuSevarTa samecniero-istoriuli
konteqstis Sesaxeb.

III. "idumalebis saburveli" –


wakiTxvis aucilebloba
kiTxvis sazRvrebi

S. bali sosiurisadmi miZRvnil nekrologSi didi maswavleblisa da


araCveulebrivi adamianis portretis daxatvis kvaldakval, im Temasac
Seexo, Tu ratom iyo ase uaryofiTad ganwyobili sosiuri wignis ga-
mocemis mimarT da ratom ikavebda ase Tavs. aqve aSkarad gaismis wuwu-
nis notebi:
ah! mainc ratom arguna man Tavisi geniis saganZuri mxolod Tavisi mowafeebis
SezRudul wres! arada, mis leqciaTa umetesi nawili Tavisuflad SeiZlebo-
da gamoqveynebuliyo; iseve, rogorc studentTa rveulebSi damarxuli ideebi;
es SiSneulad Semonaxuli, piradul xelnawerebSi dafluli ganZi! eRirseba
ki maT dRis sinaTle? nuTu unda SeveguoT imas, rogor qreba am ganumeorebe-
li sulis uamravi naperwkali?
gamoqveynebisagan Tavis Sekavebas mas aiZulebda TiTqmis religiuri daeWvebu-
loba; misi mecnieruli sindisi ocnebobda absolutze, SemoqmedebiT tempera-
ments mcireodeni uTanxmoebanic ki uforiaqebda, azrovnebis Tvalsawiers ux-
Sobda gamokvlevaTa Tu wignis gaxevebuli forma. Cveni universitetis Cours de
vacances-sTan dakavSirebiT, sosiurma 1897 wels waikiTxa sami leqcia marcval-
Ta Teoriaze; yvelaferi siaxle iyo, rac man ganmarta, magram araferi gamoq-
veynebula; me mas vaCvene sakmaod zusti, saguldagulod Sedgenili stenog-
rama da vTxove, rame eRona; dameTanxma, mere eWvi Semoawva ramdenime detalis
gamo da... leqciebi aRar gamoqveynebula. 56
beli aqve iZleva anekdotTan erTad im ramdenime sakvanZo sityvas, Tu
saidan modis, misi azriT, es >daeWveba<: >mecnieruli sindisi, rome-
lic ocnebobda absolutze<, >SemoqmedebiTi temperamenti, romelsac
mcireodeni uTanxmoebanic ki aforiaqebda<, TavSekaveuloba > gamokv-
levaTa Tu wignis gaxevebuli forma<.

56
Cf. C. beli: 1913 wlis 28 Tebervlis leqcia, in: f.d.s., gv.56.

26
zustad aseve JRers is aRwera, rasac iZleva e. mure sosiuris damoki-
debulebisadmi sakuTari naSromebis gamoqveynebis mimarT:
Znelia, srulad gamoxato sinanuli imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra cota datova
dawerili sosiurma; misi Tayvanismcemelebi da megobrebi ganicdidnen amas da
TviTonac xSirad gamouTqvams sayveduri sakuTari Tavis mimarT. es mudam sa-
muSaod SemarTuli suli ewinaaRmdegeboda Tavisi azrebis saboloo Canaweris
saxiT gaformebas. srulyofilebaze gagiJebuli, sakuTari Tavis mimarT daeW-
vebuli sosiuri arasdros kmayofildeboda miRweuli SedegiT da sul ufro
da ufro amaRlebulisa da Soreulisaken miiswrafvoda. daucxromlad miemar-
Teboda misi areul-dareuli ocnebebi Tu dauokebeli cnobismoyvareoba axal-
axali problemebisaken da miaqanebda mas axal-axali horizontebisaken. amdeni
naSromi, dawyebuli, didi xnis manZilze naloliavebi da daumTavrebeli! 57
sosiuris Tanamedroveebs, mowafeebs da kolegebs bevri aRaraferi
darCenodaT: sinanuliT, magram amave dros mojadoebuli gakvirvebiT
miiRes cnobad "sosiuris dumili" 58 _ mecnieri, romlis genialuri
codniTac isini moxibluli iyvnen, romlis SesaZleblobebSi daeWve-
bis aranairi safuZveli ar arsebobda, imis gadawyvetac ki uWirda,
rom erTi naSromi mainc gamoeqveynebina Tavisi uzarmazari kvlevebis
sferodan, laparaki aRar iyo ufro did, sistematuri xasiaTis Sro-
maze. risgan iyo gamowveuli es dumili? sosiuris TanamedroveTa pa-
suxi TiTqmis erTgvarovania 59 , Tumca yvelafris miuxedavad, umweobis
gancdas badebs: sosiuri iyo >srulyofilebaze gagiJebuli<, >gamoq-
veynebisagan Tavis Sekavebas mas aiZulebda TiTqmis religiuri daeWve-
buloba<. _ JenevaSi 1963 wels, sosiuris gardacvalebidan 50-e wlis-
Tavisadmi miZRvnil e. benvenistis moxsenebaSi es sul sxvanairad gais-
ma da sosiuris dumili sul sxva SuqSi gamoCnda:
idumalebiTaa moculi misi adamianuri cxovreba, sadac igi ase naadrevad Ca-
iZira dumilSi... JenevaSi imisaTvis dabrunebulma, rom universitetSi kaTed-
ras Cadgomoda saTaveSi, TiTqmis mTlianad Sewyvita wera. Tumca muSaoba
arasdros Seuwyvetia. mainc ris gamo ikavebda Tavs maTi gamoqveynebisagan?
Cven TandaTanobiT viwyebT axla amis gagebas. am dumilis miRma imaleba dra-
ma, romelic, albaT, sakmaod mtkivneuli iyo, wlebis manZilze kidev ufro
mZimdeboda, gamosavali ki arsad Canda. es, erTi mxriv, dakavSirebulia pirov-
nul garemoebebTan, romelTa garkveva, albaT, SesaZlebeli iqneboda misi
ojaxis wevrTa da megobarTa ganmartebebis safuZvelze. Tumca es, upirveles
yovlisa, iyo mainc azrovnebis drama. sosiuri Tavis epoqas daSorda imdenad,

57
Cf. e. mure: "ferdinand de sosiuri", Journal de Genéve, 1913 wlis 26 Tebervali, in: f.d.s., gv.46f.
58
"Le silence de Saussure" (sosiuris dumili) aris saTauri leopold goties werilisa,
romelic daibeWda JurnalSi Journal de Genéve, 22/23. 1961 wlis aprili. gv.18.
59
>sosiuris dumilTan< miaxloebis Semdegi mcdeloba iZebneba a. Mmeles f.d.s.-Si
dabeWdil SeniSvnebSi: «memuarebis Semdeg, romelic eWvgareSea, rom Tavis gamocemas ad-
reuli siymawvilis momajadovebel gambedaobas umadlis, sosiurs ukve aRar sjeroda,
rom romelime enobrivi faqtis Teoria ise ganaviTara, rom sazogadoebisaTvis wardge-
nac ki SeeZlo. igi ar miekuTvneboda imaT ricxvs, romlebsac erTi suli aqvT, TavianTi
ideebi iqamde gamoaqveynon, sanam sabolood ar momwifdeba, sanam misgan srulyofil da
Sekrul sistemas ar ganaviTareben da yovelgvar sirTules ar daZleven. imdenad zru-
navda, saboloo saxe mieca namuSevrisaTvis, rom dumils mxolod xandaxan Tu daar-
Rvevda, raTa sakmaod mokle SeniSvnebi gamoeqveynebina _ magaliTad, ubralo sqolioebi
Société de linguistique-isMmémoires-Si. eWvgareSea, rom misi bolo statiebis dabeWdva mra-
valtomeulTan dakavSirebiT aRebul im valdebulebebs ukavSirdeba, romlis nawilob-
riv mainc Sesrulebasac igi cdilobda. is sindisiereba, rom sityvas ar texda da is
gulmodgineba, romliTac igi saerTo saqmeSi erTveboda xolme, gasagebi iyo yvela-
saTvis, vinc ki icoda, Tu ramdenad ar uyvarda mas raimes gamoqveyneba» (Cf. F.d.S., gv.78f.).

27
ramdenadac man Tavisi sakuTari simarTle ipova da am simarTlem aiZula igi
ukuegdo yvelaferi is, rac ki iswavleboda maSin enis Temaze. magram amave
dros igi yoymanobda kidec da uWirda aseTi radikaluri reviziis Catareba,
esoden saWirod rom esaxeboda. ver gadaewyvita, Tundac umciresi SeniSvnis
gamoqveynebac ki manam, sanam ar darwmundeboda Tavisi Teoriis safuZvlianobaSi. 60
benvenisti saubrobs dramaze, kerZod >azrovnebis dramaze<, Tumca mi-
uTiTebs agreTve im piradul garemoebebzec, >romelTa axsnac, albaT,
SesaZlebeli iqneboda misi ojaxis wevrTa da megobarTa ganmartebebis
safuZvelze<. amiT ueWvelad Cndeba kiTxvebi sosiuris biografiasTan
dakavSirebiT.
aSkaraa, rom sosiuris dumilis mizezi mis cxovrebaSia saZiebeli.
magram dRemde gamoqveynebuli biografiuli monacemebi uaRresad
fragmentulia, an Semoifargleba mxolod garegnuli faqtebiT. 61 miu-
xedavad imisa, rom sosiuri Tavisi mniSvnelobiT me-20 saukunis mecni-
erebisaTvis SeiZleba Seedaros froids an Tundac durkems 62 , dRemde
mainc ar arsebobs misi cxovrebis vrceli aRweriloba; da es miuxeda-
vad imisa, rom ukve mravalgzis aRiniSna, Tu ramxela mniSvneloba Se-
iZleba hqondes amas misi Semoqmedebis gasagebad:
arsebobs biografiebi, romlebsac ver an TiTqmis ar gamoiyeneb nawarmoebis
azris ukeT gasagebad. magaliTad, rac Seexeba antuan meles, sosiuris mowa-
fesa da megobars, frang lingvists, romelmac Tavisi Taoba naxevari saukunis
manZilze daipyro, SeiZleba imiTac davkmayofildeT, Tu vityviT, rom is iyo
notariusis Svili, iTvleboda warCinebul studentad, daojaxda, profesori
gaxda, leqciebs kiTxulobda, Sromebs aqveynebda, uamravi sauniversiteto da
samecniero wodeba aqvs miRebuli, romelTac ar eltvoda, magram imsaxurebda.
sosiuris cxovreba ki amisgan gansxvavebiT uaRresad mniSvnelovania, radgan
igi Tavis TavSi atarebs problemas. Tanac iseT problemas, romelic dakavSi-
rebulia misi Semoqmedebis zust gagebasTan; Semoqmedebisa, romlis axsnac
mxolod misi cxovrebis siRrmiseuli gagebis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli; da es
ara istoriuli, sociologiuri Tu pirovnuli motivaciis gamo, aramed Si-
naarsis da formis TvalsazrisiT. 63
moninma es >problema< ufro daaviwrova: “Jenevur periodamde” 64 , roca
sosiuri dabrunda Tavis mSobliur qalaqSi da amis Semdgom profeso-
rul moRvaweobamde:
dReisaTvis yvelaferi... kargad cnobilia sosiuris cxovrebaze, garda erTi
punqtisa: kerZod, misi adreuli ganswavluloba, laipcigisa Tu berlinis
(1876-1878) periodebi 65 , sadac igi urTierTobas amyarebs istoriuli enaTmecni-

60
Cf. E. Benveniste: « Saussure après un demi-siècle » imave Problemes de linguistique générale-dan; I,
parizi 1966, gv. 32 da 37.
61 mokle biografiuli monaxazebi ix.: Mounin 1968, gv. 12ff.; Guller 1976, gv.13 ff., Seerer 1980,

gv. I ff. samwuxarod, p. extlis axlaxans gamosul wignSi «sosiuri Sesavali kursisaT-
vis» (hamburgi 1994) »drois dafa» sakmaod uTavbolod da SecdomiTaa Sedgenili da
amitomac esec sruliad gamouyenebelia, rogorc mTlianad es naCqarevi produqti. dRem-
de yvelaze meti informacia Tavmoyrilia maurosTan, 1967 wlis naSromSi (Seadr. CLG -
D, gv. 319ff., aseve ix. «ferdinand de sosiuris biografiis monacemebi» danarTSi, gv. 533-550).
62
Gullet 1976, gv. 70ff. ara marto dabadebis TariRis gamo (froidi 1856, sosiuri 1857, dur-
kemi 1858) SeiZleboda am siis edmund huserliT (1859) gagrZeleba da srulyofa.
63
Cf. Mounin 1968, gv.12f.
64
Seadr. Mounin 1968, gv.17f.
65
ufro zustad: 1876 wlis Semodgomidan 1880 wlis gazafxulamde swavla laipcigSi,
romelic Sewyvita 1878 wlis ivlisSi ufro xangrZlivi droiT (1879 wlis bolomde)
berlinSi swavlis gamo (Seadr. Seereri 1980, gv. 2 an danarTi, gv. 536f.)

28
erebis maSindel specialistebTan; misi xangrZlivi cxovreba parizSi, misi
moRvaweoba mowveuli leqtoris statusiT Ecole des Hautes Etudes-Si (1880-1891), sa-
dac igi yvela imaT amzadebs, vinc mere frangul komparativistikas miakuTv-
nebs Tavs; dabruneba JenevaSi, sadac 1891-1913 wlebSi kiTxulobs leqciebs uni-
versitetSi. aq aris erTaderTi biografiuli problema: parizSi esoden aqti-
uri da nayofieri sosiuri ratom Caiketa JenevaSi dabrunebis Semdeg Tanda-
TanobiT kvazi-mutizmSi, ratom acxadebs, rom aqvs epistolefobia, Sewyvita
publikaciebi, 1894 wels ki meles gaugzavna inteleqtualuri TvalsazrisiT
sasowarkveTili werili. Tavad mele cdilobs, sosiuris Jenevuri kvlevebis
daumTavreblobis es TiTqmis paTologiuri kompleqsi axsnas nebismieri
mkvlevarisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli srulyofilebisaken ltolviT, romelic ma-
namde ar gamoaqveynebs naSroms, vidre saboloo saxes ar miscems mas. benve-
nisti da de moro ki fiqroben, rom sosiuri sasowarkveTili iyo gaugebrobis
im kedliT, rasac igi ejaxeboda xolme, rogorc ki moindomebda Tavisi sauke-
Teso kolegebisaTvis im revoluciuri ideebis ganmartebas, romlebic mere,
1906-1911 ww-is zogadi enaTmecnierebis kursis manZilze sayovelTaod cnobili
gaxda. Mmas Semdeg, rac es hipoTezebi gamoqveynda wignSi “sosiuri” (zegersis
gamocema, 1968), am striqonebis avtorma Sveicariidan da parizidan miiRo ori
mowmis Cveneba, romelTa meSveobiTac sosiuris qcevis sxva SesaZlebeli axs-
nac ikveTeba. maTze benvenisti jer kidev 1963 wels mianiSnebda da, principSi,
sakamaToc araferia: uiRblo qorwineba, arakeTilganwyobili mecnieruli Tu
sazogadoebrivi garemo, ueWvelad seriozuli, Tumca faruli alkoholizmi,
ris Sesaxebac Jenevelebma araferi uwyodnen... 66
modiT Riad davtovoT is, Tu ramdenad >kargad aris cnobili yvela-
feri sosiuris cxovrebaze, garda erTi punqtisa< da >Jenevur perio-
didan mxolod erTaderTi biografiuli problema arsebobs<. sainte-
resoa ufro is faqti, rom moninis mier boloSi dasaxelebuli orive
punqti, kerZod >uiRblo qorwineba< da >alkoholizmi< TvalSisacem
kontrasts qmnis sosiuris im unaklo portretTan, misma Tanamedro-
veebma rom daxates. 67 magram amave dros isic unda gavacnobieroT, rom
>Sveicariidan da parizidan miRebuli viRac ori mowmis Cveneba< Zne-
lad Tu dagvexmareba rameSi am cnobis bundovanebisa da simciris
gamo. Tuki es varaudi (da sxvas am informacias verc verafers vuwo-
debT) _ sosiuris >seriozuli, Tumca faruli alkoholizmi< marT-
lac dadasturda, es mniSvnelovnad gaamdidrebs Cvens codnas misi pi-
rovnebisa da samuSao garemoebebis Sesaxeb. Tumca amiT Znelad Tu mo-
iZebneba misi dumilis mizezi. es, albaT, ufro im mniSvnelobis xaz-
gasmaa, sosiuris >azrovnebis dramam< rom miiRo. imis gaTvaliswine-
biT, Tu ramdenad gansxvavebuli Tu winaaRmdegobrivi cnobebi arse-
bobs dRemde sosiuris cxovrebasTan dakavSirebiT, maTi TvalSisacemi
dapirispirebuloba – erTi mxriv, laparakia aRiarebul da pativce-
mul maswavlebelsa Tu mecnierze, meore mxriv _ >azrovnebis drama-

66
Cf. G. Mounin: »Ferdinand de Saussure«, igive: La Linguistique du XX’ siècle, parizi 1972, gv. 48 f.
67 sul sxvanairad aRiqmeba amJamad erTi niSani, romelzec yvela miuTiTebda, visac ki
masTan hqonia saqme, kerZod ki, idumalebiT aRsavse, meocnebe mzera.
sosiuris xsovnisadmi miZRvnil sityvaSi (cf. F.d.S.., gv.10) lusien kotiemac xom igive
aRniSna: “Cven kvlav vxedavT am ucnaur mzeras, mzeras, romelsac xSirad gadaefarebo-
da xolme Crdili, TiTqos sibneleSi CaiZireboda, mere ki ucbad gamococxldeboda,
ganaTdeboda da naperwklebs gayrida.” meles Notice-Sic vkiTxulobT: “Tavad misi pirov-
neba gaiZulebda, rom mecniereba Segyvareboda; gaocebuli iyavi, Tu rogori mkacri si-
zustiT aRiqvamda es cisferi, idumalebiT moculi Tvalebi realobas...” (cf. F.d.S.., gv. 77).

29
sa< Tu inteleqtualur sasowarkveTilebaze, “sigiJeze”, 68 sosiuris
biografiis dawera gvesaxeba ara marto sasurvel, aramed saswrafo
saqmedac ki. Aamas isic emateba, rom ukve ocdaaTian wlebSi, rodesac
benvenistma sosiuris raRac cxovrebiseul >saidumloebaze< gaamaxvi-
la yuradReba, sxvadasxva publikaciebSi iTqva uamravi tyuili Tu
marTali sosiuris pirovnebisa Tu cxovrebis Sesaxeb, romelTa gada-
xedva da gadamuSaveba, ubralod, aucilebelia. am TvalsazrisiT
upirvelesi mniSvneloba aqvs, albaT, gi de purtales dRiurebs, rome-
lic franguli warmoSobis Sveicareli mwerali da sosiuris biZaSvi-
lia. misi nawerebi fasadaudebeli wyaroa sosiuris biografiis Sed-
genisas. 69 magram, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, msgavsi survili jer aravis
gamouTqvams da, rogorc Cans, jer kidev uamravi biografiuli masa-
laa miuwvdomeli; da es miuxedavad amdeni aRmoCenebisa Tu mcdelo-
bebisa. 70 iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos r. godelis mier naxse-
nebi >sosiuris pirovnebaze Semoxveuli idumalebis burusis< gafant-
va dResac aravis unda. swored amitomac aris esoden mniSvnelovani
sosiuris memkvidreobidan aq warmodgenili Canawerebi: marto imitom
ki ara, rom balim da seSem isini nawilobriv wyarod gamoiyenes kur-
sis Sedgenis dros, aramed isini SeiZleba wakiTxul iqnan, rogorc
sosiuris saazrovno da samuSao procesis nakvalevi da amiT iqcnen
imis uSualo mowmed, rasac benvenisti >azrovnebis dramas< uwodebs.
Tavis xSirad fragmentul CanawerebSi sosiurs ar sWirdeboda publi-
kis molodinisaTvis angariSis gaweva, SeeZlo >yvelanairi eWvi ukueg-
do< da > bolomde, kompleqsurad gaeSala Tema<. amiT isini gvixsnian
fasdaudebel gzas im azrovnebisaken, romelmac Cveni saukunis humani-
taruli mecnierebis ganviTarebas esoden didi kvali daamCnia.
sosiuris Canawerebis aseTi wakiTxvis gansakuTrebul xiblze ukve miuTiTa r.
l. vagnerma, Tumca Semdgom aRar ganuviTarebia es sakiTxi. belisa da seSes
sagamomcemlo saqmianobis problematikis Sesaxeb gamarTul diskusiaSi igi
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs kursisa da wyaroebis gansxvavebul
tonalobebze, >cvlilebebisa< da >meryeobebis< mniSvnelobaze, agreTve sosi-
uris eWvebis gamoTqmis Zalaze:

68 es gamoTqma gaCnda sosiuris anagramul swavlebebTan dakavSirebiT. Seadr.: M. Deguy:


»La folie de Saussure«, in: Critique 25/260, 1969, gv. 20-26. am mozaikas kidev erTi kenWi Seemata
1990 wels, rodesac gamoqveynda Semdegi pasaJebi Straitbergis brugmanisadmi 1889 wlis
28 dekembers miwerili werilidan: “...amaswinaT sosiuris mowafisagan miviRe erTi cnoba,
romelic Tqven ueWvelad dagainteresebT, Turme sul axlaxan ganukurnebeli sulis
avadmyofoba Seyria. samwuxaro iqneba, Tuki es cnoba dadasturdeba. Tumca misi siZe ga-
vicani JenevaSi da kategoriulad uaryofda am ambavs. magram aseT uaryofas xom ara-
viTari azri ara aqvs.” (citirebulia p. vilanis »Documenti saussuriani a Lipsia a Berlino«, CFS
44, 1990, gv. 15)
69 1980 wels dasaTaurebiT _ Chaque mouche a son ombre – “yvela buzs Tavisi Crdili aqvs”
gamosuli gi de purtales dRiuris fragmentebSi Cven vxvdebiT ara marto erTmaneTTan
mWidrod dakavSirebuli Jeneveli protestanti patriciebis ojaxebis _ de purtalebis,
de sosiurebis, de kandolebis, navilebis da sxvaTa, agreTve mTlianad maTi fenis
cxovrebis brwyinvale aRwerilobebs, aramed uamrav sayuradRebo cnobas ferdinand de
sosiuris pirovnebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb.
70 p. vunderlim miuTiTa im siZneleebze, romelsac awydeba xolme is, vinc gadawyvets
sosiuris biografiaze imuSaos: “ukve aTi welia am proeqts vatareb, kerZod, minda
sosiuris ...vrceli da sagnobrivi biografia... Sevqmna; magram amas mxolod maSin eqneba
azri, roca yvela arsebul wyarosTan muSaobis saSualeba iqneba da roca gareSe
cenzura aRar SegiSlis xels garkveuli dokumentebis SefasebaSi” (P. Wunderli: »Scheerer,
Ferdinand de Saussure« ...recenzia..., in: Kratiylos 26, 1981, gv.2).

30
sosiurma, rogorc r. godeli aRniSnavs, “zogadsayovelTao sityvaTa maragSi”
moaqcia yvela is gamoTqma, leqsika, suraTi, rac ki dasWirda. magram igi
Sors iyo imisagan, rom isini daefiqsirebina da samecniero terminologiis
mkacr CarCoebSi Caesva. Sesabamisad, is problemebi, rasac qmnida maTi cvale-
badoba da ryeva ...>variaciebi<... arc Tu ioli gadasawyveti iyo kursis gamom-
cemelTaTvis. an ki aris saWiro is saerTod, rasac r. godeli gvTavazobs,
kerZod, yvela im siaxlis ganzogadeba, risi daSvebac sosiurma me-3 kursSi
gabeda? Tu bevrad ukeTesi iqneboda, Tuki kursi am yoymanis kvals Seinar-
Cunebda? ueWvelia, rom es aris meore, iZulebiTi gza yvelasaTvis, vinc ki
gadawyvets miuaxlovdes sosiurs iseTs, rogoric iyo igi sinamdvileSi.
vTqvaT da mas SemTxveviT me-4 kursic Caetarebina, darwmunebiT vin ityvis,
rom igi formiT aucileblad daemTxveoda me-3 kurss? sruli ufleba gvaqvs
eWvi SevitanoT amaSi. is cvlilebebi da meryeobebi, romlebSic ikiTxeba sosi-
uris eWvi da dabneuloba, sakmarisze naTlad warmoaCens mis meryev, mgrZnobi-
are xasiaTs, romlis damalvac SeuZlebelia... wigni avtoris saxea da avtori
ki yovelTvis, ase Tu ise, cdilobs dadebiTi suraTi daxatos sakuTari Tavis
Sesaxeb. “musaifi”, Canawerebi iZlevian imis saSualebas, rom gaicno adamiani,
es ki am SemTxvevaSi uaRresad mniSvnelovania. kursis wyaroebs gaaCnia iSvi-
aTi Rirebuleba, Tavisuflad SevaTvalieroT mkvlevari, romelic azrovnebda
damoukideblad da maswavlebeli, romelsac axsovda is xarisxi, rasac misgan
auditoria moiTxovda da sami sxvadasxva mcdelobis Sedegad Seqmna iseTi
formebis monaxazi, romelic, sul cota, naklebad srulyofili iyo misi doq-
trinis sami, erTmaneTze miyolebuli poziciisaTvis. 71
vagneri orgvarad uyurebs wyaroTa >cvalebadobas< da >meryeobas<:
erTi mxriv, isini warmoadgenen azrovnebis procesis nakvalevs _ >...
maT gaaCniaT iSviaTi Rirebuleba, Tavisuflad SevaTvalieroT mkvle-
vari, romelic azrovnebda damoukideblad<, meore mxriv ki, misi az-
riT, es >meryevi, mgrZnobiare xasiaTis< gamoxatulebaa. amiT moniS-
nul iqna orpolusiani veli, romelSic sosiuris Canawerebis Cvene-
uli wakiTxvac imoZravebs; veli, romelic erTdroulad qmnis rogorc
amgvari wakiTxvis gansakuTrebul xibls, agreTve garkveul sirTule-
sac: mTavari, rasac unda veridoT, aris is, rom sosiuris azrovnebis
Sinaarsobrivi problemebi ar avxsnaT (misi) ganWvretadi xasiaTiT an
saerTod ar davamcroT. Tuki Cven SemdgomSi CaveZiebiT im sakiTxs, Tu
ras efuZneboda sosiuris eWvebi, maSin marto im zogadenaTmecnieruli
problemebis ganxilviT ki veRar davkmayofildebiT, sosiuri rom aye-
nebda, aramed ufro metad dagvainteresebs im gansakuTrebuli qcevis
gamokvleva da dadgena, riTac sosiuri am problemebs udgeboda.
misi midgoma da qceva, Cveni azriT, aranakleb sainteresoa SemecnebiT-
Teoriuli da samecniero-istoriuli TvalsazrisiT, vidre is pasuxe-
bi, romelic man sabolood mogvca Tavis leqciebSi. im dros, roca
Cven vcdilobT im gzis moxazvas, misma enaTmecnierulma refleqsiam 72
rom gaiara, marto imis axsnas ki ar vpoulobT, rasac sosiuris Sro-
mebisaTvis zogadTeoriulad aris mniSvnelovani, aramed mis individu-

71
Cf. R. L. Wagner: »Les désarrois dumaitre de Genève. Introduction à une étude critique de la langue et de la
nomenclature de Saussure«, in: Mots I, 1980, gv. 19 f.
72
romlis drosac Cven, ZiriTadad, daveyrdnobiT Jenevis universitetSi misi pedago-
giuri moRvaweobis periods.

31
alur samuSao procesSic verTvebiT, romelic mWidrod aris dakavSi-
rebuli aseTi gansakuTrebuli pirovnebis arsebobasTan. 73
misi >dramis< mTavari mizezi, benvenistis varaudiT, mdgomareobs ima-
Si, rom sosiuri >Tavis epoqas daSorda im zomiT, ra zomiTac ipova
sakuTari simarTle<. amiT xelmisawvdomad aris gaSifruli im mecni-
eruli arealis problema, romelSic sosiuri muSaobda da ufro zo-
gadad, misi mecnierul-istoriuli mdgomareobis sakiTxi. misi Semoqme-
debiT, gansakuTrebiT ki kursiT gamowveuli da dokumenturad uxvad
dadasturebuli zegavlenis Sesaxeb aq mokled ukve iyo saubari. 74 mag-
ram visi zegavlena ganicada TviT sosiurma, romeli samecniero hori-
zontidan aris igi amosuli?
miuxedavad imisa, rom lingvistikis istoriografia ukve didi xania
ganicdis arc Tu ise Sesustebad koniunqturas da “sosiurologiur-
ma” 75 gamokvlevebmac lamisaa wagvlekos ukve, am elementarul kiTxva-
ze jer damakmayofilelebeli pasuxi jer aravis gaucia. gansakuTre-
biT absurduli aRmoCnda kiTxva, Tu vin arian sosiuris umniSvnelo-
vanesi winamorbedebi. rac Seererma amasTan dakavSirebiT 1980 wels
daadgina, dResac igive dasturdeba:
ase male tyuilad nu velodebiT winamorbedTa Sesaxeb mimdinare diskusiis
saboloo dasrulebas. jer kidev zedmetad polarulia poziciebi, mosazreba-
ni ki naklebad awonil-dawonili. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom mTeli Ta-
visi seriozulobis miuxedavad, yvelafer amas namdvili mecnieruli kamaTis
mxiaruli mxarec gaaCnia: erTni uWeren mxars gabelencsac da diurkhaimsac
(koserio) 76 , meoreni – diurkhaims, magram ara gabelencs (hirSe) 77 , mesameni
gabelencisa da diurkhaimis winaaRmdegi arian, magram mxars uWeren pols
(korneri) 78 , kidev sxvebi gabelencsac aRiareben, magram yvelaze win mainc hum-
boldts ayeneben (qristmani, iegeri). 79 80

73 Comskis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT, J. milneri wers Tavis Introduction àune science du langage-Si:
“ramdenime anekdotur detals Tu ar CavTvliT, igi aris ilustracia individsa da
sakvlev programas Soris arsebuli im kavSirisa, rac am velSi wesad unda iTvlebodes.
radgan unda vaRiaroT, rom humanitarul mecnierebebSi yvelaze saintereso programebi
ukavSirdeba swored individebs, anu adamianebs da es aris, albaT, erTaderTi ram, rac
amarTlebs maT saxels; amis gageba xom arc Tu ise Znelia; isini xom, rogorc mecniere-
bebi, cdiloben TavianTi sagani sityvebSi moaqcion, magram ginda-ar ginda, yvelaferi am
saganSi iZleva imis varaudis safuZvels, rom mas es ar unda, radgan igi aris sazoga-
doebrivi, adamianuri, istoriuli da a.S.” (cf. Milner, parizi 1989, gv. 14f.).
74
Seadr. U. Ch. M. Thilo: Cours de linguistique générale-s aRqma da zemoqmedeba. mosazrebebi
enaTmecnierebis istoriisa da istoriografiis Sesaxeb, tiubingeni 1989, agreTve danarTi...
75
Seadr. J.-T. Chass und C. Puech: „F.de Saussure et la constitution d’un ... de mémoire pour la linguistique
contemporaine », in: Lan..., 1994, gv. 45ff.
76
ix. E. Coseriu: „Georg von der Gabelentz et la linguistique synchronique », in : Word 23, 1967, gv. 74-100.
77
ix. R. Hiersche: ferdinand de sosiuris langue-parole koncefcia da misi damokidebuleba
derkemisa da fon gabelencisadmi, insbruki 1972. sosiurze derkemis gavlenis Sesaxeb
sul axlaxans kvlav mianiSna c. birbaxma. Seadr.: ena, rogorc „fait social“. sosiuris lin-
gvisturi Teoria da am Teoriis damokidebuleba pozitivisturi socialuri mecnierebe-
bisadmi, tiubingeni 1978.
78 ix.: F. Koerner: Ferdinand de Saussure. Origin and Develoment of his linguistic Thoughts in Western Studies of

language, braunSvaigi 1973. bevr sxva ramesTan erTad, kiorneri aq ekamaTeba doroSevski-
seul („Quelques remarques sur les raports de la sociologie et de la linguistique“, in: Journal de de Psychologie
normale et pathologique 30, 1933, gv. 82-91) Teziss sosiurze diurkhaimis pirdapiri zegavlenis
Sesaxeb da cdilobs mis ukugdebas.
79 ix. H.H. Christmann: “sosiuri da enaTmecnierebis tradicia”, in: axali enebisa da

literaturebis Seswavlis arqivi 208, 1972, gv. 241-255, agreTve Jäger 1975.

32
>e. w. winamorbedTa Sesaxeb diskusiis< am >mxiaruli< Tu ucnauri
mdgomareobisaTvis, romelic mxolod aq warmodgenili avtorebiT 81
sulac ar amoiwureba, gansxvavebuli safuZvlebi arsebobs. pirvel
rigSi, sagulisxmoa, rom sosiuris Semoqmedebaze momxdari zegavlenis
istoriaSi zustad igive mogxvdeba TvalSi, rac sxva mecnier-“fuZem-
deblebTan”: mas Semdeg, rac aRqmis pirveli, miTologiuri faza gaiv-
lis da moxdeba Teoriis originalobisa da inovaciurobis aRiareba,
dgeba xolme meore faza, romlis drosac aRmoCndeba, rom mravali
iseTi ram, rac Cven axali da erTaderTi gvegona, Turme jer kidev ad-
re, an sulac, axlaxan, sxvebis mier, msgavsi saxiT ukve yofila Tema-
tizebuli. 60-iani da 70-iani wlebis parizSi, sosiuris SemTxvevaSi, am
zogadma tendenciam Tavisi ganviTareba hpova imJamad gabatonebuli
lozungis “coupure Saussurienne” 82 , anu sosiuriseuli macnierul-istori-
uli daRis Sesaxeb warmodgenaSi. am damamcrobeli TvalTaxedvis Ca-
moyalibebas im garemoebamac Seuwyo xeli, rom Tavad sosiuri uaRre-
sad TavdaWerili da moridebuli iyo, rac Seexeboda avtorTa cita-
tebis moxmobas Tu Tavis uSualo inspiratorebsa Tu wyaroebze aSka-
ra miTiTebas.
am sxva avtorTa Sromebis marTlac rom iSviaTma moxmobam (da es,
sxvaTa Soris, Seexeba rogorc Cours 83 Tu sxva enaTmecnierul
Sromebs, romlebic sosiurma Tavis sicocxleSive gamoaqveyna, aseve
mis danatovar 84 SeniSvnebsa da Canawerebs) rigi komentatorebi

80
Scheerer 1980, gv. 151, Seadr. agreTve gv.120 ff.
81
daJinebiT meordeba fsiqolog G. Tarde-is (SM/G, gv. 282), ekonomist L. Walras-is (Seadr.
Koerner 1973, gv.67), istorikos H. Taine-s (H. Aarsleff : «Taine: son importance pour Saussure et le
structuralisme », in: Romantisme 25-26, 1979, gv. 35-48) da sxvaTa saxelebi. filosofosi, rome-
lic am siaSi yvelaze xSirad da Cveni azriT, samarTlianadacaa dasaxelebuli, aris _
arc meti, arc naklebi _ G. W. Hegel (Seadr. CLG/D, gv. 362 da 388f., Scheerer 1980, gv.123 f.,
agreTve. Coseriu: «L’arbitraire du signe. aristoteles cnebis gviani istoriisaTvis», in: axali
enebisa da literaturebis Seswavlis arqivi 204, 1968, gv.100) lingvisturi Tvalsazri-
siT, albaT, upriani iqneba zemoT dasaxelebul saxelebs daematos jer A. Pictet, axal-
gazrda sosiuris sulieri mentori (Seadr. CLG/D, gv.358f. an Texte, gv.240f, radgan orive
romanuli enebis specialisti – G. Paris da P. Meyer (Seadr. R. Engler: «sosiuri da roma-
nistika, samuSao furceli 16, enaTmecnierebis instituti, bernis universiteti 1976), Sem-
deg laipcigis axali gramatikis skola (K. Brugmann, H. Osthoff), sosiurisgan modian da
bolos orive poloneli lingvisti J. Baudouin de Courtenay da N. H. Kruszewski. amasTan
dakavSirebiT ix. Koerner 1973, gv. 72-209 da CLG/D, gv. 380-394, «La question des précurseurs».
82 Seadr. Dosse 1991, gv.65-75: “La coupure Saussurienne”; F. Gadet: « Après Saussure“ ;,in DRLAV 40,

1989, gv.1-40; S. Auroux : « Deux hyposthèses sur l’origine de la conception ssaussurienne de la valeur linguisti-
que», in: Travaux de linguistique et de littérature 23/I, 1985, gv. 295-299, agreTve J.-J. Courtine : «Le discours
introuvable (Marxisme et linguistique, 19965-1985) », in : Histoire, Epistémologie,Langage 13-II, 1991, gv.153-171.
83 ase, magaliTad, mokled Sedgenil „enaTmecnierebis istoriis mimoxilvaSi“, romelic
kursis Sesavals xsnis da pirvel Tavs warmoadgens, erTmaneTis miyolebiT CamoTvli-
lia Semdegi saxelebi: F. A. Wolf (1759-1824), F. W. Ritschl (1806-1876), F. Bopp (1791-18679, W. Jones
(1746-1794), ...
84
uaRresad sainteresod gvesaxeba wina sqolioSi moxmobili kursis Sesavlis >mimo-
xilvis< Sedareba imasTan, romelic sosiurma JenevaSi Tavis Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan
dakavSirebul moxsenebaSi 1891 wlis noemberSi gaakeTa. Man pirvel rigSi daasaxela a.
pikteti, mere ki Tqva Semdegi ram: «me aq davasaxelebdi ara iseT lingvistebs, romleb-
mac fridrix miuleris <venis universitetidan> msgavsad dedamiwis zurgze arsebuli
TiTqmis yvela idioma <ician> da enis codna ...>connaissance du langage< ... erTi nabijiT
waswies win; ufro metad aq dasaxeleba ekuTvniT iseT romanistebs, rogorebic arian
gaston parizi, pol meieri, <Suhardti>, agreTve germanistebs, magaliTad <herman>
pauls, an im rusuli skolis wamomadgenlebs, romlebic sagangebod rusuli da slavu-
ri enis SeswavliT arian dakavebuli, magaliTad, n. boduen de kurtene, Kruszewsky » (cf.

33
waaqeza, sosiuris stilis Sesaxeb saeWvo da naCqarevi daskvnebi
gamoetanaT. eqstremaluri magaliTis saxiT, speqtris erT mxares
SeiZleba dasaxelebul iqnas a. prosdoCimi, romelic sosiuris
(filosofiuri) ganaTlebis dones gulubryvilo gimnazistisas
adarebs da mas xelis erTi mosmiT “speculatore su >tabula rasa<” 85 -s

CLG/E(II), gv. 4,I.I). Seadr. agreTve Texte, gv. 381, sadac sosiuri «vilhelm fon humboldti-
dan moyolebuli herman paulisa da fsiqolog vundtis CaTvliT, yvelas cdebTan» Seda-
rebiT ufro win ayenebs Baudoiuines-isa da ruszevskis-is mecnierul-istoriul mniSvnelo-
bas, ix. agreTve Texte, gv. 306, sadac Schleicher-is mimarT sul sul sxva pozicias afiqsi-
rebs, vidre es kursis moyvanil pasaJSia. Canawerebis TargmanSi gamoyenebuli teqstkri-
tikuli niSnebis Sesadareblad ix. Texte, gv. 229.
85
A. Prosdocimi: „Sulla genesi della semiologia in Saussure. Una nota sulla biografia intellettuale”, in Archiveio
Glottologico Italiano 69, 1984, gv.148. sosiuris “filosofiuri fesvebis” Sesaxeb alternati-
uli da ukeTesad dasabuTebul masala moipveba CLG/D, gv. 319ff., gv. 358 ff., Scheerer 1980, gv.
120ff. – magram, rogorc viciT, dReisaTvis mainc ar arsebobs am sakiTxTan dakavSire-
buli moculobiTi gamokvleva. sulac ar vapirebT aq prosdoCimis TavSeukavebeli gamo-
naTqvams ZirisZirobamde CavyveT, ubralod vityviT Semdegs: de mauro meies citirebisas,
miuTiTebs, rom sosiuri gaizarda iseT garemoSi, “sadac umaRlesi inteleqtualuri
kultura didi xnis tradicia iyo” (CLG/D, gv. 321) rogorc Tavad sosiuri, (Seadr. SOU;
gv. 17/18), aseve masTan SeTanxmebiT gi de purtale gamudmebiT yvebian im xiblze, rasac
isini maTi saerTo babuis, graf aleqsander-Jozef de purtales biblioTekaSi ganic-
didnen. gi de purtale amasTan dakavSirebiT sityvasityviT wers Semdegs: “Cemma biZaS-
vilma, filologma ferdinand de sosiurma gamando, rom man aq... aRmoaCina sakuTar Tav-
Si midrekileba iseTi mecnierebisadmi, romlis istoriaSic is erTxelac iqneba da (es
xdeboda siyrmis wlebSi) revolucias moaxdens. didi oTaxi mansardaSi, farTo saweri
magidiT, wignebiT datvirTuli Taroebi, aTasgvari xelnaweriT gamotenili karada, ro-
melsac xavsis suni asdioda, TiTqos gabruebda da STagonebas ggvrida. swored iq avi-
kide oci wlis win “>maladie du livre< wignis avadmyofoba”, romliTac dRemde var Sepyro-
bili. (Cf. Pourtalès: Chaque mouche a son ombre,< yvela buzs Tavisi Crdili aqvs< tomi I, 1881-
1919, parizi 1980, gv. 53 f. ; ix. agreTve danarTi, gv. 533ff.).
“wignis avadmyofobaSeyrili” sulis suraTi sruliad emTxveva imas, rasac xatavs sosi-
uris siyrmis megobari misi sikvdilis Semdeg: “misTvis ar iyo ucxo aranairi sagani, iq-
neboda es poezia, literatura, politika Tu xelovneba, istoria Tu bunebismetyveleba”
(cf. E. Favre: “Allocution”, in: F.d.S., gv.30). rac Seexeba prosdoCimis SeniSvnas, rom gviandel
sosiurTan (1900 wlis Semdeg) saqme gvaqvs filosofiur “neofita dall’apparenza naive” (gv. 151),
ukeTesi iqneba Tu aq movitanT meore pasaJs Les origines indoeuropéennes ou les aryas primi-
itifs:Essai de paléontogie Linguistiqui-is meore gamocemis recenziidan, romliTac sosiuri 1878
wels, maSasadame, jer kide Mémoire-ze muSaobis periodSi, igonebs am wignis avtors, Ta-
vis 1875 wels gardacvlil maswavlebels adolf piqtets:
“piqtetis inteleqtualuri interesis centrSi mSvenierebis Teorias umniSvnelovanesi
adgili ukavia: ukve 1822 wels man dawera am gamokvlevis fragmentebi. aseTi esTeti, ra
Tqma unda, gulgrili ver darCeboda im literaturuli sakiTxebis mimarT, rac im dro-
isaTvis ase aqtiurad ganixileboda. igi sxva enaTa literaturebsac swvdeba. amaSi
Zalian exmareba da axal perspeqtivebs uxsnis vilhelm fon SlegelTan pirovnuli nac-
noboba. Slegelma mas gadauSala induri aRmosavleTis samyaro, romlis saidumloebani
mTel evropaSi mxolod am boneli profesorisaTvis iyo cnobili. es, ueWvelad, is pe-
riodia, roca piqtetma sanskritis Seswavla daiwyo da romlis drosac misi esTetiku-
ri da literaturuli kvlevebi misive lingvisturi ganaTlebis safuZvlebs qmnian. ger-
maniaSi yofnis wyalobiT, igi gaecno goeTes, hegels, Slaiermaxersa da Selings, rome-
lic mis sayvarel filosofosad iqca” (cf REC, gv. 392).
am striqonebis cocxali JReradoba (da amis Semdeg maleve gamoqveynebuli statia,
romelic ekuTvnis sosiurs, romelsac jer ocdaerTic ki ar Sesrulebia) sulac ar
aRZravs imgvar STabeWdilebas, rom albertin-adrian neker-de sosiuris (madam de sta-
lis ndobiT aRWurvili piri da avtori wignisa L’Ĕducation progressive, Seadr. CLG/D, gv.
321) Zmis SviliSvils TxuTmeti wlis Semdeg dasWirveboda romeliRac meorexarisxovani
saxelmZRvaneloebidan filosofiuri codnis miReba, rogorc amas amtkicebs prosdoCimi.
Tumca yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, ukve sakmaod rTulia sosiurs gaunaT-
leblobaSi dasdo brali, miT ufro mwvaved daismis kiTxva, ratom ar ganmarta sosi-
urma im zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili leqciebis filosofiuri safuZvlebi,

34
apostrofs usvams. meore mxares ki sxvadasxvagvarad, magaliTad i.e.
Smidti aviTarebs aseT Tezas, “rom sosiuris swored yvelaze
nayofieri >struqturalisturi< konceptebi sinamdvileSi saymawvilo-
gramatikuli saerTo-saxalxo sakuTreba iyo.” 86 aasis mixedviT,
romelic amave Tvalsazriss iziarebs, kursi aris “Semajamebeli
gamoxatuleba”, romelSic artikulirebulia “imdroindeli
enaTmecnierebis TviTgageba.” 87 mosazebaTa am farTo speqtris
gaTvaliswinebiT, sosiuri warmogvidgeba im pirovnebad, romlis
Camoyalibebac, marTalia, Seesabameboda 88 maSindeli enaTmecnierebis
uaxles dones, magram romelmac >saerTo-saxalxo sakuTreba< aSkarad
mainc Tavis sakuTrebad gaasaRa.
Tu damfuZnebelTa figurebis proeqciebiT gajerebul sibrtyes gverd-
ze gadavdebT, sosiuris CanawerTa mkiTxvelisaTvis win wamoiwevs am
polemikas amofarebuli seriozuli, mecnierul-istoriuli sirTule-
ebi: ra Tqma unda, swori ar iqneba da verc veranair nayofs ver moi-
tans, Tuki sosiuris Teoriul cdebs ise ganvixilavT, TiTqos Tavis-
Tavad warmoSobiliyvnen da araferi hqonodaT saerTo mecnierebis
imdroindel mdgomareobasTan – rogorc amas dRes cdiloben warmog-
vidginon. sosiuris mecnieruli miRwevebis ufro saqmiani SefasebisaT-
vis uaRresad mniSvnelovania ukanaskneli ocwleulis manZilze inten-
siurad mimdinare kvlevebi XIX saukunis lingvistikis istoriogra-
fiis sferoSi. 89 amis miuxedavad, dReisaTvis Cveni upirvelesi
amaocana ar aris sosiuris naazrevis CarTva lingvistikis istoriaSi
da misTvis adgilis miCena da amis safuZvelic gvaqvs: mogvianebiT,
Jenevis universitetSi Tavisi pedagogiuri saqmianobis dawyebis
Semdeg, sosiuris CanawerebSi Cndeba iseTi sakiTxebi, romelTac
wminda lingvistikasTan bevri araferi aqvs saerTo. rogorc ukve
vTqviT, misi danatovaris ori mesamedi eZRvneba germanuli
legendebisa da indogermanul poeziaSi bgeraTa gadanawilebas, e.w.
anagramul kvlevebs. Tumca Jeneveli fsiqologis Teodor flurnuas
mier jer kidev saukunis dasawyisSi gamoqveynebuli sosiuris
teqstebi ukve warmoadgens imis dasturs, rom sosiurs kontaqti

romlebsac igi Tavis mowafesTan a. ridlingerTan xazgasmulad “un cours philosophique de


linguistique lingvistikis filosofiis kursad” moixseniebda (Seadr. Texste, gv.253 [gamoyo-
fili daerTvis] agreTve Texte, gv. 527 ff).
86
Schmidt 1988, gv. N3.
87 Seadr. enaTmecnierebis ZiriTadi kursi, I. gabatonebuli swavleba, miunxeni 1973, gv. 73.
is, rom bolo ori citirebisas germanel avtorebTan gvaqvs saqme, SemTxveviTi sulac
ar aris; piriqiT, imis dadasturebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos, Tu ra rTulad aRiqmeboda
rainis marjvena mxares sosiuri da dResac aseve grZeldeba.
88 es sakamaToc ar aris. R. Gmür-i sosiuris aRqmis istoriisadmi miZRvnil Tavis vrcel
gamokvlevaSi amas aRniSnavs da misi pirmSos memuarebis Sesaxeb askvnis: “aseTi zemoq-
medebis Zalis mqone wigni, romelmac Tavisi avtori sxva yvelaferTan erTad Tanamed-
rove indogermanistikis damfuZvneblad aqcia, mxolod im mkvlevars SeiZleba ekuTvno-
des, romelic Tavisi karieris mwvervalze imyofeba – an iqneb ara? sosiuri rom Tavis
memuarebs qmnida, jer kidev laipcigis universitetis me-3 Tu me-4 semestris studenti
iyo da 21 welic ar Sesruleboda” (Gmür: ferdinand de sosiuris “memuarebis” bedi, aRq-
mis istoria, berni 1986, gv. 205 f.)
89
im uamrav axal gamokvlevaTa Soris magaliTisaTvis aq davasaxelebdiT mxolod s.
oruas mier gamocemul Histoire des idées linguistique (briuseli 1989 ff), romlis mesame da
ukanaskneli tomi mTlianad mieZRvneba XIX saukunis enaTmecnierebas, jer ar gamosula;
Seadr. agreTve danarTi, gv.571ff.

35
hqonda azrovnebis im dinebebTanac, romlebic sul sxva mecnierul
sferoSi iRebdnen saTaves. magaliTad, eqsperimentul fsiqologiaSi
an im droisaTvis Camoyalibebis procesSi myof froidis
fsiqoanalitikuri skolis velSi. Gminda davasaxelo erTi magaliTi,
romelsac am komentaris bolos ufro dawvrilebiT mivubrundebiT:
“enis meqanizmis”, rogorc sintagmaturi da asociaciuri kavSirebis
urTierTTamaSis sosiuriseuli koncefciisaTvis sulac ar migvaCnia
ucnaurad, roca poloneli enaTmecnieris nikolai kruSCevskis ukve
sayovelTaod aRiarebuli^gavlenis garda miuTiTeben maSin
fsiqologiuri mxridan amoqmedebul konceptze “subliminaluri
warmosaxvis” Sesaxeb, rasac flurnua Tavis eqsperimentul kvlevebSi
eyrdnoba, upirveles yovlisa ki brunvis kategoriisadmi miZRvnil
vrcel SromaSi.
amitomac uaRresad sakamaTod migvaCnia, rom bolo saukunis oTxmoc-
daaTiani wlebis (rekonstruirebuli) codnis done lingvistikaSi
uyoymanod miviCnioT im sakmarisad vargisian CarCod, romelSic sosi-
uris naazrevis uproblemod ganTavseba SeiZleba. mogvianebiT dadgeba
sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, aris Tu ara dasaSvebi sosiuris Canawerebi CaiT-
valos struqturalisturi Teoriis im Senobis ubralo agurad, ro-
melSic ganTavsebulia lingvistika sosiuris sikvdilis Semdeg, sul
cota naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi. mas isev Tanamedrove lingvisti-
kis >mamamTavrad< Tu >damfuZneblad< moixsenieben (da aris kidec) 90 ,
magram misi Canawerebis yuradRebiT wakiTxva gviCvenebs, rom sosiurs
lingvistikis CarCoebidan gamosvlis problema iseve aRelvebda, ro-
gorc misTvis sando konceptualuri safuZvlebis Seqmna. gageba > yve-
laferi imis didi amaoebisa, rac lingvistikaSi gakeTda< da aqedan
gamomdinare sxva, ufro nayofieri aTvlis wertilebis intensiurma
Ziebam Tavisi gamoxatuleba hpova sosiuris proeqtebSi “mecnierebi-
saTvis, romelic niSanTa cxovrebas ikvlevs socialuri cxovrebis
CarCoebSi” 91 , mecniereba, romelic, misi azriT, “jer kidev ar arsebobs
[da]” 92 romelsac man semiologia uwoda. semiologiis proeqtiT, am
rTuli, magram gabeduli wamowyebiT, man SeZlo, rom lingvistikaSi
(kvlav) Semoeyvana niSani, romelsac es mecniereba am cnebis zedmetad
filosofiurobisa Tu spekulaturobis gamo gamoeTxova. aman kidev
erTxel daadastura rogorc sosiuris eqscentruli mdgomareoba Ta-
vad lingvistikaSi, aseve misi, rogorc profesionali enaTmecnieris,
farglebs gacilebuli, zogad-humanitaruli mniSvneloba.
am proeqtis zusti konturebis Semoxazva, misi Sinagani daZabulobis
Tu susti wertilebis moniSvna, sosiuris azrovnebis mimarTulebaze
Tvalis gadevneba lingvistikasa da semiologias Soris aris swored
am Sesavali komentaris mizani. amiT, ra Tqma unda, eWqveS ar dgeba
lingvistikis istoriaSi sosiurisaTvis Rirseuli adgilis miCenis sa-
kiTxi (rogorc farTo, aseve viwro gagebiT). ufro metad aq laparakia
jer kidev dasaweri enaTmecnierul-istoriuli TavisaTvis saWiro
masalebis moZiebaze, iseTi istoriis daweraze, romelic amodis teqs-
tebidan da teqstebsve ubrundeba.

90 Seadr. D.Crystall: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, kembriji 1987, gv.407, an G.A. Miller:
sityvebi. eqskursi fsiqolingvistikaSi, haidelbergi 1993, gv. 26.
91
GRF, gv.19; CLG/D, gv. 33; CLG/E (I), gv.47 f., Nr. 283-284.
92
Ibid.

36
B.
enebi

winaswar SevniSnav: sayovelTao STabeWdileba iseTia,


rom janmrTeli adamianis gonebam wesiT unda...
daafrTxos yvela moCveneba…
magram Cven ase ar gvgonia. Cven
darwmunebuli <varT>, rom, piriqiT, vinc ki fexs daadgams
im miwaze, ena rom hqvia, SeuZlia uTxras sakuTar
Tavs, rom igi ukve mitovebulia miwisa da cis yvela analogiisagan.

1894 wlis noemberi,


Canaweri memkvidreobidan

IV. ena da ena

Tuki SevadarebT erTmaneTs sosiuris 1891 wlis noembris, anu JenevaSi


kaTedris gamgis Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebuli moxsenebis
Canawerebs missave zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil leqciaTa
meore da mesame kursebis wyaroTa masalebs, romlebic man 1910 da 1911
wlebSi waikiTxa, aRmovaCenT SesamCnev ryevas im mniSvnelobasTan da-
kavSirebiT, rasac sosiuri aniWebs “Langue”-s da “Langage”-is cnebebs,
anu im meTodis safuZvlian cvlilebas, ris meSveobiTac SeiZleba maT
Soris arsebuli gansxvavebebis dadgena.
sosiuris gardacvalebis Semdgom gamocemul kursSi, riTac daiwyo
saerTod sosiuris zegavlena Tanamedrove lingvistikaze da ufro
mogvianebiT ki humanitarul mecnierebebzec, sul sxvanairad warmo-
gvidgeba gansxvaveba “Langue”-sa da “Langage”-s Soris. imis miuxedavad,
rom maTi dapirispireba kursSi centralur rols TamaSobs, mainc da-
faruli rCeba maTi SemecnebiT-Teoriuli mniSvneloba, radgan SeuZle-
belia Tvalis midevneba im azrobriv svlebze, romlebsac am mniSvne-
lobamde mivyavarT.
pirvel rigSi, swored am mizeziT, magram imis gamoc, rom germanulad 1
arc Tu ise gasagebia, Tu ra gansxvavebebzea saubari, radgan ar ar-
sebobs martivi Tu erTmniSvnelovani Sesatyvisi am urTierTdapiris-
pirebuli franguli terminebisaTvis (“Langue” da “Langage”), amitomac
amosaval wertilad viRebT am cnebaTa urTierTgamijvnas da Sevecde-
biT, movniSnoT is gza, rac gaiara sosiuris azrovnebam misi cxov-
rebis Jenevur periodSi. 2
kidev erTi winaswari SeniSvna: vinc sosiuris naazrevs pirvelad kur-
sis meSveobiT ecnoba, aucileblad gaukvirdeba is, rom momdevno

1
ix. amasTan dakavSirebiT im problemaTa dawvrilebiTi da dokumentebiT gamagrebuli
komentari, rac ukavSirdeba sosiuris franguli terminebis – „langua“ da „langage“ – Targ-
mans da ara marto germanuls, rasac iZleva t. de moro kursTan dakavSirebiT
gamoTqmul SeniSvnebSi, in: CLG/D, gv. 423 ff.
2
memkvidreobaSi arsebul wyaroTa mdgomareobis gamo (Seadr. Texte, gv. .229) iZulebulebi
varT, SemovifargloT mxolod 1891-1913 wlebiT.

37
gverdebze ar iqneba dabejiTebuli saubari “langue”-sa da “parole”-s So-
ris arsebul gansxvavebaze, rac iTvleba sosiuris Teoriuli Senobis
dedaboZad 3 da dRemde miekuTvneba yvelaze ufro sakamaTo konceptTa
ricxvs. 4 Tuki Cven aq ufro metad “Langue”-sa da “Langage”-s Soris ar-
sebul gansxvavebaze vaxdenT koncentrirebas, es ara imitom, rom
“langue” -sa da “parole”-s Soris arsebul gansxvavebas nakleb
mniSvnelovnad vTvliT, an gvgonia, rom am diqotomiis garSemo
atexili diskusia ukve amoiwura. Cveni amocanaa gamovyoT es aqamde
naklebad ganxiluli aspeqti im SemecnebiT-Teoriuli planidan,
romlis fonzec es diskusia TamaSdeba.

kaTedris gamgis Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul


leqciaTa kursi
Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul Jenevur leqciaTa kursis Ca-
nawerebidan Cans, rom Tavdapirvelad problemuri ar unda yofiliyo
gansxvaveba “Langue”-sa da “Langage”-s Soris. “Langue” da “Langage” aq unda
aRniSnavdnen, rogorc Cven mogvianebiT vnaxavT, >erTsa da imave ra-
mes<, mxolod erTaderTi sxvaobiT _ erT SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs zo-
gad movlenasTan, meore SemTxvevaSi ki _ konkretulTan:
ena [>Langue<] da ena [>Langage<] erTi da igive sagania; erTi aris meoris gan-
zogadeba. warmoudgenelia, rom enis [>Langage<] Seswavla moindomo da imaze-
dac ki ar Seiwuxo Tavi, rom gamoikvlio <misi gamovlenis sxvadasxva forma,
kerZod ki enebi [>Langues<]>, es xom absoluturad amao da qimeruli wamowyeba
iqneboda; <meore mxriv>, Tuki ganvizraxavT enebis [>Langues<] kvlevas da davi-
viwyebT, rom es enebi [>Langues<] mniSvnelovnad ganisazRvreba im <garkveuli>
principebiT, romelTa Sejamebac xdeba enis [>Langage<] Sesaxeb warmodgenaSi,
maSin miviRebT <kidev erT>, yovelgvar seriozul mniSvnelobas da WeSmarit
mecnierul safuZvels moklebul naSroms. amitomac ikvebeba ganuwyvetliv en-
is [>Langage<] zogadi kvleva im gansxvavebuli dakvirvebebiT, romlebic tar-
deba ama Tu im enis [>Langue<] gansakuTrebul ubanze. 5

maSasadame, “Langage”-s SemTxvevaSi saqme exeba >enis zogad kvlevas<,


maSin roca calkeul, konkretul enaTa, mag. Ffrangulis, an germanu-
lis >gamovlenis formebi< miekuTvneba “Langue(s)”-s sferos. orive mxa-
re ara marto avsebs erTmaneTs, aramed, rogorc Cans da es xdeba
Tanabari doziT, damokidebuli arian kidec erTmaneTze, rogorc
partniorebi.
sxvaTa Soris, SemdegSi sosiuri miuTiTebs im xelisSemSlel asimet-
riazec, romelic iCens xolme Tavs “Langue(s)”-s da “Langage”-s harmoni-
ul TanaarsebobaSi:
im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki vinme ivaraudebs, rom metyveleba [>parole<] adamianTan
mimarTebaSi <sruliad bunebrivi funqciaa> (rac safuZvelSive mcdari azria,

3
Seadr. Seereri 1980, gv. 77ff., an guleti 1976, gv. 29 ff.
4
am problemis dawvrilebiTi aRweriloba moipoveba in: SM/G, gv. 142ff; CLG/D, gv. 420, 65-e
SeniSvna; R: Engler: „Europpean structuralism: Saussure“, in Current trends in linguistics 13/2, 1975, gv. 853ff.;
C. Normand: “Langue/parole: constitucion et enjeu d’une opposition”, in: Langages 49, 1978, gv. 66-90;Koerner
1973, gv. 243 ff.; Jäger 1976, gv. 232 ff; Harris 1987, gv.14 ff
5
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 515, N I.I, Nr. 328f.

38
romelsac garkveuli anTropologiuri Tu lingvisturi skolebi iziareben),
Cven mainc gadaWriT [>absolument<] unda davrCeT im poziciaze, rom am funqciis
ganxorcieleba mecnierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi SeiZleba gaxdes mxolod enis
[>langue<], an arsebul enaTa [>langues<] Seswavlis Sedegad. 6
sanam zogadi – aq: >laparakis bunebrivi funqcia adamianTan mimar-
TebaSi< _ >mecnierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomia mxolod arsebul enaTa
TvalsazrisiT<, maSin paradoqsulad moCans “Langue”-saTvis >enis zo-
gad kvlevaSic< ki upiratesobis miniWeba. misi ardanaxva an argaTva-
liswineba aris swored is sayveduri, romelsac gamoTqvams sosiuri
enis fsiqologiisa da filosofiis mimarT erT-erT im pasaJSi, rome-
lic ukve citirebulebs win uswrebs qronologiurad; am dros is
kidev erTxel usvams xazs “Langue”-s upiratesobas “Langage”-sTan
SedarebiT:
[...] enis [>langage<], rogorc <erT-erTi> adamianuri <faqtis> [>fait humain<]
kvleva mTlianad an TiTqmis mTlianad moicavs Tavis TavSi enaTa [>langues<]
kvlevas. fiziologs, fsiqologs <da logikoss> SeuZliaT didxans ilapara-
kon, filosofoss SeuZlia droTa ganmavlobaSi daeyrdnos logikis, fsiqo-
logiisa da fiziologiis kombinirebul Sedegebs, magram Tavs uflebas mivcem
aRvniSno, rom SeuZlebelia enis [>langage<] elmentarul fenomenTa naTlad aR-
qma, klasifikacia Tu gageba, Tuki pirvel da ukanasknel instanciaSi ar Ca-
tardeba enaTa [>langues<] gamokvleva. 7
maSasadame, sosiuri erTianad uaryofs logikas, enis filosofiasa da
fsiqologias, radgan isini >enaTa kvlevas< ar iTvaliswineben. roca
>pirvel da ukanasknel instanciaSi enaTa [>langues<] gamokvlevas< ata-
reb, es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom amiT mniSvnelobas ukargav >enis
zogad kvlevas<:
da piriqiT, SeiZleboda am arsebul enaTa [>langues<] kvlevas TiTqmis araviTa-
ri Sedegi ar mohyoloda; yovel SemTxvevaSi, meTodi da warmmarTveli prin-
cipi mainc daekarga, rom ara misi mudmivi ltolva enis [>langage<] zogadi
problemis warmosaCenad, rom ara misi mudmivi Zalisxmeva saimisod, rom yvela
im wvrilmanTagan <rasac ki igi akvirdeboda>, gamoerCia is azri da sargebe-
li, rac gamomdinareobs Cveni codnidan <enis mimarT [>langue<] gamoyenebuli
imgvari operaciebis Sesaxeb, rac adamianuri instinqtisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia>. 8
maSinac ki, roca gonebiT ici, rom >arsebul enaTa kvleva darCeba
steriluri, yovelgvari meTodisa da warmmarTveli principis gareSe<,
roca TvalTaxedvidan kargav >enis zogad kvlevas<, xom cxadia, rom
langue-sa da langage-s Soris sirbilSi imaleba problema. an ki rogor
SeiZleba >enis zogadi problemidan< gamomdinareobdes >arsebul ena-
Ta kvlevis< principebi, roca mecnierebas am >enis zogad problemam-
de< misvla mxolod arsebul enaTa saSualebiT SeuZlia? swored am
kiTxvasßsvams kidev erTxel sosiuri oci wlis Semdeg, zogadi enaT-
mecnierebisadmi miZRvnil Tavis bolo Jenevur leqciaSi da moulod-
nel pasuxsac iZleva.

6
Cf. iqve
7
Cf. ibid
8
Ibid.

39
III kursi

sosiurma 1910 wlis 4 noembers studentebs auwya, rom man zogadi


enaTmecnierebisadmi 9 miZRvnili Tavisi mesame leqcia sam nawilad
dahyo:
1. _ enebi [>langues<]
2. _ ena [>langage<]
3. _ laparakis unari [>la faculté du langage<] da misi gamoyeneba individTa
mxridan. 10
maSasadame, Cveni Txrobis amosavali wertilia _ enebi. Tu ratom, es
sosiurma 8 noembers ganmarta:
enis faqtebTan [>faits de langage<] dakavSirebuli pirveli daskvnaa: enaTa
[>langues<] mravalferovneba, geografiuli sxvadasxvaoba.
yvelas TvalSi xvdeba es mravalferovneba sivrceSi (igives ver vityviT dro-
iT variaciebze). TviT velurebsac ki gaaCndaT es codna; es aris is mraval-
ferovneba, romelic xalxebs TavianT enas [>langue<] SeagrZnobinebs. sxvagva-
rad isini, albaT, verc ki mixvdebodnen, rom laparakoben. 11
[...]
rogorc Cans, enaTmecnierebisaTvis gadamwyveti [>primordial<] faqtia enaTa
[>langues<] geografiuli sxvadasxvaoba. 12
amiT zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb Tavis bolo leqciaSi sosiuri
yvelafers isev Tavidan iwyebs da amosaval wertilad iRebs imas, ra-
Sic yvelas SeuZlia darwmundes: aq ase laparakoben, iq – ise, aq –
frangulad, iq – germanulad, sadRac italiurad da a.S. es aris
>enaTmecnierebis gadamwyveti faqti<. es aris, Tu gnebavT, is yovel-
dRiuri gamocdileba, romelsac SeiZleba miebas sosiuris mosazre-
bani “enobrivi niSnis nebismierobis” Sesaxeb: is, rom sazRvris erT
mxares iTqmeba b-ö-f, meore mxares – o-k-s, an – r-i-n-d.
is sijiute, romliTac sosiuri am debulebas asabuTebs, aSkarad igr-
Znoba am leqciisaTvis mzadebis periodSi gakeTebuli Canawerebidanac:
enis [>langue<] formaTa mravalferovneba <dedamiwaze>, enis [>langue<] sxvada-
sxvaoba, roca Cven erTi qveynidan gadavdivarT meoreSi, an erTi regionidan –
meoreSi, es aris swored is gadamwyveti [>primordial<] mtkicebuleba, romlis
mopovebac yvelas uSualod SeuZlia. [...]
Tumca sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom damkvirvebels dasawyisSi gamoeparos enis
[>langue<] cvlilebebi droSi, magram gamoricxulia, rom SeumCneveli darCes
cvlilebebi sivrceSi. Cven mxolod mogvianebiT viwyebT xolme laparaks dro-
Si momxdar cvlilebebze da vnaxulobT, rom isini ganuyofeli arian sivrce-

9
::: Cours III
10
Cf. CLG/E (I); gv. 24, D 5, Nr. 122 [frangul originalSi teqstebidan amonaridTa ukeT
mosanaxad SemdgomSi kursis wyarodan adgilis miTiTebisas gamoviyenebT Semdeg Semok-
lebebs: CLG/E: D 5=gv.5 JorJ degalies konspeqtidan; Nr. 122= amonaridi, romelic r. eng-
leris R.Engler mier SemoRebuli numeraciis Tanaxmad Seesabameba balisa da seSes teqs-
tis 122-e nomers CLG/E-Si].
Cven aq veyrdnobiT JorJ degalies uaRresad zust Canawerebs. 1910 wlis 4 noembris leq-
ciis sruli da 8 noembris leqciis dasawyisis JorJ degalieseuli Canawerebi ix. Texte-
Si, gv. 506 ff. Seadr. agreTve SM/G; gv. 77 ff.
11
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 436, D 9, Nr. 2847-2849.
12
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 437, D 10, Nr. 2855.

40
Si momxdarTagan; Tumca uSualod vxedavT xolme mxolod meore saxis cvli-
lebebs, vimeoreb, mxolod meore saxisas. 13
roca igi laparakobs <dedamiwaze enaTa mravalferovnebis< Sesaxeb,
is, rom >enis sxvadasxvaoba< aris >pirveli da gadamwyveti mtki-
cebuleba<, >uSualo mocemuloba<, rom swored misi meSveobiT >vam-
CnevT, rom vlaparakobT<, es sxvas arafers niSnavs Tu ara imas, rom
sosiuri am sxvadasxvaobas ganixilavs, rogorc iseT rames, rac Tavad
jdeba enis Tu enobrivis definiciaSi. magram amiT igi upirispirdeba
Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul sakuTar leqcias: Tu enaTa
sxvadasxvaoba Tavad miekuTvneba enis definicias, maSin >enaTa kvlevis
warmmarTveli principi< “langage”-is cnebidan ki aRar unda amodiodes,
aramed piriqiT; ufro metic, >enis zogadi problemis< gaazreba unda
xdebodes enaTa simravlisgan gamomdinare. swored amis gakeTebas cdi-
lobs sosiuri Tavis bolo kursSi:
Tuki es enis [>langue<] Cveneuli cnebaa, maSin cxadia, rom igi warmogvidgeba
mxolod sxvadasxva enaTa [>langue<] seriaSi. Cven misi moxelTeba SegviZlia
mxolod romelime gansazRvruli enis [>langue<] meSveobiT. ena [>langue<],
ramdenad gamarTlebulia am sityvis gamoyeneba mxolobiT ricxvSi? Cven igi
gvesmis, rogorc iseTi ganzogadeba, rogorc iseTi ram, rac yoveli gansazR-
vruli enisaTvis [>langue<] WeSmaritebad ise unda iqces, rom Semdgomi dakon-
kreteba arc ki dasWirdes. araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda vifiqroT, rom gan-
zogadebuli termini ena [>langue<] Tanazomieria imisa, rac aRiniSneba termi-
niT “ena” [>langage<]. 14

maSasadame, >enis zogadi problemis< aRmniSvnel cnebas “langage” so-


siuri cvlis “langue”-Ti da da aRniSnavs, rom >zogadi termini “langue”
sulac ar aris termin “langage”-is Tanazomieri<; da es etyoba imitom,
rom gansxvavebiT “langage”-sagan, “langue” miuTiTebs >sxvadasxva enaTa se-
riaze<, enaTa [>langues<] simravleze.
erTmaneTisgan sruliad gansxvavdeba, >enis zogadi problemis< Tu
>umniSvnelovanesi principebis< aRqmas “langage”-is meSveobiT cdilob
Tu “langue”-si. es Sexeduleba, romlidanac sosiurs Tavis bolo kurs-
Si saboloo daskvnebi gamoaqvs, miniSnebis saxiT ukve mocemulia Ta-
namdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul mis pirvel Jenevur leqciaSi,
Cven es ukve vnaxeT. maSinac ki, Tuki igulisxmeba, rom adamians gaaCnia
>metyvelebis bunebrivi unari<, sosiuri mainc gvTavazobs vifiqroT
imaze, rom <yvela SemTxvevaSi, sruliad mtkiced unda davrCeT im az-
rze<, rom >es funqcia mecnierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi SeiZleba gax-
des mxolod arsebul enaTa Seswavlis gziT<. Tuki adamianis metyve-
lebis funqcia _ “langage” – artikulirdeba mxolod konkretul enob-
riv faqtebSi, maSin >enis zogadi problemis< warmosaxva SesaZlebe-
lia mxolod gansazRvrul enebTan _ “langues”-ebTan kavSirSi, da Cveni
mxridan davumatebdiT – mxolod maTi meSveobiT. 15
franguli sityva “langue” gvaiZulebs vifiqroT frangul, germanul da
sxv. enebze, agreTve “langue maternalle” (deda-ena) da bolos da bolos Ta-
vad “enaze, rogorc organoze”. mravlobiTSi “les langues” aRniSnavs uam-

13
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 436, D 23, Nr. 2847-2848.
14
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 158, III C 284, Nr. 1171.
15
Seadr. agreTve N6 in Texte, gv. 283f.

41
rav 16 bunebriv enas. amis sapirispirod, “langage” kompozitebSi gvevline-
ba, rogorc “l’étude du language comme faculté de l’homme- 17 (enis, rogorc ada-
mianiseuli unaris Seswavla), rogorc “language des animaux” (cxovelTa
ena) an “métalanguage” (meta-ena). sosiuri mesame kursSi “language”-s imitom
ki ar cvlis “langue”-Ti, rom >enis zogadi problema< aRar aintere-
sebs, aramed ufro imitom, rom misi azriT, ipova axali gza >enaTa im
umniSvnelovanesi principebis gasagebad<, romelic “language”-s cnebiT
gadaifareba da romelic Tavis warmoSobas filosofiur Tu logikur
saazrovno tradiciebs umadlis.
>rom ar mibrunebodnen enebis kvlevas pirvel da bolo instanciaSi<,
sruliad SesaZlebeli iyo Seqmniliyo da gavrcelebuliyo kidec
mcdari azri, rom arsebobs yvela enaze maRla mdgomi, raRac winare,
ZiriTadi ena, magaliTad, raRac sufTa saazrovno ena, romelic prin-
cipSi, daculia im momabezrebeli problemebisgan, rasac qmnis enaTa
sxvadasxvaoba. 18 aq naklebmniSvnelovania is, realizirdeba Tu ara es
“protoena” Semdeg frangulSi, germanulSi da a.S. winarebabilonur
mdgomareobaSi dabrunebis am iluzias, romelic emyareba jer kidev
filosofiidan da logikidan cnobil jiut ltolvas “reductio linguarum
ad unam”-isken (enebis reduqcia da unicifireba), sosiurma Tavadve unda
daaswros, rogorc indogermanistma da komparativistma. swored amaSi
mdgomareobs imis SemecnebiT-Teoriuli mizezi, Tu ratom agebs igi
Tavis zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil III saleqcio kurss enaTa
simravleze.
radgan enobriv-filosofiuri azrovneba ugulvebelyofda konkretul
enaTa, mag. frangulis an germanulis Taviseburebebs, amitom aRarc
sosiuri iRebda maT saxelmZRvanelo principad >enis zogadi proble-
mis< ganxilvis dros da es ara marto imitom, rom igi Tavis mecni-
erebas Tvlida empiriul mecnierebad. warmodgenas im erTaderTi, pir-
veli, winare Tu zeenis Sesaxeb, romelic filosofiuri Tvalsazri-
siT ikiTxeba cnebaSi «language», 19 rogorc Cans, sosiuri aRiqvamda imis
macdur SeniRbvad, rac man Seicno >pirvel mtkicebulebad enis faq-
tebSi<; Tanac imdenad, rom es warmodgena arc enaTa simravlis uaR-
resad gadamwyvet faqts uwevda saTanado angariSs. Tuki sosiuri, ro-
gorc Cven amas SemdgomSi davinaxavT, enis filosofiis tradicias ga-
mudmebiT akritikebda da mas garkveulwilad uaryofda, es mxolod

16
C. Hagège-s Tanaxmad, dReisaTvis ukve aRricxul enaTa ricxvi 4-dan 6 aTasamdea. Seadr.:
L’homme de paroles. Contribution linguistique aux sciences humaines, parizi 1985, gv. 55f.
17
sosiuri ase wers: “aq xSirad Cndeba >Cveni azriT, met-naklebad dasabuTebuli< sayve-
duri: Tqven enaTa [>langues<] kvlevas aqcevT enis [>langage<] kvlevad da ganixilavT mas
adamianis unarad, misi saxeobis >erT-erT< ganmasxvavebel niSnad, anTropologiur, an
e.w. zoologiur maxasiaTeblad. batonebo, es iseTi sakiTxia, romlis gansamartad da
Tavis gasamarTleblad sakmaod didi dro mWirdeba, Tumca Cemi Tvalsazrisi ar gans-
xvavdeba Tanamedrove lingvistTa mosazrebebisagan; kerZod, ki laparakia imaze, rom en-
is [>langage<] <rogorc erT-erTi> adamianuri <faqtis> [>fait humain<] kvleva mTlianad, an
TiTqmis mTlianad jdeba enaTa [>langues<] kvlevis arealSi.» (Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 515, N I.I, Nr. 3281).
18
magaliTad, iseTi problemebi, rogoric iqmneba sosiuris teqstebis Texte germanulad
Targmnisas, kerZod is, rom «langue» da «langage», erTi mxriv, da «ena», meore mxriv, ver
qmnian martiv, erTmniSvnelovan Sesatyvisobebs.
19Seadr. umberto ekos axlaxans gamosuli mimoxilviTi nawarmoebi: srulyofil enaTa
ZiebaSi, miunxeni 1994.

42
imitom, rom es tradicia Zalzed mcired Tu iTvaliswinebda misTvis
esoden mniSvnelovan Tvalsazriss:
enis [>langage<] manifestacia SesaZlebelia mxolod enis [>langue<] meSveobiT;
mis gareSe igi saerTod ver iarsebebda. 20

amdenad, “le langage”-is Secvla “la langue”-Ti zogadi enaTmecnierebisaT-


vis imdenadaa warmmarTveli, ramdenadac igi aTvalsaCinoebs imas, rom
lingvistika Tavis sagans ar unda eZebdes biologiur funqciaSi da
rom es sagani ar unda gaigebodes, rogorc adamianis unari, an ro-
gorc raRac ze-ena. 21 Tuki arsebobda >enis zogadi problema< _ da
swored es aris III kursis dedaazri, – maSin igi mdgomareobda enaTa
simravleSi da am simravlisa da sxvadasxvaobidan gamomdinare, marTlac
Rirda SekiTxvis dasma enaTmecnierebis >warmarTveli principis< Sesaxeb.
sosiuri jer kidev Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul leqciaSi
SeniSnavs:
daadgines, rom es aris fenomenTa is bolo detali, romelic imavdroulad
misi bolo safuZvelicaa [>c’est le dètail ultime des phénomènes qui est aussi leur raison
ultime<]; da rom mxolod konkretizacias SeuZlia didi wvlili Seitanos
ganzogadebaSi. 22
Tuki sosiuris azrovnebaSi ukve didi xnis manZilze mwifdeboda gan-
zraxva, rom zogadi aReqva konkretulis meSveobiT, zogadi gamoeyvana
erTeulis gansakuTrebuli formidan, maSin am ganzraxvam Tavisi adek-
vaturi cnebiTi gamoxatuleba hpova _ >enis zogadi problemis< aR-
niSvnis mizniT _ “le langage”-s “le langue”-Ti SecvlaSi.
usafuZvlo da SemTxveviTi rodia, rom frangulSi “Philosophie du
langage”-is sapirispirod, yovelTvis ar gamoiyeneba gamoTqma “Philosophie
des langues”, an “de la langue”. Tavisi bolo kursiT, romelsac man zemoT
ukve naxseneb ridlingerTan saubarSi “lingvistikis Sesaxeb filoso-
fiuri leqciis mosamzadebeli etapi” 23 uwoda, sosiuri ukve daadga im
gzas, rom amgvari “enis filosofiis” momavali damfuZnebeli da mTa-
vari warmomadgeneli gamxdariyo. ...Tumca yvela SemTxvevaSi cxadia,
rom “le langage”-s “la langue”-Ti Secvla kvlav da kvlav warmoSobs erT
uxerxul SemecnebiT-Teoriul SekiTxvas; es SekiTxva arc sosiurs
gamoparvia, Tumca zemoT moyvanili pasaJidan iseTi STabeWdileba iqm-
neba, TiTqos igi misgan Tavis aridebas cdilobdes: Tuki enaTmecni-
ereba amovida arsebul enaTa uricxvi raodenobidan, >enaTa seriidan<,
maSin rogor SeiZleba, rom mis sagnad miiCneodes “la langue”? >la langue, _

20
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 43, J 4, Nr: 261; Seadr. agreTve g. Staineri: Après Babel, parizi 1978.
21
Seadr. amis sapirispirod n. Comski: “enobriv unarTa biologiuri safuZvlisaTvis”, in:
igive, wesebi da reprezentacia, mainis frankfurti, 1981, gv. 187-217. da erik fon leneber-
gi Eric V. Lenneberg: enis biologiuri safuZvlebi, mainis frankfurti 1972.
22
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 4, N I.I. igive azri ikiTxeba Semdegi SekiTxvis formulirebisas: „Rirs
ki enis [>langage<] fenomeni <TavisTavad> imad, Tundac Tavis gansxvavebul manifesta-
ciebSi, Tundac Tavis zogad kanonzomierebebSi, romlebic mxolod gansakuTrebuli
formebisgan unda iyvnen wamosuli da <arasdros> sxa ramisgan, rom Tavi itexo mis
kvlevaze. es xom, <rac ar unda> naTlad da kategoriulad <iyos naTqvami>, swored is
velia, romelzec Tanamedrove enaTmecniereba binadrobs... [ ] <amis mixedviT>, SeiZleba
ki CaiTvalos ena [>langage<], an ena [>langue<] im sagnad, romelic TavisTavad Rirs imad,
rom mis kvlevaze vinmem Tavi Seiwuxos? (Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 4, N I.I, Nr. 3283).
23
Cf. SM/G, gv.30 Sesabm. Texte, gv. 522

43
rogor SeiZleba gamarTlebuli iyos am sityvis mxolobiTSi gamo-
yeneba? sosiuris mtkiceba, rom igi >ganzogadebas, anu imas, rac yo-
veli enisaTvis simarTle iqneba< “la langue”-s uwodebs, ver CaiTvleba
am SekiTxvis pasuxad. igi ufro misi gameorebaa. Tu ratom moiTxovs
igi ase daJinebiT, rom enaTmecnierebis sagnad, >enaTa mniSvnelovan
principebad< CaiTvalos maincdamainc “la langue”, amis dasabuTebas aq
ver axerxebs: _ >am sakiTxze aRar SevCerdebi<.
magram aq uciloblad Cndeba kiTxvebi: konkretulad mainc raSi mdgo-
mareobda gansxvaveba sosiuris mier “la langue”-ad Seracxul >ganzoga-
doebasa< da “le langage”-s, anu filosofosTa kuTvnil winare enas,
ZiriTad enasa Tu zeenas Soris? an sxvanairad rom vikiTxoT: iseTi
ra unda igulisxmebodes cnebaSi “langue”, rom is kritika, rac sosiur-
ma cneba “langage”-is mimarT ganaxorciela, am mis mier SemoTavazebul
>ganzogadebasac< ar Seexos, Tanac daculi darCes enaTa konstitu-
ciuri simravlisa Tu >seriis< principi? an rogor warmogvidgenia na-
biji “Les”-idan, Sesabamisad “une langue”-dan – anu magaliTisTvis, ger-
manulidan, frangulidan da a.S. – sosiuris “La langue”-mde? 24 rogor
SeiZleba urTierTobis konkretuli artikulireba romelime nebismier
enasa Tu >ukidures specializaciasa< da >ukidures ganzogadebas<
Soris? da bolos:
mainc ra statusi unda mieniWos “la langue”-s, Semecnebis Teoriidan
gamomdinare?
is, rom sosiuri, erTi mxriv, amodis arsebuli enebidan, meore mxriv
ki, mainc sul dabejiTebiT moiTxovs, rom zogadi enaTmecnierebis
sagnad miCneul iqnas “la langue”, _ am SeusabamobaSi da, erTi SexedviT
paradoqsul saqcielSi mJRavndeba swored misi azrovnebis pirveli,
ZiriTadi problema da imavdroulad, misi SemecnebiT-Teoriuli feT-
qebadoba. es problematika kidev ufro aSkaras xdis “la langue”-s ufro
mkafiod gansazRvris mcdelobebis dros sosiuris Sinagan daZabulo-
bas, romelSic darwmunebis saSualeba kidev gveqneba. amitomac III
kursSi “la langue”-s cnebis enaTa simravlidan warmomavlobis dasabuTe-
ba aTvalsaCinoebs im siZneleebs, rasTanac sosiurs Tavisi enaTmecni-
erebis damkvidrebis dros brZola uxdeboda – anu im siZneleebs,
romlebsac lomis wili miuZRviT imaSi, rom sosiurs bolomde eWvi
epareboda Tavis TeoriaSi.
amitomac miuxedavad mudmivi mtkicebisa, rom bali da seSe, rom kur-
sis Sedgenisas sosiuris zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnili III da
ukanaskneli saleqcio kursiT 25 xelmZRvanelobdnen, marTlac
gasaocari da dasanania is, rom swored enaTa simravlidan “la langue”-s
cnebis warmomavlobis sakiTxi iqna amogdebuli.

24
am problemaze miniSneba iZebneba sosiuris mokle CanawerSi, romlis TariRis gan-
sazRvrac uaRresad Znelia: “naCqarevi saubaria atexili <raRac> mecnierebaze enis
Sesaxeb [>science du langage<]. es <im> dros, roca jer kidev aravis, ramdenime romanistis
garda, warmodgenac ar aqvs, Tu ra aris ena [>langue<] saerTod da ena [>langue<] Tavisi
ganviTarebis procesSi.» (cf. CLG/E (II) ; gv. 48, N 24 a). Seadr.: q. birbaxi: «sosiuriseuli enis
Teoriis “miviwyebuli” diqotomia: La langue/langues. enis zogadi Teoriisa da calkeul
enaTa aRweris sakiTxisaTvis. », in: CFS 33. 1979, gv. 21-30; da birbaxi 1978, gansakuTrebiT gv.
30-77, bolos : SM/D, gv. 142 ff.
25
rogorc ukve vaxseneT, gamomcemelTa mixedviT, kursi aris “mesame saleqcio kursze
dafuZnebuli sinTezi”. Seadr. Sesavali 1916, in: GRF; gv. IX; CLG/D, gv. 9.

44
kursi

pirvelive ori punqti sosiuris mesame saleqcio kursidan, kerZod >1.


Les langues, 2. La langue<, romlebic qmnian argumentirebul erTianobas 26
da romelTaganac irkveva saerTod, enaTmecnierebis sagnis aRsaniSna-
vad ratom amjobinebs sosiuri cneba “langue”-s da ara “langage”-s, ori-
ve es punqti balisa da seSes mier gamocemul kursSi or sxvadasxva,
erTmaneTisagan sakmaod daSorebul adgilzea ganxiluli.
pirveli punqti ganxilulia kursis bolo, anu meoTxe TavSi da sa-
Taurad aqvs “geografiuli enaTmecniereba”. enaTa simravlis Tema iq
argumentirebul kavSirsaa moklebuli da ufro naZaladev, Sesavseb
masalad gamoiyureba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, imaze bevrad naklebi mniSv-
neloba eTmoba, vidre “Sesavals”, “zogad safuZvlebs” Tu “sinqro-
nuli lingvistikisadmi” 27 miZRvnil Tavs; am dros, da Cven es ukve
vixileT, zustad es Tema xsnis im sakiTxTa siRrmiseuli gagebis
gzebs, romelTac ayenebs sosiuri kursis ukve naxseneb, mecnierebis
istoriisaTvis uaRresad mniSvnelovan pirvel TavebSi. 28
sosiuris III kursis meore punqti _ “La langue” – ki piriqiT, balisa da
seSes kursis yvelaze mowinave adgilze, anu Sesavlis im TavSia gan-
xiluli, sadac warmodgenilia yvela is siaxle da gansakuTrebuloba,
rac sosiuris wamowyebas axasiaTebs. 29 magram Tuki davfiqrdebiT, Tu
rogor moxvda es cneba sosiuris mesame kursSi da ra SemecnebiT-Te-
oriul siZneleebTan iyo es dakavSirebuli, gasaocrad mogveCveneba is
gulubryvilo toni, riTac kursSi “langue” im problemis “gadaWris sa-
Sualebad” 30 aris Seracxuli, enaTmecniereba rom awydeba, rogorc ki
Tavisi sagnis >srulyofil da konkretul gansazRvrebas< moindomebs.
gasaocari mogveCveneba es yvelaferi, Tuki gavixsenebT sosiuris
Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul moxsenebas, an III kurss; gan-
sakuTrebiT saocari ki is maneraa, riTac xdeba kursSi “langue”-sa da
“langage”-s dapirispireba da gancalkaveba. rogorc SemdgomSi davina-
xavT, swored kursSi moxda “langue”-s win wamoweva “langage”-Tan Sedare-
biT da es ara imitom, igi calkeul enaTa gamosaxatavad ufro xSirad
ixmareba da amdenad >enaTa seriaze< migvaniSnebs, aramed ufro imi-
tom, rom “langage”-isgan gansxvavebiT, igi enaTmecnierebas saSualebas
aZlevs, Tavisi sagani aRiqvas “Tavis TavSi, rogorc mTliani”. – kur-
sis is Tavi, romelSic “langue”-s Semoyvana xdeba, iwyeba SekiTxviT, Tu
ra SeiZleba iyos enaTmecnierebis sagani, “Tuki Cven misi srulyofili

26
Seadr. J. degalies konspeqti in: Texte, gv. 506 ff. da SM/G, gv. //ff.
27
yovel SemTxvevaSi, aseT komentars iZleva r. harisi Tavis wignSi Reading Saussure; igi gamo-
xatulad eyrdnoba kurss da gadaWriT ugulvebelyofs wyaroebs. Seadr. Harris 1987, gv. 171 ff.
28
>geografiuli enaTmecnierebis< sistemur mniSvnelobaze jer kidev 1975 wels gaamax-
vila yuradReba e. rulem (Seadr. F. de Saussure: Cours de linguistique génerale. Extraits commentéspar
Eddy Roulet, parizi 1975, gv. 66-83). ufro dawvrilebiT amasTan dakavS. ix. Engler 1976 b ;
igive : «Linguistique 1908: un débat-clef de linguistique géographique et une question de sources saussuiennes»,
in: Progress in Linguistic Historiography, K. Koerner-is redaqtorobiT, amsterdami 1980, gv. 257-270;
igive: «Geografia linguistica e assiomatica saussuriana: di una convergenza ideologica nel primo Novecento », in:
Ideologia, filosofia e linguistica. Atti del convegno internazionale de studi rende (Cs), 15-17 settembre 1978, a cura
di D. Cambarara e A. D’Atri, romi 1982, gv. 356-376; da bolos igive: «Géographie linguistique», in : S.
Auroux (Hg.), Histoire des idées Linguistiques, III tomi, ibeWdeba.
29
Seadr. GRF; gv. 9, Sesavali, Tavi III. enaTmecnierebis sagani, gv. I. ena; misi definacia.
30
aqve ix. SemdgomSi qvemoT an GRF, gv. 11; CLG/D, gv.25; CLG/E (I), gv. 30, Nr.153.

45
da konkretuli gansazRvra gvinda.” 31 am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema enaT-
mecnierebisaTvis ufro saSuri saqmea, vidre romelime sxva mecniere-
bisaTvis da es imitom, rom:
sxva mecnierebebi ikvleven im sagnebs, romlebic winaswar arian mocemuli da
maTi ganxilva SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva kuTxidan erTmaneTze miyolebiT. sul
sxva saqmea Cveni sfero. viRaca warmoTqvams frangul sityvas «nu» - romelime
zerele damkvirvebeli moindomebda, masSi enaTmecnierebis konkretuli obieq-
ti daenaxa; magram gamowvlilviTi dakvirvebis Sedegad, masSi erTmaneTze mi-
yolebiT SeiZleba amocnobil iqnas sami an oTxi sxvadasxva sagani, gaaCnia
rogor akvirdebi: rogorc bgeras, rogorc raRacaze arsebul warmodgenas,
rogorc laTinuri nudum-is Sesatyvisobas Tu a.S. ase erTbaSad ver ityvi, rom
sagani ufro adre arsebobda, vidre is Tvalsazrisi, romelic obieqts qmnis,
Tanac Cven xom winaswar ar viciT, Tu dakvirvebis romeli saxeoba aris warm-
marTveli da romeli masze daqvemdebarebuli. 32
Sesabamisad uaRresad sayuradReboa pirveli pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu ra
aris >enaTmecnierebis konkretuli da srulyofili sagani<:
romeli kuTxidanac ar unda mivudgeT am sakiTxs, versad aRmovaCenT enaTmec-
nierebis sagans, rogorc mTlianobas; yvelgan aRmovCndebiT am dilemis wina-
Se: an unda daviWiroT yoveli problemis erTaderTi mxare [...] an kidev, Tuki
ramdenime mxridan erTdrouli gamovikvlevT 33 enas [>langage<], maSin enaTmecni-
erebis sagani warmogvidgeba imgvar saganTa uTavbolo grovad, romelTac er-
TmaneTTan araferi akavSirebT. roca ase iqcevi, iWrebi im ramdenime mecniere-
bis sferoSi, _ iqneba es fsiqologia, anTropologia, gramatika Tu sxv., _
romlebsac Cven enaTmecnierebisgan ki cxadad vasxvavebT, magram kvlevis
arakoreqtuli meTodis wyalobiT, maTac SeuZliaT petenziis wamoyeneba enaze
[>langage<], rogorc TavianT erT-erT saganze. 34
marto imitomac iyo saSuri pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu ra warmoadgens enaT-
mecnierebis sagans, rom lingvistikas Tavisi teritoria sxva mecniere-
bebisgan (fsiqologia, anTropologia da sxv.) ar gaxdomoda dasacavi.
amdenad, aq ZiriTadad laparakia imaze, rom veZebT enis enobriobas:
ara imas, rac gvabrunebs fsiqologiur, anTropologiur Tu sxva ka-
tegoriebamde, aramed enis specifiur da arareducirebad enobriobas,
anu imas, rac enaTmecnierebas TavisTavadobas aniWebs da iZleva imis
saSualebas, rom enaTmecnierebis sfero gamijnul iqnas sxva mecniere-
baTa sferoebisagan.
pasuxi am kiTxvaze kursSi gacemulia uSualod axlaxan citirebuli
monakveTis Semdeg. Tumca es pasuxi, erTi SexedviT, Zalian waagavs
tavtologias:
Cemi azriT, am siZneleTa gadaWris mxolod erTaderTi gza arsebobs: Tavidan-
ve unda davadgeT enis [>langue<] sferosken mimaval gzas da CavTvaloT igi
normad enis [>langage<] gamovlenis yvela sxva formisaTvis. sinamdvileSi, am-

31
GRF, gv. 9; CLG/D, gv.23; CLG/E (I), gv. 24, Nr.123; Seadr. agreTve N9.1-3 in Texte, gv. 296-303.
32
iqve Ibid.
33
radgan, rogorc kursis mTargmneli h. lomeli sworad aRniSnavs, “germanuli sityva
>ena< aq motanil orive variants moicavs, igulisxmeba langue da langage” (GRF, gv.11,
SeniSvna 1), >ZiriTad sakiTxebSi< igi langage-s Targmnis “adamianur metyvelebad”. radgan
es winadadeba mxolod nawilobriv da alag-alag gvakmayofilebs, amitom Cven isev Zve-
leburad gadavWriT am problemas da >ZiriTadi sakiTxebis< citirebisas kvlav mivu-
TiTebT frangul Sesatyviss kvadratul frCxilebSi.
34
GRF, gv.10; CLG/D, gv.24 f; CLG/E (I), gv. 30, Nr.149-152;

46
deni ormxrivobis fonze, mxolod ena [>langue<] Tu iZleva damoukidebeli de-
finiciis saSualebas da mxolod igi sTavazobs suls sayrden wertils. 35
mas Semdeg, rac kursSi jer kidev vkiTxulobdiT, rom enaTmecniere-
baSi, gansxvavebiT yvela sxva mecnierebisgan, >verasdros vityviT, rom
sagani ufro adre arsebobda, Tu is TvalTaxedva, romlidanac am sa-
ganze dakvirveba xdeba<, rom >ufro metad >TvalTaxedva qmnis sa-
gans< da >garda amisa, Cven arasdros viciT winaswar, dakvirvebis sa-
xeobaTagan romelia warmmarTveli da romeli qvemdebare<, raRac Za-
lian moulodneli gveCveneba am problemis ase saswrafo da naucbaTe-
vi >gadaWra< _ >Tavidanve unda davadgeT enis [>langue<] sferosken mi-
maval gzas da CavTvaloT igi normad enis [>langage<] gamovlenis yvela
sxva formisaTvis<. arsebobda ki saerTod, da Tuki arsebobda, risTvis
iyo saWiro >dakvirvebis saxeoba, romelic iyo sxvebis warmmarTveli, an
sxvebisadmi qvemdebare<? mereda ris safuZvelze iyo es maincdamainc
“la langue”? da bolos: zustad saiT mivemarTebiT, roca “enis sferosken
mimaval gzas (frangul variantSi – «terrain de la langue») vadgebiT?
diax, amas wyali ar gauva: problemis >gadaWra< imgvarad, rogorc
kursi gvTavazobs, sruliad gansacvifrebelia da rogorc q. birbaxi
samarTlianad SeniSnavs 36 , waagavs jadoqrobas (Deux ex machina). es imi-
tom, rom kursSi “langue”-is cnebis Semotanis momentSi jer kidev ar
iyo garkveuli, Tu ra aRiniSneboda am cnebiT da riT gansxvavdeboda
igi “langage”-is cnebisgan.
veraferSi gvexmareba verc Semdegi ori monakveTis moxmoba, romel-
Tac, wesiT, sicxade unda SemoetanaT am sakiTxSi:
mainc ra aris ena [>langue<]? CvenTvis igi sruliadac araa igive, rac [>langage<];
igi aris misi gansazRvruli, Tumca sakmaod mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawi-
li. igi amave dros aris metyvelebis unaris [>langage<] socialuri produqti
da im aucilebel pirobiTobaTa urTierT zemoqmedebis Sedegi, romlebic Se-
imuSava socialurma erTobam, raTa SesaZlebeli gaexada am unaris gaaqtiure-
ba individis meSveobiT. mTlianobaSi aRebuli, ena [>langage<] mravalformiani
da araerTgvarovania; igi erTdroulad miekuTvneba mraval sferos, mravalna-
irad, iqneba es fizikurad, fsiqikurad Tu fiziologiurad; igi amave dros
aris rogorc individualuri, aseve socialuri sferos nawilic; igi ar jde-
ba adamianur urTierTobaTa arc erT kategoriaSi, radgan aravin icis, Tu ro-
gor gamoiyvaneba misi erTeuli.
amis sapirispirod, ena [>langue<] aris mTlianoba da klasifikaciis principi.
rogorc ki mas enis [>langage<] faqtebs Soris pirvel adgils davuTmobT, im
wuTidan bunebrivad vamyarebT wesrigs im erTianobaSi, romlisTvisac dauSve-
belia sxvagvari klasifikacia. 37
am dapirispirebis mizani naTelia: imisaTvis, rom lingvistikam, ro-
gorc damoukidebelma mecnierebam, Tavis damkvidreba SeZlos, mas
sWirdeba erTi damoukidebeli sagani. imis mixedviT, Tu romeli kuT-
xidan SevxedavdiT, salaparako ena SeiZleba ganxiluli yofiliyo,
rogorc erTmaneTisagan radikalurad gansxvavebuli ramdenime erTe-
uli, mag., fizikuri, fsiqikuri, socialuri Tu sxv., da amitomac igi
>mravalformiani da araerTgvarovani< iyo. saWiro iyo iseTi sayrdeni

35
GRF; gv. 11; CLG/D, gv. 25; CLG/E (I), gv. 30 f, Nr.153-155;
36
Seadr. birbaxi Bierbach 1978, gv.32
37
GRF, gv.11 CLG/D, gv.25, ; CLG/E (I), gv. 31 f, Nr.156-162;

47
wertilis povna, romelic SesaZlebels gaxdida enobriv erTeulTa,
rogorc aseTTa, aRqmas da amiT enaTmecnierebas uboZebda specifiur
da arareducirebad sagans. 38 rogorc wina amonaridebidan davinaxeT,
amis saWiroeba kursSi kargadaa gacnobierebuli. magram kvlavac gau-
gebari rCeba, Tu ratom miewereba es Tviseba, kerZod >erTdroulad
iyos fizikuri, fsiqiuri, socialuri< da sxv. erTeuli maincdamainc
“le langage”-s? ratom unda iyos “le langage” >mravalformiani da araerT-
gvarovani<, “la langue” ki, piriqiT _ >Tavis TavSi erTiani da klasifi-
kaciis principad Seracxuli<, an >Tavisi bunebis mixedviT erTgvaro-
vani< 39 ? ratom unda Sehqondes maincdamainc “la langue”-s >wesrigi im
erTianobaSi, romelic ar uSvebs sxvagvar klasifikacias<?
mokled rom vTqvaT, ase moxda kursSi cneba “langue”-s Semotana, Tumca
sinamdvileSi es dayofa arc Tu ise sarwmunod gamoiyureba da ufro
alalbedze namoqmedars waagavs. balisa da seSeseul variants aklia
cnebisaTvis im SemecnebiT-Teoriuli adgilis miCena, rac gaakeTa so-
siurma Tavis III kursSi, kerZod, “langue”-s warmomavloba daukavSira
imas, rac iq >enis faqtebSi (“faits de langage”) pirvel mtkicebulebad< da
>enaTmecnierebis gadamwyvet faqtad< aris miCneuli, kerZod ki konkre-
tul enaTa simravles da maT >geografiuli saxesxvaobas<.
is, Tu ramdenad CamorCeba balis da seSes kursi Teoriuli refleq-
siis im dones, rasac sosiurma zogadi enaTmecnierebis III kursSi mi-
aRwia, amJamad ufro naklebad sainteresod gveCveneba, vidre is, Tu
ris safuZvelze Tqves balim da seSem swored am gadamwyvet punqtSi
uari, mihyolodnen III kursis struqturas, Tumca yovelTvis xazgasmiT
imeorebdnen, rom kursi aris >III kursis safuZvels damyarebuli sin-
Tezi<. anu sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ratom aarides Tavi balim da
seSem imas, rac sosiuris wamowyebaSi marTlac siaxle iyo da enis
filosofiis tradiciis gamowvevas warmoadgenda, aseTi rame rogor
gamoeparaT Tu gamotoves da Tanac im momentSi, roca sosiuris Te-
orias arnaxuli paTosiT warmosaxavdnen mecnierul progresad?
Cven SevecdebiT SemdgomSi am sakiTxs ar mivudgeT istoriuli Tval-
sazrisiT da gamomcemelTa saqciels ar movuZebnoT pirovnuli moti-
vebi. gacilebiT ufro damajerebeli iqneba is pasuxi, romelic siste-
murad gaicema im adgilTa komentirebis meSveobiT, romlebSic gansa-
kuTrebulad mJRavndeba kursis variantis Seusabamoba da alogikuro-
ba, anu kursis wyaros masalaTa SedarebiTi analizis meSveobiT.

38
l. iemslevma es azri sosiurisgan gadmoiRo da Semdegnairad Camoayaliba: “rogorc
vxedavT, ar igrZnoba im TvalTaxedvaTa nakleboba, romlebidanac SeiZleba enebis gamo-
kvleva da es procesi mimdinareobs kidec. magram arc erTi am TvalTaxedvaTagan (ro-
melTa ricxvis gazrdac SeiZleba) ar iZleva saimiso safuZvels, rom laparaki iyos
damoukidebel mecnierebaze enis Sesaxeb: ena xan logikis sagania xolme, xan – istori-
is, xan ki fiziologiis, fizikis, fsiqologiisa Tu sociologiis. amis sawinaaRmdegod
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, miuxedavad didi mravalferovnebisa, mainc gamotovebulia enasTan
dakavSirebuli erTi TvalTaxedva, Tanac, rogorc Cans, iseTi, romelic yvelaze ufro
mniSvnelovani da axlobelia, kerZod ki _ enobrivi TvalTaxedva. gamogonebul unda iq-
nas iseTi mecniereba, romelic enas ganixilavs ara rogorc logikur, istoriul, fizi-
ologiur, fsiqologiur Tu sociologiur momentTa konglomerats, aramed, da pirvel
rigSi, rogorc damoukidebel sidides, rogorc gansakuTrebuli bunebis erTian qmnile-
bas” (L. Hjemslev: ena. Sesavali, darmStati, 1968, gv. 9)
39
GRF, gv.18 CLG/D, gv.32 ; CLG/E (I), gv. 43f, Nr.260;

48
V. erTi da mravali

kursi iwyeba imiT, rom “la langue”-s eniWeba >pirveli adgili enis faq-
tTa “faits de langage” Soris<. “La langue” daxasiaTebulia, rogorc imgvari
sagani, romelic enaTmecnierebas aZlevs saSualebas, damoukidebeli
mecnierebis saxiT daimkvidros Tavi. sxvaTa Soris, rogorc ukve vna-
xeT, kursSi ar gvxvdeba miTiTeba imaze, rom “langue”-s cnebis warmo-
mavloba ukavSirdeba enaTa simravlis >gadamwyvet faqts<. “La langue”
imitom daayenes “le langage”-ze win da imitom aqcies >klasifikaciis
principad<, rom mas, >mravalformiani da araerTgvarovani< “langage”-
sagan gansxvavebiT, miewereba iseTi Tvisebebi, rogoricaa >Tavis TavSi
erTferovneba< da >Tavis TavSi mTlianoba<.
magram is, rom “La langue” kursSi >Tavis TavSi erTferovnad< da >Ta-
vis TavSi mTlianad< aris dasaxelebuli, momdinareobs iqidan, ra sa-
xiT xdeba kursSi im postulatidan amosvla, rom “La langue” aris
sistema.
im dros, roca ena [>langage<] Tavis TavSi heterogenulia [>hétérogène<], ena
[>langue<]... Tavisi bunebiT homogenuria [>homogène<]: igi qmnis sistemas [...]. 40
an kidev ufro radikalurad:
ena [>langue<] aris sistema, romlisTvisac dasaSvebia mxolod misi sakuTari
wesrigi. 41
enis sistemad aRqmis gadawyvetileba, ueWvelad, miekuTvneba im saprog-
ramo mosazrebaTa ricxvs, romlebmac gadamwyveti mniSvneloba iqonies
im ganaxlebaze, romelic kursidan gavrcelda jer mTel lingvisti-
kaze, Semdeg ki sxva humanitarul mecnierebebzec. 42 kursSi am siaxlis
formulirebebi Cndeba laitmotivis saxiT sxvadasxva adgilas. movi-
tanT mxolod ramdenime maTgans:
ena [>langue<] qmnis sistemas. 43
ena [>langue<] aris is sistema, romlis nawilebic SeiZleba da unda ganxilu-
li iqnas kidec maT sinqronul urTierTkavSirSi. 44
is, rom sosiuri enis sistemad aRqmas mxolod Tavis zogadi enaTmec-
nierebisadmi miZRvnili leqciaSi ar aniWebs mTavar rols da es mTe-
li misi saazrovno gzis warmmarTveli ideaa, dasturdeba ara marto

40
GRF, gv.18, CLG/D, gv.32 ; CLG/E (I), gv. 43f, Nr.260;
41
GRF, gv.27, CLG/D, gv.43 ; CLG/E (I), gv. 64f, Nr.417; Seadr. agreTve r. engleri: Lexique de la
terminologie sausurienne, utrexti/anversi 1968 [SemdgomSi citireba moxdeba ase: LTS], gv.50.
42
levi-strosi ase wers Tavis “marsel mosis nawarmoebis SesavalSi“: „yoveli kultura
SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas simbolur sistemaTa ansamblad, romelSic enas, qorwinebis
wesebs, ekonomikur urTierTobebs, xelovnebas, mecnierebasa da religias wina adgilebi
ukaviaT“ (in: M. Mauss, sociologia da anTropologia, tomi I, mainis frankfurti 1974, gv.
15). statiaSi „struqturis cneba eTnologiaSi“ vkiTxulobT agreTve: „saqme exeba ufro
imas, rom gavigoT, Tu risgan Sedgeba es modelebi, romlebic struqturuli analizis
obieqtad gvevlinebian. [...] pirvel rigSi, aseT struqturas gaaCnia sistemuri xasiaTi.
igi Sedgeba elementebisagan, romlebic imgvarad arian ganlagebuli, rom erT-erTis
Secvla yvela danarCenis cvlilebas iwvevs.” (in: struqturuli anTropologia I, mainis
frankfurti 1967, gv. 301 f.)
43
GRF, gv.86, CLG/D, gv.107 ; CLG/E (I), gv. 163f, Nr.1219;
44
GRF, gv.103, CLG/D, gv.124 ; CLG/E (I), gv. 192f, Nr.1446;

49
misi xelnawerebiT, 45 aramed imiTac, rom Tavs iCens, erTi mxriv, mis
jer kidev iseT adreul mecnierul namuSevrebSi, rogoricaa magali-
Tad, ?Mémoire sur le sistème primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-européennes, 46
meore mxriv ki iseT SromebSic, romlebic ar miekuTvnebian enaTmecni-
erebas viwro gagebiT, magaliTad, anagramul swavlebebSi. 47
SesavalSi ukve citirebul sosiurisa da ridlingeris saubarSi
gvxvdeba am warmmarTveli ideis erTi iseTi formulirebac, romelic
gansakuTrebulad erTmniSvnelovani da TvalsaCinoa:
ena [>langue<] aris dasrulebuli sistema [>system serré<], da Teoriac iseTive
dasrulebuli sistema unda iyos, rogoric enaa [>langue<]. sirTulesac swored
es punqti qmnis, radgan usargebloa sul enis [>langue<] kvlevis gansxvavebul
meTodebze laparaki; yvelaferi amis koordinacia unda xdebodes erT
sistemaSi. 48

45
zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil Tavis samomavlo wignisaTvis gakeTebul Cana-
werebSi, romelic droSi emTxveva meiesadmi miweril werils, anu 1894 wels, (Seadr.
Engler 1975, gv.838/39) sosiuri wers: “ena [>langue<] yvela Tavis nawilSi Sinaganad mowesri-
gebuli sistemaa” (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 9.3. Nr.3296)
46
Seadr. C. Vanllini: “Problemi di metodo in Ferdinand de Saussure indoeuropeanista”, in: Studi e saggi
linguistica 9. Supplemento alla rivista L’Italia dialettale, 1969, gv. 1-85; agreTve: J. Kurilowicz, “Lecture du
“Mémoire” en 1978; un commentaire“, in: CFS 32, 1978, gv. 7-26. aRniSvnis Rirsia agreTve M.-J.
Reichler-Béguelin-is narkvevi „Des formes observées aux formes sous-jacentes”, radgan igi Tvals
adevnebs sistemis ideis ganviTarebis istorias da midis sosiuris mier 15 wlis asakSi
daweril esemde “Essai pour réduire les mots du grec,du latin et de l’allemand à un petit nombre de racines”
(in: Présence de Saussure. Actes du Colloque international de Genéve (21-23 mars 1988), publiés par R. Amacker
et R. Engler, Jeneva, 1990, gv. 21-37) werilSi, romelic man daaxloebiT 1872 wels am >Esai<-
sTan erTad gadaugzavna a. piqtets A. Pictet, Origines Indo-européennes-is Rrmadpativcemul
avtors. sosiuri wers: “me var mxolod moswavle da Tqven albaT TavxedobaSi ar CamiT-
vliT, Tuki gagiziarebT Cems azrebs im saganTan dakavSirebiT, rac ase mcired vici.
amas ar gavakeTebdi, ukve Cvevad rom ar mqondes qceuli, rom sistema, romelzec bolo
erTi welia vmuSaob, ukve TvalsaCino faqtad CavTvalo. sistemebis Seqmna yovelTvis
Zalian mindoda, jer kidev manamdec, sanam sagnebs detalurad gamovikvlevdi” (Cf. J. –J.
Candaux:”Ferdinand de Saussure, Linguiste à quatorze ans et demi”, in: CFS 29, 1974-1975 [= B.001], gv. 8 da
gv.10 da Scheerer 1980, gv.9 Sesabam. Texte, gv. 514f.) ormoci wlis Semdeg, magram mainc kursis
gamosvlamde sosiurze daweril Tavis gamoxmaurebaSi v. Stainbergi kidev erTxel
wamoswevs sosiuris am Tvisebas: “is Tavis didebas umadlis ara calkeul aRmoCenebs,
aramed misi WeSmariti da gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mdgomareobs misi sulis siste-
madqmnadobis ZalaSi. misi Seudarebeli siZliere aris sinTezi; yvela calkeuli dak-
virveba misTvis aris mxolod sistemis sagangebod dagegmili Senobis saamSeneblo masa-
la, igi ar isvenebs xolme, sanam cal-calke aRebul TiToeul faqts erT harmoniul
mTlianobad ar Sekravs”(“ Ferdinand de Saussure”, in: Indogermanisches Jahresbuch 2, 1915, gv. 203)
47 homerosisadmi miZRvnil erT-erT rveulSi aris aseTi Canaweri: “sistemaSi, romelSic
umravles SemTxvevaSi arc erTi sityvis Secvla, an gadaadgileba ar SeiZleba ise, rom
anagramisaTvis aucilebeli kombinacia ar airios, aseT sistemaSi SeuZlebelia ilapara-
ko anagramaze, rogorc versifikaciis damatebiT TamaSze, anagrama aris saZirkveli,
imisda miuxedavad gamleqsavs unda es Tu ara” (WUW, gv.23).
48
Cf. SM/G, gv. 29, gamoyofili teqsti Tan daerTvis. sxva adgilze Sources manuscrites-Si
sosiuris citireba xdeba Semdegnairad: “aucun systèsteme n’est serré comme la langue” SM/G, gv.
229); sosiuris “Mémoire”-sTan dakavSirebiT meie wers: “amieridan romelime sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT nebadarTuli aRar aris imis ignorireba, rom yoveli ena [>langue<] qmnis
iseT sistemas, sadac yvelaferi erTmaneTzea damokidebuli da sruliad mkafio gegmas
miyveba.” (cf. Introduction à l’etude comparàtive des langues indoeuropèennes, me-8 gamocema, parizi, 1937,
gv. 474). sosiurze Tavis gamoxmaurebaSi meie yvelafer amas uwodebs sosiuris warmmar-
Tvel princips: «dasrulebuli sistemis gareT ar arsebobs mecnieruli WeSmariteba,
sistemisa, romelic yovel faqts mis Sesabamis adgils uCens» (cf. f.d.s., gv. 82)

50
es moTxovna, rom “langue” marto TviTon ki ar unda iyos >dasrule-
buli sistema<, aramed Teoriac aseTive unda hqondes, >es punqti<
marTlac >qmnis sirTules< da TavisTavad misi gageba Znelia. mag-
ram am sosiuriseul gamonaTqvamebSi yvelaze ufro damafiqrebeli
CvenTvis mainc enis sistemis sisruleze xazgasmaa. Tuki sistemis
Sesaxeb mosazrebebSi igulisxmeba warmodgenebi Tavis TavSi Cake-
til mTlianobaze 49 , maSin aucileblad Cndeba kiTxva, rogor
eTanxmeba enis (“langue”), rogorc sistemis aRqma am cnebis warmomav-
lobas arsebul enaTa simravlisa da gansxvavebulobis >gadamwyve-
ti faqtidan<? rogorc Cven wina TavSi vixileT, swored am garemo-
ebiT aixsneboda “langage”-is cnebis Secvla “langue”-s cnebiT. sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, rogor SeiZleboda “la langue” yofiliyo >Ta-
vis TavSi erTiani< anu aRqmuliyo rogorc >mTliani<, Tuki >Cven-
Tvis es cneba sacnauri mxolod gansxvavebul enaTa seriaSia<?
amgvari mimarTeba enaTmecnierebis sagnis, rogorc sistemis koncefci-
asa da im Tvalsazriss Soris, rom enaTmecnieruli mosazrebani auci-
leblad arsebul enaTa simravlidan unda amodiodes, SeiZleba sakma-
od moulodneli aRmoCndes, miT ufro Tuki mxolod kursis struqtu-
ras daeyrdnobi, romelSic es ori Tema mkafiod da pirwmindadaa erT-
maneTisagan gancalkevebuli.
magram, albaT, ar SevcdebiT, Tuki vivaraudebT, rom bali da seSe
swored am uxerxuli sakiTxis Tavidan aridebas cdilobdnen, roca,
rogorc vnaxeT, sosiuris zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil III sa-
leqcio kurss ar misdies im TvalsazrisiT, rac >1. les langues, 2. la lan-
gue< Tanmimdevrobas exeboda da sistemis idea ganixiles kursis dasaw-
yisSi. Tumca is, rom am manipulaciiT es sakvanZo SemecnebiT-Teori-
uli problema, romelzec Cven III kursis struqturasTan dakavSirebiT
vlaparakobdiT, ar gadaWrila da mxolod gadavadda, aSkarad gamoC-
nda mogvianebiT kursSic, kerZod ki enaTmecnierebis Sinagani da gare-
gani zonebis diferencirebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli siZneleebis
gaSuqebis dros.

gareT, magram mainc SigniT.


enis geografiuli damokidebulebani

Tuki “la langue” aris iseTi >sistema, romelic mxolod sakuTar wes-
rigs uSvebs<, maSin, jer erTi, Cndeba kiTxva, Tu zustad ras warmo-
adgens >enis sakuTari wesrigi< da, meorec, isaxeba amocana, rom gai-
mijnos yvelaferi, rac ki am wesrigs ar miekuTvneba:

49
rasac TavisTavad iTvaliswinebs struqturalizmis j. piaJeseuli ganmarteba: “aq, Ta-
visTavad, igulisxmeba struqturaTa Taviseburebebisa Tu mTlianobis sruli erTianoba,
radgan struqturaTa da mravalwevrian sidideTa, e. w. agregatTa Soris im erTaderT
saerTo sagans, razec yvela struqturalisti Tanxmdeba, warmoadgens swored es sru-
liad damoukidebeli elementebisagan Seqmnili warmonaqmni. albaT, arsebobs am ele-
mentTa raime struqturac, magram eseni emorCilebian mxolod im kanonebs, romelic axa-
siaTebs sistemas, rogorc aseTs; da es e. w. struqturuli kanonebi reducirdebian ara
kumulaciur asociaciebamde, aramed aniWeben am elementTa mTlianobas, rogorc aseTs,
sxvadasxva saerTo Taviseburebas” (J. Piaget, struqturalizmi, olteni 1973, gv.10)

51
enis [>langue<] Cveneuli definiciis winapirobaa, rom movaridoT mas yvelaferi,
rac ki ucxoa misi organizmisaTvis, misi sistemisaTvis, erTi sityviT, yvela-
feri, rac miekuTvneba enaTmecnierebis gareT arsebul zonas [>tout ce qu’on désig-
ne par le terme de “linguistique externe”<]. 50
imisaTvis, rom enam “la langue”, rogorc iseTma sistemam, >romelic
mTlianad Tavis TavSia<, TviTdamkvidreba SeZlos, >Cven unda movari-
doT mas yvelaferi, rac ki ucxoa misi organizmisaTvis<. es moTxovna
sruliad marTebulia da Tavidan yvelaferi ise midis, TiTqos arc
araferi edgas win am moTxovnis Sesrulebas, kerZod ki _ mkafio
zRvaris gavlebas >enaTmecnierebis Sinagan< da >garegan zonebs< So-
ris, rac imTaviTve iyo enis sistemad definiciis gardauvali winapi-
roba. yovel SemTxvevaSi kursSi vrceli komentaris gareSe CamoTvli-
lia mTeli rigi im >punqtebisa<, romlebic emijneba >Sida zonas< da,
rogorc Cans, erTmniSvnelovnad miekuTvneba >enaTmecnierebis gare
zonas<. gansakuTrebulad aRniSnulia da Tanac zustad am Tanmimdev-
robiT “yvela is punqti, romelTa meSveobiTac enaTmecniereba
eTnologias ukavSirdeba” 51 , “yvela kavSiri, romelic ki SeiZleba ar-
sebobdes romelime enis [>langue<] istoriasa da rasis, an civiliza-
ciis kulturis [>civilisation<] istorias Soris”. 52 SemdegSi modis “kav-
Sirebi politikur istoriasTan” 53 da “enis [>langue<] kavSirebi yvela
saxis dawesebulebasTan, eklesiasTan, skolebTan da a.S.” 54
am CamonaTvalis bolos mainc Cndeba erTi iseTi punqti, romlis
gamijvna >enaTmecnierebis Sida zonidan<, rogorc Cans, cota ufro
met sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli:
da bolos, enaTmecnierebis gare zonas miekuTvneba yvelaferi, rac ki Seexeba
enis [>langue<] geografiul gavrcelebasa da dialeqtebad danawevrebas. es,
ueWvelad, warmoadgens im punqts, romlis drosac enis [>langue<] gare da
Sida zonebs Soris gansxvavebuloba yvelaze paradoqsulad mJRavndeba,
imdenad mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli geografiuli kavSirebi ama Tu im enis
[>langue<] arsebobasTan; da amis miuxedavad, isini sinamdvileSi saerTod ar
exebian idiomis Sida organizms. 55
garkveulwilad, kursis SesavalSi saqme gvaqvs gaZevebulis uecar
dabrunebasTan, Tumca es xdeba sakmaod uSualod, laparakia mxolod
>enis geografiul gavrcelebulobaze<. Tu rogor xdeba is, rom >ge-
ografiuli kavSirebi<, >Tuki isini marTla ase >mWidrod arian dakav-
Sirebuli yoveli enis arsebobasTan<, >idiomis Sida organizms si-
namdvileSi aRar exebian<, am >enaTmecnierebis gare da Sida zonebis
gansxvavebulobis< paradoqsze kursis SesavalSi aRaraferia naTqvami.
xolo is sakiTxi, romelic “geografiuli kavSirebis” Temis kursSi am
pirveli, xanmokle gamoCenis Sedegad gaurkveveli rCeba da III kursTan
argumentirebuli kavSiris damyarebis gareSe, albaT, aseve darCeba,
ukavSirdeba imas, Tu ratom aris >geografiuli kavSirebi< enasTan

50
GRF, gv.24; CLG/D, gv. 40; CLG/E (I), gv. 59, Nr.372-374;
51
GRF, gv.24; CLG/D, gv. 40; CLG/E (I), gv. 59f, Nr.375-376;
52
GRF, gv.24; CLG/D, gv. 40; CLG/E (I), gv. 60, Nr.377;
53
GRF, gv.24; CLG/D, gv. 40; CLG/E (I), gv. 60, Nr.381;
54
GRF, gv.25; CLG/D, gv. 41; CLG/E (I), gv. 61, Nr.389;
55
GRF, gv.25; CLG/D, gv. 41; CLG/E (I), gv. 61f, Nr.393-395;

52
ufro mWidrod dakavSirebuli, vidre magaliTad, >politikuri isto-
ria<, an Tundac >kulturis istoria<.
miuxedavad imisa, rom bals da seSes TavianTi formulireba aSkarad
ar akmayofilebT, SemdegSi mainc aRar ubrundebian am paradoqsul
punqts. kursis meoTxe nawilis dasawyisSi isini kvlav ubrundebian
>enaTmecnierebis Sida< zonis >gare< zonisagan gamijvnis sakiTxs,
magram amjerad >geografiuli kavSirebis< gamijvna >enaTmecnierebis
Sida zonisgan< yovelgvari damatebiTi SeniSvnisa da axsna- ganmarte-
bis gareSe xdeba:
Tavi I: enaTa [>langues<] gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb
rodesac Cndeba kiTxva, ra kavSiri arsebobs zogadad enasa [>phénomène linguisti-
que<] da sivrceSi mis gavrcelebas Soris, maSin unda datovo enaTmecnierebis
Sida zona da gadainacvlo gare zonebSi [...] 56
Tumca arsebobs erTi faqti, romelic adasturebs balisa da seSes mi-
er arCeuli im gzis siswores, romelic ukavSirdeba >sivrceSi gavr-
celebulobis< erTmniSvnelovan gamijvnas im problemaTagan, romle-
bic >zogadad enasTanaa< dakavSirebuli. kerZod, laparakia sosiuris
mier wakiTxuli zogadi enaTmecnierebis pirveli, gansakuTrebiT ki
meore saleqcio kursis konspeqtebze, sadac mTeli pasaJebi moipoveba,
romlebSic dadasturebulia >geografiul kavSirTa< paradoqsuli mi-
kuTvnebuloba >enaTmecnierebis gare zonisadmi<. 57
sosiuris mesame kursis degalieseul CanawerebSi ki, piriqiT, moipo-
veba erTi iseTi adgili (rac wina TavebSi Catarebuli kvlevebis Sem-
deg CvenTvis moulodneli arc unda yofiliyo), romelic adasturebs
>geografiul kavSirTa< mikuTvnebulobas >enaTmecnierebis Sida
zonisadmi<:
enis [>langue<] kvlevis dros Cven ganvixilavT ufro garegnul mxares, xolo
Sida mxariT ufro enaTa [>langues<] istoriis kvlevis dros vinteresdebiT
xolme, [...] enebi [>langues<]: konkretuli sagani, romelic dedamiwis zedapirze
arsebobs. ena [>langue<]: is, rasac lingvisti dainaxavs abstragirebisa Tu
drosa da sivrceSi Seswavlis Semdeg.
Tavi I: enaTa [>langues<] gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb 58
degalies es Canawerebi imdenad elifsuri xasiaTisaa, rom Znelad Tu
gascems saboloo pasuxs iseT rTul SekiTxvaze, Tu enaTmecnierebis
romel zonas miekuTvneba >enis geografiuli kavSirebi<. magram rac
SeiZleba jerjerobiT danamdvilebiT iTqvas, aris is, rom >enis geog-
rafiuli kavSirebi< garkveulad susti wertili aRmoCnda >enis, ro-
gorc sistemis, definiciaSi<. magram ratom aris mainc aseTi rTuli
>enis geografiuli kavSirebis< erTmniSvnelovani sizustiT >enaTmec-
nierebis gare<, an >Sida< zonisTvis mikuTvneba? an sxvagvarad Tu
davsvamT kiTxvas, ra aris >geografiul kavSirebSi< iseTi, rac saeW-
vos xdis enaTmecnierebis mkafio dayofas >Sida< da >gare zonebad<
da, aqedan gamomdinare, enis, rogorc sistemis, definicias?
roca kursis meoTxe nawilSi eZeb im problemas, rasac qmnis >geogra-
fiuli kavSirebi< enis, rogorc sistemis, definiciis procesSi, ueWve-

56
GRF, gv. 228; CLG/D, gv. 261; CLG/E (I), gv. 435, Nr.2846;
57
Seadr. CLG/E (I), gv. 61/62; ix. agreTve SM/G, gv. 64 da gansakuTrebiT gv. 68f.
58
Cf. CLG/E, gv.435, D 9, Nr. 2845-2846.

53
lad TvalSi mogxvdeba Semdegi pasaJi meoTxe paragrafidan (§4: «enebs
[>langues<] bunebrivi sazRvrebi ar gaaCniaT”) 59 :
rogorc imas ver ityvi, Tu sad mTavrdeba literaturuli germanuli da sad
iwyeba dialeqti, aseve <Znelia zRvaris gavleba germanulsa da holandiurs,
frangulsa da italiurs Soris. erTmaneTisagan Zlier daSorebul punqtebSi
kidev SeiZleba, rom kacma gadaWriT Tqvas: “aq gabatonebulia franguli, iq –
italiuri”; magram roca Sualedur raionSi Sedixar, es gansxvaveba maSinve
ikargeba. Tuki warmovidgenT arc Tu ise vrcel, daxurul raions, romelic
or enas [>langues<] Soris sartyeliviT aris gawolili, rogoricaa, magali-
Tad, provansuli frangulsa da italiurs Soris, gansxvavebas mainc ver igr-
Znob. an ki rogor SeiZleba gamokveTili enobrivi sazRvris warmodgena im
raionis meSveobiT, romelic Tavidan moyolebuli bolomde, yovel nabijze
mofenilia sxvadasxva dialeqtiT? rogorc enaTa [>langues<], aseve dialeqtTa
gamijvnebi mkveTri ar aris, radgan isini savsea gardamavali gamovlinebebiT,
romlebic kidev ufro mravldeba ama Tu im mxridan wamosuli sxvadasxvag-
vari ganaxlebis Sedegad. 60
degalies CanawerebSi am dakvirvebasTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi weria:
es igive principia, romlis mixedviTac ar unda arsebobdes mkafio sazRvrebi
enaTa [>langues<] Soris, sazRvari, romelic enebs [>langues<] dialeqtebad yofs.
[...] rogorc ki iqnebian mxolod Ria dialeqtebi, romlebic im talRaTa jami-
dan warmoiSvnen, romlebSic maTac aqvT wili, im wuTidan SeuZlebeli gaxde-
ba dasrulebuli enebis [>langues fernées<] arseboba. 61
an:
bunebriv enaSi [>langue naturelle<] arsebobs mxolod dialeqtebi. Tavis Tavis
imedad datovebuli ena [>langue<] usasrulo danawevrebisaTvisaa ganwiruli
[>est vouée au fractionnement indéfini<]. 62
Tu arsebul enebs ufro zustad davakvirdebiT da vnaxavT, Tu rogor
saubroben germanulad Tu frangulad ama Tu im adgilas, davadgenT,
rom is erTianoba da srulyofileba, romelic winaswar iyo mocemuli
gansazRvruli artikliT “das”, sruliad iTqvifeba sxvadasxva dialeq-
tebsa Tu adgilobriv enaTa simravleSi; rom enebi mudmivad ganicdian
danawevrebis process da amitom >ar SeiZleba arsebobdes dasrulebu-
li enebi<. erTi SexedviT, erTiani enis 63 es daSla uamrav, mezobeli

59
GRF, gv.243; CLG/D, gv. 278; CLG/E (I), gv. 460, Nr.2986;
60
GRF, gv.244; CLG/D, gv. 278f; CLG/E (I), gv. 461f, Nr.2991-2995;
61
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 462, D 26 f., Nr. 2996/2994
62
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 446, D 14, Nr. 2912; jer kidev Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul
Tavisi Jenevuri leqciebis CanawerebSi gamoTqva es azri sosiurma: “rogorc ar arse-
bobs SezRuduli dialeqtebi, aseve normalur pirobebSi ar arsebobs SezRuduli enebi
[>langues<] – aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc vnaxeT, ena [>langue<] – ar warmoadgens iseT si-
dides, romelic gansazRvruli iqneba droSi, an sivrceSi” (Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 14, N.1.3, Nr. 3285);
63
Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebuli Jenevuri kursis CanawerebSi amis Sesaxeb
vkiTxulobT: “ena [>langue<] – diferencirdeba droSi da amave dros diferencirdeba an
diversificirdeba sivrceSi. Tu ganvixilavT enas [>langue<] drois or sxvadasxva monak-
veTSi, identurobas ver aRmovaCenT. arc misi teritoriis or sxvadasxva, erTmaneTs
moSorebul wertilSi iqneba igi Tavis Tavis identuri.” (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 6, N.1.1, Nr. 3283);
cota qveviT aRniSnulia: ”ise xdeba xolme, rom Cven versad gadavawydebiT iseT enas
[>langue<], romelic SeiZleboda mogvCveneboda erTi da igive, anu identuri geografiu-
li TvalsazrisiT.” (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 12, N.1.3, Nr. 3285); amasTan dakavSirebiT ix. agrT.
engleri 1976, gv. 15.

54
enebisgan umniSvnelod gansxvavebul, adgilobriv enebad emTxveva
balisa da seSes mier kursSi gadmocemul sosiuris Teoriis variants
da ara >enis zogad problemas<, ara mis >Sinagan organizms<; sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, enis “langue” TeoriisaTvis Tu enis, rogorc sis-
temisaTvis, igi Sefasebulia rogorc ara marto umniSvnelo, aramed
zedapiruli, SemTxveviTi rame da, aqedan gamomdinare, masze yuradRe-
bis gamaxvilebac ki ar Rirs.
Tu ganvixilavT sakiTxs, Tu sad da rogor laparakoben erTi rome-
lime enis gavrcelebis zonaSi, _ magaliTisTvis, aviRoT franguli, _
an Tundac imas, Tu zustad ra gansxvavebebi arsebobs erTi enis ama
Tu im dialeqts Soris – sruliad aSkara gaxdeba, rom yvela es sa-
kiTxi >enis zogad problemasTan< araa kavSirSi da amitom sruliad
SesaZlebelia maTi gamoyofa >enaTmecnierebis Sida zonisagan<, amiT
ase Tu ise mivyvebiT sosiuris Teoriis balisa da seSeseul variants.
magram roca piriqiT xdeba, anu roca bali da seSe >geografiul kav-
SirTa< Temas mTlianad >enaTmecnierebis gare zonas< miakuTvneben da
amiT mas, >enis zogadi problemis< TvalsazrisiT, meorexarisxovan
mniSvnelobas aniWeben, maSin gana ar gvmarTebs imis garkveva, Tu raSia
saqme, radgan zogadi enaTmecnierebisadmi miZRvnil Tavis bolo sa-
leqcio kursSi sosiuri ara marto amovida >enis zogadi problemi-
dan<, aramed TiTqmis mTeli pirveli semestri miuZRvna swored am
Temas, Tu mcireoden Sesworebebs ar CavTvliT. 64
Tu balis da seSes davujerebT, maSin, Turme, mesame kursis konstruq-
cia migvaniSnebs sosiuris survilze, rogorme Tavi aaridos zedmet
tvirTad Tu iZulebad qceul >enis zogad problemas<. 65 Cveneuli wa-
kiTxvis safuZvelze ki Tavs wamoyofs sxva interpretacia: Tuki sosi-
uri mesame kursSi amxela adgils uTmobs >enis geografiuli gavrce-
lebis Temas<, es, albaT imitom, rom >geografiuli kavSirebis< wya-
lobiT aRmoCnda iseTi ram, rac, erTi mxriv, mniSvnelovania >enis zo-
gadi problemis< miseuli aRqmisaTvis, magram, meore mxriv, iolad Se-
iZleba misi ugulvebelyofa, Tuki “langue”-s sistemas gauazreblad yve-
laze win daayeneb da winaswarve Seracxav enaTmecnierebis >yvelana-
iri SemecnebiT-Teoriuli sirTulis< >gadaWris saSualebad<.

64 Seadr. SM/G, gv. 35 da gv. 77-81.


65
Seadr. Ansätze, gv. 27 ff; etyoba, godelmac aseve aRiqva sosiuris III kursi: “III saleqcio
kursis dasawyisisaTvis Seudga sosiuri bolos da bolos dagegmili dayofis ganxil-
vas da dasabuTebas, magram pirvelive punqtze gaiWeda da mTeli zamTari mas utrialeb-
da. es punqti iyo enebi [>langues<] periferiebSi, anu rogorc Tavad aRniSnavda, “enis
[>langage<] – gare problemebi (geografiuli enaTmecniereba, damwerloba da fonologia,
umniSvnelovanes enobriv ojaxTa Sedgena). mxolod momdevno semestrSi, 1911 wlis 25 ap-
rils gadadis igi meore punqtze: ena [>langue<]. zogadi problemebis Camoyalibeba nel-
nela miiwevs win, Sesworeba-Casworebebis TanxlebiT. semestris damTavrebamde cota
xniT adre, ivnisSi, sosiurma gadawyvita, rom statikur enaTmecnierebas Sesdgomoda da
Tavis bolo leqciaSi (4 ivliss) gamoacxada, rom swored maSin moxaza am sagnis
konturebi.
Cven vimeorebT: mas ar ekisreboda araviTari valdebuleba. Tuki man zogadi enaTmecni-
erebis Sesaxeb leqciebi mxolod or-ori weli ikiTxa, Tuki man enis [>langage<] Teorias
ar miuZRvna mTeli is dro, rac ki mas hqonda daTmobili, amis mizezi unda veZioT gar-
da pedagogiurisa, pirovnul momentebSic: “sul cota, ori-sami Tve mainc mWirdeboda
yvelafris Sesagroveblad, uTxra man a. ridlingers”: igive uTxra l. gotiesac: “sabo-
loo daskvnamde rom mivsuliyavi, Tveebi mWirdeboda mosafiqreblad.” (cf. SM/G, gv. 35)

55
enaTa moZraoba

fenomeni, romelic >geografiul kavSirebTan< mimarTebiT gamoCnda da


romelsac, _ rogorc davinaxavT, _ saetapo mniSvneloba gaaCnia >enis
zogadi problemis< sosiuriseuli aRqmisaTvis, kursis meoTxe nawil-
Sic aris aRwerili, Tanac ideis eqsperimentis saSualebiT:
imisaTvis, rom ukeT gavigoT, Tu rogor mimdinareobs es procesi, Cven Tvi-
Tonve davTqvaT martivi Teoriuli winapirobebi, romlebic sivrceSi TavisTa-
vadi diferencirebis mniSvnelovan mizezebze dakvirvebis saSualebas mogv-
cems; maSasadame, Cven vekiTxebiT sakuTar Tavs, ra moxdeba, Tuki romelime
erT SemosazRvrul adgilas, magaliTad, kunZulze gavrcelebul enas [>lan-
gue<] emigrantebi gadaitanen sxvagan, aseTive SemosazRvrul kunZulze. ramde-
nime xnis Semdeg gamoCndeba, rom sawyisi punqtis (A) enasa [>langue<] da meore
punqtis (A¹) enas [>langue<] Soris SeiniSneba garkveuli cvlilebebi leqsikaSi,
gramatikaSi, gamoTqmaSi da a.S.
ar unda vifiqroT, rom gadanergili idioma marto, TavisTavad icvleba im
dros, roca samSobloSi darCenili idioma ucvlelia. aseve naklebad savara-
udoa piruku procesic. erT mxarezec SeiZleba siaxle moxdes da meore mxa-
rezec, an orive mxareze erTdroulad. 66
rogorc Cans, sosiuris interesi >geografiuli kavSirebisadmi< Tavi-
dan imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom erTi da imave enis lokalur saxesxva-
obaTa mixedviT SeiZleboda imis gageba, Tu rogor icvleboda ena:
aso “u” romelime gansazRvrul garemoSi SeiZleba gaxdes aso “ü”. veravin it-
yvis, Tu ratom Seicvala igi am dros da am adgilas, an ratom iqca igi
maincdamainc “ü”-d da ara “o”-d. magram Tavad cvlileba, misi gansakuTrebuli
mimarTulebisa da gamovlenis gansazRvruli formebis miuxedavad, mokled
rom vTqvaT, enis [>langue<] naklebi mdgradobis miuxedavad, mTlianad drozea
damokidebuli. maSasadame, geografiuli gansxvavebuloba aris sayovelTao
fenomenis gamovlenis meoradi forma. 67
enis mudmivi cvalebadobis im procesis «mTavar mizezad» 68 , romelic
>geografiul gansxvavebulobaSi< gamoixateba, kursSi saxeldeba
«dro», xolo >geografiuli gansxvavebuloba> ki iwodeba >zogadi
fenomenis< >meoradi gamovlenis formad<, anu droSi gadaadgilebad.
Tuki amas ufro dakvirvebiT gavaanalizebT, mivalT Semdeg daskvnamde:
mtkiceba imisa, rom ena droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba sulac ar aris
pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu ratom icvleba ena. albaT, sworia is, rom enis
cvlileba droTa ganmavlobaSi Tavis gamoxatulebas poulobs >ge-
ografiul gansxvavebulobaSi< da amis gamo >geografiuli gansxvave-
buloba< unda miviCnioT meoreulad, Tumca es mainc ar aris pasuxi
kiTxvaze, Tu rogor xdeba, rom enebi droTa ganmavlobaSi icvlebian,
anu riTi sabuTdeba enis droSi cvalebadobis >zogadi fenomeni<.
III kursis momzadebisas gakeTebul sosiuriseul CanawerebSi moinaxeba
erTi saintereso formulireba am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romelic
mere kursSi aRar gvxvdeba. Semdegi sakvanZo sityvebis _ ”erTiani enis

66
GRF, gv.236; CLG/D, gv. 270; CLG/E (I), gv. 449f, Nr.2934-2936; Seadr. amasTan dakavSirebiT S.
Auroux: “La catégorie du parler et la linguistique », in: Romantisme 25-26, 1979, gv. 157-178.
67
GRF, gv.237f; CLG/D, gv. 272; CLG/E (I), gv. 452, Nr.2948-2950;
68
Seadr. GRF, gv. 235ff, “Tavi III. geografiuli saxesxvaobebis mizezebi. §1. mTavari mizezi
– dro”.

56
diversifikacia [>une langue originairement une<] dasawyisSi. adgilze
danawevrebis principi” 69 _ meSveobiT sosiuri Tavidan zustad iseve
iqceva, rogorc kursis eqsperimentuli ideis SemTxvevaSi, anu amodis
“gansazRvrul momentSi erTenovani, geografiulad SemosazRvruli
teritoriidan” 70 da adgens, rom am raionSi garkveuli xnis Semdeg
moxdeba enis Secvla:
es aris drois [>Temps<] Sedegi an principi, rom ena [>langue<] icvleba droSi
[>Temps<]. 71
Cven aq davadgineT kursis variantisgan gansxavavebuli erTi patara,
Tumca mniSvnelovani niuansi. marTalia, cvlileba aRwerilia, ro-
gorc >drois Sedegi<, magram gadaWriT aravin amtkicebs, rom dro
aris swored cvlilebis mizezi. 72 ufro metad saubaria im >princip-
ze<, >rom ena droSi icvleba<. da Tu ra principia es, sosiuri gan-
martavs Tavis CanawerebSi ramdenime gverdis Semdeg:
ar arsebobs absoluturi umoZraobis magaliTi [>immobilité absolue<]. absolu-
turi aris mxolod enis [>langue<] droSi moZraobis principi. moZraobis, rome-
lic sxvadasxvanairad mimdinareobs da situaciis Sesabamisad xan Cqaria, xan
kidev neli, magram yovelTvis gardauvali [>fatalement<]. mas veraferi SeaCerebs:
SeiZleba omebiT, ajanyebebiTa Tu areulobebiT, erovnuli krizisebiT amoZra-
vebul periodebSi ki aCqardes, rogorc amas xSirad amtkiceben; magram amas
ara aqvs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, radgan TviT yvelaze mSvid periodSic ki
SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, rom enis [>langue<] dineba, Tuki mas >drois garkveuli
monakveTis< ganmavlobaSi zemodan, an qvemodan daakvirdebi, yovelTvis Tanab-
rad erTnairia da ara aqvs mniSvneloba, xandaxan wyaldidoba Tu gamoereva.
zogad faqts SemTxveviTisTvis swirav, Tuki maincdamainc im safuZvlebs aiCe-
meb, romelTac >xandaxan< am moZraobis aCqareba SeuZliaT; isic sakmarisia,
rom es moZraoba Seuryeveli, bunebrivi, yovelgvari garegani garemoebisagan
damoukidebelia. 73
aqedan gamomdinare, >zogadi fenomeni<, romlis >meorad gamovlineba-
dac< >geografiuli gansxvavebulobani< gvevlineba, rogorc es kurs-
Sia axsnili, aris ara ubralod dro, aramed >enis droSi moZraobis
absoluturi principi<, im >moZraobis<, romelic aris >gardauvali<,
>SeuCerebeli<, >uryevi< da romelic >yovelgvar garemoebaSi< agrZe-
lebs Tavis svlas.
roca sosiuris CanawerebSi am >absoluturi principis< sxva formu-
lirebebs iZieb, adgen, rom maTze laparaki iyo jer kidev Tanamdebo-
bis dakavebasTan dakavSirebuli Jenevuri leqciebis mosamzadebel
CanawerebSi:
vinc <Tavdapirvel iluziebs ayveba> da franguls raRac umoZrao sidided
warmoidgens, <axla Tu ara, odesme> mainc Zalauneburad miva im azramde, rom
araferi esmis iqidan, rac moxda 1500-1900-iani wlebis <drois monakveTSi>: ma-

69
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 446, N. 23.1, Nr.2919
70
Ibid.
71
Ibid.
72
Seadr. agreTve GRF, gv. 92; CLG/D gv.112; CLG/E (I), gv.174, Nr. 1294-1296; da M. Arrivé : « Saussure:
le temps et la symbolisation», in : R. Liver, I. Werlen, P. Wunderli (gamomc.) : enis Teoria da enaT-
mecnierebis Teoria. istoria da perspeqtivebi, tiubingeni 1990, gv. 37-47, gansakuTrebiT
gv. 43f.
73
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 318f, N. 23.1, Nr.2205-2206.

57
Sasadame, mouxdeba naxtomis [>saut<] gakeTeba: naxtomis erTi monakveTidan me-
oreze, erTi dartymiT, TiTqos jadosnuri joxi agiqnevia, an iseTi <daujere-
beli> gamocxadeba giwamebia [>enfantement inouï<], romlis meSveobiTac erTi
idioma meores sicocxles Cuqnis. [...] bunebrivad iReb, rom enis [>langue<] am
or warmosaxviT naxtoms Soris ena ganisvenebs wonasworobisa da simSvidis
mdgomareobaSi, Tundac marto gawonasworebul mdgomareobaSi, rac naxtome-
bis sapirwoned SeiZleba gamodges, Tumca sinamdvileSi arasdros, arc erT
enaSi [>langage<, sic] ar arsebobs <Camoyalibebuli>, stabiluri wonasworoba.
maSasadame, Cven vamkvidrebT enaTa [>langues<] ganuwyvetel cvalebadobas, ro-
gorc absolutur princips. ar arsebobs arc erTi SemTxveva, romlis drosac
SeiZleba idioma uZraobisa Tu simSvidis mdgomareobaSi ganisvenebdes. 74
sanam ufro dawvrilebiT gavaSuqebdiT im sakiTxs, Tu ras niSnavs
zustad sosiuris mier >absoluturad< Seracxuli >enaTa droSi moZ-
raobis< principi, sanam gamoviZiebdiT, Tu saidan modis es moZraoba,
romelsac uklebliv yvelaferi emorCileba, rac ki enasTan aris da-
kavSirebuli, Zalauneburad agekviateba Cveni argumentaciisaTvis uaR-
resad mniSvnelovani pirveli debuleba: >Tuki >geografiuli kavSire-
bidan gamomdinare< naTelia, rom enebi mudmivad miedinebian da am di-
nebaSi mudmivad icvlebian, maSin Cndeba safuZvliani eWvi kursis im
amosavali postulatis mimarT, romlis mixedviTac enaTmecnierebis
ZiriTadi SemecnebiT-Teoriuli problemis >gasaRebi< mdgomareobs
imaSi, rom igi unda amovides enidan [>langue<], rogorc sistemidan.
sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, maradiuli moZraobidan gamomdinare faqtis
meSveobiT, romlis mixedviTac >enebs bunebrivi sazRvari ara aqvT<,
gamoCnda pirveli zRvari enis, rogorc sistemis, aRqmis gzaze. Tuki
enaTa sxvadasxvaoba >enaTmecnierebis gadamwyvet faqtad< marTlac se-
riozulad unda iqnas aRqmuli, Tuki >enaTa droSi moZraobis abso-
lutur princips< namdvilad unda gaewios angariSi, maSin arc “lan-
gue”-s sistema da arc enis sistemad warmodgena zogadi enaTmecniere-
bis dasawyisSive ar unda CaiTvalos maTi problemebis >gasaRebad<,
ase xom “la langue” darCeba enaTmecnierebis Soreul miznad, erTgvar
SeerTebis xazad azrovnebis horizontze.
gavixsenoT, Tu ras werda sosiuri meies:
sabolood xom mxolod enis [>langue<] im mxatvruli mxaris mimarT SemomrCa
interesi, riTac igi yvela sxvaTagan gansxvavdeba, radgan ekuTvnis gansazRv-
ruli warmomavlobis gansazRvrul xalxs, es TiTqmis eTnografiuli aspeqti-
Ra SemomrCa: da swored is netareba aRmoCnda CemTvis SeuZlebeli, rom am
kvlevebs yovelgvari ukana azrebis gareSe mivece da davtkbe im gansakuTre-
buli SemTxveviT, romelic gansakuTrebul garemoebebs ganekuTvneba, maincda-
mainc am siamovnebas aRmovCndi amieridan moklebuli.
swored arsebuli terminologiis absoluturi uvargisoba, im reformis auci-
lebloba, romelmac unda aCvenos, Tu ra sagania ena zogadad [>langue en géné-
ral<] aris is, rac mudmivad miSlis xels istoriuli siamovnebis miRebaSi,

74
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 8, N 1.2, Nr. 3284; a. prosdiCimis 1983 wels gamoqveynebul sosiuris
CanawerSi vkiTxulobT: “radgan marTlac aucilebelia, rom erTxel da samudamod
avmaRldeT im Zvel Sexedulebaze, romlis mixedviTac umoZraoba da erTianoba enis
[>langue<] normaluri daniSnulebaa, yovel SemTxvevaSi, imaze normaluri mainc, vidre
cvalebadoba, moZraoba da gansxvavebuloba“ (cf. A. Prosdicimi: “Sul Saussure delle leggende germa-
niche”, in: CFS 37, 1983, gv. 95); mTeli fragmentis Targmani ix. in Texte, gv. 415.

58
Tumca imaze metad araferze vocnebob, rom amieridan mainc aRaraferi mqon-
des sadavo zogadad enasTan [>langue en général<]. 75

radgan bali da seSe “la langue”-s kursis dasawyisSi ayeneben, xolo


>geografiul kavSirebs< bevri yoymanis gareSe >enaTmecnierebis gare
zonaSi< aTavseben, amiT gverds uvlian enobrivi azrovnebis sosiuri-
seul kompleqsurobas. marTalia, am gamartivebis meSveobiT kursis ga-
momcemlebma gza gauxsnes sosiuris swavlebis Semdgom epoqalur war-
matebas, Tumca amave dros saTave daudes, Tu ar daaswres sosiuris
naazrevis Semoklebul, sciencistur (mxolod mecnierebaze da ara
rwmenaze dafuZnebuli Sexeduleba, mTrgmn. SeniSvna) interpretacias,
sistemis ideis ukritikod wamowevas da gaubraloebas, rac damaxasia-
Tebelia struqturalizmisaTvis. 76
iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos bali da seSe yvelafer imis Teo-
riisgan gamoyofas cdilobdnen, rac ki xels SeuSlida maT, rom sa-
Tayvanebeli maswavleblis moZRvreba misi gardacvalebis Semdeg mainc
warmoedginaT >dasrulebuli sistemis< saxiT. radganac kursis gamom-
cemelni moxibluli iyvnen sosiuris sistemis ideiT da masSi samar-
Tlianad xedavdnen mecnieruli TvalsazrisiT epoqalur siaxles, isi-
ni yvelanairad Seecadnen, rom am Teoriis periferiaSi gadaesrolaT
yvelaferi, rac ki maTi TvalsazrisiT eWvqveS daayenebda sosiuris mi-
er Seqmnili sistemis srulyofilebas. 77 Tuki am izolaciuri Jestis
ganxorcielebisas isini ar wayvnen III kursis struqturas da >geog-
rafiuli kavSirurTierTobebi< ganixiles wignis boloSi, rogorc
>enaTmecnierebis gare zonis< nawili, es ara imdenad imitom, rom >ge-
ografiuli kavSirurTierTobebi< meoreuli iyo da >enis zogad prob-
lemasTan< araferi hqonda saerTo, ramdenadac imis gamo, rom >geog-
rafiuli kavSirurTierTobebis< meSveobiT SeiZleboda safrTxe da-
muqreboda “langue”-s sistemis im srulyofilebas, kursi rom ase gu-
lubryvilod eyrdnoboda.

75
Cf. LAM, gv. 95.
76
es zedmeti xazgasma kargad Cans im zemoT ukve citirebul, eiforiul frazebSi, ri-
Tac levi-strosi xsnis Tavis programul narkvevs “struqturalizmi enaTmecnierebasa
da anTropologiaSi”, Seadr. Ansätze, gv. 22. sizustisaTvis aqve unda davamatoT, rom le-
vi-strosma mogvianebiT ganmarta Tavisi koncefcia sistemis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebiT ix.
misi mosazrebani “bricolage”-is Sesaxeb in: veluri azrovneba, mainis frankfurti 1968, gv.
29-48
77
bali da seSe TavianT “SesavalSi” sityvasityviT Semdegs weren: “Cveni mTavari mizani
mdgomareobda imaSi, rom dagvedgina organuli kavSiri da ar gamogvetovebina araferi,
rac ki xels Seuwyobda Tavis TavSi Caketili erTianobis STabeWdilebis Seqmnas” (GRE,
gv. X). Cven ukve mivuTiTeT im kritikul gamoxmaurebebze, romlebic gamoiTqva
gamomcemelTa am warmarTveli principis sawinaaRmdegod. upirveles yovlisa ki p. f.
regaris pirvel recenziaze, romelic kursis gamosvlisTanave daiwera. (Seadr. Ansätze,
gv. 27 ff. da gv. 46 f. agreTve Texte, gv. 27 f.). yvelaze mZafri kritika ki mainc r.
iakobsons ekuTvnis, romelmac 1972 wels Collège de France-Si Catarebuli leqciis dros
aRniSna: “roca Cven am teqsts vaanalizebT da mas im realur konspeqtebs vadarebT,
romelTa mixedviTac moxda misi redaqtireba, viRebT aranormalurad did sxvaobas.
teqsti marTlac rom ara marto redaqtirebulia, aramed gavbedav da vityvi, rom
modificirebulia. amas vacxadeb mTeli seriozulobiT, garda erTi punqtisa – da es
aris apokrifuli teqsti. [...] Secvlilia stili. sadac sosiuri kiTxvis niSans svams, iq
redaqtorebi svamen wertils. rac SekiTxva iyo, is gaxda dogma. [...] CvenTvis sosiuri
iyo didi skeptikosi, romelic yovelTvis problemis orive mxares xedavda. [...] es aris
dramatuli, WeSmariti sosiuri” (cf. F. Marchand: “ Roman Jakobson á Paris”, in: L’education 132,
1972, gv.11).

59
sosiuris azrovnebis originaloba da siZliere ki am dros swored
imaSi mdgomareobda, rom man Tavi ar aarida sistemasa da moZraobas
Soris arsebul daZabulobas da imisda miuxedavad, gamouvida Tu ara,
yvelanairad Seecada mainc, rom sistema da moZraoba erTad
gaeazrebina da ganeviTarebina iseTi sistema, romelic moZraobas ki
ar gamoricxavs, aramed mis aucilebel principadac ki Tvlis.
ideurad arasworia da arc problemis gadaWris gasaRebs warmoadgens,
roca sivrcesa da droSi gaxsniloba miewereba mxolod “les langues”-s,
Tanac es xdeba mxolod im mizniT, rom “la langue”-m, rogorc
dasrulebulma sistemam, SeZlos Tavis damkvidreba. 78 Tuki Cven “la
langue” gvevlineba mxolod sxvadasxva enaTa seriaSi, Tuki “la langue”-s
SeuZlia gaamarTlos is molodini, rom igi unda iyos yvelaferi imis
>ganzogadeba<, >rac yoveli gansazRvruli enisaTvis warmoadgens
sinamdviles<, maSin misi sistemac imgvarad unda iyos
konstruirebuli, rom misTvis aRar iyos dauSvebeli arsebul enaTa
danawevrebuloba da Riaoba.
sosiuris skepticizmis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamovTqvamT aseT varauds:
miuxedavad imisa, rom sosiuri gamudmebiT eZiebda enis srulyofil
sistemas (da Teorias), igi mainc yoymanobda da ar Cqarobda Tavisi
Teoriis dasrulebas, da es ara iZulebiTi skepsisis gamo, aramed
imitomac, rom enis moZraoba-ganviTarebis sakiTxi mas TeoriisaTvis
aranakleb mniSvnelovnad miaCnda, vidre enis sistema. kidev ufro
zustad rom vTqvaT, Tuki sosiuri >enis SeuCerebel, yovelgvar
garegan garemoebaze damoukidebel moZraobas droSi< (razec
laparakia mis CanawerebSi) marTla >absolutur principad< Tvlida,
Tuki >enaTa simravlis gadamwyveti faqti< marTlac seriozul
sabuTad unda CaiTvalos, maSin mis mier Zebnili sistema unda iyos
iseTi, romelSic am princips Tavisi ideuri adgili eqneba Tundac
amis gamo Teoriis srulyofilebas, >mTlianobas< ziani adgebodes, an
Znelad aRsaqmeli xdebodes. is skepticizmi, romelic sosiurs xels
uSlida Tavisi swavlebis saboloo, anu sistemis saxiT
CamoyalibebaSi, SegviZlia gavigoT iseT ramed, rac mis TeoriaSi
sakmao adgils tovebs >enis moZraoba-ganviTarebis absolutur
principze< dasafiqreblad. an sxvagvarad Tu vityviT, am skepticizmSi
gamosWvivis gageba imisa, rom “la langue”-s enis sistemad warmodgena
erTdroulad SeiZleba iyos problemac da misi >gasaRebic<, pasuxic
da SekiTxvac.
magram Cven win vuswrebT movlenebs. jer unda gavarkvioT, Tu saidan
modis saerTod, sosiuris mier dadgenili >enaTa moZraoba droSi<.

78
Seadr. amasTan dakavSirebiT Bierbach 1979, gv. 30

60
VI. enis(ebis) cirkulacia
sosiuris CanawerebSi sxvadasxva adgilas moiZebneba miTiTeba imaze,
Tu saidan modis >enis SeuCerebeli moZraoba droSi<, rac Tavis
gamoxatulebas poulobs >geografiul kavSirurTierTobebSi<. yvela-
ze saintereso, amosaval da xelsayrel wertilad, albaT, mainc is
mosazrebebi unda CaiTvalos, romelic sosiurma erT TemasTan daakav-
Sira. es Tema kidev ufro Sorsaa kursSi moniSnuli, vidre >enaTmec-
nierebis Sida zona<, vidre >enis geografiuli kavSirurTierTobebi<
_ mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs sosiuris gamokvlevebi germanul legendebTan
dakavSirebiT. sanam sosiuris memkvidreobaSi arsebul, nibelungebis
simRerisadmi miZRvnil am CanawerebSi im mosazrebas movZebniT, ro-
melic Seicavs cnobebs >enis droSi moZraobis< Sesaxeb, manamde mok-
led unda ganvmartoT sosiuris germanul legendebze muSaobis kon-
teqsti da garemoebani.
rogorc ukve vaxseneT, nibelungebis simReraze muSaoba droSi emTxve-
va sosiuris Jenevuri leqciebis sam kurss. 79 a. prosdoCimis 80
Tanaxmad, germanuli legendebis sosiuriseuli kvlevebis amosaval
wertilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos is ramdenime moxseneba, romelic man
erTmaneTis miyolebiT waikiTxa Jenevis istorikosTa da arqeologTa
sazogadoebaSi (“Socité d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Genève”), kerZod, 1901
wlis 28 marts - Le nom da ville d’Oron á l’époque romaine 81 , 1903 wlis 29
ianvars - Origine de quelques noms de lieux de la région genevoise 82 , 1904 wlis 15
dekembers – Les Burgondes et la langue bourgonde en pays roman. 83 am mesame
moxsenebaSi ukve Camoyalibebulia is ZiriTadi azri, romlis
garSemoc brunavs is «moTminebiT Catarebuli gamokvlevebi» 84 , rasac
eweoda sosiuri im droidan moyolebuli TiTqmis sicocxlis
bolomde: romandiis da savoiis dasaxlebul punqtTa dasaxelebebis
simravlis gamo, “romelTa warmoSoba met-naklebi sizustiT
SeiZleboda burgundiisaTvis migewera”, 85 SeiZleboda im varaudis

79
Seadr. R. Engler: “Sémiologies sausuriennes; 1. De l’existence du signe”, in: CFS 29, 1974-75, gv. 58
80
Prosdocimi 1983, gv. 42 ff.; aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom jer kidev sosiuris 1894 wlis uiTnisadmi
miZRvnil CanawerebSi moiZebneba vrceli pasaJi, romelSic saubaria miTologiasa da
lingvistikas Soris arsebul kavSirze. Seadr. Texte, gv. 326 f. da iqve gv. 519 ff (werili
meiesadmi 1906 wlis 12 noemberi). aRniSvnis Rirsia agreTve, rom a. ganis moxsenebis Ta-
naxmad, sosiuri, im sxvadasxvagvar gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT, rac man miiRo laipcig-
Si Tavisi Mémoire-is gamosvlis Semdeg, 1880 wlidan moyolebuli cdilobda, enaTmecni-
erebas CamoSoreboda da mis nacvlad germanuli sagmiro eposis kvlevaze gadarTuli-
yo. (Seadr. danarTi, gv. 526). sosiuris adreuli interesi germanuli legendebisadmi do-
kumenturad dasturdeba saleqcio kursis im angariSebSic, romelic man warmoadgina
1881-1891 wlebis manZilze parizis Ecole des Hautes Etudes-Si. (Seadr. amasTan dakavSirebiT
M. Fleury: “Notes et documents sur Ferdinand de Saussure (1880-1891)”, in: Annuaire de l’EPHE, IV section,
Sciences historiques et philologiques, 1964/65, gv. 35-67), agreTve hunTa mefis, atilas saxelTan da-
kavSirebul SeniSvnebSi Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebul Jenevur saleqcio
kursSi 1891 wels (Seadr. Texte, gv. 249). nibelungebis simRerisadmi miZRvnili Tavisi bo-
lo leqcia sosiurma waikiTxa JenevaSi 1904 wels (Seadr. CLG/D, gv. 343 agreTve danarTi,
gv. 545).
81
Journal de Genéve, 7. April 1901 [Résumé], in: REC, gv. 604f.
82
Bulletin de Socité d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Genève 2, 1903, gv. 342, in: REC, gv.605.
83
Bulletin de Socité d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Genève 2, 1906-13, gv. 342, in: REC, gv.606.
84
Cf. SM/G, gv.28.
85
Cf. REC, gv. 606.

61
daSveba, rom “burgundielebis romanizacia ar momxdara merve
saukunemde” 86 , amitomac sosiuris winaSe dadga sakiTxi “Tu ra
wvlili SeiZleba miuZRodeT burgundiel helvecielebs epikuri
legendis «nibelungebis» genezissa da gavrcelebaSi”. 87
Tuki am sakiTxis seriozuli aRqma moxdeboda, maSin ixsneboda sosi-
uris droisaTvis uCveulo perspeqtiva nibelungebis simReris istori-
uli klasifikaciisaTvis:
kargad Tu davakvirdebiT <im> mosazrebebs, romlebic ekuTvniT amJamindel
kritikosebs da romelTa mixedviT yvelafris <safuZveli unda iyos> vormsis
samefo, mivalT imgvar istoriul <daskvnebamde>, romlebic orjer ufro me-
tad gabedulia, vidre Cveni [...]. maSin ratom ar unda CavTvaloT nibelungebis
simRera istoriuli TvalsazrisiT araCveulebriv ganZad? ase xom Cvens Tval-
win gadaiSleboda burgundiis im patara samefos mTeli cxovreba, dawyebuli
435 wlidan, romlis arsebobac qronikebSi mxolod orjer moxseniebiT Tu
dasturdeba, Tanac rogori Seudarebeli detalebiT! istoriis xvreli amoiv-
seboda mdidari >wyaroTi<. magram es garkveul daeWvebasac iwvevs, romelsac
mivyavarT iqamde, rom vTqvaT Semdegi: an mTeli es vrceli [>copieuse<] legenda
aris fantaziis nayofi, rac daujerebelia, an kidev, Tuki igi TamaSdeba gar-
kveul istoriul fonze [>si elle court sur un fond historique<], maSin yvelaferi mi-
uTiTebs imaze, rom igi TamaSdeba iseT istoriuli fonze, romelic absolu-
turad nacnobia mematianeTaTvis, Seswavlilia maT mier da zustad Seesabameba
imas, rasac Tavad [legenda] mogviTxrobs. amgvarad, rogorc ki vivaraudebT,
rom moTxrobis Sinaarsi gamogonili [>factice<] ar aris, mzera TavisTavad gag-
veqceva im erTaderTi burgundiuli samefosaken, >romelic istorikosebisaT-
vis warmoadgens mTel korpuss<, kerZod ki lionis samefosaken. 88
mas Semdeg, rac wina TavebSi ganvixilavdiT mxolod viwro enaTmec-
nierul sakiTxebs, erTi SexedviT, gaugebaric kia, Tu razea saubari
sosiuris am winadadebebSi, romlebic miekuTvnebian sruliad sxva
konteqsts, Tanac mosazrebebi ar aris bolomde Camoyalibebuli. ami-
tomac SevecdebiT citataSi wamoyenebuli Tezisi warmovTqvaT kidev
erTxel, oRond sxva sityvebiT: rogorc istorikosTa da legendis
mkvlevarTa 89 umravlesoba, sosiuric amodis iqidan, rom legendis ma-
salasa da istoriul faqtebs Soris aucileblad arsebobs kavSiri.
magram imis magivrad, rom nibelungebis simRerisaTvis vormsis saxe-
liT cnobil burgundielTa samefoSi 435 wels momxdar ambebTan 90
eZebna kavSiri, rogorc >amas akeTebda imJamindeli kritika<, sosiurma
scada nibelungebis simRera daekavSirebina burgundielTa samefos
asi wlis Semdgom istoriasTan, anu im drosTan, roca es adgili ukve

86
Cf. ibid.
87
Cf. ibid.
88
Cf. LEG, gv. 20f., Sesworeba erTvis.
89
Seadr. prosdoCimi 1983, gv. 45 da Seereri 1980, gv. 154, an h. de boori: Sesavali nibe-
lungebis simRerisaTvis, karl bartSis gamocemis mixedviT, 22-e gamocema, manhaimi 1988,
gv. XXVf., da i. haincleri “yvelaze germanuli yvela germanul masalaTa Soris”, Sesava-
li nibelungebisaTvis. germanuli iluzia, germanuli koSmari. nibelungebis masalis
kvlevebi da dokumentebi me-19, me-20 saukuneSi, gamomc. i. haincleri da a. valdSmidti.
mainis frankfurti. 1991, gv. 23.
90
ix. agreTve sosiuris mier konsultirebuli A. Jahn-is gamokvleva: burgundionTa da
burgundiis istoria pirveli dinastiis dasasrulamde wyaroTa Tu axal da Zvel
istorikosTa Sexedulebebis pirispir, hale 1874.

62
lokalizebuli iyo dRevandel romandiasa da savoiaSi da romlis
sataxto qalaqi iyo lioni 91 .
mis mier dagegmili wignis Histoire et Légende. Etude sur l’origine des traditions
germaniques connues sous le nom de Heldensage 92 winaswar CanawerebSi sosiurma
Tavisi ZiriTadi Tezisi Semdegnairad Camoayaliba:
am tomis saTauri aCvenebs, rom Cven vvaraudobT istoriul kavSirs im mov-
lenebTan, romelTac adgili qondaT 443-534 w.w. im samefoSi, romelic daaar-
ses burgundielebma savoiaSi da romelic istoriaSi Sevida Semdegi saxelwo-
debiT – burgundiis pirveli samefo. Cven ase warmogvidgenia da darwmunebu-
lic varT amaSi [...].
ara 434 wels gardacvlili gundahari, aramed 516 wels gardacvlili gundo-
badi aris CvenTvis is mTavari giunTeri, romelic burgundiul eposs xsnis. 93
es sami poema, an tradiciuli moTxrobis es sami masala [>corps<] aris yvela-
feri, risi moxmobac aucilebelia imis saCveneblad, rom, erTi mxriv, germa-
niaSi, meore mxriv ki _ skandinaviaSi esoden gavrcelebuli es legenda aris
zusti anarekli 495-534 w.w. rodanul burgundiaSi [>la Burgonde rhodanienne<] gan-
viTarebuli movlenebisa _ ra Tqma unda, mxolod im doziT, rac dasaSvebia
saerTod legendisaTvis. 94
Tu ramdenad gatacebuli iyo Jeneveli sosiuri saukuneTa gasayarze
im sakiTxiT, >Tu ra wvlili miuZRviT burgundiel helvecielebs (Se-
sabamisad >rodanul burgundias<) nibelungebis, anu im sagmiro Tqmu-
lebis genezisSi<, romelic “iTvleba yvelaze germanulad germanul
masalaTa Soris” 95 , kargad Cans im auracxeli fragmentuli Canaweri-
dan (da maTi ricxvi bevrad ufro metia, vidre zogadi enaTmecnierebi-
sadmi miZRvnili Canawerebisa), sadac sosiuri cdilobs, istoriuli
masalisa da nibelungebis simReris pasaJebis detaluri Sedarebis sa-
fuZvelze, dokumenturad daamtkicos Tavisi Tezisi. 96
SemdgomSi Cven sosiuris, am aSkara frankofilis, 97 im Tezisis isto-
riul dasabuTebulobas Tu kulturul-istoriul mniSvnelobas 98 ki

91
Seadr. L. Schmidt: germanel tomTa istoria xalxTa gadaadgilebis bolomde, miunxeni 1970.
92 Cf. LEG, gv. 183. sxva saTauri, romelsac sosiuric uwevda angariSs: Le I. royaume de
Bourgogne et la légende (des Nibelungen) épique allemande. Contribution á l’histoire (Nouvel essai sur les
origines historiques) de l’épopée des Nibelungen. (Cf. LEG, gv.116 da Texte, gv 424).
93
Cf. LEG, gv.130
94
Cf. LEG; gv. 18.
95 Seadr. Heinzle 1991, gv. 7ff.
96
aqve aRniSvnis Rirsia erTi adgili sosiuris werilidan meiesadmi 1906 wlis 12 noem-
bers: “me vxedav, ... rom Tqven nibelungebs moixseniebT, rogorc erT-erT sakvlev sfe-
ros. zustad gamoicaniT! [...] roca magis sakvlevad dros gamovnaxav, parizSi iseve si-
amovnebiT vilaparakeb magaze, rogorc lingvistikis principebze” (cf. R. Jakobson: “La pre-
mière lettre de Ferdinand de Saussure á Antoine Meillet sur les anagrammes”, in: Homme (2), 1971, gv. 15f.
97 es saintereso Tema marTlac imsaxurebs CaRrmavebas, magram ara aq. yvela SemTxvevaSi
mainc vityviT Semdegs: nibelungebis simRerasTan dakavSirebuli sosiuris kvlevebi
Tundac mxolod “adgilobriv-patriotul” interesze rom iyos dafuZnebuli, mainc Sec-
doma iqneboda imis dajereba, rom misi mniSvneloba mxolod amiT amoiwureba. saqme exe-
ba germanikul da romanul (laTinur-klasikur) kulturaTa urTierTdamokidebulebas,
Sesabamisad burgundielTa romanizaciis SesaZlo gavlenas germanuli sagmiro Tqmule-
bis masalaze. es gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa im pasaJebSi, romlebSic sosiuri daeZebs
Tezevsis miTis kvals. Seadr. agreTve r. engleri: “Heureux qui comme Ulysse a fait un beu
voyage...”, in: CFS 45, 1991 [1992], gv. 151-165, da Seereri 1980, gv. 152ff.
98
germanul-franguli daZabuloba sosiurma Tavis Tavze iwvnia laipcigSi swavlis
dros, razec miuTiTebs is ori amonaridi karl bugmanis werilidan v. Straitbergisad-
mi 1914 wels: “me ase vfiqrob, rom iseTma uxeSma da tlanqma arsebam, rogoricaa os-
thofi, namdvilad dazafra faqizi ymawvili. misTvis, rogorc frangisaTvis (albaT, Seg-

63
ar CavuRrmavdebiT, romelic nibelungebis simReris genezisss exeba,
aramed ufro im problemebs ganvixilavT, romlebsac awydeboda so-
siuri qronikisa da legendis Sedarebis dros; an ufro zustad im
principul mosazrebebs, rasac es problemebi sosiurSi iwvevda. rad-
gan swored es principuli mosazrebebi dagvexmareba >enaTa droSi
moZraobis< sakiTxis Semdgom garkvevaSi.

saeWvo identuroba

imis dasamtkiceblad, rom nibelungebis simReris, gansakuTrebiT ki


misi meore nawilis, masalis wyaro, romelSic laparakia “burgundTa
samefos dacemaze”, aris sinamdvileSi >lionis< da ara ramdenime
aTwleuliT adre ganadgurebuli >vorsmis samefos< ambavi, sakmarisi
ar aris legendisa da istoriis ubralo Sepirispireba. am Tezisis
damajerebeli dasabuTebisaTvis aucilebeli iyo, rom sosiurs bevrad
ufro konkretulad da detalurad eCvenebina, rom, jer erTi, mis mier
dadgenili uamravi Tanxvedra nibelungebis simRerasa da >lionis sa-
mefos< droindel istoriul wyaroebs Soris scdeba ubralo damTx-
vevis farglebs da, meorec, maTi meSveobiT bevrad ufro cxadi unda
gamxdariyo nibelungebis simReraSi gadmocemuli movlenebi, gansakuT-
rebiT ki >vormsis samefosTan dakavSirebuli Tanxvedrebis< meSveo-
biT axsnil movlenebTan SedarebiT.
miuxedavad sosiuris mier >moTminebiT moZiebuli< im uamravi Tan-
xvedrisa, rac, misi azriT, arsebobda >lionis samefos< qronikebsa da
nibelungebis simReras Soris, male aRmoCnda, rom es mainc ar iyo
sakmarisi am qronikebis nibelungebis simReris masalasTan pirdapiri,
istoriulad dadgenili wesiT dasakavSireblad. gasagebia, rom amaSi
damnaSave qronikebsa Tu legendaSi arsebuli faqtobrivi masalis
simwire ki ar aris, aramed is Sexedulebebia, romelTa mixedviTac ar
arsebobs sando kriteriumi imis gadasawyvetad, Tu ramdenad SemTxve-
viTia Tanxvedra qronikasa da legendas Soris:
legendis gmirsa da istoriis gmirs Soris “identurobis” moZebnis Cveva da-
sawyisSi mxolod Zalian SezRuduli SeiZleba iyos. <es iseTi ramea>, rasac
yvela SemTxvevaSi sWirdeba <specialuri> meTodologia, jer marto imis ga-
sarkvevad, Tu raSi unda gamoixatos es identuroba, ra niSnis safuZvelze un-
da vcnoT an ukuvagdoT igi. marto saxeli TavisTavad arafers niSnavs, es
aris <albaToba>. maS ra aris is, rac am identurobas qmnis? gmiris qmedebebi,
xasiaTi, amala, [ ], Tu kidev sxva rame? yvelaferi cot-cota Tu araferi,
<radgan yvelaferi SeiZleba erTdroulad transformirdes da gadatanil
iqnas a punqtidan b punqtSi>. rac ufro metad ikvlev xolme, miT ufro kar-

viZlia ase vuwodoT) mTavari xom forma iyo. is arasdros aRiqvamda ise, rogorc amas
aRviqvamT Cven, germanelebi da CvenTan urTierTobaSi igi yovelTvis Tavs grZnobda
frangad.” da kidev: “Tavisi zepiri sadoqtoro gamocdis dRes man me da Joh. Braunak-i
migviwvia uaRresad daxvewil vaxSamze sastumro Haffé-Si. marto Cven samni unda vyofi-
liyaviT: mogvarTves Zalian kargi wiTeli Rvino, gansakuTrebiT maxsendeba SparJis
uzarmazari Reroebi. [...] albaT, undoda yvelanairad eCvenebina, rom araferi germanuli
ar ecxo da axlaRa vxvdebi, Tu ratom gimeorebdaT Tqvenc sul, rom is ukve das-
rulebuli pirovneba iyo, roca laipcigSi Camovida”. (orive Villani-Si, 1990, gv. 29 f. da
gv.31) Seadr. agreTve sosiuris biZaSvilis, gi de purtales mkveTrad avtobiografiuli
Seferilobis mqone orive romani: Montclar, La pêche miraculeuse, parizi 1926 da 1937.

64
gad xedav, rom sakiTxi mdgomareobs ara imaSi, Tu sad ufro metad vlindeba
identuroba, aramed aqvs Tu ara azri saerTod amaze laparaks. 99
daviwyoT imiT, rac naTelia am winadadebebidan: sosiuris Tanaxmad,
azri ara aqvs >legendis gmirsa da istoriul gmirs Soris "identu-
robis" Ziebas<, da es imitom, rom, rogorc Cans, gaurkvevelia, Tu
raSi gamoixateba es identuroba, an >ra niSnis mixedviT SeiZleba misi
gamocnoba<. gasaocaria, magram erTi da imave >saxelis< legendasa da
qronikaSi gamoCena, erTi da imave >qmedebaTa< moxsenieba, gmiris >xa-
siaTis< aRwerilobisa da misi >amalis< CamonaTvalis damTxveva so-
siurisaTvis ar aris sakmarisi safuZveli, rom moaxdinos >legendis
gmiris< dabejiTebuli, ueWveli identifikacia >istoriis gmirTan<.
momdevno Sedarebis saSualebiT axlave cxadi gaxdeba, Tu ratom
yoymanobs sosiuri legendisa da qronikis esoden zedmiwevniTi
msgavsebis SemTxvevaSic ki ilaparakos "identurobaze":
versia a. – mefe X-s hyavs sami vaJi: giunTeri, gernoti da gizelheri. am ymaw-
vilebs hyavT erTi biZaSvili, saxelad hageni.
versia b. – mefe X-s hyavs sami vaJi: giunTeri, gernoti da hageni. ris Sesaxe-
bac SemdgomSi weria: hagenma daikava gizelheris adgili. an gizelheri [ ]
ucnobia [ ].
am martivi (praqtikulad, TiTqmis gardauvali) qmedebis saxeobaSi mTeli sam-
yaroa daunjebuli.
magram jerjerobiT araferi adasturebs <winaswar>, rom hagenis roli is ar
aris, rac wina versiaSi giunTers hqonda dakisrebuli, rom zustad igive
qaosTan [>imbroglio<] gvaqvs saqme, <roca erTi versiidan meoreze gadadixar da
ar ici, romeli ra saxels Seesabameba>. 100
sosiurs aeWvebs >legendis gmirsa da istoriul gmirs Soris "iden-
turobis" Zieba<, an am identurobis naucbaTev mocemulobad gamocxa-
deba da es maSinac ki, roca >istoriis gmirsa> da >legendis gmirs<
Soris arsebobs Tanxvedra >saxelSi<, >qmedebasa< da >xasiaTSi<. er-
Ti SexedviTac cxadia, rom arsebobs nibelungebis simReris ara erTi
varianti, aramed ramdenime da kidev, nibelungebis simReris sxvadasxva
varianti ise gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, >rom erTi versiidan meo-
reze gadasvlisas SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, Tu vin vis saxels
Seesabameba<.
sinamdvileSi ai, ra xdeba: roca arsebobs erTi legendis sxvadasxva
versia, romelTagan Tundac erTi aq, meore ki _ iq Seesabameba gan-
sazRvrul istoriul wyaroebs, magram scildeba imgvarad, rom versi-
idan versiamde Zneli xdeba gmiris "identurobis" dabejiTebiTi dad-
gena, maSin istoriul wyaroebsa da legendis erT romelime versias
Soris arsebuli damTxvevebi iReben SemTxveviTobis xasiaTs da, aqedan
gamomdinare, Znelad Tu CaiTvlebian "identurobis" utyuar >niSne-
bad<; ufro zustad, garkveul istoriul movlenaTa da romelime le-
gendis masalas Soris arsebuli kavSiris mtkicebulebad.
sanam saerTod imaze vifiqrebT, Tu rogor vaCvenebT saTiTaod >li-
onis samefos< amsaxvel qronikebsa da nibelungebis simReris masalas

99
Cf. LEG, gv. 312
100
Cf. LEG, gv. 194 f. msgavs mosazrebebs lingvistikis sferodan, kerZod ki frangulSi
brunvis formaTa rekonstruqciis sakiTxTan dakavSirebuls, ipoviT agreTve kursSic.
ix. GRF, gv. 111: CLG/D, gv. 132; CLG/E, gv. 208, Nr. 1561-1563.

65
Soris kavSirs, sosiuris mixedviT, jer unda gairkves principuli xa-
siaTis ramdenime sakiTxi. kerZod, rogor moxda, rom erTi da imave
legendis ramdenime varianti arsebobs? rogor Cndeba gansxvavebebi
erTi versiidan meoreSi? versiaTa potenciuri simravlis Suqze Tu
arsebobs raime iseTi kriteriumi, romelic daadasturebda legendis
erTi romelime versiis istoriul "utyuarobas"? an piriqiT: SeiZleba
Tu ara, miuxedavad mecnieruli aralegitimurobisa, erTi legendis
ramdenime versiidan mxolod imis amorCeva, romelic gamoirCeva yve-
laze ufro meti siaxloviT savaraudo istoriul wyaroebTan; yovel
SemTxvevaSi, es imis mcdeloba mainc xom iqneboda, rom legendis ram-
denime, erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli versiidan amogverCia is avTen-
turi "Tavdapirveli teqsti", romelic yvelaze ufro momdinareobda
arsebuli istoriuli wyaroebidan? 101
yvela am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema, sosiuris Tanaxmad, damokidebulia
legendis erT sayovelTaod cnobil, erTi SexedviT bunebriv da ami-
tomac Teoriulad araseriozul Tvisebaze: sanam is werilobiT da-
fiqsirdeba, anu rogorc misi saxelidan gamomdinareobs, "sakiTxavi"
(Legende-Lesende) gaxdeba – rac nibelungebis simReris SemTxvevaSi XIII
saukunis dasawyisSi moxda 102 _ saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mxolod ze-
pirad gadaicema. Tuki nibelungebis simReris werilobiT gavrcele-
bul versiebSi arsebobs imgvari mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi, romle-
bic garkveuli istoriuli wyaroebis moxmobas iluzoruls xdis, Tu-
ki amasTan garkveuli varianti, TavisTavad aRebuli, avlens "epikuri
struqturis damabnevel arakonstruqciulobas" 103 , maSin es pirvel
rigSi dakavSirebulia legendis zepiri gavrcelebis mravalsaukuno-
van procesTan, romlis drosac ganuwyvetliv da Zalauneburad xde-
boda legendaTa formisa da Sinaarsis cvlileba. 104
am mosazrebidan gamomdinare, sosiuris yuradReba, garda legendis
sxvadasxva versiasa da istoriul wyaroebs Soris arsebuli Sesabami-
sobebisa, miipyro agreTve legendis zepiri gadacemis, rogorc aseTis
problematikam. Tuki SevecdebiT da Tematurad CamovayalibebT am sa-
kiTxTan dakavSirebul mis mosazrebebs, romlebic minawerebisa da Ca-
narTebis saxiT gabneulia legendisa da istoriuli wyaroebis Sesaba-
misobis Sesaxeb arsebul miseul, alag-alag vrclad da detalurad
gaanalizebul masalaSi, mivalT Semdeg ZiriTad debulebamde: legen-
debze muSaobisas uaRresad mniSvnelovania maTi zepirgadacemis pro-
cesi, ramdenadac am procesis nakvalevi mZlavrobs legendaTa forma-
sa da Sinaarsze da Tavis daRs asvams maT, da rom legendis masalis
safuZvelze principulad SeuZlebelia garkveul istoriul movlena-
Ta utyuarobis mtkiceba. es iyo angariSgasawevi debuleba im SemTxve-
vaSic ki, Tuki CaTvlidi, rom legenda odesRac marTlac momdinare-

101
Seadr. LEG, gv. 313 Sesabam. Texte, gv. 434 f.
102
J. Heinzle ase ajamebs dRevandeli codnis dones: nibelungebis simRera pergamentze
Cawera ucnobma poetma 1200 wels. es poeti iyo ara am istoriis gamomgonebeli, misi
Tavisufali mTxrobeli, aramed erT-erTi am masalis im auracxel interpretator-
Tagani, risi tradiciac me-5 Tu me-6 saaukunebSi iRebs saTaves." (orjer hageni an: re-
cefcia, rogorc azris damaxinjeba", in: Heinzle/Waldschmidt 1991, gv. 21); Seadr. de Boor
(gamomc) 1988, gv. IL da R. Wisniewski: "nibelungebis kvlevisaTvis 1972 wlidan", iqve, gv. LVIII.
103
J. Heinzle 1991, gv. 25; H. de Boor laparakobs "mkveTr gansxvavebebsa da winaaRmdegobebze"
(1988, gv. XVIII).
104
Seadr. aqve LEG, gv. 76, 129, 131, 219, 440 Sesabam. Texte, gv. 421, 425 f., 431 f., 435.

66
obda romelime konkretuli istoriuli faqtidan. magram roca isto-
riul movlenasa da legendis werilobiT versias Soris uciloblad
erTveba zepirgadacemisa da gavrcelebis procesi, roca uTvalavi mo-
naTxrobi Tu mTxrobeli erTmaneTis miyolebiT kvals aCnevs legen-
dis masalas, maSin ukve problemuri xdeba am (istoriulad) arsebuli
azridan amosvla:
imis warmodgena, rom romelime legenda iwyeba raime azriT [>sens<], rom mas
saTaveSic igive azri hqonda, rac axla aqvs, an sulac imis warmodgena, rom
mas absoluturad nebismieri azri SeiZleba hqondes – aris iseTi operacia,
romelic Cems SesaZleblobas aRemateba. igi marTlac uSvebs, rom saukuneTa
ganmavlobaSi materialuri elementebi legendaSi arasodes gadasulan [>trans-
mis<]; radgan roca xuTi an eqvsi materialuri elementi arsebobs, azris Sec-
vla SeiZleba sul ramdenime wuTis ganmavlobaSi, sakmarisia kombinaciisaTvis
arsebobdes is xuTi-eqvsi personaJi, romlebic cal-calke muSaoben, [ ] 105
ideaTa is TamaSi, romelic sosiuris sxva CanawerSi moipoveba, kidev
ufro azustebs aq gamoTqmul azrs. am dros ufro naTlad ikveTeba
mosazreba, rom saWiroa principulad uari eTqvas legendasTan dakav-
Sirebuli istoriuli mocemulobis Sesaxeb ukana ricxviT daskvnebis
gamotanas da es sakmaod paradoqsulia, Tuki kvlavac im azrze rCebi,
rom legenda yovelTvis istoriuli mocemulobaSi iRebs saTaves:
epikuri poezia napoleon I-is omebis dros gamarjvebulTa, an damarcxebulTa
Soris rom arsebuliyo, gana vinme daijerebs, rom is diadi, sabrZolo Tu
saromane movlenebi damaxinjdeboda da maTi cnoba SeuZlebeli gaxdeboda
zusti istoriuli qronologiis mixedviT? <msgavsad suverenis qorwinebisa,
ubedurebisa da triumfisa>.
es ki imas niSnavs, rom sakmarisia, raime gaurkvevloba yofiliyo, epikuri
moTxroba Seecdeboda, fexdafex adevneboda imas, vinc ki rames dainaxavda. is
amas yovel nabijze Seecdeboda da es im SemTxvevaSic, Tuki Zalisxmeva ar
moitanda <umcires> dramatul mTlianobasac ki.
→ erT-erTi damangreveli elementi, romelic Tavidanve iTeseba istoriis
iseT gansakuTrebul niadagze, rasac legenda hqvia, aris is, rom droTa gan-
mavlobaSi detalebi TavisTavad lagdeba erT dramatul mTlianobad, romel-
sac mere bevri ram eqvemdebareba, magram bevric ki msxverplad ewireba, magram
veravin damajerebs, rom es Tavidanve, pirvelive wamowyebisTanave ukve aris
movlenaTa epikuri ganlageba. epikuri moTxroba Tavidan aris gariTmuli qro-
nika, romelSic ubralod wamoweulia calkeuli epizodebi da romelic amave
dros <gulubryvilod> cdilobs mogonebaTa reproduqcias. mxolod mogvi-
anebiT iRebs igi literaturuli nawarmoebis formas, yvelaze rudimentuli
gagebiT, romelic ki [ ] 106
marTalia, sosiuris TvalSi legendebi, TavianTi bunebidan gamomdina-
re, >Tavidan< warmoadgenen >gariTmul qronikebs<, magram >droTa
ganmavlobaSi detalebi TavisTavad lagdeba erT dramatul mTliano-
bad, romelsac mere bevri ram eqvemdebareba, bevric ki msxverplad
ewireba<. Tumca Sesabamisi mTxrobelebi cdiloben >Tanac sruliad
gulubryvilod< >mogonebaTa reproduqcias<, magram sanam qronika
mxolod zepiri saxiT gadaicema, sanam igi rCeba mxolod ramdenime
mTxrobelis maxsovrobis amara, igi ar aris dazRveuli cvlilebebisagan:

105
Cf. LEG, gv 307.
106
Cf. LEG, gv 76.

67
_ upirveles yovlisa, dauSvebelia, rom odesme, garda gansakuTrebuli SemT-
xvevebisa, eWvi Seitano avtorisa Tu mTxrobelis ganzraxvaSi, SeZlebisdagva-
rad zustad mihyves imas, rac moxda manamde. am mxriv mTel legendaTa sam-
yaroSi gabatonebulia Rrmad konservatuli tendencia.
<magram> <mexsierebis> xvrelis Sesaxeb warmodgena aris cvlilebis umniSvne-
lovanesi faqtori, romelic dakavSirebulia survilTan, yvela danarCen SemT-
xvevaSi darCe tradiciis farglebSi. 107
mosazreba, rom gadmocemul legendaTa masala ar unda aRiqmebodes
istoriul movlenaTa anareklad Tu zust gamoxatulebad, sosiuris
CanawerebSi vlindeba "simbolos" cnebis gansazRvrebaSi, ufro zus-
tad, im gansakuTrebul xerxSi, riTic igi am cnebas iyenebs:
rogor iqmneba legendaSi iseTi simbolo, <romelic istoriul movlenebs Se-
exeba>? mudam <Zalian> martivi gziT, magram es gza <sinamdvileSi> winapiro-
bad gulisxmobs agreTve kvlavgadmocemas ramdenime Suamavlis [>transmission par
intermédiaaires<] meSveobiT.
<es aris> yvelaze martivi forma: istoriuli epikuri an TviT istoriuli
avtori mogviTxrobs gulubryvilod ori armiis brZolis Sesaxeb da sxva am-
bavTa Soris beladTa orTabrZolasac moixseniebs. male ki ukve mxolod be-
ladTa orTabrZolazea laparaki. A da B ase xdeba sikvdili <dueli> A be-
ladsa da B belads Soris (Zalauneburad) simboluri, <radgan es erTeuli
brZola> ganasaxierebs brZolis mTlian Sedegs, albaT, miwebis Semdgom dap-
yrobas, <da politikur da geografiul gardatexas>, magram aq simbolo-gan-
zraxvas [>une intention de symbole<] <arc erTi wuTiTac> ki ar uTamaSia Tavisi
roli. 108
Tuki aqamde im cvlilebaTa sosiuriseuli warmodgena, romlebic
legendebis zepirgadacemis Sedegia da maT formasa da Sinaarsze
aisaxeba, ar gamoirCeoda gansakuTrebuli originalobiTa Tu sensaci-
urobiT, axla ukve saxezea feTqebadsaSiSi enobriv-Teoriuli mosaz-
reba: sosiuri aRiqvams imas, razec laparakia legendaSi, magaliTad,
>duels A beladsa da B belads< Soris >rogorc simbolos<, ram-
denadac >es erTeuli brZola ganasaxierebs brZolis mTlian Sedegs<
_ aliquid stat pro aliquo. magram simboloTwarmoebis am saxeobaSi >simbolo-
ganzraxvas arc erTi wuTiT ar uTamaSia Tavisi roli<, 109 igi ar
yofila "sasurveli sinTezi", 110 piriqiT, misi winapirobaa >Suamavlis
meSveobiT gadmocema<. zepirgadacemis procesi ar unda iqnas gagebu-
li mxolod ise, rogorc ukve arsebulis, istoriulad mocemulis
martivi kvlavgadacema; >kvlavgadacema Suamavlis meSveobiT< unda

107
Cf. LEG, gv 220.
108
Cf. LEG, gv.129
109
am fuZemdeblur mosazrebas sosiuri gamoTqvams agreTve v. miuleris W. Müller
germanuli sagmiro eposis miTologiis (hailbroni 1886) kritikisas: "Tavisi qcevis Sesa-
bamisad, v. miuleri ki moixseniebs im oms, romelSic dasavleTgoTebi ibrZodnen gaer-
Tianebuli frankebisa da burgundielebis winaaRmdeg, magram igi mxolod ise, sityvis
masalad (sqolio me-14 gverdze): "ar aris saWiro kvlevis Catareba dasavleTgoTTa
calkeul omebze burgundielTa da frankTa winaaRmdeg."
es SeiZleba gamodges principebze diskusiis magaliTad. igi istoriul simbolos zus-
tad imgvarad aRiqvams, rogoradac igi yvelaze naklebad aris aRsaqmeli, anu ara ro-
gorc SemTxveviTobaTa Sedegs, rac normaluria nebismieri konkretuli monaTxrobisaT-
vis, aramed rogorc sasurvel sinTezs, movlenaTa rigidan winaswarganzraxviT monakve-
Tis amoglejas, sasurvel alegorias" (cf. LEG, gv. &2).
110
Seadr. wina sqolioSi dasaxelebuli sosiuris SeniSvna.

68
aRiqmebodes, rogorc enobrivi transformaciis adgili da ara mizan-
mimarTuli, simboloTmqmneli procesi.
ratom unda iyos principulad saeWvo >legendis personaJisa da is-
toriuli personaJis yovelgvari "identuroba"<? sosiuri asabuTebs
runebis moxmobiT, romelTac igi legendis simboloebs adarebs:
runi Y aris legendis simbolo.
misi identuroba <imdenad xelSesaxebad aRiqmeba da Tan iseTi sasacilo faq-
tia, rom zedmeti gadamowmebac ki aRar aris saWiro,> mdgomareobs SemdegSi:
mas aqvs Y-is forma; igi ikiTxeba, rogorc Z; igi aris anbanis aso da "merve"
nomeri, mistikurad ewodeba "zann" da bolos, xandaxan iwodeba am sityvis pir-
vel asodac.
garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg: ...is anbanis meaTe asoa... magram aq ukve igi
iwyebs im erTianobis SeniRbvas, romelic [ ]
sad wavida amasobaSi es identuroba? iyo igi amaze, rogorc wesi, pasuxoben
RimiliT, <TiTqos es marTlac raime gansakuTrebuli garemoeba iyos>, nacv-
lad imisa saqmis filosofiuri mniSvneloba SeamCnion, romelic sxva ara-
ferSi mJRavndeba, Tu ara imaSi, rom amtkico, yoveli simbolo, romelic ki
CaerTveba wrebrunvaSi – Tumca yoveli simbolo mxolod imitom arsebobs,
rom CaerTos wrebrunvaSi _ maSinve uvargisi xdeba imis saTqmelad, Tu raSi
gamoixateba misi identuroba, Tundac momdevno wams [ ]
[...]
am sayovelTao TvalTaxedvidan SevxedoT nebismieri legendis sakiTxs, rad-
gan misi TiToeuli gmiri aris is simbolo, romelTanac – iseve, rogorc ru-
nis SemTxvevaSi – SegviZlia davinaxoT, Tu rogor icvleba misi a) saxeli, b)
mdgomareoba sxvebTan damokidebulebaSi, g) xasiaTi, d) funqcia da saqcieli.
rodesac icvleba [>transposé<] saxeli, aqedan SeiZleba im daskvnis gamotana,
rom icvleba mis namoqmedarTa nawilic da, piriqiT, anu amgvar SemTxvevaSi
icvleba mTlianad drama. 111
Tuki amovalT iqedan, rom >legendis yoveli gmiri aris simbolo<, da
Semdeg, rom >yoveli simbolo mxolod imitom arsebobs, radgan igi
CarTulia cirkulaciaSi<, da Tanac imgvarad, rom >sruliad uZluri
xdeba imis saTqmelad, Tu raSi gamoixateba misi identuroba Tundac
momdevno wams<, maSin es yofila marTlac iluzoruli mcdeloba
>legendis gmirsa da istoriul personaJs Soris "identurobis" Ziebi-
sa<. erTi mxriv, amiT aq iZebneba sagnis bunebaSi arsebuli safuZveli
imisaTvis, risTvisac sosiurma legendaze muSaobisas uari Tqva Tav-
dapirvel ganzraxvaze Tavis wignSi >Histoire et Légende< moeyvana imis
mtkicebuleba, rom nibelungebis simRera warmoadgens >im movlenaTa
zust aRwerilobas, romelic TamaSdeboda rodanul burgundiaSi<.
meore mxriv ki, sosiuri, albaT, marTali iyo, roca miuTiTebda imaze,
rom im problemis gamo, romelic mas Seeqmna Tavisi Tavdapirveli,
istoriaze orientirebuli proeqtis ganxorcielebisas, igi iseT rames
gadaawyda, romlis >filosofiuri mniSvnelobac< iqamde ar iyo je-
rovnad Sefasebuli. debulebam, rom >yoveli simbolo mxolod imitom
arsebobs, rom gatyorcnilia wrebrunvaSi<, unda moaxdinos sosiuris
istoriuli kvlevebis Teoriuli sazRvris markireba. amave dros, es
debuleba naTels xdis, rom is problemebi, riTac sosiuri, legende-
bidan gamomdinare, mudmivad iyo dakavebuli, bevrad scdeba misi pro-
eqtis Tavdapirvelad Cafiqrebul CarCoebs da Seexeba enobriv-Teori-

111
Cf. LEG, gv 30f.

69
uli xasiaTis sakiTxebs. 112 is, rom sosiurs ar gamorCenia es kavSire-
bi, gasagebi xdeba imave Canaweris dasawyisSi mocemuli Semdegi SeniS-
vnidan, sadac laparakia simboloTa aucilebel cirkulaciaze:
_ legenda ikribeba simboloTa rigisagan <erT azrad, romelic kidev unda
dazustdes>.
_ es simboloebi, sruliad gauTvaliswineblad, eqvemdebareba bedis imave dar-
tymebs da imave kanonebs, rogorc, magaliTad, iseTi simboloebi, rogoricaa
sityvebi enaSi [>langue<]. 113
aq saqme exeba imaze bevrad mets, vidre ubralod imis mtkicebas, rom
sosiurma legendebze muSaobisas (kvlav) Seicno is, rac misTvis
isedac cnobili iyo enaTmecnerebidan. Tuki, magaliTad, seriozulad
miiReb im miniSnebas, rom >is simboloebi, romelTaganac dgeba es le-
gendebi, emorCileba imave kanonebs, rasac simboloTa yvela sxva rigi,
magaliTad, sityvebi enaSi<, maSin dauyovnebliv dadgeba sakiTxi, Tu
ra daxmarebis gaweva SeuZlia sosiuris am gamonaTqvams simboloTa
aucilebeli cirkulaciis Sesaxeb misive enaTmecnieruli mosazrebe-
bis ukeT gasaazreblad.

sityvaTa cirkulacia

Tuki debuleba >yoveli simbolo arsebobs mxolod imitom, rom cir-


kulaciaSi erTveba<, vrceldeba >enaSi sityvebzec<. Tuki >es sityve-
bi< mxolod imisTvis arseboben, rom (asec SeiZleba franguli >lancé
dans la circulation<-s gadmocema) imoZraon, anu rogorc fulis niSanze
ityvian xolme mimoqcevaSi iyvnen, maSin im dakvirvebasac moeZebneba
axsna, romelic sosiurma Caatara geografiuli enaTmecnierebis sfe-
roSi; kerZod, laparakia imaze, rom >arasdros, arc erT enaSi, ar
SeiZleba arsebobdes mtkice, stabiluri wonasworoba< da, amdenad,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom >enaTa mudmivi cvalebadobis principi absolu-
turia<. sityvaTa aucilebel cirkulaciasTan erTad, Cven viRebT pa-
suxs (da amiT vubrundebiT am amosaval wertils) im kiTxvaze, Tu sa-
idan momdinareobs >enis dauokebeli moZraoba droSi<.
sinamdvileSi: Tuki >enaSi arsebuli sityvebi< mxolod imitom arsebo-
ben, rom cirkulireben, maSin >ar SeiZleba arsebobdes iseTi idioma,
romelic imyofeba uZraobisa da simSvidis mdgomareobaSi<. aqedan
gamomdinare, >enaTa simravle< da gansakuTrebiT ki maTi >sxvadasxvag-
varoba< adgilis mixedviT ukavSirdeba imas, rom enebi arseboben imde-
nad, ramdenadac cirkulireben.
ra Tqma unda, es mosazreba cdeba geografiuli enaTmecnierebis sfe-
ros. gavixsenoT: daZabulobis im velis Semoxazva, romelic gadamwyve-
tia enaTmecnierebis kvlavdafuZnebis sosiuriseuli mcdelobebisaT-
vis, SeiZleba Semdegi paradoqsis meSveobiT: sosiuri, erTi mxriv, amo-
dis "les langues", anu konkretulad, geografiul ssvadasxvaobaSi arse-
buli enebidan, amave dros ki moiTxovs, rom zogadi enaTmecnierebis
sagnad CaiTvalos "la langue", Tan imasac gadaWriT amtkicebs, rom >"la

112
imave daskvnamde mivida engleri 1991, gv. 152.
113
Cf. LEG, gv 30f.

70
langue", anu iseTi ganzogadeba, romelic nebismier gansazRvrul enas
Seexeba, ar aris igive, rac "le langage"<.
aq ori sakiTxi rCeba Riad: aqamde mTlad cxadi ar iyo, Tu zustad
riTi gansxvavdeboda sosiuris mier "la langue"-d aRniSnuli >ganzoga-
deba< im filosofiur-enobrivi cnebisgan, romelsac man "le langage"
uwoda; aseve cudad gvesmis, Tu rogor unda warmovidginoT nabiji
"les", an "una langue"-dan sosiuris "la langue"-mde. Tuki amovalT iqidan,
rom sityvaTa cirkulacia aucilebelad axasiaTebs yovel enas da
amdenad "la langue"-sac, maSin ukve aqac ikveTeba damajerebeli pasuxebi.
Tuki SevecdebiT "la langue"-s gaazrebas iseT sistemad, romlis or-
ganizeba ganuwyvetliv axldeba xolme sityvaTa xmarebis procesSi da
am procesis meSveobiT, maSin arsebul enaTa mravalgvaroba da, Sesa-
bamisad, drosa da sivrceSi maTi usazRvrooba ukve Cadebulia "la
langue"-s definiciaSi. Tuki sityvaTa cirkulaciidan amovalT, "la lan-
gue" ar SeiZleba iyos raime stabiluri, srulyofili wesrigi, igi uf-
ro gvesaxeba aramdgrad, meryev wonasworobad, romelic ganicdis mud-
miv ryevebs, anu iseT sistemad, romelic "mudam mxolod imwuTi-
eria". 114 is faqti, rom >Tavminebebuli ena ganwirulia usazRvro dana-
wevrebisaTvis<, ukve SeiZleboda (aRar) aRqmuliyo imad, rac garkve-
uli garemoebebis gamo enas, rogorc ityvian, maxvils zurgSi scems,
aramed, piriqiT, momxdariyo misi aucilebeli dasabuTeba yoveli
enobrivi sistemis arsebobis formaSi – zustad iseve, rogorc legen-
dis zepirgadacemis process Sedegad mohyveba xolme versiaTa simrav-
le. am talRaze SeiZleba bolos da bolos im gansxvavebis ufro mka-
fiod Camoyalibebac, romelic arsebobs "la langue"-sa da "le langage"-s
Soris: imis mixedviT, rac Cven axla movxazeT, "la langue"-s cnebiT aRi-
niSneba is, rac miekuTvneba konkretul enaTa materialuri arsebobis
formas, xolo "le langage" aRniSnavs adamianis iseT universalur, samet-
yvelo unars, romelic aRemateba calkeul enaTa konkretuli arsebo-
bisa Tu wyvetili realizaciis yovelgvar formas.
amrigad, legendebTan dakavSirebuli sosiuriseuli Canawerebis enaT-
mecnierul konteqstSi wakiTxvis Cveneul mcdelobas Sedegad mohyva
ara marto garkveuli problemebis gadaWra, aramed daisva axal-axali
SekiTxebi. Tuki, rogorc Cven aq vixileT, sityvaTa aucilebeli cir-
kulaciis CarTvam "la langue"-s konceptSi mniSvnelovnad unda Seuwyos
xeli im siZneleTa gagebas, rasac waawyda sosiuri Tavisi zogadi
enaTmecnierebis Tavidan damkvidrebis mcdelobisas, maSin ueWvelad
dadgeba sakiTxi, Tu Cveni argumentaciis gasamagreblad ratom dagv-
Wirda legendebis miseuli kvlevis moxmoba. erT SekiTxvas TavisTavad
moyveba Semdegic: ra Seesabameba sosiuris enaTmecnierul naSromSi
imas, rac nibelungebis simRerasTan dakavSirebul CanawerebSi Temati-
zebulia simboloTa cirkulaciis saxiT?

114
GRF, gv. 105; CLG/D, gv. 126; CLG/E, (I); gv. 196, Nr. 1469

71
enaTa socialuri buneba
swored aseTi formulireba, romelic Tavisi argumentaciuli struq-
turiTa Tu radikalurobiT utoldeba gamonaTqvams "yoveli simbolo
mxolod imitom arsebobs, rom erTveba cirkulaciaSi", iZebneba erT
Tezisur CanawerSi, romelic sosiurma gaakeTa im periodSi, roca zo-
gadi enaTmecnierebis meore saleqcio kursisaTvis (1908-1910) emzadeboda:
ena [>langue<] an socialuria, an ar arsebobs. 115
es mosazreba sosiuris enaTmecnierul naSromSi marto erTgan ki ar
aris, aramed bevrgan, Tan sxvadasxva variaciebiT, TviT mis yvelaze
adreul CanawerebSic ki. Tanamdebobis dakavebasTan dakavSirebiT wa-
kiTxuli leqciis droindel CanawerSi, romlis saTauria enis niSnebi
[>langage<] , vkiTxulobT Semdegs:
ena [>langage<] gamudmebiT ganixileba adamianur individTan mimarTebaSi, rac
mcdari Tvalsazrisia. buneba <Cven> gvaZlevs artikulirebuli enisaTvis
[>langage<] momarTul [>organize pour<] adamians, Tumca artikulirebuli enis
[>langage<] gareSe. ena [>langue<] aris socialuri faqti. 116

is, rom kursSi "la langue" ukve naTlad aris gansazRvruli, rogorc
'fait social', aiolebs rogorc mis gamijvnas "le langage"-sgan, aseve gansxva-
vebis povnas "langue"-sa da "parole"-s Soris 117 :
1. sityvaTa unayofo definiciebisgan Tavis aridebis Sedegad gamovyavi ori
faqtori im saerTo STabeWdilebis farglebSi, rasac ena [>langage<] gvTava-
zobs: ena [>langue<] da metyveleba [parole<]. ena [>langue<] CvenTvis aris ena [>langa-
ge<], oRond metyvelebis [parole<] gamoklebiT. es aris sametyvelo unarTa is
erToblioba, romelic individs saSualebas aZlevs gaigos da gagebul iqnas.
2. magram es definicia saSualebas aZlevs enas [>langue<] jer kidev socialuri
faqtebis miRma idges; igi misgan qmnis raRac ararealurs, radgan moicavs
realobis mxolod erT mxares, kerZod individualurs; igi moiTxovs molapa-
rakeTa simravles, raTa enam [>langue<] iarsebos. arasodes – yvela molodinis
sawinaaRmdegod – ar iarsebebs igi socialur urTierTobaTa miRma [...]. misi
socialuri buneba miekuTvneba mis Sinagan arss. 118
rac ar unda sarwmunod gveCvenebodes TiToeuli es SeniSvna, yoveli-
ve wakiTxulze dayrdnobiT ufro cxadi xdeba, rom "la langue"-s soci-
aluri bunebis dasaxva misive Sinagan arsad seriozul problemas
qmnis: kursSi pasuxgaucemeli da, Sesabamisad, dafaruli rCeba gansa-
kuTrebiT is sakiTxi, mainc rogor unda moxdes imis gaazreba, rom "la
langue"-s socialuri buneba aris misive Sinagani arsis gamoxatuleba.
da Tu es debuleba mainc gaviazreT, unda gavixsenoT, rom >"la langue"
iseTi sistemaa, romelic mxolod sakuTar wesrigs uSvebs<. swored aq
iCens Tavs formulirebis enobriv-Teoriuli konfliqti, kerZod ki is,
rom >yoveli simbolo mxolod imitom arsebobs, rom erTveba cirku-
laciaSi<. amitomac es formulireba nebas iZleva, rom >socialuri
buneba< aRviqvaT ara rogorc enobriv wesrigTan dapirispirebuli,

115
Cf. CLG/E, (I); gv. 28, Nr. 22-1, Nr. 141.
116
Cf. CLG/E, (II); gv. 16, Nr. 6, Nr. 3292.
117
Seadr. Bierbach 1978.
118
GRF, gv. 91, Tan erTvis bolo xazgasma; CDL/D, gv. 112; CLG/E (I), gv. 172f, Nr. 1282-1287.

72
ucxo, Tavsmoxveuli ram, aramed rogorc enis (an enaTa) saarsebo
formisTvis uaRresad mniSvnelovani ganzomileba. sosiuris nibelun-
gebis simRerisadmi miZRvnili Canawerebis Tanaxmad, sulac ar aris
ise, TiTqos arsebobdes iseTi simboloebi, romlebzec TavisTavad Se-
iZlebodes azris gamoTqma da Tanac maTi aRwera damatebiT SesaZle-
beli iyos cirkulaciis procesSi. ufro metad es iseTi cirkulacia
iqneboda, romelic imas, rac cirkulirebs, jer simbolod aqcevda. Se-
sabamisad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom >socialuri buneba< imdenad miekuTv-
neba "la langue"-s >Sinagan arss<, ramdenadac ena (enebi) aucilebeli da
yovelTvis >cirkulaciaSi CarTuli< arian. 119
im erT SekiTxvas, sakuTar Tavs rom davusviT _ Tu ratom amovirCieT
aq maincdamainc es (SemovliTi) gza, romelic nibelungis simReris
Sesaxeb sosiuris mier gakeTebul Canawerebze gadis _ aq gaecema kon-
kretuli pasuxi imiT, rom sosiuris arc erT sxva naSromSi, gansakuT-
rebiT ki kursSi, ver moviZieT imgvari formulireba, romelic saSu-
alebas mogvcemda, ganmuxtuliyo is konstituciuri daZabulobis ve-
li, romelic Seiqmna "la langue"-s _ erTi mxriv, iseTi >sistemis, rome-
lic mxolod sakuTar wesrigs uSvebs<, meore mxriv ki >socialuri
faqtis [>fait social<]< _ definiciis dros. 120
amis sapirispirod, Cveni azriT, gacilebiT rTulia pasuxis gacema me-
ore SekiTxvaze: Tu ra Seesabameba sosiuris enaTmecnierul naSromSi
imas, rac nibelungebis simRerisadmi miZRvnil mis CanawerebSi Temati-
zebulia, rogorc simboloTa cirkulacia; an SevcvaloT kiTxva: mar-
Talia, “simboloTa cirkulaciidan” gamomdinare, >socialuri buneba<
SeiZleba iTvlebodes enobrivi sistemis >Sinagani arsis< kuTvnile-
bad, magram Tuki ufro mkacrad mivudgebiT sakiTxs, es wamowyeba ara
marto enaTmecnieruli ar aris, aramed enaTmecnierul problemas
ukan, im ufro zogad >kanonamde< abrunebs, romelsac >enaSi arsebu-
li sityvebis< garda, >simboloTa yvela sxva rigic emorCileba <.
kidev erTxel wavikiTxoT im Canaweris pirveli winadadebebi, romel-
Sic saubaria simboloTa cirkulaciaze:
- legenda yalibdeba simboloTa jgufisagan <iseT azrad, romelic jer ki-
dev dasazustebelia>.
- es simboloebi uneburad emorCilebian bedisweris imave dartymebs da imave
kanonebs, rasac simboloTa yvela sxva jgufi, magaliTad, is simboloebi,
romlebic enaSi [>langue<] arsebul sityvebs warmoadgenen.
- yvela maTgani semiologiasTanaa wilnayari.
- yvelanairad dauSvebelia imis varaudi, rom simbolo unda iyos uZravi, an
usazRvrod cvalebadi. rogorc Cans, misi variaciebi unda eqceodes garkve-
ul sazRvrebSi.
- simbolos identuroba arasdros ar unda ganisazRvros im momentidan gamom-
dinare, Tu sad aris is simbolo, anu ramdenad CaZirulia igi iseT soci-
alur masaSi, romelic Tavis faseulobebs yovel momentSi Tavidan
amkvidrebs. 121

119
Seadr. agreTve Texte, gv.411f.
120
Seadr. aqve H. M. Gauger: "L'ambiguité du >Cours de Linguistique générale<", in: Atti del XIV Congresso
internationale di linguistica e filologia romanza, amsterdami, t. 5, gv. 721-732.
121
Cf. LEG, gv.30.

73
es Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac >socialuri buneba< SeiZleba
enobrivi sistemis ganzomilebad CaiTvalos, zustad emTxveva semio-
logiur midgomas. anu sxvagvarad Tu vityviT, enis (enaTa) >socialu-
ri bunebis< sityvaTa cirkulaciad aRsaqmelad unda davuSvaT, rom
>enaSi arsebuli sityvebi< imave >kanonebs emorCilebian, rasac
simboloTa yvela is sxva jgufi<, romlebic mxolod imdenad
>arseboben<, ramdenadac >CaZiruli arian socialur masaSi< _ am
varauds ki sxvas verafers vuwodebT, Tu ara semiologiurs.
is, rom Cven enaTa cirkulaciisa Tu mimoqcevis saSualebiT semiolo-
giis sferoSi SeviWeriT, kursis im erTaderTi pasaJiTac dasturdeba,
romelSic >xelovnur enebTan< dakavSirebiT cneba "circulation" Cndeba:
vinc xelovnur enas [>langue<] qmnis, iqamde axerxebs mis daWeras, vidre es ena
[>langue<] mimoqcevaSi [>en circulation<] gavidodes; magram im momentidan moyo-
lebuli, roca igi Tavisi misiis Sesrulebas iwyebs da sayovelTao xmarebaSi
Sedis, igi ukve aRar emorCileba aranair kontrols. esperanto amgvari saxis
eqsperimentia; sainteresoa, warmatebis SemTxvevaSi ramdenad moaxerxebda igi
am gardauvali kanonisTvis gverdis avlas? didi albaTobaa, rom sul mcire
xnis Semdeg ena [>langue<] ukve Sevidoda Tavisi semiologiuri sicocxlis xana-
Si; igi gaagrZelebda gamravlebas im kanonTa Sesabamisad, romelTac araferi
aqvT saerTo misi warmoSobis ideasTan da veravin moaxerxebda misi saTavis
moZiebas. adamiani, romelic gadawyvets ucvleli enis Seqmnas, daemsgavseba
iseT qaTams, romelmac ixvis kvercxebi gamoCeka: mis mier Seqmnili ena [>lan-
gue<] Zalauneburad aRmoCndeba CaTreuli im procesSi, romelic yvela enis
[>langue<] ganviTarebas gansazRvravs. 122
maSasadame, >cirkulacia< aq daxasiaTebulia, rogorc >enis semiolo-
giuri sicocxle<. 123 rogorc >ena, romelic Sevida Tavisi semiologi-
uri sicocxlis xanaSi< _ rac igivea, rom igi, rogorc socialuri
movlena, aris >sayovelTao xmarebaSi< _ >xelidan usxlteba kont-
rols< da >Zalauneburad erTveba im procesSi, romelic yvela enis
[>langue<] ganviTarebas gansazRvravs<. es bolo formulireba waagavs
im suraTs, romlis aRwerilobac sosiurma II kursSi mogvca (aq ci-
tireba xdeba a. ridlingeris konspeqtis Sesabamisad), >enis semiolo-
giuri sicocxlis< saxiT; suraTi, romelic saocrad gvagonebs kon-
cefcias enis socialuri bunebis, rogorc cirkulaciis, mimoqcevisa
da xmarebaSi gasvlis Sesaxeb:
Cven apriorulad ar viciT, Tu ra Zalebi Caerevian niSanTa sistemis cxov-
rebaSi (semiologiuri sistema=gems, magram gems ara gemTsaSenSi, aramed zRva-
ze: SeuZlebelia misi svlis apriorulad gansazRvra, misi korpusidan Tu
sxva mizezebidan gamomdinare).
da sruliad sakmarisia enis [>langue<] aRqma, rogorc raRac socialuris, ro-
gorc raRac koleqtiuris: mxolod Ria zRvaSi myofi gemi aris is sagani, ro-
melic unda gamokvleul iqnas, rogorc gemis saxeoba, da ara xmeleTTan gaCe-
rebuli gemi. maSasadame, gaerTianebis mxolod es sistema imsaxurebs niSanTa
sistemis saxels da warmoadgens kidec mas. aq umniSvneloa gaerTianebaSi
gamovlenili amoyvinTvis winmswrebi niSnebi, anu wminda individualuri ele-
mentebi. niSanTa sistema Seiqmna gaerTianebisaTvis da ara romelime indivi-

122
GRF, gv. 90 (xazgasma Tan erTvis); CLG/D, gv. 111; CLG/E (I), gv. 169f., Nr. 1271-1276.
123
sosiurTan "sicocxlis" cnebis problematikisaTvis ix. Cemi narkvevi: ">La vie
sémiologique de la langue<. Esquisse d'une lecture des notes manuscrites de Saussure", in: Langages 107, 1992,
gv. 73-82.

74
disTvis, zustad iseve, rogorc gemi iqmneba zRvisaTvis. amitom molodinis mi-
uxedavad, semiologiuri fenomeni arasodes tovebs uyuradRebod gaerTianebis
faqts. 124
sosiuris aRwerili suraTi zustia: rogorc gemad ar iTvleba is ge-
mi, romelic ar curavs, aseve ar SeiZleba enad CaiTvalos is ena, ro-
melic ar warmoadgens >gaerTianebis faqts< da ar aris mimoqcevaSi.
am pasaJSi kidev sxva ramec iqcevs Cvens yuradRebas. roca sosiuri
>enis semiologiuri sicocxlis< meSveobiT laparakobs >niSanTa sis-
temis cxovrebaze<, asparezze gamodis kidev erTi cneba, romelzec
aqamde gamokveTilad ar yofila saubari, magram romelamdec sosiu-
ris azrebs gardauvlad mivyavarT da es aris niSnis cneba.
Tu ra saerTo aqvT niSnebs konkretulad cirkulaciasTan, Tu rogor
warmoCndeba ena(Ta) da niSanTa urTierTkavSiri sosiuris SromebSi da
rogori SemecnebiT-Teoriuli problemebi Tu perspeqtivebi axlavs
Tan am urTierTdamokidebulebas – yvelafer amas ixilavT Semdgom
TavSi.

124
CF.CLG/E (I), gv. 170-173, II R 23, Nr. 1276-1286. de murom miuTiTa imaze, rom am magaliTs
gaaCnia biografiuli sarCuli: "TviTon sosiuri laparakobs im saubrebze, romelic mas
hqonia erT mxcovan swavlulTan [Adolphe Pictet], Tavis jer kidev bavSvur enTuziazmze
lingvisturi paleonTologiisa da etimologiis mimarT, romelsac mxars uWerda
babuamisi dedis mxridan _ grafi aleqsandre-iozef de purtalec. sosiuris babua iyo
iaxtebis moyvaruli konstruqtori da im etimologiebis avtori, romlebic, sosiuris
TqmiT, iseTive saxifaToni iyvnen, rogorc babuamisis mier konstruirebuli iaxtebi,
Jenevis tbaSi moxvedrisTanave talRebSi rom iZirebodnen" (cf. CLG/D, gv.322). Seadr. SOU,
gv. 17f., agreTve g. de purtales moTxroba Marins d'eau douce. (parizi 1919)

75
G.
niSnebi
yvela sagani, romlis arsebobasac Cven vva-
raudobT, emyareba raime materialur an
aramaterialur, magram aucileblad ubra-
lo substancias, mxolod ena (ufro zoga-
dad, niSani) aRmoCndeba xolme iseT gansa-
kuTrebul poziciaSi, romelic imdenad em-
yareba raRac kombinacias, rom uarsac ki
gaTqmevinebs imaze, rom saerTod arsebobs.
dauTariRebeli Canaweri memkvidreobidan

VII. niSanTa Teoriis gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva

1901 wels parizSi gamovida Jenevis universitetis filologiisa da


socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis ("Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences
sociales") maSindeli dekanis, agrien nevilis naSromi «mecnierebaTa
axali klasifikacia. filosofiuri swavlebani» Nouvelle classification des
sciences. Étude philosophique, rac 1888 wels mis mierve gamoqveynebuli
gamokvlevis «mecnierebaTa klasifikaciis» De la classification des sciences
sruliad axleburi versia gaxldaT; CvenTvis yvelaze saintereso am
gamokvlevaSi aris is, Tu rogor da risi saSualebiT cdilobs ne-
vili sociologiis sagnisa da velis Semoxazvas:
sociologia aris mecniereba Semecnebis unaris mqone arsebaTa, gansakuTrebiT
adamianTa, sazogadoebaSi cxovrebis kanonTa Sesaxeb. sociologiam, rogorc
mocemulobam, unda dauSvas yvela is piroba, romlis gareSec CvenTvis warmo-
udgenelia socialuri cxovreba. ra pirobebia es? me jer ar vici, moaxerxa
Tu ara mecnierebam maTi sakmarisi raodenobiT gamorCeva da CamoTvla.
erT-erTi yvelaze TvalsaCino maT Soris aris niSanTa arseboba, romelTa
meSveobiT gaerTianebis wevrebi erTmaneTs uziareben sakuTar grZnobebs, fiq-
rebsa da survilebs.
musie ferdinand de sosiuri xazs usvams am erT-erTi, yvelaze zogadi mecni-
erebis mniSvnelobas, romelsac igi uwodebs semiologias da romlis saganic,
misi azriT, aris is kanonebi, romlebic aregulireben niSanTa da maT mniSvne-
lobaTa qmnadobas da cvalebadobas [>transformation<]. semiologia aris socio-
logiis mniSvnelovani nawili. radgan am niSanTa sistemaSi umniSvnelovanesi
adamianTa tradiciuli salaparako enaa [>langage<], amitom yvelaze ufro gan-
viTarebuli semiologiuri mecniereba iqneba enaTmecniereba, anu mecniereba
enis [>langage<] cxovrebis kanonTa Sesaxeb. 1
sosiuri Tavadve ambobs, rom pirvelad moxda semiologiis miseuli
proeqtis samecniero publikaciaSi moxsenieba. 2 magram rogor bunebri-
vad da uSualodac Semodis aq sosiuris saxeli, aseve Cumad da uxma-
urod uCinardeba mis mier Seqmnili es >uaRresad zogadi mecniereba<

1
Cf. A. Naville: Nouvelle classification des sciences. Étude philosophique. parizi 1901, gv. 103f.
2
Seadr. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24a, Nr. 3342.6 Sesabam. Texte, gv. 409.

76
nevilis wignis mesame gamocemidan. 3 amiT uxeSad ukve moixaza
sosiuriseuli semiologiis Semdgomi mecnierul-istoriuli bedi.
radgan samociani wlebis dasawyisSi, levi-strosis miTiTebebis
kvalad, 4 ramdenime wamyvanma frangma Teoretikosma sosiuris proeqtze
dayrdnobiT scada konkretul disciplinebs daSorebuli
kulturologiuri Tu sazogadoebrivi Teoriis Seqmna, amitomac dRes
semiologia mxolod im naSromebSi TuRa moixsenieba, romlebSic
saubaria mis Teoriulad mravalmxriv gaumjobesebul (frangul)
variantze – struqturalizmze da mis istoriaze. 5 im dros, roca 1964
wels r. barts SeeZlo daewera, rom "dRes arsebobs garkveuli
semiologiuri miswrafeba [>sollicitation sémiologique<], romelic
gamomdinareobs ara ramdenime mkvlevaris fantaziidan, aramed
Tanamedrove samyaros istoriidan" 6 , j. k. mileri 1989 wels ukve
sruliad gulcivad askvnis, rom "zogadi semiologiidan arasdros
wamosula Tundac erTi naTeli sxivic ki". 7 intonaciisa da Sinaarsis
TvalsazrisiT TiTqmis aseTive erTsulovani iyo am mecnieruli
disciplinis Sefasebebi SemdgomSic. magram mainc razea dafuZnebuli
aseTi dispariteti semiologiis SefasebaSi?
sosiuris semiologiis neviliseul mokle aRwerilobaSi ukve aris mi-
niSneba erT seriozul problemaze: erTi mxriv, aq laparakia saxel-
dobr semiologiaze, rom >igi aris sociologiis mniSvnelovani nawi-
li<, meore mxriv ki _ >enaTmecniereba daxasiaTebulia, rogorc yve-
laze ganviTarebuli semiologiuri mecniereba<. amasTan dakavSirebiT
wamoiWreba enaTmecnierebisa da sociologiis urTierTdamokidebule-
bis sakiTxi. ra unda qnas semiologiam _ aiRos orientacia enaTmecni-
erebaze, radgan igi >yvelaze ganviTarebuli semiologiuri mecniere-
baa<, Tu piriqiT, miuerTos, an sulac dauqvemdebaros sociologias
enaTmecniereba, rogorc semiologiuri mecniereba?
zustad es sakiTxebi iqceven kursSi Cvens yuradRebas, roca balisa
da seSes mier warmoCenil semiologias vecnobiT. Cven aq mTlianad
mogvyavs Sesabamisi pasaJi, da ara marto misi istoriuli mniSvnelo-
bis gamo:
Cven sul axlaxans davrwmundiT, rom ena [>langue>] aris socialuri organiza-
cia; magram igi gansxvavdeba sxva organizaciebisagan bevri iseTi TvisebiT,
rogoricaa politikuri, samarTlebrivi da sxv. misi gansakuTrebuli bunebis
gasagebad saWiroa mTeli rigi sxva sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebac.
ena [>langue>] aris iseT niSanTa sistema, romelTa meSveobiT warmodgenebi
gamoixateba da amdenad misi Sedareba SeiZleba damwerlobasTan, yru-munjTa
anbanTan, simbolur ritualebTan, zrdilobis formebTan, samxedro signaleb-
Tan da a.S. Tumca yvela am sistemaTa Soris is mainc yvelaze mniSvnelovania.

3
Seadr. A. Naville: Nouvelle classification des sciences. Les idées maîtresses des sciences et leurs rapports,
parizi, 1920.
4
Seadr. Ansätze gv. 20f
5
Seadr. Ansätze gv. 21f. an Milner1989, gv. 63 ff.
6
Cf. R. Barthes: Recherches sémiologiques, "Présentation", in: Communications 4, 1964, gv. I.
7
Cf. Milner 1989, gv. 132; Seadr. aqve V. Descombes: Le même et l'autre. Quarante-cinq ans de philosophie
française (1933-1978), parizi 1979, gansakuTrebiT III Tavi, "La sémiologie", gv. 93 ff, an dekomi
1983. sxvaTa Soris, safrangeTis inteleqtualuri situaciiT gapirobebuli diskusiis
gamo iyo, rom yuradRebis miRma darCa iseTi naSromebi, rogoricaa belgieli e. bizen-
sis E. Buyssens Lees Langages et le discours (briuseli 1943), an lui prietos Luis J. Prieto Etudes de
linguistique et de sémiologie générale (Jeneva 1975).

77
maSasadame, Cven SegviZlia warmovidginoT iseTi mecniereba, romelic gamoikv-
levs niSanTa cxovrebas socialuri cxovrebis farglebSi; igi SeiZleba iq-
ces socio-fsiqologiis, mogvianebiT ki zogadi fsiqologiis nawiladac; Cven
mas vuwodebdiT semiologias (berZnuli sêmeîon «niSani»). saerTod, mas unda
eswavlebina, Tu ra aris niSani saerTod da ra kanonebiT imarTeba igi. magram
radgan igi jer kidev ar arsebobs, SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, Tu ra gamova mis-
gan. magram mas aqvs imis pretenzia, rom iarsebos; misi pozicia Tavidanve gan-
sazRvrulia. enaTmecniereba aris mxolod nawili am zogadi mecnierebisa; ka-
nonebi, romelTac semiologia aRmoaCens, enaTmecnierebazec gavrceldeba da,
aqedan gamomdinare, es ukanasknelic ipovis Tavis gansakuTrebul sferos ada-
mianur urTierTobaTa erTobliobaSi.
semiologiis zusti adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra fsiqologTa saqmea. enis
mkvlevarTa daniSnuleba ki mdgomareobs imis gansazRvrebaSi, Tu ris safuZ-
velze iTvleba ena [>langue>] gansakuTrebul sistemad semiologiur movlenaTa
mTel erTobliobaSi. am kiTxvas Cven mogvianebiT kidev mivubrundebiT; jerje-
robiT ki darwmunebiT mxolod erTi ramis Tqma SegviZlia: Tuki Cven aq enaT-
mecnierebas pirvelad mivaniWeT Tavisi gansazRvruli adgili sxva mecniereba-
Ta Soris, es mxolod imis wyalobiT, rom igi mivaTvaleT semiologias. 8
yvelaferi garTulda: semiologia ki iZleva imis nebas, rom >enaTmec-
nierebas pirvelad mieniWos Tavisi gansazRvruli adgili sxva mecnie-
rebaTa Soris<, magram samagierod imis gamo, rom enaTmecniereba unda
iwodebodes semiologiis nawilad, zaraldeba kursis moTxovna enaT-
mecnierebis homogenurobisa da avtonomiurobis Sesaxeb. 9 es vlindeba,
upirveles yovlisa, imaSi, rom enaTmecnierebam, rogorc amboben, is-is
iyo sakuTari Tavi ipova, rom moulodnelad horizontze gamoCnda
sxva mecnierebaTa dasaxelebani; Tan isini sruliad gansxvavdebian
imisgan, rac iyo nevilis SemTxvevaSi – kerZod, socialuri fsiqolo-
gia da zogadi fsiqologia. 10 magram mTavari siZnele mainc semiolo-
giisa da enaTmecnierebis urTierTdamokidebulebis erTmniSvnelovani
gansazRvraa: ase, magaliTad, enaTmecniereba Tavdapirvelad ganisazR-
vra, rogorc >zogadi mecnierebis nawili<, mere enaTmecnierebis aseTi
mkafio CarTva semiologiaSi kvlav SeizRuda SeniSvniT, rom >ena aris
gansakuTrebuli sistema semiologiur movlenaTa erTobliobaSi<, bo-
los ki isic aRiniSna, rom >am sakiTxs qvemoT kidev mivubrundebiT<.
kursSi es adgili ase JRers:
...ena [>langue<], es yvelaze mravalferovani da gavrcelebuli gamomxatvelobi-
Ti sistema, [aris] amave dros yvelaze saxasiaToc; am gagebiT enaTmecniereba
SeiZleba gaxdes mTeli semiologiis sanimuSo magaliTi da mTavari warmomad-

8
GRF, gv. 19; CLG/D, gv. 33; CLG/E, gv. 45 ff, Nr. 272-296.
9
Seadr. enebi, gv. 78.
10
dazustebis mizniT davZenT, rom nevili Tavis Nouvelle classification des sciences-Si soci-
ologias miakuTvnebs "fsiqologiur mecnierebebs". sosiurTan fsiqologiis da semi-
ologiis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb ix. agreTve Texte, gv. 242, 334, 355 f, 380 ff, 404 f,
aseve R. Engler: "semiologiuri sakiTxavi, mosazrebebi sosiurze, salviatisa da kretien
de truaze)", in: Linguistique contemporaine. Hommage á Eric Buyssens, briuseli 1970, gv. 61 ff;
sayuradReboa agreTve teqstebi imave periodSi e. diurkhaimsa da g. tards Soris mimdi-
nare debatebidan sociologiisa da fsiqologiis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb,
romlebic Seagroves s. puSma da a. raZinskim dokumentaciaSi "La Langue: fait social", in: Avant
Saussure. Choix de textes (1875-1924), gamocem. K. Nordmann, briuseli 1970, gv. 81-115.

78
geneli [>le patron général<], miuxedavad imisa, rom ena [>langue<] aris mxolod erT-
erTi sistema sxvaTa Soris. 11
Tuki enaTmecniereba aris semiologiis, rogorc frangul redaqciaSia
>le patron général<, maSin semiologia ar SeiZleba iyos yvelaze mTavari
mecniereba, romlis mza miRwevebic ubralod iqneba gamoyenebuli enas-
Tan mimarTebaSi. rogor SeiZleba am pirobebSi am >zogadi mecniere-
bis< (romelic kursis mixedviT >jer arc ki arsebobs<) wvlilis war-
modgena zogadi enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebis SeqmnaSi? iqneb, rogorc
barti daJinebiT amtkicebs, 12 yvelaferi piriqiTaa da semiologia unda
daeqvemdebaros enaTmecnierebas? an iqneb unda daveTanxmoT milners,
romlis mixedviTac "semiologia sxvas arafers Seicavs, garda imisa,
rac enaTmecnierebam asesxa"? 13
SeiZleba arc barts daveTanxmoT da arc milners, magram erTi ram
ueWvelad cxadia: lingvistikisa da semiologiis urTierTdamokidebu-
leba kursSi naTlad gansazRvruli ar aris da, rogorc gveCveneba,
kargi ganzraxviT. radgan rogorc ki sosiuris namemkvidrev Canawereb-
sa Tu studentTa konspeqtebs mivubrundebiT, aSkaraa enasa da niSnebs
Soris arsebuli gardauvali cirkularuloba.

enasa da niSnebs Soris

ori pozicia, romelTa Sorisac sosiuris azrovneba trialebs, yvela-


ze ufro markirebulia im or teqstSi, romelic dawerilia erTmane-
Tisagan ToTxmeti wliT daSorebul SualedSi, erTsa da imave TveSi.
pirveli maTgani TariRdeba 1894 wlis noembriT da warmoadgens im da-
umTavrebeli statiis gegmas, romelic eZRvneboda amerikeli lingvis-
tis u. d. uiTnis xsovnas. 14 meore ki iZebneba zogadi enaTmecnierebis
im leqciis ridlingeriseul CanawerSi, romelic sosiurma waikiTxa
1908 wlis 16 noembers (kursi II).
aqve mogvyavs CvenTvis saintereso orive pasaJi:

11
GRF, gv. 80; CLG/D, gv. 101; CLG/E, gv. 154, Nr. 1133-1134; Seadr. aqve CLG/E (I), gv. 47 f, II R 12 Nr.
283-290.
12
Seadr. barti 1964, gv.2, an R. Barthes: Système de la Mode, parizi, 1967, romlis winasityvaoba-
Sic vkiTxulobT: "adamians misjili aqvs danawevrebuli metyveleba [>langage<] da arc
erT semiologiur mcdelobas ar SeuZlia amis ignorireba. maSin, albaT, saWiroa, sosi-
uris formulireba SevatrialoT da xazi gavusvaT imas, rom swored semiologia aris
enaTmecnierebis nawili: am naSromis ZiriTadi funqcia imis Cagonebaa, rom Cvennair sa-
zogadoebaSi miTebma da ritualebma miiRes saRi azris forma, rac sabolood metyve-
lebis [>parole<] formaa; adamianuri ena [>langage<] aris ara marto azris modeli, aramed
misi fundamentic" (cf. barti Barthes 1967, gv.9), Seadr. bartis SemoTavazebis kritikisaTvis
engleri 1970, gv. 64, da zogadad lingvistikisa da semiologiis urTierTobisaTvis eng-
leri 1975a, gv. 848ff., agreTve r. godeli: "La semiologia saussurianna", in: CFS 38, 1984, gv. 99-114,
da P. Wunderli: "semiologiis cnebis moculoba da Sinaarsi sosiurTan", Tavdapirvelad in:
CFS 30, 1976, gv. 33-68, Semdeg gadamuSavebuli p. vunderlis sosiuris StudiebSi, tiubingeni
1981, gv. 25-49.
13
Cf. Milner 1989, gv. 132
14
Seadr. Texte, gv. 303-328

79
1894: 1908:
Tavisi nawarmoebis Life and Growth of
language ukanasknel TavSi uiTni ambobs,
adamianebma xma imisTvis gamoiyenes,
rom TavianTi warmodgenebisaTvis niS-
nebi mieniWebinaT, iseve rogorc iyeneb-
dnen Jestebs da sxva raRaceebs; da es
moxda imitom, rom maT xmis gamoyeneba
ufro moxerxebulad miiCnies. 15 Cven
vTvliT, rom aq <didi> paradoqsis maSasadame, niSnis bunebis danaxva
tolfasi es ori striqoni Seicavs yve- mxolod enaSi [>langue<] SeiZleba da
laze marTebul filosofiur warmod- es buneba Sedgeba iseTi sagnebis-
genas, rac ki odesme enas [>langue<] mo- gan, romlebsac yvelaze naklebad
ucia da rom am mocemulobiT mxolod ikvleven xolme. amitomac uZnelde-
igebs Cveni yoveldRiuri urTierToba baT ase semiologiuri mecnierebis
im sagnebTan, romelTac Cven vaanali- saWiroebisa da gansakuTrebuli
zebT, radgan mis safuZvelze mtkicde- aucieblobis erTbaSad danaxva,
ba, rom ena [>langue<] sxva araferia, Tu roca laparaki midis enaze [>lan-
ara niSnis gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva, gue<] zogadad, filosofiuri kuT-
romelsac ar SeuZlia Tavad Seafasos xiT, an roca ikvleven sxva sagnebs
sakuTari Tavi. 16 enis [>langue<] meSveobiT. 17

daviwyoT 1894 wlis noembris CanaweriT, romelSic, sxvaTa Soris, pir-


velad sosiuris Canawerebs Soris, Cndeba semiologiis dasaxeleba. 18
mTavari azri, romelic zemoT citirebul striqonTa mixedviT SeiZ-
leba Camoyalibdes, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ena ganxilul unda iqnas,
rogorc >niSnis gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva<, radgan mas >ar SeuZlia
Tavad Seafasos sakuTari Tavi<. an sxvanairad rom vTqvaT: rogorc Cans,
niSnis cneba enaTmecnierebisaTvis imitomacaa aucilebeli, rom am cnebis
gareSe SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, Tu ra Seadgens enis arssa Tu bunebas.
im winadadebebSi ki, romlebic a. ridlingerma Caiwera 1908 wlis 16
noembers sosiuris leqciaze, enisa da niSnis urTierTdamokidebuleba
sruliad sapirispirod warmoCindeba. axla ena ki aRar aris is, ro-
melsac >ar SeuZlia Tavad Seafasos sakuTari Tavi< da amitomac niS-
nis cnebidan unda amovides, aramed axla niSania is, romlis >bunebis
danaxva SeiZleba mxolod enaSi [>langue<] <.
am ori amonaridis Sedarebisas Cven miznad is ki ar dagvisaxavs, rom
yuradReba gagvemaxvilebina sosiuris koncefciaSi arsebul winaaR-
mdegobebze enisa da niSnis urTierdamokidebulebis sakiTxSi, arc is,
rom erTmaneTisagan gamogveyo am koncefciis cvlilebis fazebi, ara-
med Cven gvainteresebda sosiuris azrovnebis procesi. aq citirebul
teqstebs erTmaneTisagan didi dro ki aSorebT, magram maTSi is
poziciebi ki ar aris formulirebuli, romelic sosiurma erTmaneTze
miyolebiT daikava, aramed saqme exeba iseT or, erTmaneTisagan diamet-
ralurad gansxvavebul pozicias, romelic sosiuris azrovnebaSi
gverdigverd Tanaarseboben da semiologiis miseul proeqts dasawyi-

15
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 33, N 10, Nr.166, 168; Seadr. g. degalies konspeqti III kursisaTvis, ibid. an
Texte, gv. 506 ff.
16
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 34, N 10, Nr.173-174; xazgasma moyveba.
17
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 51, II R 22, Nr.313-314, xazgasma moyveba.
18
Seadr. Texte, gv. 321

80
sidanve gansazRvraven. es dasturdeba Semdegi pasaJiT sosiuris Seda-
rebiT vrceli xelnaweridan, romelic droSi emTxveva uiTnisTan da-
kavSirebuli monaxazis periods da im wignis irgvliv trialebs, rom-
lis Sesaxebac sosiuri 1894 wels meies 19 sasowarkveTili werda: rom
igi am wignSi >xsnis, Tu ratom ar arsebobs lingvistikaSi Tundac
erTi iseTi cneba, romelsac rame mniSvnelobas mianiWebda<:
nebismier sxva mecnierebaSi [lingvistikis garda] sagnebis grZnobismieri aRqma
wamierad mainc aris SesaZlebeli da analizis dros swored amas eyrdnobian,
masze uars arasdros amboben. ekuTvnis ki [ ] am TvalsazrisiT pirdapir fsi-
qologias da elodeba misgan STagonebas? maS, flobs Tu ara fsiqologia se-
miologias? usargeblo kiTxvaa, radgan rom flobdes, enis [>langue<] is feno-
menebi, <romlebic ignorirebas ukeTeben fsiqologias,> marto sakuTari Ta-
visTvis, imdenad <gabatondebodnen>, rogorc semiologiuri realobis safuZv-
lebi, rom is, rac maTze dayrdnobiT fsiqologebis mier unda Tqmuliyo, Za-
launeburad ver asaxavda verafers, an <TiTqmis verafers>. 20
es orive, erTmaneTis sapirispiro moZraoba, _ enidan niSnisken da pi-
riqiT _ niSnidan enisken _ sosiuris am adreul CanawerSi iRebs namd-
vilad Tavbrudamxvevi, wriuli moZraobis saxes. Tavdapirvelad Cndeba
kiTxva, ekuTvnis Tu ara enaTmecniereba 21 fsiqologias. rogorc sosi-
uris arasruli formulirebidan ivaraudeba, es SeiZleba iyos iseTi
SemTxveva, roca fsiqologia flobs semiologias, anu fsiqologias
SeuZlia daeyrdnos niSnis cnebas. Tumca – da aq misi azrebis qanqara
kvlav meore mxares ixreba – es >usargeblo< kiTxvaa, radgan >fsiqo-
logia rom flobdes semiologias<, maSin >enis fenomenebi<, >rogorc
semiologiuri realobis safuZvlebi<, fsiqologiisaTvis upiratesi
gaxdeboda.
Tuki enisa da niSnis urTierdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb sosiuris am
ori gamonaTqvamis diametraluri dapirispireba ar eqvemdebareba axs-
nas im poziciebis Tanmimdevrulobis TvalsazrisiT, romlebic erTma-
neTisagan gamomdinareoben da Teoriuli kvlevis gagrZelebis SemTx-
vevaSi SeiZleboda Serwymodnen kidec erTmaneTs, da Tuki ar gvsurs
davkmayofildeT imiT, rom martivad davadasturoT am ori poziciis
Tanaarseboba, rogorc ubralo winaaRmdegobrioba, maSin unda Seveca-
doT da sosiuris mier Catarebul enisa da niSnis urTierdamokidebu-
lebis gamokvlevaSi arsebuli es urTierTsapirispiro moZraobebi gan-
vixiloT cal-calke, raTa ukeTesad SevZloT imis danaxva, Tu saidan
iRebs saTaves da ras gamoxatavs TiToeuli maTgani. pirvel nabijad
Cven gvesaxeba im sakiTxis gamokvleva, zustad rodis Semoyavs TamaSSi
sosiurs niSnis cneba da, Sesabamisad, romeli enaTmecnieruli prob-
lemis gadawyvetas gegmavs misi meSveobiT. Semdeg svlaSi naCvenebi un-
da iyos, Tu romeli specifikuri enobrivi fenomeni aiZulebs sosiurs
niSnis cnebis xelaxla dadgenas; Sesabamisad, rogor unda gavigoT
kursSi mocemuli es gamonaTqvami: "ar arsebobs enaze [>langue<] ufro
xelsayreli saSualeba semiologiur problemaTa bunebis gasagebad." 22

19
Seadr. Texte, gv. 516 ff.
20
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 27, N 12, Nr.3299; Seadr. aqve Texte, gv. 364
21
Cven am cariel adgilas >ekuTvnis ki [ ] am TvalsazrisiT< CavsvamT "enaTmecnierebas"
da amiT SevasrulebT r. engleris rCevas in CLG/E (II), gv.*VI.
22
GRF, gv. 20; CLG/D, gv. 34; CLG/E (I), gv. 49, Nr. 299.

81
enaTmecnierebis sagani

pirvel SekiTxvaze pasuxis elementebi moipoveba jer kidev xelnawe-


ris im amonaridSi, romelic Cven zemoT vixileT. >nebismier sxva mec-
nierebaSi<, weria iq, >sagnebis grZnobismieri aRqma wamierad mainc
aris SesaZlebeli.< magram rogor aris saqme lingvistikis SemTxveva-
Si? nuTu bgerebi laparakisas ar aRiqmeba grZnobismierad? ueWvelad
aRiqmeba, magram sosiuri ganmeorebiT xazs usvams, rom amiT jer mainc
ar aris pasuxi gacemuli Semdeg kiTxvaze: aris Tu ara enaTmecniere-
bis sagani am doneze iseTive aRqmadi, rogoricaa sxva mecnierebaTa
sagnebi. kursSi aseve vkiTxulobT: "SeuZlebelia, rom bgera, romelic
mxolod materialuri elementia, TavisTavad ekuTvnodes enas [>lan-
gue<]." 23 e. konstantinma, romelic eswreboda sosiuris zogadi enaTmec-
nierebis leqciebis III kurss, amasTan dakavSirebiT Caiwera Semdegi:
am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom materialuri sityva enaTmecnieruli
TvalsazrisiT aris abstraqcia. igi, rogorc konkretuli sagani, ar miekuTv-
neba lingvistikas. 24
es formulireba SeiZleba paradoqsulad ki JRerdes, magram Tuki dav-
fiqrdebiT, arc misi mTliani ugulvebelyofa SeiZleba:
bgeraTa rigi mxolod im SemTxvevaSia enobrivi, rodesac igi atarebs rame
warmodgenas; marto, TavisTavad aRebuli ki ufro metad warmoadgens fsiqo-
logiuri kvlevis sagans. 25
maSasadame, sosiurisTvis is bgerebi, romelTac Cven warmovTqvamT, an
vismenT, mxolod imdenad warmoadgens enobrivs, ramdenadac >raime
warmodgenis matareblebi< arian, an sxvagvarad Tu vityviT, ramdena-
dac isini raRacis magivrobas sweven _ kerZod ki warmodgenis magiv-
robas. amgvarad formulirebuli es mosazreba Zalauneburad gvaxse-
nebs niSnis klasikur definicias: aliquid stat pro aliquo – raRaca yovel-
Tvis wevs raRacis magivrobas.
elementarulia: arc erTi adamiani ar ilaparakebs, Tuki is bgerebi,
ris artikulirebasac igi axdens, ar gasweven sxva raRacis magivro-
bas. sosiuri yovelTvis aRniSnavda, rom bgerebi mxolod imdenad mi-
ekuTvnebian enas, ramdenadac emsaxurebian mas niSnebis saxiT.
ena [>langue<] bgeras aRiqvams mxolod rogorc niSans. 26
an:
enis [>langue<] <Seqmna xdeba> gareSe sagnebis im garkveuli raodenobiT, ro-
melsac suli niSnad moixmars. mxolod zustad im zomiT, romliTac gareSe
sagani aris niSani <(aRiqmeba, rogorc niSani), gulisxmobs igi [ ]>, igi raRac
TvalsazrisiT aris enis [>langage<] nawili. 27

23
GRF, gv. 141; CLG/D, gv. 164; CLG/E (I), gv. 266, Nr. 1915.
24
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 232, III C 287, Nr. 1693; da a. ridlingerma Caiwera II kursSi: "paradoqsulad
SeiZleba JRerdes, magram bgera sityvaSi aris meoradi, SedarebiTi, igive SeiZleba iTq-
vas im warmodgenaze, romelic Camokidebulia sityvebze, erTeulebze: TavisTavad aRebu-
li igi warmoadgens Rirebulebis mxolod erT mxares (pirwmindad fsiqologiis saga-
ni!)" (cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 267, II R 26, Nr. 1916).
25
GRF, gv. 122; CLG/D, gv. 144; CLG/E (I), gv. 232, Nr. 1693.
26
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 17, N 7, Nr. 3293.
27
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 63, N 10, Nr. 407.

82
is, rac lingvistikas enis bgerebSi ainteresebs, aris ara am >gareSe
sagnebis< grZnobismierad aRqmadi, akustikuri Tu fiziologiuri ma-
terialuroba, aramed is faqti, rom isini niSnebis magivrobas sweven.
magram gaucemeli rCeba pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu >ra zomiT aris gareSe
sagani niSani<, amave dros mimdinareobs imis analizi, Tu ra aris
grZnobismierad aRqmadi am saganSi:
<imis> sanaxavad, Tu ra udevs formebs <safuZvlad>, saWiroa <mxolod am
formebis analizis Catareba>, msgavsad imisa, qimiuri substanciis analizs an
kveTas rom atareben xolme. amgvari warmodgenebi mxolod <aaSkaraveben> gu-
lubryvilobaTa Tu gansacvifrebel koncefciaTa am samyaros. 28
Tuki es misi niSnuri funqciaa (romlis damsaxurebacaa is, rom >gare-
Se nivTebi enis nawilebi< arian), marTlac gulubryvilobaa enobrivi
formebis >analizis Catareba qimiuri substanciebis< msgavsad. an sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Tuki enaze gasvlas misi simbolurobidan ga-
momdinare cdiloben, maSin unda gaTavisufldnen im (gulubryvilo)
warmodgenebidan, rom enaTmecnierebis sagani aris is, rac enaSi grZnobad
aRqmas eqvemdebareba. magram rogor unda gamoikvlio es sagani, Tuki
TviTon miuwvdomelia, an is, rac masSi grZnobismierad aRqmadia?
es kiTxva sosiurma Tavis Tavs ramdenjerme dausva, Tan sxvadasxva
konteqstSi. magaliTad, am mravalmniSvnelovnad dasaTaurebul (Unde
exorias? – saidan unda gamovideT?) fragmentSi vkiTxulobT Semdegs:
_ yvela sagani, romlis arsebobasac Cven vvaraudobT, eyrdnoba materialur
Tu aramaterialur, magram ubralo substancias. mxolod ena [>langue<] (ufro
zogadad, niSani) aris iseT Tavisebur poziciaSi, romelic imdenad emyareba
raRac kombinacias,
rom uarsac ki gaTqmevinebs imaze, rom saerTod arsebobs.
☛ magaliTi: wiTel-cisferi droSa, romelic imisaTvis aRimarTa, rom raRac
gansazRvruli sagani eCvenebina. me SemiZlia, Tuki daviJineb, uarvyo, rom igi
"arsebobs", rogorc sagani da igi iqceva mxolod wiTel-cisfer qsovilad
<fiqrad>. magram Tuki vityvi, rom sruliad SeuZlebelia mis arsebobaze ar
vilaparako, maSin aTasobiT [ ]
☛ es iseTi poziciaa, romelSic ise aRmoCndebi sityvasTan Tu enasTan [>lan-
gue<], rom azrzec ver moxval. yvelas aqvs ufleba Tqvas, rom ena [>langue<] ar
arsebobs, es ki niSnavs imas, rom arsebobs mxolod a) artikulacia da b)
fiqrebi, magram maSin ar unda ilaparako, magaliTad, sityva cheval-ze, an [ ]
romlis drosac warmoidgen, rom es sityva cheval Sedgeba ŝ+ artikulaciisagan.
<☛> rogorc ki am sityvaze cheval ilaparakeb, imave punqtSi aRmoCndeba, rom
Semdegs varaudob:
cisferi droSa+Sesabamisi azri

qmnis erT iseT mTlianobas,


rac aris "niSani"
ramdenad sworia aq erTianobis danaxva? an filosofiurad ramdenadaa marTe-
buli? warmodgena ara maqvs, _ [ ]
magram is ki viciT: diax, CavTvaloT, rom cisferi droSis nacvlad borcvze
+ [ ] 29

28
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 29, N 12, Nr. 3299.
29
Cf. BPUG, Ms. f.r. 3952.4 b, gv. 4f., franguli originaluri teqstis aslis pirveli anabeWdi
in Prosdocimi 1983, gv. 69-71 (Texte, gv. 413 ff; Seadr. agreTve Texte, gv. 300ff)

83
Tavidan ise Cans, TiTqos enis arsebobaSi rame saeWvo yofiliyo, rad-
gan igi >ubralo substancias eyrdnoba<. magram ufro metad Tu da-
vakvirdebiT, cxadi xdeba, rom swored am mosazrebis wyalobiT eZleva
enaTmecnierebas Tavisi sagnis dafiqsirebis saSualeba: is, rac >enas
(ufro zogadad, niSans)< qmnis, arc >artikulaciebis< >substanciaa>
da arc >fiqrebi<, aramed maTi >kombinacia<. ramdenadac ena eyrdnoba
>kombinacias< 30 _ an, rogorc sosiuri sxva ramesTan dakavSirebiT
wers, "Sesatyvisobas" 31 _ da ara >ubralo substancias<, zustad imde-
nad SeiZleba misi Sedareba sxva niSnebTan, >im droSasTan, romelic
imitom aRimarTa, rom gansazRvruli sagani eCvenebina<, an, rogorc
kursSi ufro zogadad aris Camoyalibebuli, >damwerlobasTan, yru-
munjTa anbanTan, simbolur ritualebTan, zrdilobis formebTan, sam-
xedro signalebTan da a.S. da a.S.<
magram gansazRvravs Tu ara sakmarisad es debuleba enaTmecnierebis
sagans? es rom ase yofiliyo, lingvistika uproblemod CaiTvleboda
"niSanTa zogadi Teoriis" erT-erT sferod, an qveTavad. asec gamoiyu-
reba yvelaferi, rodesac kiTxulob pirvel monakveTs uiTnis xsovni-
sadmi miZRvnili statiis gegmis Semdegi ori amonarididan. Tumca
imiT, rac sosiurs meore nawyvetSi TamaSSi Semohyavs, enis niSnisaken moZ-
raoba mimarTulebas icvlis da sruliad sapirispiro mxares miemarTeba:
1. <ena [>langue<] ukve aRar iTvleba> gansakuTrebul SemTxvevad niSanTa Teo-
riaSi. <magram zustad mxolod am> faqtis gamo misTvis sruliad SeuZlebe-
lia ubralo ramed yofna (raRac kidev misi arsebobis wesSi Cveni suli(goni)-
saTvis pirdapir aRsaqmeli), Tumca niSanTa zogad TeoriaSi igi namdvilad
<aris> bgerobriv niSanTa gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva, Tanac <aTasjer ufro>
kompleqsuri yvela im cnobil gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaTa Soris, rogoricaa
damwerloba, daSifvra da sxv.
2. es iqneba enis [>langue<] kvlevis <kapitaluri> zemoqmedeba niSanTa Teori-
aze, <es iqneba> axali horizonti, romelsac igi <samudamod >gaxsnis, radgan
man TvalsaCino gaxada da <gaxsna> niSnis sruliad axali mxare, kerZod is
rom, niSnis namdvili aRqma iwyeba maSin, roca dainaxaven, rom igi aris sagani,
romelic aris ara marto gadacemadi [>transmissible<], aramed sakuTari bunebi-
dan gamomdinare, gadacemad/gavrcelebadi [>transmis<], 2. modifikacia [ ]. mxo-
lod es aris, rom mas, vinc enis [>langue<] Teoriis Seqmnas moindomebs, es saq-
mes asmagad gaurTulebs [ ] 32
pirvel punqtSi kidev erTxel saxeldeba gansakuTrebuli SemecnebiT-
Teoriuli problema. am problemasTan dakavSirebulia is mecniereba,
romelic Tavis sagnad aRiqvams niSans: enas, rogorc >niSanTa Teori-
is gansakuTrebul SemTxvevas<, ar SeuZlia iyos raime >ubralo< da

30
cneba "combinasion", romelic h. lomelma Targmna, rogorc "naerTi", kursSi mravaljer
meordeba. Seadr. GRF, gv. 78; CLG/D, gv. 99; CLG/E (I), gv. 150, Nr. 1111 ff. an CLG/E (I), gv. 264, D 278,
Nr. 1900.
31
pasaJSi, romelic moipoveba erT CanawerSi, romelic, savaraudod, 1897 wels, marcval-
Ta Teoriisadmi miZRvnili leqciisaTvis mzadebis periodSi gakeTda, Semdeg mosazrebas
vxvdebiT: "[...] <uaRresad> iluzorulia imis daSveba, rom <vinme> enaTmecnierebaSi <SeZ-
lebs Seicnos> pirveli wesi: bgerebi da meore wesi: mniSvnelobebi, im ubralo mizezis
gamo, rom enobriv/lingvisturi realoba <safuZvelSive> uZluria saimisod, rom am
saganTagan mxolod erT-erTi aRiaros Semadgenel nawilad, xolo imisaTvis, rom iarse-
bos, miT umetes, saWiroebs erT <Sesabamisobas>, magram ara mxolod erT substancias,
aramed kidev or substancias [...]" (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 30, N 14 a, Nr. 3303).
32
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1267.

84
>Cveni gonebisaTvis pirdapir aRsaqmeli< _ raime >substancia< _ Tum-
ca am TvalsazrisiT >bgeriTi niSnebi< saerTod yvelaze naklebad
>kompleqsurebi arian yvela sxva cnobil gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaTa
Soris<. meore punqtSi ki sosiuri ganmartavs, rom arsebobs raRac
sxva, romlis meSveobiTac >enis kvleva< >niSanTa Teorias< >samuda-
mod uxsnis axal horizontebs<: kerZod, imis Secnoba, rom >niSnis
namdvili aRqma iwyeba maSin, roca dainaxaven, rom igi aris sagani,
rom igi aris iseTi sagani, romelsac Tavisive buneba usazRvravs, rom
iyos gadacemuli, gavrcelebuli<.
cxadia, rom aq saqme gvaqvs >niSnis sruliad axal mxaresTan<,
imdenad, ramdenadac aqamde niSnebTan dakavSirebiT msjeloba midioda
mxolod <kombinaciisa< Tu >artikulaciisa< da >azris> Sesabamiso-
bis Sesaxeb, magram araviTar SemTxvevaSi imis Sesaxeb, rom >niSans Ta-
visive buneba usazRvravs, rom iyos gadacemuli, gavrcelebuli<. es
debuleba gansakuTrebulad Seexeba agreTve imas, rasac vigebT
kursidan niSnis cnebis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad imisa, rom sosiuri Tavis
CanawerebSi mravaljer daJinebiT imeorebs, rom cneba "transmision"
aRniSnavs niSnisaTvis (da misi TeoriisaTvis) uaRresad mniSvnelovan
ganzomilebas, 33 es cneba mainc ar figurirebs arc erT amasTan dakav-
Sirebul pasaJSi im teqstidan, romelic balim da seSem gamoaqveynes
1916 wels. 34 Cven SemdgomSi vapirebT imis Cvenebas, rom swored Semdegi
debulebis: >niSani ukve Tavisi bunebiT aris gansazRvruli saimisod,
rom gadacemul iqnas< _ safuZvelze xdeba aSkara, rom sosiuris kon-
cefcia niSnis Sesaxeb specifikuri lingvisturi problemebidan amo-
dis da am problemaTa safuZvelze iqmneba.
mainc zustad ris Tqmas cdilobs sosiuri cnebiT "transmision"? modiT,
am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad, davubrundeT sosiuris Canawerebs ger-
manuli legendebis Sesaxeb, radgan pirvelad swored iq wavawydiT
cnebas "transmision", romelic maSin vTargmneT, rogorc "gadacema".

obieqti, romelic arasodes aris


›erTi da igive‹

im mtkicebulebidan gamomdinare, rom erTi legendis sxvadasxva ver-


siebis simravle imitom gvaqvs, rom igi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi erTi
Taobidan meores gadaecemoda da, amasTan erTad, icvleboda, sosiuri
mivida im daskvnamde, rom gadacemis procesi ise ar unda gagebuliyo,
rogorc es legendebisTvisaa niSandoblivi. aRniSnuli Sexedulebis
formulireba asec SeiZleba: legendebi Sedgeba ›simboloebisagan‹,
romlebic ›mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iarsebeben, Tu isini cirkulaciaSi
moxvdebian‹. Cven wina TavSi ukve mivuTiTeT, rom es mosazreba ›droSi
enis uwyveti moZraobis asaxsneladaa motanili‹. Tu, erTi mxriv, auci-
lebeli cirkulaciis princips, Tavisi cvladi dinamikiT, enisaTvis

33 Seadr. Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299, an Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 47, N 24 a, Nr. 3342. Sesabamisi
pasaJebis citireba am TavSi kvlav moxdeba zusti teqstiT.
34
niSandoblivia, rom cneba "transmision" ar aris dasaxelebuli arc t. moros gamocemis
indeqsSi (CLG/D) da arc kursis germanul gamocemaSi. TviT r. engleris SesaniSnav
Lexique de la terminologie saussurienne-Sic ar iZebneba Canaweri "transmision"-ze, arc iq motanil
niSnis definaciaSi TamaSobs es cneba rame rols. Seadr. LTS, gv. 45 f.

85
ZiriTadi mniSvneloba aqvs, xolo, meore mxriv, ena semiotikis gansa-
kuTrebuli SemTxvevaa, amasTan kavSirSi Cndeba kiTxva, Tu rogor Se-
iZleba erTad gaviazroT aucilebeli cirkulaciis principisa da sim-
bolos cneba.
sosiuris naazrevis gasagebad es centraluri sakiTxia da igi mas mra-
valgzis ubrundeba, Tumca xSirad, erTi SexedviT, arc ise gamoxa-
tuli formiT. ase, magaliTad, 1894 wlis zogadi enaTmecnierebis wig-
nis CanawerSi igi mogviTxrobs:

davakvirdeT magaliTisTvis alka-s bgerebis mJRer Tanmimdevrobas, romelic


garkveuli drois Semdeg, gadaecema ra erTi sivrcidan meores, ôk-ad gada-
iqceva. Cven vaskvniT, rom <gamartivebis mizniT,> absoluturad ar viTvalis-
winebT alka-s ôk-ad gadaqcevas, Tumca maT gareSe enobriv/lingvisturi faqtis
sawyisi mniSvnelobas kargavs.
anu, alka drois faqtoris saSualebiT iqceva ôk-ad. arsebiTad, sadaa kavSiri
alka-sa da ôk-s Soris? Tu am mimarTulebas mivyvebiT, rac saWiro da aucile-
belicaa, male davinaxavT, rom uTuod gaCndeba kiTxva, Tu sad aris kavSiri
alka-sa da <TviT> alka-s Soris da am dros mivxvdebiT, rom saqme arc erT Sem-
TxvevaSi ar exeba obieqts, rogorc <pirvelad faqts>, romelic alka SeiZleba
yofiliyo[...] 35
e.i. enis xmovani icvleba maSin, roca is ›erTi sivrcidan meores gada-
ecema‹, Tumca Tu ›gamartivebis mizniT‹ xmovanTa Tanmimdevrobis cvli-
leba gvsurs aRvweroT, rogorc amas sosiuri gvTavazobs _ misi ›mniS-
vnelobisagan‹ damoukideblad, Tavs iCens problema, rom SeuZlebelia
davasabuToT alka-s xmovnebis Tanmimdevrobis cvilebebiT ôk-is miReba.
Tu rogorc xmovan substancias, ise ganvixilavT, alka iseve SegviZlia
SevadaroT ôk-s, rogorc *olk. maSin SeuZlebelia ›enobrivi sidideebis
pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT‹ aRwera, aramed isini unda ganvixiloT, ro-
gorc ›bgeraTa garkveuli mJReri Tanmimdevroba‹. Tu alka-s uSualod
SevadarebT ôk-s, es pirdapir Tu iribad, mainc imaze miuTiTebs, rom
xmovanTa am or Tanmimdevrobas, romlebsac erTmaneTs vadarebT, erTi
›mniSvneloba‹ aqvs _ ›kavSiri alka-sa da ôk-s Soris‹ _ miT ufro gasa-
gebi xdeba, rac ufro Rrmad CavwvdebiT maTi simboloebis funqciis
›xmovanTa mJRer Tanmimdevrobas‹. es aseve exeba ›kavSirs alka-sa da Tvi-
Ton alka-s Soris‹. Tuki me sityva alka-s orjer an metjer erTmaneTis
miyolebiT warmovTqvam, miviRebT bgeraTa sxvadasxva Tanmimdevrobas,
romlebic maTi konkretuli arsis gaTvaliswinebiT erTmaneTsagan
gansxvavdebian. Tu im mosazrebidan gamovalT, rom maT msgavsi ›mniS-
vneloba‹ aqvT, erTmaneTisagan arsiT ganyenebuli bgeraTa Tanmimdev-
roba SegviZlia ganvixiloT erTi da imave simbolos realizaciis
formebad an Sesabamis versiebad.

35
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 21, N 9.2, Nr.131.

86
Tumca am mosazrebis miRma erTi problema imaleba: ufro zustad, ara
marto SegviZlia ›alka-sa da TviTon alka-s Soris kavSirze‹ saubari,
aramed alka-s axvadasxva realizaciis formebs Soris da alka-s, alka-sa
da alka-s Soris kavSirzec ki visaubroT. 36 alka-s bgeraTa Tanmimdev-
roba, romelsac warmovTqvam an mesmis, sul sxvaa, vidre ›TviTon alka‹.
›arcerT SemTxvevaSi ar gvaqvs pirveladi faqti, romelic alka SeiZle-
boda yofiliyo‹. statikuri (ucvleli) »originali alka« ar arsebobs
da Sesabamisad verc am »originalis« aslebs miviRebT, aramed mxo-
lod alka-s uamrav, arsiT gansxvavebul da erTmaneTisagan gancalkeve-
bul versiebs. sxvagvarad rom CamovayaliboT: ›TviTon alka‹ arsebobs
mxolod Tavisi versiebis rigebSi, arsebobs, ›roca igi erTidan meo-
res gadaecema‹, an sosiuris sxva formulirebis Tanaxmad, »24 saaTis
drois monakveTSi, aTasobiT warmoiqmneba«. 37  magram swored amitom icv-
leba igi, swored amis meSveobiT iqceva droTa ganmavlobaSi alka ôk-ad.
es aris ara marto enobriv-istoriuli, aramed amavdroulad semioti-
kuri problema. iseve, rogorc sosiuri uiTnisadmi mosagonari
statiis CanawerebSi aRniSnavs, »obieqti, rogorc simbolo, arasodes
ar aris ›erTi da igive‹ « 38 , rac imas niSnavs, rom simbolo ›TviTon‹
arcerT SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rogorc konkretul obi-
eqtTan arsiT Tanmxvedri an, Sesabamisad, obieqtSi arsebuli stati-
kuri sidide. ufro xSirad gvxvdeba simbolo ›TviTon‹ misi versiebis
rigebSi, maSin roca sxvadasxva obieqtebi simboloebis msgavsad gad-
moicema. simboloebi, legendis simboloebis msgavsad, imitom ki ar
aris mocemuli, rom SemdgomSi kvlav erTidan meores gadaeces, aramed
isini TavisTavad arseboben, radgan isini cirkulireben. es imas niS-
navs, rom gadacemis procesi ise ar unda warmovidginoT, rogorc es
simboloebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. Tu sosiuris formulirebas
daveyrdnobiT, simboloebi es ufro ›cnebebia, romlebic TavianTi bu-
nebiT imisTvis aris gansazRvruli, rom erTidan meores gadaecemo-
des‹. radgan simboloebi, ZiriTadad, gadacemisTvis aris gansazRvru-
li, radgan ›obieqti, rogorc simbolo, arasodes aris erTi da igive‹,

36
degalie am konteqstSi Semdegs aRniSnavs: »ase, magaliTad, sityva guerre: me SemiZlia
drois mcire monakveTSi orjer mainc movismino mosaubris piridan. me vxedav am <ganme-
orebul> sityvaSi identurobas. magram yovel jerze, roca sityva warmoiTqmis, sauba-
ria <ganyenebul> aqtze (cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 244, D 195, Nr. 1764); Sdr. masTanve GRF, gv. 128 f.
Sesabamisad, CLG/D, gv. 150 f., aseve teqstebi, gv. 393.
37
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 9.3, Nr. 3296.
38
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 10, Nr. 3297. uiTnisadmi mosagonari statiis eskizSi sosiuri
ganavrcobs Semdegs: obieqti, rogorc simbolo, arasodes aris orjer ›erTi da igive‹:
sawyisi momentidanve saWiroa gamovikvlioT <an mivaRwioT sawyis SeTanxmebas>, raTa
vicodeT visi saxeliT, <ra sazRvrebSi> gvaqvs ufleba mas igive vuwodoT; aq arsebiTi
gansxvavebaa sxva romelime obieqtTan da aseve pirvel, sruliad martiv wyarosTan.
magaliTad, magida, romelic Cem win dgas, Tavisi arsiT dResac da xvalac erTi da
igivea da aso-bgera b, romelsac vwer, esec iseve materialuria, rogorc magida, magram
is ar aris [ ].«

87
simboloebi ar SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rogorc yoveli SemTxvevisTvis
gaTvaliswinebuli ucvleli sidideebi. 39
amasobaSi advili misaxvedria moZraobebis inversiuloba, romelic
sosiuris mosazrebebs gverds uvlis: enaTmecniereba simbolos cneba-
zea damokidebuli, raTa obieqtSi gaerkves. magram amavdroulad ›enis
kvlevaSi‹ TvalsaCinoa simboloebis problematikis ganzomileba, rom-
lis Sesaxebac ›tradiciul semiotikaSi‹ ar aris saubari. simboloebi
ar SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc ›artikulaciebisa‹ da ›mosazrebebis‹
›kombinaciebi‹, romlis cvalebad dinamikasac isini ganuxrelad eqvem-
debarebian. sosiurma am konteqstSi semiologiis mis proeqtSi dasva
sakiTxi ›simboloebis meore sicocxlis‹, 40 aseve ›simboloebis more-
vis‹ 41 Sesaxeb da daadgina, rom es morevi simboloebis
koncefciisTvis ZiriTadi ganzomilebaa 42 .
am SeniSvnidan SeiZleba amovikiTxoT, rom es gadamwyveti punqtia, ro-
melSic sosiuris semiologia tradiciuli, _ upirveles yovlisa (fi-
losofiaSi ganviTarebuli semiotikis 43 ), ›simboloebis Teoriisgan‹

39
msgavsi mosazreba gvxvdeba sosiuris kritikul werilSi ›fonologebis Sesaxeb‹: »un-
da ganisazRvros fonemis erTianoba da roca es erTianoba gansazRvruli iqneba, davina-
xavT, rom jaWvSi da jaWvs miRma erTianobebs Soris gansxvaveba ar arsebobs. Sewydeba
imaze fiqri, rom fonemebi, erTi mxriv, haerSi dafarfateben da, meore mxriv, xandaxan
sasaubro jaWvSi [›chaîne parlée‹] xvdebian. fonologebis mxridan yvelaze did usamarTlo-
bad is ki ar mimaCnia, rom, maTi warmodgeniT, fonemebi, roca isini ›jaWvSi xvdebian‹,
garkveul wesrigs eqvemdebarebian (Tumca es mosazreba ukve uCveuloa), aramed ufro
metad is, rom isini eTanxmebian mosazrebas fonemebis romelime sxva mdgomareobis Sesa-
xeb, romelic maT jaWvSi gaaCniaT. isini avrceleben mosazrebas, rom B, Z da L erTeule-
bi ›uSualod mocemul erTeulebs‹ warmoadgenen, ise, rom isini arc cdiloben agvix-
snan, romel cnebas Seesabameba es yvelaferi.
40
aqve mocemulia konteqstis formulireba: »sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli simbolo-
ebis Tavisebureba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is disciplinebi, romlebic aqamde am sakiT-
xze muSaobdnen, <ver> xvdebodnen, rom es simboloebi (2.) gadacemadi [›transmisiuri‹]
iyo da, aqedan gamomdinare, mieniWeboda meore sicocxle. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am dis-
ciplinebSi (iseve, rogorc mTel samecniero sazogadoebaSi) araferi iyo naTqvami amis
Sesaxeb.«
41
kerZod, erT-erT SeniSvnaSi item: »Item. nebismier <arcerT> axalgazrda Tu xandazmul
fsiqologs, romelic enas [›langue‹] elementad ganixilavs, am kanonebis Sesaxeb warmod-
genac ki ar hqonia. gamonaklisis gareSe, yvela fsiqologi warmoadgens enas, rogorc
myar formas da aseve uklebliv yvela fsiqologi Tvlis, rom is konvenciuri formaa.
isini moZraoben Zalze bunebrivad im sivrceSi, rasac me enis horizontalur amonarids
vuwodeb, magram ise, rom aranairi warmodgenac ki ar aqvT socio-istoriuli fenomenis
Sesaxeb, romelic simboloebis morevs vertikalur svetSi uSualod Tavisken izidavs
da Semdgom abrkolebs maTgan fiqsirebuli an konvenciuri enis warmoqmnas, radgan is
uwyveti socialuri zemoqmedebis Sedegia, romelic arCevanis gareSe warmoiqmneba. yo-
vel SemTxvevaSi, fsiqologebis mxridan sakiTxis gagebis safuZveli mxolod bgeraTa
gadanacvlebis Seswavlidan [›transformations phonétiques‹] momdinareobs.« (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N
15, Nr. 3309).
42
Sdr. feri 1992 a. gv. 73-82.
43
r. iakobsonisa da l. ielmslevis sapirispirod, orive sxvadasxva kuTxiT saubrobs
»semiotikis« Sesaxeb. ›simboloebis Teoriis‹ es tradiciuli aRniSvna sosiuris xelna-
werebSi arsad ar gvxvdeba. ix. iakobsonTan: »lingvistika da misi mimarTeba sxva mec-
nierebebTan«, r. iakobsoni, Txzulebani lingvistikisa da poetikis Sesaxeb, gamocemuli
v. raiblis mier, mainis frankfurti, 1979, gv. 150-224, gansakuTrebiT yuradsaRebia gv. 170-
187, an Tundac »semiotikis ganviTarebis mimoxilva«, r. iakobsoni, semiotika, rCeuli
teqstebi 1919-1982, gamocemuli e. holenStainis mier, mainis frankfurti, 1988, gv. 108-135;
rac Seexeba ielmslevs: Prolégomènes á une théorie du langage, aris 1968-71; Sdr. aseve e. ben-
venisti: »Semilogie de la langue«, iqve: Problèmes de linguistique générale II, Paris 1974, gv. 43-66.
sxva sakiTxia, Tu rogor miakvlia sosiurma semiologiis saxelwodebas. unda mivuTi-
ToT, Tu rogor scada man CvenTvis jer kidev bolomde auxsnel kiTxvaze pasuxis gace-

88
gansxvavdeba. es Canaweri sosiuris gviandeli Semoqmedebis periods
ekuTvnis da mas am Tavis amosavaal wertilamde mivyavarT _ kerZod,
sosiuris mcdelobasTan, semiologiis meSveobiT ›lingvistikas mecnie-
rebebs Soris adgili daumkvidros‹:
surdaT daedginaT, lingvistika sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebs ekuTvnis, Tu
istoriuls. is arc erT maTgans ar miekuTvneba. igi mecnierebis im nawils
warmoadgens, ›romelic misi arsebobis SemTxvevaSi iarsebebda semiologiis
saxelwodebiT‹ anu esaa simboloebis an kvlevis mecniereba [›étude‹] imis aRsa-
niSnavad, Tu ra xdeba, rodesac adamiani cdilobs, Tavisi azrovneba saWiro
konvenciiT axsnas. ‹semiologiur sistemebs Soris› semiologiuri sistema _
›ena‹ [›langue‹] erTaderTia, romelic unda warmdgariyo ‹gamocdis winaSe›, rom
dros Sepirispireboda, romelic ubralod mezoblebs Soris ormxrivi SeTan-
xmebis safuZvelze ki ar unda ›daarsebuliyo‹, aramed aseve mamasa da Svils
Soris aucilebeli tradiciis meSveobiT da im SemTxveviTobis gziT, rac am
tradicias Tan axlavs, rac mis farglebs gareT ar aris aprobirebuli, ›arc
cnobili da aRwerilia vinmes mier‹. Tuki moisurvebT, lingvistika aris fsi-
qologiuri mecniereba imiT, rom is semiologiuric aris, magram fsiqologebi
arasodes dauSveben semiologiaSi drois faqtors.
is faqti, Tu ram gamoiwvia pirvelad fsiqologebis interesi, fsiqologebis
mier ignorirebulia. arcerTi maTgani ar gvixsnis, Tu ra xdeba semiologiis
gadacemis [›transmisiis‹] procesSi da amis ‹msgavsi› faqti ratomRac Zalian
izidavs maT, imdenad, rom ‹sjeraT kidec›, TiTqos maTi mecniereba istoriuli
da, ufro metic, Rrmad istoriuli mniSvnelobis mqonea, maSin roca maT
mxolod semiotikuri daniSnuleba gaaCniaT: fsiqologiaSi sruliad aSkarad
apriorulad miCneulia, rom im pirobiT, Tu enas obieqti gaaCnia, romelic
droSi vrceldeba, is mkvlevarebs aiZulebs, gascdnen droebiTi simboloebisa
da Sexedulebebis Sesaxeb spekulaciebs. 44
sosiurs arsebuli simboloebis Sesaxeb spekulaciebi ki ar aintere-
sebs, romlebic, ase vTqvaT, drois faqtoris miRma isedac yvelasaT-
vis dadgenilia, aramed cvalebadi simbolo, romelic TvalsaCino
xdeba, Tuki enas ganvixilavT, rogorc obieqts, romelic ›droSi
vrceldeba‹, »pirveli dRidan moyolebuli, rac kacobriobam saubari
daiwyo« 45 , Taobidan Taobas gadaecema, magram drois ganzomilebis Se-
saxeb es interesi istoriuli ar aris; rodesac is ganixilavs simbo-
los drosTan mimarTebaSi, aq ukve TvalSisacemia is gadamwyveti ro-
li, romelsac gadacemis procesSi simboloebis Camoyalibeba Tama-
Sobs. orive maTgani _ droSi enebis gavrcelebis problema, iseve ro-
gorc masTan dakavSirebuli semoitikuri sakiTxi, romelic am gadace-
mis process ekuTvnis, sosiuris Tanaxmad, filosofosebisa da fsiqo-
logebis naazrevSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. 46

ma: sosiuris moRvaweobis dros frangul enaSi miRebuli iyo aRniSvna »sémiologie médi-
cale« rogorc »symptomatologie«-s sinonimi.
44
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 47, N 24 a, Nr. 334 2.1
45
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 10, N 1.3, Nr. 3285
46
dabolos, sosiuris anagramis kvlevidan erT citatas movixmob, romelic aseve sainte-
resod asaxavs enis gadacemis process: »Tavisi indoevropuli mniSvnelobis gamo Sedegi
damabnevelia. aq realurad saqme exeba ara imas, Tu ra gadaicema aracnobierad, enas an
TviT leqsis strofs, mis riTmas da garegnul formas; aramed im formulis Camoyali-
bebas da Seswavlas, romlis mixedviTac ostatebi da Segirdebi aTaswleulebis ganmav-
lobaSi gadascemdnen mas Taobidan Taobas« (cf. A. Prosdocimi, A. Marinetti: »Saussurre e il satur-
nio«, CFS 44 [1990], 1991, gv. 43 f.). Sdr. aseve teqstebi, gv. 451 f.

89
amgvarad, aSkaraa, Tu ra unda gamovikvlioT: Cven unda gamovarkvioT,
rogor icvleba ‹simboloebis Teoria›, Tuki sosiuris enebis gadace-
mis process daveyrdnobiT. an, ufro zustad, Cven unda gamovavlinoT,
rogori saxe unda hqondes simboloebis koncefcias, romelic im mo-
sazrebis Sesabamisi iqneba, rom simboloebi, romlebic gadaicema, ›Ta-
vianTi bunebiT aqeTken aria midrekilni, radgan mxolod im SemTxve-
vaSi vlindebian, roca cirkulireben. Tumca, aqve unda iTqvas, rom
isini SeiZleba SeumCnevlad, magram ganuwyvetliv arseboben.

VIII. simbolos sruliad axali mxare


nawilobriv, sxva TemebTan gadajaWvul glosebSi da SeniSvnebSi,
sosiuris teqstebSi saubaria transmisiis – enebis gadacemis Sesaxeb,
rogorc >simboloTa Teoriis< umniSvnelovanes ganzomilebaze. sosi-
uris xelnawerebSi, Jenevis leqciis Canawerebidan dawyebuli, zogadi
enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb bolo leqciis momzadebiT damTavrebuli, mo-
iZebneba winadadebebi, formulirebebi, mosazrebebi, romlebSic naT-
lad aisaxeba semiotikuri implikaciebi da Sedegebi, romlebsac Tan
axlavs enebis gadacemis procesi. sosiuris naSromSi gabneuli monak-
veTebis fonze ikveTeba pasaJi, romelSic kategoriulad daismis da
ganixileba semiotikasa da enaTmecnierebas Soris problemuri urTi-
erTmimarTebis sakiTxi. es pasaJi warmodgenilia sosiuris mier zoga-
di enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb dagegmili wignis 1894 wlis eskizSi. wina
TavSi citirebul monakveTebTan SedarebiT, sosiuri ufro dawvrile-
biT ganixilavs ›filosofiaSi‹ ganviTarebul >simboloTa Teorias<
da ganmartavs, Tu rogor icvleba simbolos koncefcia, Tu romelime
konkretulad arsebuli enidan gamovalT, romelic – rogorc is Ta-
vis Jenevis gamosvlaSi aRniSnavda _ »drois or sxvadasxva momentSi
Tavisi Tavis identuri ar aris« 47 da romelic »gamudmebiT icvleba
moxsenebis wakiTxvis <mdgomareobidan> momdevno dRis momentamde« 48
da romelsac Sedegad »ara mudmivi, aramed mxolod droebiTi da
droSi SezRuduli maxasiaTeblebis mocema SeuZlia«. 49
mogvaqvs sosiuris eskizidan mTliani pasaJi, radgan aq samagaliTod
Cans, Tu rogor mWidrod ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs sosiuris naazrevSi
enaTmecnieruli da semiotikuri Sexedulebebi da Tu rogor axdenen
isini erTmaneTis komentirebas:
semiologiis Sesaxeb TavSi:
<koncefciebis umravlesoba, romlebsac> filosofosebi <qmnian, an Tundac
gvTavazoben>, damajerebels xdis, rom Cvenma winaparma adamma <sxvadasxva>
cxovelebi TavisTan ixmo da TiToeuls sakuTari saxeli uboZa. 50 filosofo-
sebis azriT, sami ram, rac enis mocemulobas yovelTvis aklia, esenia:
1. <upirveles yovlisa, is simarTle, romliskenac saerTod ar miviltviT,>
rom enis [>langage<] safuZvels saxelebi ‹ar› qmnis. mxolod da mxolod damT-
xvevaa, Tu romelime simbolo obieqts Seesatyviseba, es gansazRvrulia iseTi

47
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 6. N 1.1, Nr. 3283.
48
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 11, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.
49
Ibid.
50
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 147, N 12, Nr. 1086.

90
mniSvnelobebisTvis, rogorebicaa cxeni, cecxli, mze, <nacvlad warmodgenisa,
rogoricaa §h0Pg ›jdeboda‹ >. es SemTxveva kidev imitom aris mniSvnelovani,
rom ar arsebobs <aSkara> mizezi, rom is enis [>langage<] nimuSad miviCnioT.
eWvgareSea, rom igi <unda ganvixiloT> rogorc arazusti magaliTi. magram aq
faruli saxiT gvxvdeba tendencia, romelsac verc <ugulvebelvyofT> da
verc gverds avuvliT, imis Sesaxeb, Tu <sabolood> rogori iqneboda ena
[>langage<]: kerZod obieqtebis, <winaswar mocemuli obieqtebis> nomenklatura.
Tavidan obieqti, Semdgom simbolo; simbolos miRma, rogorc pirveli Seucv-
leli safuZveli, Sinaarsobrivad gadmocemuli obieqti qmnis kavSirs, romlis
Seqmnas aqamde sxva simboloebi ver axerxebdnen. anu (ris uaryofasac yovel-
Tvis SevecdebiT), es aris simbolos garegnulad mocemul safuZvelsa da enis
[>langage<] figuracias Soris aseTi damokidebuleba:

{ }
* ___________ a
obieqtebi * ___________ b saxelebi

* ___________ c

maSin, roca WeSmariti figuraciaa: a – b – c, <iseTi damokidebulebis codnis


gareSe, rogoricaa * _ a, romelic erT obieqtzea damyarebuli>. Tu obieqti,
sadac ar unda iyos igi, gadamwyvet punqts warmoadgens, romelsac simbolo
efuZneba, lingvistika myisierad Sewyvets, iyos is, rac aris, <mwvervalidan>
<safuZvlamde>; aseve iqneba adamianis sulic, imave momentSi, <rogorc am
diskusiidan Cans>.
magram es am SemTxvevaSi, rogorc vTqviT, mxolod umniSvnelo sawinaaRmdego
argumentia [>reproche incident<], romelsac win wamovwevT, raTa gaviazroT ena
[>langage<], Tu filosofiuri TvalsazrisiT gvsurs misi ganxilva. _ <cxadia>
samwuxaro iqneba, Tu aRniSnuli obieqtebis <am mocemulobas> mniSvnelovan
elementad CavTvliT, romelic masSi sruliad ar aris saZebari. marTalia, es
faqti mxolod cudad SerCeul magaliTze miuTiTebs da ³λίός-is, ignis-isa da
cxenis adgilas sxva ramis CasmiT vumklavdebiT cdunebas, 51 rom ena [>langage<]
gare faqtorebiT avxsnaT. ufro mZime Secdoma, romelsac, rogorc wesi,
filosofosebi uSveben, imaSi mdgomareobs, rasac axla warmogidgenT:
2. kerZod is faqti, rom Tu obieqts saxels mivaniWebT, is ukve erT mTli-
anobas warmoadgens, romelic unda gadaices [>se transmettre<] ise, rom winaswar
ar iyos gaTvaliswinebuli sxva fenomenebi! sul mcire, im SemTxvevaSi, roca
raime cvlilebas aqvs adgili, mxolod saxelze <unda gadavitanoT yurad-
Reba> da unda miviCnioT, rom fraxinus iqceva frêne-d. amgvarad, warmodgenilis
mixedviT: [ ]
qorwilis warmodgenis dros sakmarisia mxolod am saxelis Sesaxeb davfiqr-
deT ise, rom ar gaviTvaliswinoT dro, faqtori, romelic filosofiur
kombinaciaSic sruliad ignorirebulia. aq araferi iqneboda gasaocari, sa-
kuTriv enisTvis [>langage<] damaxasiaTebeli, mxolod am ori saxeobis cvli-
leba rom yofiliyo mosalodneli. disociaciis [>dissociation<] procesSi pirve-
li maTgani, romlis meSveobiTac warmodgena simbolos saxiT rCeba, sponta-
nurad gvawvdides informacias, icvleba Tu ara is am dros. aqamde orive
<maTgani> cal-calke obieqtad rCeba, sul mcire erT-erTi maTganisTvis [ ]. 52

51
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 148, Nr. 1088-1091.
52
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 149, N 12, Nr. 1091.

91
niSandoblivi mxolod is aris, rom aseTi uamravi SemTxveva arsebobs, rom-
lebSic simbolos cvlileba <xdeba>, romelic warmodgenas Tavad cvlis da
romlebSic moulodnelad cxadi xdeba, rom aranairi gansxvaveba ar arsebob-
da momentidan momentamde gadamwyveti warmodgenebisa da gadamwyveti simbo-
loebis jams Soris. fonetikuri cvlilebis Sedegad am or simbolos esaWi-
roeba erTmaneTi: warmodgena garkveulwilad (cxadia, sxva elementebTan kav-
SirSi) gafermkrTaldeba [>se confondra<]. erTi simbolo amgvarive brma proce-
sis meSveobiT diferencirdeba; TavisTavad es warmoqmnili gansxvaveba mniSvne-
lobas SeiZens.
aq moxmobilia ramdenime magaliTi, magram amavdroulad im Tvalsazrisis um-
niSvnelobas Tu CaveWidebiT, romelic droisa da gadacemis [>transmission<] ga-
reSe simbolos warmodgenidan gamodis, is erTaderTia, romelic eqsperimen-
tuli gziT gvaswavlis, Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs simbolos. 53
amrigad, >filosofosebis< enobriv-Teoriuli da semiotikuri mosaz-
rebebi sosiuris Tanaxmad sam naklovanebas avlens, romelTa mniSvne-
loba izrdeba im TanmimdevrobiT, ra TanmimdevrobiTac isini aq Camov-
TvaleT: >filosofosebs< ena pirvel rigSi esmiT rogorc >nomenkla-
tura< 54 , anu isini obieqtebs, romlebzec simboloebi migviTiTeben,
enasTan SedarebiT upiratesobas aniWeben; meore mxriv, isini >absolu-
turad ugulvebelyofen< rols, romelsac drois ganzomileba Tama-
Sobs enis ganviTarebaSi, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom isini obieqts Ta-
vis kuTvnil saxelTan erTad ganixilaven rogorc >erT mTlians<,
romelic ise >gadaicema, rom winaswar ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli
sxva fenomenebi<; mesame mxriv, erT-erT aseT >sxva fenomens<, romel-
sac >filosofosebi< uyuradRebod toveben, warmoadgens is >uamravi
SemTxveva<, romelSic ara mxolod simbolos fonetikuri mxare icv-
leba 55 , aramed >TviT warmodgena<. is, rogorc Cans, >fonetikur gans-
xvavebebs TavisTavad sZens mniSvnelobas<, romlebic imis meSveobiT
warmoiqmnebian, rom isini >erTidan meores< gadaecema. am gansazRvre-
bis gamo sosiuris kritika >filosofosebis< mimarT umaRles wer-
tils aRwevs, magram isini am Secdomas imitom uSveben, rom ar ufiqr-
debian im rols, romelsac simboloebis CamoyalibebaSi enebis gadace-
mis procesi TamaSobs. sosiuris mixedviT, es swored is erTaderTi
>gadacemaa, romelic eqsperimentuli gziT gvaswavlis, Tu ra mniSvne-
loba aqvs simbolos<.
mainc konkretulad romelia is >erTaderTi Semecneba, romelic eqspe-
rimentuli gziT< gvaswavlis enebis gadacemis process? – is faqti,
rom >bgeraTa mJReri Tanmimdevroba< droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba,
rom, magaliTad, >fraxinus< aswleulebis Semdeg >frêne<-d iqceva, ro-
gorc wmindad enaTmecnieruli dakvirveba, sulac ar aris axali da

53
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 273, N 12, Nr. 1950.
54
Sdr. aseve teqstebi, gv. 393
55
ukve araerTxel aRiniSna TviT sosiuris mierac, rom misi terminologia meryevi da,
Sesabamisad, sayovelTao sityvaTxmarebaSi dauzustebelia: monakveTebi, sadac is »simbo-
losa« da »simbolos fonetikur mxares« sinonimebad iyenebs, upirispirdeba monakveTebi,
sadac am ori sididis azrobriv gamijvnas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. Sdr. aseve: LTS, S.
45 an S. Bouquet: »La sémiologie linguistique de Saussure: une théorie paradoxale de la reference?«, Langages
107, Paris 1992, S. 87 ff. Sdr. aseve sosiuris Notes item, romlebSic is cdilobs iseTi neo-
logizmebis arsi gansazRvros, rogoricaa sème, parasème, aposème, intertôme, some, contre-sôme,
antisôme, parasôme da amas miudges ara mxolod rogorc terminologiur problemas
(teqstebi, gv. 358 ff.).

92
originaluri. magram Tu gadacemis procesis meSveobiT ara marto
>bgeraTa mJReri Tanmimdevroba<, aramed >uamrav SemTxvevaSi< >TviT
warmodgenac< Seicvleba – anu is, razec xmovanTa Tanmimdevroba mig-
viTiTebs, maSin, enobrivi cvlilebis fenomenidan gamomdinare, naTeli
gaxdeba, Tu ra mniSvnelovani Sedegebis momtania >simboloTa Teo-
ria<: enobriv simboloebs, rogorc >pirvel aucilebel sawyiss, SeuZ-
lia hqondeT ara mxolod simbolos miRma arsebuli Sinaarsobrivi
obieqti<, vinaidan es rom ase yofiliyo, es simboloebi gadacemis
procesis Semdegac ar Seicvlebodnen, radgan es procesi >simbolos
miRma arsebul obieqts< ar exeba. is, rac saubris dros gadaicema,
anu >erTidan meores gadaecema< da Tan cvlilebebs ganicdis, sulac
ar aris >simbolos miRma arsebuli obieqti<, aramed mxolod simbo-
lo an ufro zustad, >bgeraTa mJReri Tanmimdevroba<. imisaTvis, rom
simboloebis cvlilebebi, romlebic gadacemis procesSi warmoiqmnebi-
an, ar dagvaviwydes, unda moxdes >upiratesad im obieqtebis< simbo-
los amoxsna, romlebsac es procesi ar exeba.
enis cvlilebebis semiotikuri mniSvneloba mdgomareobs droSi, sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, igi simbolosa da obieqts Soris kavSirs, anu
kavSirs >* _ a<, romelic filosofiuri >simboloTa Teoriis< yurad-
Rebis centrSia 56 – uaryofs da amis nacvlad yuradRebas amaxvilebs
simboloebs Soris kavSirebze _ erTi sityviT, iseTi tipis kavSirebze,
rogoricaa >a _ b _ c<.
is faqti, rom sosiuri >enis kvlevis meSveobiT< >simbolos sruliad
axali mxaris aRmoCenis< imediT >a _ b _ c< tipis kavSirebs enisTvis
gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis mqoned miiCnevda, am TavSi Tanmimdevrulad
iqneba warmodgenili. magram erTi ram winaswar unda vaxsenoT: aq, ra
Tqma unda, imis mtkicebas ar daviwyebT, rom simbolosa da obieqts
Soris kavSirebi Teoriulad umniSvneloa da rom maT konkretul sit-
yvaTxmarebaSi aranairi mniSvneloba ar gaaCniaT. magram, sosiuris Ta-
naxmad, es kavSirebi, rogorc pirveladi, >simbolos aucilebeli sa-
fuZveli<, ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos angariSs vuwevT imas, rom sim-
boloebi enebis gadacemis procesis meSveobiT icvlebian. SeiZleba
asec vTqvaT: marTalia, simboloebs SeuZlia obieqtebze migviTiTos,
magram imisTvis, rom maT simboloebze miTiTeba SeZlon, isini unda
gadaices, radgan mxolod im SemTxvevaSi arseboben, Tu >cirkulacia-
Si xvdebian<. da kvlav cirkulireba mxolod maSin SeuZliaT simbo-
loebs, Tu isini aRar arian damokidebuli obieqtebze, romlebzec

56
am tradiciis magaliTad SeiZleba gamogvadges Semdegi ori pasaJi g. fregis Txzule-
bidan “Sinaarsisa da mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb”: unda ganvasxvavoT simbolos mniSvneloba
da Sinaarsi masTan dakavSirebuli warmodgenisagan. Tu simbolos mniSvneloba Sinaar-
sobrivad aRqmadi obieqtia, maSin Cemi warmodgena mis Sesaxeb iqneba, erTi mxriv, Cems
mier arsebuli SegrZnebebis mogonebebisa da, meore mxriv, Cems mier ganxorcielebuli
Sida da gare saqmianobis Sedegad warmoqmnili Sinagani suraTi. [...]
sakuTari saxelis mniSvneloba aris TviT is obieqti, romliTac Cven mas aRvniSnavT:
warmodgena, romelic mis Sesaxeb gvaqvs, savsebiT subieqturia: maT Soris aris Sinaar-
si, romelic warmodgenis msgavsad subieqturi ar aris, magram arc TviT obieqtia. Sem-
dgomi alegoria, albaT, gamodgeba saimisod, rom am garemoebebs naTeli mofinos. viRac
mTvares teleskopiT akvirdeba. me piradad mTvares TviT mniSvnelobas vadareb; is dak-
virvebis obieqtia, romelic gadaicema realuri suraTis meSveobiT, romelic telesko-
pis SigniT obieqtivis minaSi miiReba, damkvirveblis Tvalis baduris meSveobiT« (G.
Frege, Funktion, Begriff, Bedeutung, Göttingen 1962, gv. 43 da 44f., danayofebi darTuli aqvs).

93
isini miuTiTeben. is faqti, rom simboloebi cirkulireben da Sesaba-
misad gadaicema im obieqtebisgan izolirebulad, romlebzec isini
migviTiTeben, enebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi miRwevaa, magram rad-
gan asea, safuZvlianad unda gavmijnoT erTmaneTisgan simboloebisa
da im obieqtebis mwkrivebi, romlebzec mianiSneben. an, ufro zustad:
imisaTvis, rom ar dagvaviwydes enebis gadacemis procesi, simboloebis
mwkrivi unda ganvsazRvroT rogorc obieqtebisa da sagnebis mwkrivis-
gan gansxvavebuli mwkrivi, romelic sakuTar kanonebs eqvemdebareba. 57

enis permanentuli pirobebi

semiotikuri koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac sosiuri enas damoukide-


bel wesrigad miiCnevs, aris simboloebis SemTxveviToba. rogorc es
kurTan aris aRniSnuli, »simboloTa SemTxveviTobis princips _ l’arbit-
raire du signe _ aravin ugulvebelyofs« 58 . amiT naTqvamia, rom am princi-
pis »aRmomCeni« ar aris sosiuri, rogorc amas SecdomiT da gamarti-
vebis mizniT irwmunebian xolme. sosiuris originaloba aris is, Tu
rogor axdens is simboloTa SemTxveviTobis principis wvdomas, prin-
cipisa, romelic, sul mcire, aristoteles 59 da, ufro metic, pla-
tonis 60 azrovnebis tradiciebidan momdinareobs da Semdgom mis in-
terpretirebas axdens. 61

57
rogorc Cans, es jerovnad ar SeufasebiaT lagados akademiis profesorebs, romleb-
sac guliveri Soreul qveynebSi mesame mogzaurobis dros Sexvda. TavianTi mSobliuri
enis gaumjobesebis mcdelobis mizniT, profesorebma gadawyvites, daufiqreblad amoe-
RoT sityvebi xmarebidan. rogorc isini asabuTebdnen, »sityvebi mxolod sagnebis saxe-
lebia,... yvelasaTvis ufro xelsayreli unda yofiliyo iseTi sagnebis Tan tareba, rom-
lebic mniSvnelovani iyo, raTa gamoexataT garkveuli mosazrebebi, romlis Sesaxebac
maT saubari surdaT.« rogorc guliveri Semdgom iuwyeba, lagados profesorebis am
mcdelobas mZime Sedegebi mohyva: »bevri mwignobari da Wkviani adamiani im gegmis gan-
xorcielebas Seudga, rom azrebi sagnebis meSveobiT gamoexataT. am gegmas mxolod er-
Ti xarvezi aqvs. Tu sakiTxi, romelsac saqme exeba, moculobiTi da diferencirebulia,
Tavs valdebulad Tvlian, sagnebis SedarebiT didi raodenoba Tan ataron, rac saWi-
ros xdis erTi an ori Ronieri msaxuris gamcileblad yolas. xSirad mxvdeboda am
brZenTagan ori, romlebic sagnebis tvirTis simZimisgan lamis ecemodnen, rogorc Cven-
Tan wvrilmaniT movaWreebi. isini, rogorc wesi, quCaSi Sexvedrisas tvirTs ixsnidnen,
tomaras xsnidnen da erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi saubrobdnen SemxvedrTan. amis Semdgom
isini kvlav alagebdnen TavianT kuTvnilebas, exmarebodnen erTmaneTs bargis mokideba-
Si da emSvidobebodnen erTmaneTs« (J. Swift: Gullivers Reisen, zittiert nach der Übersetzung von H. J.
Real und H. J. Vienken, Stuttgart 1987, Dritter Teil, »Eine Reise nach Laputa, Balnibarbi, Glubbdubdrib, Luggnagg
und Japan«, gv. 240 und gv. 241).
58
GRF, gv. 79; CLG/D, gv. 100; CLG/E (I), gv. 153, Nr. 1125.
59
Sdr. aseve Coseriu 1968, gv. 81-112; da pirvel rigSi a. Servelis SesaniSnavi kvleva »Le
débat sur l’arbitraire du signe au XIX siècle«, Romantisme 25-26, 1979, gv. 3-33.
60
am principis platoniseuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb r. iakobsonma miuTiTa Tavis
TxzulebaSi »enis arsis Zieba« (in Jakobson 1988, gv. 82). Sdr. aseve G. Genette: Mimologiques.
Voyage en Cratylie, Paris 1976, aseve evropis gareT arsebuli (gansakuTrebiT induri) semi-
otikuri tradicia, A.Rey: Théorie du signe et du sens. Lectures, I, Paris 1973, gv. 45-62, »La parole
indienne«, und Auroux 1989 ff., Bd. I, gv. 243 ff.
61
am daskvnamde midis aseve aqamde sosiuris simboloTa SemTxveviTobis koncefciis Se-
saxeb yvelaze moculobiTi naSromi, r. englersis »Théorie et critique d’un principe saussurien:
L’arbitraire du signe« (in: CFS 19, 1962, gv. 5-66), romelSic detalurad aris aRwerili sosiuris
kritikosebis mimoxilva. ixileT aseve C. Normand: »L’arbitraire du signe comme phénomène de
déplacement«, in: Dialectiques 1-2, 1973, gv. 109-126.

94
yvelaze mkafiod sosiuris simboloTa SemTxveviTobis koncefcia da
misi semiotikuri Sedegebi gadmocemulia uiTnisadmi mosagonari weri-
lis eskizis im pasaJSi, sadac sosiuri sul pirvelad axsenebs da
ganixilavs am princips:
mxolod erTi darRveva arsebobs [ ].
roca saqme samoss an [ ]-s exeba, es yovelTvis bunebrivia <sagani, romelic
upiratesobas moipovebs eqstravagantulobis gamo da romelic drois gasvlis
Semdegac pirvelobas inarCunebs>, yvela cvlilebis miuxedavad wesad rCeba.
amis sapirispirod ena [>langage<] sruliad gaTavisuflebulia meTodebis gamo-
yenebis CarCoebidan, raTa man Seasrulos <amocana>, romelsac mas adamianTa
esa Tu is instituciebi <akisreben>. amitom [ ] Soris <miswrafebis> princi-
puli uqonloba radikaluria, ara mxolod is, rac umcires niuansebs Seicavs,
aramed ena [>langage<] mudmivad cvalebad da garkveuli miznisken mimarTul,
adamianis mier Sesworebul da mizanmimarTul wesebs gulisxmobs.
es aris mizezi, romelic sxvebs karnaxobs [ ] 62
ojaxis institucia, <savaraudod>, monogamiuri formiT ufro gonivrulia,
vidre poligamiuri formiT. es sakiTxi filosofiuri TvalsazrisiT SegviZ-
lia ganvixiloT. magram romelime simbolos institucia, magaliTad, σ an s an
cow an vacca, imisaTvis, rom aRvniSnoT warmodgena Zroxis [>vache<] Sesaxeb,
TviT ugunurebas efuZneba; anu rom ar arsebobs sagnebis <da maTi Tanxvedris
[>convenance<]> gonivruli mizezi bunebaSi [>raison<], romelic romelime moment-
Si CaerTveboda, <iqneboda es> [ ]-is misaRebad Tu mis SesaCereblad [>suppri-
mer<]. 63 swored im faqtis gamo, rom <enaSi [>langue<] Sinagani korelaciis mxo-
lod erT kvals> mivyavarT Tanxvedramde fonetikur simboloebsa da warmod-
genas Soris, es simboloebi, erTi mxriv, TavianT materialur cxovrebaze
uars amboben da isini saerTod ucnobia iseT sferoebSi, romlebSic garegnu-
li forma mxolod odnav aris mimarTuli <bunebrivi kavSiris Sesaxeb> war-
modgenisken. isini <sazogadoebis istoriidan> CvenTvis cnobili <sxva> sfe-
roebia da amitomac am sferoebis mixedviT mcdar daskvnebs vakeTebT imis
Sesaxeb, Tu romeli unda iyos enis [>langage<] ZiriTadi piroba, romlis meSve-
obiTac Cven davadgenT, rom maT ar SeuZliaT safuZvlianad gamoirCeodnen
sxva sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) instituciebisagan. 64
sosiuri aq or Teziss warmogvidgens: radgan enobrivi simboloebis
SerCeva SemTxveviT xdeba, ena – pirvel rigSi – gansxvavdeba im sxva
>sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) instituciebisagan< 65 da, meore mxriv,
ena, Tavisi simboloebis SemTxveviTobis gamo, gaurbis >adamianis mier
Sesworebad da garkveuli miznisken mimarTul wess<.
es Tezisebi provokaciulia da maTi gageba sakmaod rTulia. mosaz-
reba, rom sxva >sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) instituciebis< SemTxve-
vaSi bolo dros sul ufro upiratesi xdeba sagnebis bunebrivi damo-
kidebuleba<, aucileblad unda dakonkretdes. 66 magram, upirveles

62
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 168, N 10, Nr. 1262.
63
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 162, N 10, Nr. 1210.
64
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1268.
65
enis am Seudareblobisa da gansakuTrebulobis Sesaxeb sosiuri kvlavac migviTiTebs.
Sdr. aseve teqstebi, gv. 242 f., 250 f., 302 f., 310 ff., 377, 384, 404.
66
amgvarad formulirebuli es mosazreba, savaraudod, ara mxolod eTnologebis ukma-
yofilebas gamoiwvevs. Tumca momdevno pasaJSi naTeli xdeba, Tu ris Sesaxebs saubrobs
aq sosiuri: »sxva instituciebi sinamdvileSi <TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva xarisxiT
bunebriv damokidebulebebs <efuZnebian>, raTa saboloo principad miiRon sagnebs So-
ris <Tanxvedra>. magaliTad, romelime eris samarTali an politikuri sistema an TviT
Cacmis moda, <TviT cvalebadi moda, romelic Cacmulobas gvkarnaxobs, romelsac ada-

95
yovlisa: maSinac ki, roca simboloebs >garegnulad gamoxatuli for-
ma ar aqvT< da roca isini >sagnebis bunebrivi damokidebulebiT< ar
aixsneba, es imas ar niSnavs, rom isini >ugunurebazea damyarebuli<.
es ufro konvenciaa, rogorc mas asabuTeben, _ socialuri SeTanxmeba,
romelic sxva >sazogadoebriv instituciebTan< SedarebiT sruliad
gonivrulia, romelic bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobisa da warmodgenis urTi-
erTkavSirs awesrigebs.
Tumca, rogorc sosiurma kvlav gviCvena, am daskvnas meqanizmis Sesa-
xeb damakmayofilebel suraTTan _ enis >sicocxlesTan< ar mivya-
varT, da ara imitom, rom >Tavdapirveli xelSekrulebis< warmodge-
naSi enebis gadacemis procesi aradamakmayofileblad aris asaxuli.
am warmodgenis Sesaxeb sosiuris kritikis daskvniT Sejamebas gvTava-
zobs a. ridlingeris 1908 wlis 16 noembris leqciis Canawerebi:
SevicnobT ra, rom simbolo Tavisi socialuri RirebulebiT da socialuri
arsiT unda ganvixiloT, vcdilobT, pirvel rigSi is davicvaT, rac Cvens ne-
bazea damokidebuli; da Cvens rwmenaSi im aspeqtiT SemovifarglebiT, rom
yvelaze mTavars CavwvdiT. aqedan gamomdinarea, rom vsaubrobT enis [>langue<],
rogorc SeTanxmebis, konvenciis Sesaxeb. 67
yvelaze saintereso, rac simboloSi unda gamovikvlioT, is mxareebia, romle-
bic Cvens nebas gaurbian. aq gvaqvs misi WeSmariti sfero, radgan Cven misi
Semcireba ar SegviZlia.
maSasadame, enas [>langue<] me-18 saukunis filosofosebis msgavsad ganvixilavT,
rogorc kanonmdeblobas [>législation<], romelic TiTqos Cvens nebaze iyos damo-
kidebuli; magram ena [>langue<], romelic ufro metia, vidre kanonmdebloba,
ufro metad gadatanili unda iyos, vidre Seqmnili. ukeT rom vTqvaT: Tu
iarsebebs sfero, romelSic kanonmdebloba kanonad mogvevlineba, romelsac
ki ar SevqmniT, aramed gavavrcelebT, es iqneba enis [>langue<] sfero. 68
enaSi [>langue<] iniciativebis mxolod minimaluri raodenoba arsebobs. 69
realurad ar arsebobs momenti – rogorc warmodgena, romelSic simboloebis
Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba moxdeba. da Tu is iarsebebda, igi ugulvebelyofili iqne-
boda enis [>langue<] sistematuri arsebobis mxridan. enebis [>langues<] warmoSo-
bis sakiTxs sulac ar aqvs is mniSvneloba, romelsac mas aniWeben. aseTi sa-
kiTxi saerTod ar arsebobs.
(am sakiTxis dasma azrs moklebulia!) genezisis moments, rogorc aseTs, ver
SevexebiT: mas ver vxedavT. Tavdapirveli xelSekruleba emTxveva imas, rac
enaSi [>langue<] yoveldRiurad viTardeba, aseve enis [>langue<] permanentul
pirobebs: Tu Tqven enaSi [>langue<] axal simbolos CaamatebT, amiT sxva simbo-
loebis mniSvnelobas daakninebT da, piriqiT, Tu Tavidan mxolod or simbo-
los avirCevT, SeuZlebelic rom iyos, yvela mniSvneloba am or simboloze
gadanawildeba. erTi maTganiT moxdeboda erTi nawilis, xolo sxva simbolos
meSveobiT – obieqtebis meore naxevris aRniSvna. 70
SeTanxmebis Sesaxeb mosazreba sxva mosazrebebisgan 71 ar gansxvavdeba da Tu
am sakiTxs davuTmobT dros, mTavari sakiTxi uyuradRebod dagvrCeba:

mianis sxeulis proporciebis mocemulobisgan damoukideblad verc erT momentSi ver


ganvixilavT>« (cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 168, N 10, Nr. 1261).
67
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 51, II R 19, Nr. 309-311.
68
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 159, II R 20, Nr. 1183.
69
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 164, II R 20, Nr. 1230.
70
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 160, II R 20, Nr. 1191.
71
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 159, II R 21, Nr. 1182.

96
1. is faqti, rom simboloTa iseTi sistema, rogoricaa ena [>langue<] erTi Tao-
bidan momdevnos pasiurad gadaecema (simboloTa es sistema unda SevafasoT
rogorc mofiqrebuli aqti, enis [>langue<] aqtiuri Careva);
2. is faqti, rom simboloTa sistemas nebismier SemTxvevaSi eqneba Tviseba,
rom erTidan meores gadaeces [>se transmettre<] im pirobiT, rom maT aranairi
kavSiri ar eqnebaT im simboloebTan, romlebic TavisTavad Camoyalibdnen (Tu
vaRiarebT, rom es mxolod nebis Sedegia, rogorc, magaliTad, esperanto).
ena [>langue<] im ixvs waagavs, romelic qaTmisgan gamoiCeka! 72
pirveli momenti ase SeumCnevlad ver Caivlis, ena [>langue<] mis semiologiur
cxovrebaSi iWreba da ukan aRar brundeba: is kvlav gadaicema [>se transmettra<]
im kanonebis Tanaxmad, romlebsac misi Seqmnis dros saWiro kanonebTan ara-
feri aqvT saerTo. 73
3. imiT, rom igi erTidan meores gadaecema [>en se transmettant<], es sistema
Tavisi arsiT icvleba, rac simboloebis azrovnebasTan damokidebulebas
cvlis. es yvelaferi simboloTa TiToeul sistemas exeba. 74
>Tavdapirveli xelSekrulebis< Sesaxeb warmodgena sosiurisTvis
imitom aris miuRebeli, rom masSi winapirobad erTi momentia Cadebu-
li, romelSic metyvel subieqtebs Tavad SeuZliaT gadawyviton da
yovel jerze TviTon gansazRvron, Tu ras niSnavs esa Tu is simbolo.
vinc amgvarad _ >me-18 saukunis filosofosebis msgavsad< _ paeqrobs,
uaryofs da ar aRiarebs, rom ena TavisTavad gulisxmobs xelSekru-
lebis dadebas, anu saxelSekrulebo SeTanxmebaze molaparakebas. ra-
sac enis warmoSobis Ziebisas uneburad vawydebiT, aris ara romelime
xelSekruleba, aramed sxva ena, romelic pirvelis »warmoSobis« mo-
mentSi ukve arsebobda.
amiT gamoirCeva meore sazRvari, romelic semiotikam unda daicvas da
romelic cdilobs konkretuli enebis arsebobas angariSi gauwios:
enobrivi simboloebis fiqsireba SesaZlebelia ara mxolod >winaswar
mocemuli obieqtebis< meSveobiT. aseve SeuZlebelia im momentis
daSveba, romelSic simboloTa SemTxveviToba imiT SeiZleba Sevamsu-
buqoT, rom igi nebayoflobiTi da, Sesabamisad, gonivruli SeTanxme-
biT aixsneba. vinc am meore sazRvars ar aRiarebs, >uaryofs mTavars<,
kerZod ki im Sexedulebas, rom >Tavdapirveli SeTanxmeba emTxveva im-
as, rac yoveldRiurad enaSi viTardeba, aseve enis permanentul piro-
bebs<. es formulireba, rac ar unda paradoqsulad JRerdes, zustad
aRniSnavs enis im >sferoebs<, romelTa >Semcireba Cven aRar SegviZlia<. 75

72
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 170, II R 21, Nr. 1275.
73
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 170, II R 21, Nr. 1274.
74
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 54, II R 21, Nr. 335.
75
am sferos sazRvari sosiurma etimologiis Tavis definiciaSi zustad aRwera: »es
dakvirvebebi saSualebas gvaZlevs, CavuRrmavdeT sityva etimologiis mniSvnelobas. imis
Tqmis magivrad, rom etimologia >sityvis warmoSobis Ziebaa<, ufro zusti iqneba Tu
vityviT, rom igi erTi sityvis sxva sityvebTan mimarTebebis kvlevaa. rac aqedan zustad
gamomdinareobs, igi aris >sityvis ganmarteba<. faqtobrivad, es >ganmarteba< cnobili
faqtiT aixsneba. da enobriv/lingvisturi pirobebis SemTxvevaSi cnobili faqtebiT
axsna niSnavs sxva sityvebiT axsnas [...] « (cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 433, Br 3, Nr. 2839). imdenad, ramde-
nadac is aq formulirebuli sazRvrebis Sesaxeb poziciebidan gamodis, kamaTi realis-
tebsa da nominalistebs Soris sosiurisTvis centraluri semiotikuri problemis gare-
Se mimdinareobs. me-13 da me-14 saukuneebis, Sesabamisad, me-18 da me-19 saukuneebis rea-
listebsa da nominalistebs, bunebriobis qomagebsa da simboloebis konvenciurobis
damcvelebs, maTi zedapiruli antagonzmis miuxedavad, erTmaneTTan akavSirebs is, rom
isini am ukanasknelisgan gansxvavebiT, enas damoukidebel, sakuTar dinamikaze damokide-
bul wesrigad ar ganixilaven.

97
mosazreba, rom >arsebiTis< warmoSobis Ziebas >enis permanentuli pi-
robebi< ukvalavs gzas, garkveulwilad, Jenevis gamosvlis leqciebis
xelnawerebSia formulirebuli. cota xnis Semdeg sosiurma aRniSna,
»rom <dedamiwaze> arasodes iarsebebs sxva ram, vidre ena arsebobas
ganagrZobs, <romelic wina dResac arsebobs> da romelic imis <wina
dRes arsebobs, sanam <marTlac> preistoriuli epoqis amoucnob Ra-
mes mivadgebiT>«. 76 imdenad, ramdenadac TiToeuli ena im sxva enis
>gagrZelebaa<, romelic >wina dRes< arsebobda, ramdenadac SeuZlebe-
lia misi arseboba sxvagvarad, vidre imis gadacema, rac >ukve wina
dRes arsebobda<, aqedan gamomdinare, enebSi arsebobs »absoluturi
uwyvetoba«. 77 »uwyvetobis principi«, rogorc sosiurma aqve aRniSna,
aris adamianTa metyvelebis gadacemis »<pirveli niSani an pirveli ka-
noni> [>la première loi à la transmission du parler humain<]« 78 _ da am >absolutu-
ri uwyvetobis < gamo 79 enebi > ufro metad gancdili unda iyos, vid-
re Seqmnili<. magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom isini gadacemis procesSi
ar unda Seicvalon. marTalia, enebSi arasodes iqneba »qmnileba ex
nihilo« 80 , Tumca rogorc transformacia 81 imisa, rac unda gadaices:
»yvelaferi gardaqmnas eqvemdebareba« 82 _ magram »yoveli ganaxleba
mxolod elementebis sxva saxiT gamoyeneba iqneba, romelic wina enis
mdgomareobidan [>état de langage<] momdinareobs«. 83 an sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT:
<roca axali formebi gvevlineba,> yvelaferi [...] arsebuli formebis dekompo-
ziciisa da axali formebis rekompoziciisken miemarTeba im masalebis daxma-
rebiT, romlebic pirvelad gadaicemoda. 84
Tumca yvelaze zustad germanuli legendebis Sesaxeb sosiuris Cana-
werSia gadmocemuli, Tu ra dgas aq semiotikuri safrTxis qveS:

76
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 11, N 1.3, Nr. 3285, darTuli aqvs avtoriseuli SeniSvnebi. sxva saaTebTan
mimarTebaSi gamoTqmuli msgavsi formulirebebidan mxolod Semdegi mosazrebis citi-
reba gvsurs, romelSic sosiuri am mosazrebis kapitalur semiotikur Sedegs usvams
xazs: »erTi wami dafiqrebac sakmarisia, <radgan> am martiv dakvirvebaSi yvelaferia
mocemuli: TiToeuli individi momdevno dResac imave <enaze> saubrobs, romelzec wina
dRes, <da es yovelTvis ase xdeboda>. [...] arasodes momxdara, rom safrangeTis <mcxov-
reblebs> erT dRes gaRviZebodaT da eTqvaT bonjour frangulad, mas Semdeg, rac wina
saRamos daiZines da ambobdnen serō-s.
ar arsebobs iseTi ram, romlis srulyofil gaigivebas SevZlebdiT enasTan [>langue<],
romelic Zalian kompleqsuri iqneboda, axla ki yvela Sedarebas da suraTs, romelsac
Cveulebisamebr viyenebT, rogorc wesi, im Sexedulebamde mivyavarT, rom isini, ama Tu
im TvalsazrisiT, mcdaria« (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 6, N 1.1, Nr. 3283, darTuli aqvs avtoriseuli
SeniSvnebi).
77
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 16, N 6, Nr. 3292.
78
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 6, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.
79
Sdr. amasTan aseve teqstebi, gv. 302.
80
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 9, N 1.2, Nr. 3284.
81
»arsebobs transformacia da kvlav da kvlav transformacia, magram arsad ar arse-
bobs axali <enobriv/lingvisturi> arsis <reproduqcia an produqcia>, romelsac <ga-
morCeuli> arseboba eqneboda imisgan, rac mas win uswrebda da rac mis Semdgom iqneba«
(cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 8, N 1.2, Nr. 3284).
82
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 16, N 6, Nr. 3292.
83
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 9, N 1.2, Nr. 3284.
84
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 419, N 7, Nr. 2779; kuris naSromebSi es mosazreba ufro zusti suraTis
saxiTaa warmodgenili: »ena [>langue<] aris samosi, romelic imave naWris gamWvirvale
qsovilisganaa dakemsili« (GRF, gv. 205; CLG/D, gv. 241; CLG/E (I), gv. 394, Nr. 2616).

98
enis [>langue<], iseve rogorc legendis, Rirebulebas warmoadgens is, rom ori-
ve maTgani ganwirulia mxolod im elementebisgan Seqmnan, romlebic ukve maT
winaSea da romelTac nebismieri mniSvneloba aqvT, rom isini gaaerTianos da
gamudmebiT axali mniSvneloba misces. 85

sityvaTa faseuloba

Tu enebSi >yvelaferi gardaqmnas eqvemdebareba, <Tu> ar SeiZleba ar-


sebobdes mudmivi, aramed mxolod gardamavali da droSi SezRuduli
maxasiaTeblebi<, axla ukve cxadi gaxda, rom arc enobrivi simboloe-
bia myari sidideebi da ramdenadac Tavdapirvelad simboloebis dama-
kavSirebeli xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb warmodgena semiotikisTvis, ro-
melsac enebis gadacemis procesSi mTavari adgili ukavia, iseve gamo-
usadegaria, rogorc >winaswar mocemuli gare obieqtebis< Sesaxeb
enobrivi simboloebis ucvlelobis Sesaxeb warmodgena. enebis mudmivi
transformacia semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT gasagebia, Tu sosiuris mi-
xedviT vimsjelebT, rom nebismieri gansxvavebuli simboloebi, romle-
bic erT romelime enaSi Tanaarseboben, erTmaneTs ganapirobebs.
Tu zustad ras niSnavs es, kuri mniSvnelobiT msgavsi sityvebis maga-
liTze gviCvenebs:
erTi da imave enis [>langue<] farglebSi yvela sityva, romelic Sinaarsobri-
vad msgavs warmodgenas gamoxatavs, erTmaneTs zRudavs: sinonimebs, rogorebi-
caa denken, meinen, glauben TavianTi specifikuri mniSvneloba aqvT mxolod maTi
urTierTmimarTebis meSveobiT; rom ar arsebuliyo sityva meinen, misi konku-
renti sityvebis mTeli Sinaarsi daikargeboda. 86
es >urTierTmimarTeba< germanul enaSi moipoveba, romelic zmnebs
>denken _ meinen _ glauben< gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs. Tu h.
lomeli kuris am monakveTis frangulad Targmnas Seecdeba, naxavs,
rom frangul enaSi ar arsebobs zmnis »meinen« martivi da pirdapiri
Sesatyvisi, »penser« da »croire« zmnebis mniSvnelobac gansxvavebulia
»denken«-isa da »glauben«-is mniSvnelobebisagan. da piriqiT, damTxveva
sruliadac ar aris, rom lomeli Tavis TargmanSi frangulis origi-
nal magaliTs »redouter, craindre, avoir peur« 87 ki ar eyrdnoba, aramed
kvlavac germanuls, radgan arc »craindre _ redouter« zmnebis martivi da
pirdapiri Sesatyvisi arsebobs. is, rom magaliTebis mTeli rigis er-
Tidan meore enaSi gadatana SeuZlebelia, damatebiT xazs usvams, Tu
ra aris aq zogadad mTavari: enobrivi simboloebi izolirebulad ki
ar unda aRvweroT, aramed imave enis sxva sidideebTan kavSirSi. da am
principze unda aiRos enaTmecnierulma semiotikam orientacia: pirvel
rigSi, is sakiTxi ki ar unda gamovarkvioT, Tu romeli simbolo ro-
mel obieqts unda mivakuTvnoT, aramed ufro metad is sakiTxi, Tu ro-
mel sxva simbolosTan imyofeba es simbolo urTierTmimarTebaSi.
sinonimebis rigi >denken _ meinen _ glauben< SegviZlia >a – b – c< tipis
mimarTebebis TvalsaCinoebad gaviazroT, romelic, sosiuris Tanaxmad,
>enis WeSmarit figuracias< qmnis: mimarTebebi ara simbolosa da obi-

85
Cf. LEG, gv. 307.
86
GRF, gv. 138; CLG/D, gv. 160; CLG/E (I), gv. 261, Nr. 1881.
87
Ibid.

99
eqts, aramed simbolosa da sxva simbolos Soris. zogadi enaTmecni-
erebis Sesaxeb sosiuris meore leqciis Canawerebi mowmobs, rom mniSv-
nelobiT msgavsi sityvebis magaliTi moicavs da miznad isaxavs semi-
otikur ganzogadebas, rasac eyrdnoba kuris Semdgomi pasaJi:
isini [>fsiqologebi, filosofosebi Tu mTeli sazogadoeba<] enas [>langue<]
ganixilaven, rogorc nomenklaturas da enobrivi faseulobebis urTierTgan-
sazRvras maTi TanaarsebobiT xsnian. yvela sidide erTmaneTTan urTierTkav-
SirSia: amgvarad, SesaZlebelia imis gansazRvra, Tu ras niSnavs frangul ena-
Si jugement? misi gansazRvra mxolod im SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, Tu mocemu-
lia is, ris mixedviTac SegviZlia vTqvaT, ra aris is an ra ar aris. zustad
aseve xdeba, Tu misi gadaTargmna gvsurs sxva enaze [>langue<]. aqedan gamomdina-
reobs saWiroeba, rom simbolos, sityvas sistemasTan urTierTkavSirSi davak-
virdeT. aseve arsebobs craindre, redouter-is sinonimebi erTimeoris gverdiT: cra-
indre redouter-is mTeli SinaarsiT mdidrdeba maSin, roca redouter ar arsebobs. 88

rasac igi >sinonimebis craindre redouter-is< magaliTiT gviCvenebs (rom


isini >erTimeoris gverdiT arseboben<), sosiuris Tanaxmad, zogadad,
mTliani enisTvis aris ZalaSi: >yvela sidide erTmaneTzea damokide-
buli<. Sesabamisad, saubaria ara izolirebuli simboloebis mimarTe-
baze obieqtebTan, romelic enis, rogorc nomenklaturis koncefciis
wina planzea wamoweuli, aramed romelime enis >sistemis< farglebSi
simbolos >faseulobaze<. >faseulobis< cneba, romelic aq pirvelad
Segvxvda, rogorc semiotikuri kategoria, rogorc sosiuri aRniSnavs,
yovelTvis >sistemis< cnebasTan kavSirSi unda ganvixiloT, »radgan
TiToeuli fasuloba faseulobaTa sistemas moicavs«. 89 amis Sesabami-
sad, simboloebs gaaCniaT faseuloba, an, ufro zustad rom vTqvaT,
simboloebi SegviZlia aRvweroT rogorc bgerisa da mniSvnelobis fa-
seulobebis kombinacia, ramdenadac isini erT sistemas qmnian. Tumca
radgan enobrivi simboloebi, principulad, SemTxveviTia da amiT bge-
risa da mniSvnelobis kombinacia, romelic erT simbolos qmnis, sxva
arafers emyareba Tu ara maT faseulobas enis sistemaSi, enobrivi
simboloebi arasodes aris absoluturi, aramed mxolod fardobiTia,
rac dadgenilia imave sistemis sxva simboloebTan kavSirSi. ufro me-
tic: roca simboloebi TavianTi TanaarsebobiT erTmaneTs gansazRvra-
ven (amasTan, roca isini mxolod im SemTxvevaSi arseboben Tu cirku-
lireben), am enaSi erTmaneTis gverdiT TanaarsebobaSi myof simbolo-
ebs Caketili sistemis Seqmna ar SeuZliaT, ramdenadac gansazRvruli
simbolos bgerisa da mniSvnelobis faseulobaTa kombinacia principu-
lad arastabilurad da cvalebad kombinaciad gvevlineba. marTalia,
amgvarad poulobs enis uwyveti transformacia Tavis zust Teoriul
Sesatyviss. miuxedavad amisa, imavdroulad, >simboloTa Teoria< upi-
rispirdeba mTel rig sakiTxebs, romlebic dafaruli rCeba, sanam ar
moxdeba enis, rogorc simboloebidan obieqtebisken mimarTuli konven-
ciuri Tanmimdevrobis gageba.
uiTnis mosagonari werilis eskizis erT-erT pasaJSi sagrZnobia es sa-
kiTxebi, Tumca mkveTrad ar aris dasmuli da refleqsiis obieqtad
dasaxelebuli. iq sosiuri Tavis CanawerebSi pirvelad akeTebs im mo-

88
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 50, II R 18, Nr. 302 – 303 Sesabamisad CLG/E (I), gv. 261, Nr. 1881; darTuli aqvs
avtoriseuli SeniSvnebi.
89
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv.177, N 23.6, Nr. 1317.

100
sazrebis monaxazs, rom enobrivi sidideebi erTmaneTis TanaarsebobiT
gansazRvraven erTmaneTs da, Sesabamisad, >qmnian faseulobas<:
enis sul bolo kanoni [>la loi tout à fait finale du langage<] aris, <ramdenadac Cven
amis Tqmas gavbedavT,> rom ar arsebobs iseTi ram, rac xangrZlivad iarsebebs
terminSi (es im garemoebis uSualo Sedegia, rom enobriv/lingvistur simbo-
loebs aranairi kavSiri ar aqvT imasTan, risi aRniSvnac maT evalebaT), Sede-
gad a-s ar SeuZlia, raime aRniSnos b-s daxmarebis gareSe (da aqedan gamomdi-
nare mxolod imdenad SeuZlia es, ramdenadac b mas faseulobas mianiWebs da
piriqiT, imgvarad, rom aranairi gansxvaveba ar rCeba), a-s daxmarebis gareSe;
<an> roca orives Tavisi faseuloba gaaCnia imiT, rom <erTmaneTisgan gans-
xvavdebian, an> arc erT maTgans ar gaaCnia, arc erT Tavis nawilSi (aq »safu-
Zvels« an misT. vgulisxmob) Tavisi mniSvneloba, rogorc am kvanZSi [>plexus<],
sadac mudmivad negatiuri saxesxvaobaa. 90 <gasaocaria, magram> sad iqneboda
<sinamdvileSi sapirispiro SesaZlebloba?> albaT iq, <sadac> dadebiTi gamo-
sxivebis erT-erTi punqtis erTaderTi momentia gamovlenili <mTel enaSi
[>langage<]>, radgan ar arsebobs arc erTi JReradoba, romelic ufro srulyo-
fili Sesatyvisi iqneba imisi, rac man unda aRniSnos? es absoluturad apri-
oruli WeSmaritebaa, romelic arasdros mogvcems calkeul/erTaderT enob-
riv fragments [>fragment de langue<], romelic SeiZleba sxva rames efuZnebodes,
bolo principis TvalsazrisiT, Sesatyvisis uqonloba, an am uqonlobis dade-
biTi xarisxi sxvebTan SedarebiT; sruliad indiferentulia [>indiferrente<] iqam-
de, sanam Cven warmodgena ar gvaqvs, mas Semdeg, rac xuTi an eqvsi ena [>lan-
gues<] gvaqvs naswavli, sadac [ ]; SemdgomSi es xarisxi nulis toli iqneba. 91
aq, erTi SexedviT, zogadi formiT aris damowmebuli is, rac Cven Si-
naarsiT msgavsi sityvebis magaliTze axlaxan aRvwereT. Tu adre sa-
ubari iyo >enobrivi faseulobebis urTierTgansazRvraze maTi Tana-
arsebobiT<, amJamad es imas niSnavs, rom enobriv sidideebs >mxolod
urTierTsxvadasxvaobaSi aqvT TavianTi faseuloba<. Tumca, ufro
zustad Tu ganvixilavT, da kerZod, sxvadasxvaobis cnebasTan mimar-
TebaSi, ise JRers, rogorc arasodes ar gamoTqmula amis Sesaxeb az-
ri: Tu, saxeldobr, arc erTi >enobrivi fragmenti ar SeiZleba sxva
rames efuZnebodes, sabolood, vidre misi damTxvevis uqonlobas, an am
damTxvevis uqonlobis xarisxs sxva danarCenebTan mimarTebaSi<, maSin,
faqtobrivad, Tu mxolod >dadebiTi xarisxi iqneba indiferentuli<,
maSin arc iseTi ram iqneba, rac xangrZlivad iarsebebs terminSi<. ra-
sac aq sosiuri >enis sul bolo kanonad< dasaxelebas gabedulad ac-
xadebs, is man sxva CanawerSi Semdegnairad Camoayaliba:
erTi romelime formis arseboba mdgomareobs im formebSi, romlebic momenti-
dan momentamde vrceldeba, (<sagnebSi, romlebic am formis farglebs gareT
arian> da romlebic masze ar arian damokidebuli [...]. 92
aq, rogorc sosiuri wers, aRwerilia »lingvistikis yvelaze Caxlar-
Tuli sakiTxi 93 « _ da, faqtobrivad, miiCnevs, rom >formis arseboba<
Tavis TavSi ki ar mdgomareobs (anu imaSi ki ara, rac masSi Sinaar-
sobrivad aRqmadia), arc mis >dadebiT formaSi<, aramed swored imaSi,
rasac is ar warmoadgens _ >formebSi, romlebic mas momentidan mo-

90
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 264, N 10, Nr. 1903.
91
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 265, N 10, Nr. 1906.
92
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299. Sdr. amasTan aseve GRF, gv. 138; CLG/D, gv. 159; CLG/E (I), gv.
260, Nr. 1875.
93
Ibid.

101
mentamde gars akravs< da romlebic Sedegad >momentidan momentamde<
SeiZleba Seicvalos. Tumca ramdenadac cxadia: Tu arc erTi >enobri-
vi fragmenti< ar gvaqvs mocemuli, rogorc »savsebiT cxadi obieq-
ti« 94 , maSin SeuZlebelia enobrivi simboloebis, rogorc, sidideebis
gageba, romlebic TavianTi arsebobis wyalobiT, saerTaSoriso da
instrumentulad arsebulia. >mudmivad negatiuri sxvadasxvaoba< ume-
tesad >simboloebis saxiTaa warmodgenili, >romliTac is Cveni sur-
vilebis ignorirebas aRniSnavs<. gasaTvaliswinebelia enis Tviseba,
romlis mixedviTac is >adamianis mier Secvlad da saxelmZRvanelo
wesebs ar emorCileba<.
am formulirebebs saerTo is aqvT, rom isini enisa da mosaubre su-
bieqtis damokidebulebas uCveulod ganixilaven, rasac Cven am TavSi
wavawydiT da romelsac momdevno azrobriv konteqstSi vexebiT: enebi
aq gvevlineba ara rogorc calkeuli sfero, romelSic mosaubre su-
bieqtebi gonier arsebebad gvevlinebian da, Sesabamisad, TavianTi az-
rovnebis adekvatur gamoxatvis saSualebebs pouloben. rogorc kur-
Tan aris cxadad naTqvami, »mcdari warmodgenis sapirispirod, rome-
lic mis Sesaxeb advilad eqmnebaT xolme, ena [>langue<] ar aris meqa-
nizmi, romelic gamomxatveli cnebebisgan iqmneba da ganlagdeba«. 95
>gamomxatveli cnebebis< nacvlad enobrivi simboloebi ufro metad
>efuZnebian aragonivrulobas< da isini >garkveuli saxiT sakuTar ma-
terialur cxovrebas iwyeben, romelic absoluturad ucnobia<.
es gansxvavebuli formulirebebi, romlebmac Tavidan SeiZleba gagva-
ocos, sosiuris >mudmivad negatiuri sxvadasxvaobebis kvanZis< aRwe-
ris Tanaxmad da sakuTari, negatiuri dinamikidan gamomdinare, semio-
tikur simkacres iZenen.

WeSmariti identurobis dacvis SeuZlebloba

rodesac sosiuri enas sabolood adamianuri gonebis instituciis


kuTvnilebad ar warmogvidgens, ra Tqma unda, es sruliad ar niSnavs
imas, rom amiT misTvis sakiTxi enasa da mosaubre subieqts Soris da-
mokidebulebis Sesaxeb ukve amowurulia. rogorc es fragmenti Notes
item-dan gviCvenebs, sworedac rom sapirispiro rames aqvs aq adgili:
Item. ar arsebobs analogi enasa [>langue<] da TiToeul sxva adamianur arss
Soris ori mizezis gamo: 1. simboloebis Sinagani araraoba [>nullitè<] _ 2. Cveni
gonebis unari damokidebulia terminebze, romlebic TavisTavad nuli da
araraobaa. _ (magram es is araa, risi Tqmac upirveles yovlisa msurda. azrs
gadavuxvie.) 96
>Sinagani simboloebis araraobis< gamo ara marto ar arsebobs >ana-
logi enasa da sxva adamianur arss Soris<, aramed Cndeba kiTxvac,

94
Ibid.
95
GRF, gv. 101, CLG/D, gv. 121; CLG/E (I), gv. 189, Nr. 1412. sosiuri aq gakvriT mianiSnebs im wina-
dadebaze, romliTac iwyeba a. arnosa da k. lanselotis Grammaire generale et raisonnee: “La
grammaire est l’Art de parler. Parler est expliquer ses pensees par des signes, que les homes ont inventez a ce
dessein” (Grammaire generale et raisonnee ou La Grammaire de Port-Royal, edition critique presentee par
H.Brekle, Nouvelle impression en facsimile de la troisieme edition de 1667, Stuttgart 1966, gv. 5)
96
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3316.1.

102
rogor >SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos Cveni goneba terminebze, romle-
bic Tavis TavSi nuli da araraobaa<. SeiZleba es sakiTxi ganvixiloT
iseTad, romelic lingvistikis CarCoebSi pasuxgaucemelia da rome-
lic ufro metad iseTi mecnierebis sferos ekuTvnis, rogoricaa fsi-
qologia, filosofia, an filosofiuri anTropologia. da mainc, es
problema aucileblad dadgeba, Tu enebs misi gadacemis procesSi aR-
vwerT. rogorc enebi gadaicema maT mier, vinc am enaze saubrobs da,
Sesabamisad, warmoiSoba enasa da mosaubre subieqts Soris aucilebe-
li damokidebuleba. Tu enebi im subieqtis gareSe ar arseboben, rom-
lebic am enebze saubroben da amasTan gadascemen, maSin yvelaferi
piriqiT aris – rogorc sosiuri Tavisi Sesavali leqciebis Canawereb-
Si, roca cnobil filosofiur toposze saubrobs. igi wers: »adamiani
enis [>langage<] gareSe, albaT, mainc adamiania, magram ara arseba, rome-
lic mxolod miaxloebiT hgavs adamians, romelsac Cven vicnobT da
romelsac Cven warmovadgenT«. 97
vinc saubrobs, yvelafers iWers, rac moZraobaSia da gadascems. an
sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: vinc saubrobs, mas aqvs tradicia, romelic
mas imavdroulad gansazRvravs da ganaviTarebs:
sinamdvileSi arc erT sazogadoebas ena [>langue<] sxvagvarad ar Seucnia, ro-
gorc wina Taobebis mier memkvidreobiT datovebuli produqti, romelic ise
miiRo, rogoric is iyo. 98
amiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tu enebi ukve mimoqcevaSi arian, maSin isini
>wina Taobebidan arian memkvidreobiT gadmocemuli< an miRebuli. ene-
bi aucileblad cirkulireben da amitom enobrivi sistema ar unda iq-
nas gagebuli, rogorc Caketili Tanmimdevroba. TiToeuli ena bevrad
metia imaze, »es ar aris misi Tavisufali produqti, rac mas... win
uZRoda«. 99 radgan enebi aucileblad cirkulireben, usazRvrod mcire
procesSi sityvaTa SedarebiTi mniSvneloba mosaubre subieqtebs So-
ris mudam axali iqneba, _ da, amave dros, arasodes iqneba sabolood
gansazRvruli.
uwyveti moZraoba, romelic enaTa sxvadasxvaobaSi aisaxeba, mkvidrde-
ba. Cven es ukve davinaxeT >Sinagan araraobaSi<, magram rac ufro na-
yofieri aRmoCndeba es gegma enaTa xangrZlivi transformaciis aRwe-
risTvis, miT ufro swrafad Cndeba kiTxva, Tu rogor zegavlenas ax-
dens >simboloTa Sinagani araraoba< mosaubre subieqtebze. am sa-
kiTxs sosiuri kvlav ubrundeba da am sakiTxiT ara marto Tavis enaT-
mecnierul naSromebSi iyo dakavebuli. Tavis CanawerebSi, simRera
nibelungebze, kerZod, vrcel komentarSi b. simonsis »Tqmuleba gmi-

97
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 4, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.
98
GRF, gv. 84; CLG/D, gv. 105; CLG/E (I), gv. 160, Nr. 1190. redlingeri sosiuris meore kursis
Sesaxeb aRniSnavda: »ena [>langue<] SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc iseTi ram, romelsac
Taoba, romelic mas iTvisebs, erTi momentidan meore momentamde interpretirebas uke-
Tebs: is aris instrumenti, romlis gagebasac Seecadnen. <Tanamedrove Taoba> saerTod
ar cvlis mas, rogorc wina Taobebi, radganac <Secvlili pirobebis gamo> saSualebebi
ukve aRar aris erTnairi. saWiroa interpretaciis pirveli aqti, romelic aqtiuria (mas
win uZRvis raRac rTulad aRsaqmeli interpretacia!)« (cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 390f. II R 101, Nr.
2591).
99
Cf. CLG?E (II), gv. 21, N 9.3, Nr. 3296.

103
rebze« 100 -dan amonaridisTvis Cndeba igi, rogorc sakiTxi simboloTa
identurobisaTvis:
_ »is, rom volf-hugditrix Teodorixi xlodvigis vaJi unda iyos, udavo da
eWvgareSea«... simonsi. 101
es winadadeba SeiZleba gansjisTvis gamodges faqtisagan damoukideblad,
radgan meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT, ar ician, ras unda niSnavdes igi
miTiuri swavlebis sferoSi, aseve enaTmecnierebis monaTesave sferoSi.
sworia, rom Tu sagans CavuRrmavdebiT, dgindeba, rom am sferoSi, iseve ro-
gorc enaTmecnierebis monaTesave sferoSi, azrovnebis mTeli es absurduloba
daukmayofilebeli refleqsebis gamo xdeba, rac identuroba <an>: <identuro-
bis> niSania, Tuki igi iseT ararsebuls exeba, rogoricaa simbolo. es
simboloebi magaliTad sityva, miTiuri persona an anbanis aso sxva araferia
Tu ara simbolos <sxvadasxva formebi> da Tanac filosofiuri azriT
gajerebuli.*
Tumca* filosofiis mier cudad aRiqmeba.
<albaT winasityvaobaSi aris Casmuli>
anbanis romelime aso, magaliTad, germanuli runebis anbanidan, aSkarad da-
sawyisSive ar Seicavs araviTar identurobas, garda imisa, rom Semdegi asoci-
aciebidan gamomdinareobs:
a. gansazRvruli fonetikuri mniSvneloba
b. gansazRvruli grafikuli forma
g. saxelebi an Serqmeuli saxelebi, romlebic maTTvis SeiZleboda miecaT
d. maTi adgili anbanSi
Tu am elementebidan ori an sami icvleba (rogorc es mudmivad xdeba), danar-
Cenebic icvlebian, magram aravin icis rogor _ asoTa TanmimdevrobiT, Tu
sxva principiT; Zalze mokle vadaSi, Tu ufro xangrZliv droSi [ ] <grafi-
kul individs, iseve, rogorc zogadad semiologiur individs, organuli in-
dividis sapirispirod unari ar Seswevs daamtkicos, rom is igive darCa, rad-
gan Tavisi ZiriT Tavisufal asociacias eyrdnoba.>
<rogorc vxedavT,> WeSmariti identurobis uunaroba drois gavlenis uaryo-
fa ki ar aris (esaa umTavresad <aRsaniSnavi> cdomileba maTi, romlebic sim-
boloebis kvleviT arian dakavebuli), aramed winaswar aris arsebis Camoyali-
bebaSi Cadebuli, romelic gars akravs mas da akvirdeba rogorc organizms,
maSin roca is sxva araferia, Tu ara fantomi, romelic ori an sami warmod-
genis <mokle> kombinaciis Sedegia.* <es yvelaferi definicias exeba.> imis ma-
givrad, rom am erTianobidan gamovideT, romelic ar arsebobs, angariSvalde-
buli viyaviT gveTqva, rom formula, romelic wuTier mdgomareobas aRniSnavs
[>etat momentane d’assemblage<], _ mxolod elementebs warmogvidgens. amgvaria
ditrixi <Tavisi namdvili arsis mixedviT>, arc istoriuli da arc araisto-
riuli persona; is aris ubralod sami an oTxis moZraobis kombinacia, rome-
lic nebismier momentSi SeiZleba gaTavisufldes, rac mTeli erTianobis
gaTavisuflebas gamoiwvevs.
* met-naklebad myife <qmnileba> ki ara, radikalurad erTianobis princips
moklebuli <qmnilebaa>; esaa erTaderTi SefardebiTi xangrZlivoba garkveu-
li moZraobebisa, romlebic mis miRma imaleba da es aris yoveldRiuri leq-
cia misi, vinc ikvlevs, raTa dainaxos, rom asociaciebi, romlebsac Cven xan-
daxan maRal Sefasebas vaZlevT _ <mxolod sapnis buStia>, sxva araferi sap-

100
germanuli filologiis safuZvlebi, herman paulis mier Sedgenili meore gaumjo-
besebuli da mravaltiraJiani gamocema, strasburgi 1900 [1891-93], tomi 3, gv. 606 _ 734.
101
sosiuri simonsis am winadadebas SedarebiT amartivebs frangulad »Que Wolf - <Hug>
dietrich soit le Theoderic fils de Clovis est inconteste et incontestable« (LEG, S. 191). teqstis originalSi
weria: »is, rom, upirveles yovlisa, saxeli hugditrixi »frangul ditrixs« merovinge-
bis mefe Teodorix I-s niSnavs, udavo da eWvareSea« (Sdr. b. simonsis: »Tqmuleba gmireb-
ze«; pauli 1900, tomi 3).

104
nis buStis garda, romelsac, sul mcire, Tavisi sakuTari fizikuri da maTe-
matikuri erTianoba aqvs <da ara SemTxveviTi da uRirsi [ ] meTodur da ara
SemTxveviT yofaSi [ ] >. 102
eWvgareSea, rom es pasaJi, romelsac sosiuris CanawerebSi vawydebiT,
araTu aRsaniSnavi, amaRelvebelic kia. amis mixedviT yalibdeba gan-
sazRvreba, rom is >Tavis TavSi nuli da araraobaa< ara mxolod
enobrivi simboloebis mimarT, aramed zogadad >ararsebuli arsebebi-
sac, rogoricaa sityva an miTiuri persona, an anbanis asoebi<. yvela
es sidide, >romlebic simboloebis sxvadasxva formebia< da >Tanac
filosofiuri gagebiT<, met-naklebad >ara marto saTuTi qmnilebe-
bia<, aramed >moklebulia erTianobis princips<. isini >uZlurni ari-
an daicvan identurobis usafrTxoeba< da es xdeba ara >drois zegav-
lenis gamo, aramed imitom, rom isini sxva araferia Tu ara >fanto-
mebi<, romlebic >mokle kombinaciebis< Sedegia.
TvalsaCinoa: aq simboloebis struqturuli niSnis mSralad aRwera ki
ar xdeba, aq raRac formulirdeba, rac rogorc Zalze Rrmad prob-
lemuri, ise unda gavigoT. visac simboloebTan Sexeba hqonia da vinc
saubrobs, es gardauvalia TiToeulisTvis, Tu raime gaucnobierebel
siRrmeebs vexebiT. SeniSvnebSi, rom simboloebs mxolod >sapnis buS-
tis< konsistencia eqnebodaT, amotivtivdeba raRac, rac sagnobriv-
neitraluri gansazRvrebis tons scildeba. Tu sosiuri >semiologi-
uri individis Sesaxeb< saubrobs, rom amas >organuli individis< sa-
winaaRmdegod ar eqneboda saSualeba daemtkicebina, rom igive darCa<
da amiT simboloTa aramdgradobis (inkonsistenciis) personificire-
bas axdens, mogvianebiT naTeli xdeba, rom aq ara mxolod ubralod
aris aRwerili is, rac mosaubre subieqts zogadad exeba, aramed uf-
ro metad struqturas, romelSic sosiuri Tavis Tavs, rogorc mosa-
ubre subieqts moiazrebs. adrindel leqciebze dayrdnobiT, Cven Seg-
viZlia es struqtura ase aRvweroT: >semiologiur individs saSuale-
ba ar aqvs daamtkicos, rom is igive darCa da amave dros adamiani
mxolod enis meSveobiT xdeba is, rac aris. Sesabamisad, »srulyofili
aris mxolod is, rac mas Tavis garemos aSorebs« 103 anu cirkulire-
badi simboloebiT erT enaze mosaubre subieqtebis identuroba mxo-
lod imiT ar SeiZleba ganisazRvros da mogveces, rom isini >organu-
li individebi< arian. ufro metad, amave dros, Cndeba mosaubre subi-
eqtebis identurobac, >simboloTa brunvis< anabara mitovebuli.

102
Cf. LEG, gv. 191 – 192. Sdr. avais komentari am monakveTTan dakavSirebiT (»La semiologie e la
narrativite chez Saussure«, in Ch. Bouazis e.a.: Essais de la theorie du texte, Paris 1973, S. 17 – 49; L’ontologia
del segno in Saussure, Turin 1973, S. 1 – 128) aseve r. engleris komentarebi amis sawinaaRmdegod
(»Semiologies saussuriennes; I. De l’existence du signe«, in: CFS 29, 1974 – 1975, gv. 45 – 73).
103
am formulirebis konteqsti ase JRers: >enis [>langage<] niSani. ena [>langage<] mudmivad
ganixileba adamianuri individis saxiT, rac mcdari Tvalsazrisia. buneba gvaZlevs
>Cven< artikularuli eniT [>langage<] aRWurvil [>organise pour<] adamianebs, TumcaRa arti-
kularuli enis [>langage<] gareSe. ena [>langue<] aris socialuri faqti [>fait social<]. indi-
vidi, romelic saubrisTvis mzadyofnaSia [>organise pour parler<], mxolod garSemomyofi im
sazogadoebis meSveobiT SeuZlia iqamde mivides, rom Tavisi instrumenti <Tavisi apara-
ti> gamoiyenos imisda damoukideblad, rom misi gamoyenebis moTxovnileba mxolod sa-
zogadoebis mimarT <mis> kavSirSi SeigrZnobodes. es mTlianad sazogadoebazea damoki-
debuli; [...] adamiani srulyofilia mxolod imis meSveobiT, rac mas Tavis garemos aSo-
rebs (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 16, N 6, Nr. 3292.

105
IX. xmovanTa ferebi

sosiuris teqstebSi warmodgenili enasa da mosaubre subieqts Soris


damokidebulebis sakiTxis Seswavlis ganzraxvam, upirveles yovlisa,
SeiZleba gagvaocos. droTa ganmavlobaSi farTod gavrcelebuli Se-
xedulebis Tanaxmad, sosiuris lingvistika amitomac samarTlianad
ganekuTvneba humanitaruli mecnierebis TvalsaCino nimuSebis rangs,
radgan man daxvewilad SeZlo ganesazRvra qvemdebare mosaubre subi-
eqtTan damokdebulebis gareSe ise, rom sxva subieqtebisgan ar iyo
gaTavisuflebuli. 104 marTlac, sosiuris naSromSi aris mTeli rigi
formulirebebisa, romlebic am daskvnasTan axlos dgas. ase, magali-
Tad, gansxvaveba langue-sa da parole-s Soris, rogorc isini kursSia war-
modgenili da Semdgom masTan SemakavSirebeli gansxvaveba linguistique de
la langue da linguistique de la parole-s Soris. ganvixiloT es formulirebebi,
romlebsac kursis mesame da meoTxe Tavis SesavalSi vxvdebiT:
rodesac enas [>langue<] metyvelebisgan [>parole<] vasxvavebT, amavdroulad ganas-
xvaveben: 1. socialurs individualurisgan; 2. arsobrivs aqcesorulisgan. ena
[>langue<] ar aris mosaubre subieqtis funqcia; is aris produqti, romelsac
individi pasiurad aregistrirebs; is arasodes iTvaliswinebs wina mosazre-
bas, [...]. metyveleba [>parole<] ki, amis sapirispirod, nebisa da inteleqtis
individualuri aqtia, [...]. 105

amrigad, kursis mravaljer citirebul pasaJSi langue upirvelesad


imiT aris gansazRvruli, rom ena ar aris mosaubre subieqtis fun-
qcia, aramed, piriqiT, parole ganisazRvreba, rogorc sidide, romelic
rogorc nebisa da inteleqtis individualuri aqti<, radgan langue aR-
werilia, rogorc arsebiTi, xolo parole, rogorc aqcesoruli. es naT-
lad Cans da isic, rom subieqti enaTmecnierebas radikalurad gamoeyofa.
amave azriT SeiZleba gavigoT pasaJis momdevno ramdenime gverdic,
romlebSic enaTmecnierebis dayofa linguistique de la langue da linguistique de
la parole-d gansazRvrul meTodologiur principebamde iqnas dayvanili.
[...] SeuZlebelia ena [>langue<] da saubari [>parole<] gavaerTianoT erTi TvalTa-
xedvis areSi. enis [>langage<] yovlismomcveli erTianoba ewinaaRmdegeba cnobi-
erebas, radgan is analogiuri [>homogene<] ar aris im dros, roca SemoTavaze-
buli gansxvaveba da daqvemdebareba yvelafers naTels hfens.
es aris pirveli gaoreba, romelsac vawydebiT, roca enis [>langage<] Teoriis
dadgena gvinda. saWiroa orive gzas Soris (romlebzec erTdroulad SeiZle-
ba aRmovCndeT) arCevani gavakeToT. maT cal-calke unda mivadevnoT Tvali. ar-
sebiTad SeiZleba am orive disciplinas »enaTmecnierebis« saxeli davutovoT,
anu metyvelebis enaTmecnierebis [>linguistique de la parole<] Sesaxebac SeiZleba
saubari.

104
frTxili aRiareba Sexedulebisa, rom sosiuris mixedviT, mosaubre subieqti enaTmec-
nierebidan gamoiricxeboda da, amave dros, misi arasrulyofilebis mwvave analizs vaw-
ydebiT p. henris, Le mouvais outil. Langue, sujet et discourse-Si, parizi 1977. Sdr. aseve i. kris-
teva: »Du sujet en linguistique«, in Langages 24, 1971, gv. 197 – 125; Hagege 1985, gansakuTrebiT gv. 303
ff., S. 342 ff., aseve Dosse 1991, tomi I, gv. 65 – 75. SemdgomSi es problematika enobriv-isto-
riul WrilSi iqna dasmuli statiebSi Langages 77, 1985, Le sujet entre langue et parole (s), gamo-
cemuli k. normandis mier.
105
GRF, gv. 16 f.; CLG/D, gv. 30; CLG/E (I), gv. 41f., Nr. 241 – 246.

106
Cven mxolod da mxolod am mosazrebaze SevCerdebiT da Tu am ganmartebis
mimdinareobis dros metyvelebis [>parole<] swavlebas daveyrdnobiT, Sevecde-
biT, rom arasodes wavSaloT sazRvrebi, romlebic orive sferos yofs, 106
rac amis amsaxveli ganmartebis Tanaxmad, <zogadi enaTmecnirebisT-
vis> erTaderTad iTvleba, es aris langue da, amasTan erTad, kursi mo-
mavalSic mxolod masTan iqneba dakavSirebuli. es imas xom ar niS-
navs, rom, parole-sTan erTad, sosiuris enaTmecnierebis Semecnebis sfe-
rodan mosaubre subieqtic unda gamoiricxos? Tu kursis SesavalSi
mxolod langue-sa da parole-s Sesaxeb citirebul definiciaze davrCe-
biT, aseTi daskvna, sul mcire, mcdari ar Cans da Tavidanve naxsenebi
sosiuris lingvistikis mecnieruli interpretacia sulac ar aris
misaRebi. 107
Tumca sosiuris lingvistikaSi sxva suraTi ikveTeba, rogorc ki kur-
sis im nawilebs mivadgebiT, romlebSic SesavalSi moxazuli linguisti-
que de la langue-s programa konkretuladaa gadaadgilebuli da misi Se-
mecnebiT-Teoriuli foni dawvrilebiTaa gaSuqebuli. aq vxvdebiT or
momdevno pasaJs, romlebic im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki isni erTmaneTis-
gan moSorebiT arian – erTi miekuTvneba sinqronul, xolo meore di-
aqronul enaTmecnierebas – igiveni SemakavSireblad gadamwyvet Tval-
sazriss gamoxataven:

sinqroniisaTvis arsebobs analogias fsiqologiuri


mxolod erTi Tvalsazrisi, buneba aqvs, magram es ar
kerZod, TviTon mosaubre aris sakmarisi, raTa is xmo-
subieqti, romlis erTader- vani movlenebisgan ganvasxva-
Ti meTodia mtkicebulebebis voT [...]. win unda wavideT da
mopoveba imis gasagebad, Tu vTqvaT, rom analogias gra-
ra xarisxSia realoba moce- matikuli buneba aqvs. is gu-
muli. realoba raRac do- lisxmobs cnobierebasa da
ziT saWiroa, raTa gamovikv- azrobriv Semecnebas [>com-
lioT individis cnobiere- prehension<] Soris kavSirs,
bis romel xarisxSi arse- romelic formebs erTmaneT-
bobs igi. Tan akavSirebs.
(pirveli nawili, zogadi sa- (mesame nawili, diaqronuli
fuZvlebi, III Tavi, statiku- enaTmecniereba, Tavi IV, ana-
ri da evoluciuri enaTmec- logi, gv. 3, analogi, ro-
niereba, gv. 5, orive saxis gorc enobrivi neologizme-
enaTmecnierebis kontrasti bis principi). 109
maT meTodebsa da principebs
Soris). 108

106
GRF gv. 23 f.; CLG/D, gv. 38 f.; CLG/E (I), gv. 58 f., Nr. 362 – 370.
107
struqturuli lingvistikis kritikaSi p. rikiori kurss warmogvidgens mecnieruli
kiTxvis manerisgan daSorebulad. ix. mag: »La structure, le mot, l’evenement«, in: P. Ricœur, Le
conflit des interpretations. Essais d’ hermeneutique, Paris 1969, gv. 80 ff.
kidev aTi wlis Semdeg r. robini gulwrfelad adgens: »sosiuris [>langue vs parole<] ina-
uguraciul diqotomias mivyavarT subieqtis gamoyofisken, [...]« (cf.. »Le hors-texte dans le dis-
course politique«, in: Recherches et Theories 19, 1979, gv. 70).
am TvalsazrisiT isic unda gavixsenoT, rom k. beili, romelsac sosiuri »WeSmarit in-
teleqtualad« miaCnda, mogvianebiT sakuTar mecnierul naSromebSi mosaubre subieqtis
»afeqturobaze« mimarTuli lingvistikis damuSavebas Seecada (Ch. Bally: Ferdinand de Saus-
sure et l’etat actuel des etudes linguistiques. Lecon d’ouverture du Cours de linguistuque generale, Genf 1913, gv. 23).
108
Cf. GRF, gv. 107; CLG?D, gv. 128; CLG/E (I), gv. 200, Nr. 1503 – 1504.
109
Cf. GRF, gv. 197; CLG/D, gv. 226; CLG/E (I), gv. 374, Nr. 2511.

107
kursis Tanaxmad, sinqronuli enaTmecnierebisaTvis (romelic zogadad
da sruliad safuZvlianad sosiuriseuli linguistique de la langue-s ar-
sia) 110 arsebobs >mxolod erTi mosazreba< _ >mosaubre subieqtebi<.
rogorc Cans, SesaZlebelia, rom >analogis< >gramatikulma bunebam<
diaqronuli enaTmecnierebis pirvel adgilze gadmoinacvlos. Tanac
ise, rom >xmovani movlenebis< >cnobierebis< sapirispirod >azrob-
rivi Semecnebis< enobriv-imanenturi kavSiri ivaraudos. 111
problemaTa wreSi Rrmad Cawvdomamde SevCerdeT imaze, rom gamoric-
xvis nacvlad mosaubre subieqti Cndeba, ganmeorebiT da naTlad, ro-
gorc linguistique de la langue-s aucilebeli makavSirebeli punqti ise, rom
arc enobriv sistemaTa sinqronuli kavSirebi da arc diaqronuli
movlenebi, romlebic mas cvlian, Sesabamisad ar yofila aRwerili. an
sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: rac Cven kursidan citirebul orive pasaJSi
TvalSi gvxvdeba aris is, rom sosiuris linguistique de la langue-is mixed-
viT mosaubre subieqti _ >enaTmecnierebidan absoluturad< araa erT-
maneTisagan gancalkevebuli. 112

ararsis arsi
rogor SeiZleba dawvrilebiT SeviswavloT is mniSvneloba, romelic
sosiuris lingvistikaSi mosaubre subieqts gaaCnia? – langue-sa da
parole-s magaliTebze ukeTesad mimaCnia sxva, kursidan amoRebuli gans-
xvavebebi, romelic klasikur nimuSad iqca, saxeldobr, isini, romle-
bic sintagmaturi da asociaciuri (Sesabamisad, dRes SegviZlia mas
paradigmatuli 113 vuwodoT) mimarTebebis mqonea. amiT naTeli xdeba am
gansxvavebis damokidebuleba enasa da mosaubre subieqts Soris mimar-
Tebis sakiTxTan, magram mainc saWiroa kursis sakiTxavi masalisa da

110
Sdr. engleri 1975, gv. 849.
111
sxvaTa Soris, am pasaJze miuTiTebs m. merlo-ponti safrangeTis kolejSi 1952 wels
warmoTqmul Tavis Sesaval leqciaSi. Sdr. »Eloge de la philosophie«, m. merlo-pontis »Eloge
de la philosophie et autres essais«, parizi, 1960, gv. 56.
112
sxvaTa Soris, ukve kursis Sesavlis pirveli Tavis pirvel nawilSi mikibv-mokibvis
gareSe dadgenilia: »[...] veRar gavbedavT, rom vTqvaT: >ena [>langue<] akeTebs amas da
amas<; an enis [>langue<] sicocxleze laparaks an raRac amis msgavss da rom ena
[>langue<] arseba araa da mxolod mosaubre subieqtebSi arsebobs« (GRF, gv. 6; CLG/D, gv.
19; CLG/E (I), gv. 18, Nr. 96). – am SeniSvniT isargebla ukve 1948 wels r. l. vagnerma. sru-
liad sapirispirod im droisaTvis frangul lingvistikaSi gatarebuli kursis mecni-
erul cnebaSi da Tavis Les Temps Modernes-Si dabeWdil da sartris mZlavr egzistenci-
alizmze dayrdnobiT Seqmnil eseebSi »Le langage et l’homme« aRniSnavs, rom sosiuris
mniSvneloba, upirveles yovlisa, imaSi unda davinaxoT, rom man >ena [>langue<] adamians
dauaxlova da rom man uamisodac, sul mcire, lingvistikis avtonomiis principi uaryo
da xazi gausva enis [>langue<] adamianur funqcias (cf. Les Temps Modernes, 30, s. 1592). ix. ase-
ve R. L. Wagner: Introduction a la linguistique francaise, Lille / Genf 1947, iq gansakuTrebiT gv. 20 – 29.
113
es aRniSvna l. ielmslevisgan momdinareobs. Sdr. ielmslevi 1968 – 71, gv. 167 da imave
avtoris: Le langage, Paris 1966 (daniuri originaluri gamocema 1963), S. 56 ff.; Sdr. aseve r.
iakobsoni: »enis ori mxare da afaziuri darRvevebis ori saxeoba«, imave avtoris: Txzu-
lebani lingvistikisa da poetikis Sesaxeb, gamocemuli v. reiblis mier, mainis frank-
furti 1979, gv. 117-141 (pirvelad gamoCnda enis safuZvlebi, 1956), aseve e. holenStaini:
»enis ori RerZi da misi safuZvlebi«, imave avtoris: lingvistika, semiotika, hermenev-
tika. daskvniTi sityva struqturuli fenomenologiis Sesaxeb, mainis frankfurti 1976,
gv. 76-113.

108
calkeuli pasaJebis detaluri ganxilva zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesa-
xeb sosiuris sxvadasxva Canawerebis Sesabamisi monakveTebis
paralelurad.
daviwyoT orive monakveTiT, romlebSic sintagmaturi da asociaciuri
mimarTebebi kursSi Seiyvanes da erTmaneTs daupirispires:
erTi mxriv, sityvebi, TavianTi gadabmis gamo, gamoTqmebis msvlelobisas ur-
TierTmimarTebebs avlenen, romlebic enis [>langue<] sworxazovan xasiaTs
emyareba, rac SeuZlebels xdis, rom erTdroulad gamovTqvaT ori elementi.
isini xvdebian metyvelebis jaWvSi [>chaine de la parole<] erTmaneTis miyolebiT da
am kombinacias, romlis safuZvelic gafarToebaa, SegviZlia rigSi Cadgoma an
sintagma vuwodoT. es Tanmimdevroba Sedgeba, rogorc wesi, ori an meti erT-
maneTis Tanmimdevrulad ganlagebuli erTeulisgan (mag. ab – reißen; für uns; ein
langes Leben; Gott ist gut; wenn das Wetter schön ist, wollen wir ausgehen usw.). rigSi Cadgomis
Semdeg, TiToeuli wevri mniSvnelobas mas Semdeg iZens, rac wina an momdevno
an orive wevrTan Seapirispireben.
Tumca, meore mxriv, am winadadebis garda sityvebi, romelTac erTmaneTTan
raRac aqvT saerTo, asociaciurad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs, mexsierebaSi da
isini qmnian jgufebs, romelTa Soris Zalian gansxvavebuli damokidebulebe-
bia. ase, magaliTad, sityvam Belehrung SeiZleba gonebaSi sxva sityvebis mTeli
rigi asociaciebi gamoiwvios (lehren, belehren da a. S. aseve Bekehrung, Begleitung, Ers-
chaffung; Unterricht, Ausbildung, Erziehung usw.). asea Tu ise, am sityvebs mainc aqvT
erTmaneTTan raRac saerTo. 114
is gansxvaveba, romelic aq warmodgenil iqna, iseve TvalsaCino Cans,
rogorc martivi: >sintagmaturi< ewodeba damokidebulebas, romelic
sityvebs Soris iqmneba, romelic >ama Tu im gamoTqmis msvlelobisas<
jaWvad ikvreba da >erTimeoris miyolebiT< rigSi Camwkrivdebian.
>asociaciurs< ki sosiuri uwodebs sityvebis im damokidebulebas,
romelic erT romelime gansazRvrul winadadebaSi ki ar ganlagde-
bian, aramed romlebsac >erTmaneTTan raRac saerTo aqvT< _ ara aqvs
mniSvneloba, iqneba is Sesadarebeli mniSvneloba (>Unterricht, Ausbildung,
Erziehung<) Tu Sesadarebeli enobrivi forma (>Bekehrung, Begleitung,
Erschaffung<).
asociaciuri damokidebulebisagan sintagmaturis gasamijnad kursSi,
amasTanave, gansxvavebuli lokalizaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, mniSvnelo-
vani dazusteba Seitanes: maSin, roca, saxeldobr, sintagmaturi damo-
kidebuleba, gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad, >saubris jaWvSi xvdeba< da sit-
yvebis sworxazovan >gafarToebas< efuZneba, asociaciuri damokidebu-
leba ufro mravalgvarad saxeldeba: ase, magaliTad, axlaxan citire-
buli pasaJis meore abzacSi, romlebic sityvebis asocirebas axdens
>mexsierebaSi< da Semdgom ise, rom erTi romelime sityva >gaucnobi-
ereblad sxva sityvebTan SeiZleba agverios<. asociaciuri damokide-
bulebis SedarebiTi aRwerilobebi moipoveba aseve kursis Semdgom mo-
nakveTebSi. iq vkiTxulobT, rom »misi azri gonebaSia« 115 , Sesabamisad,
isic, rom »is im Sinagani saganZuris nawilia, romelic yoveli indi-
vidis SemTxvevaSi enas [>langue<] qmnis« 116 an »qvecnobierSi« 117 (rogorc

114
GRF, gv. 147; CLG/D, gv. 170 f.; CLG/E (I), gv. 277 – 280, Nr. 1983 – 1993. Sdr. poloneli enaTmec-
nieris n. kruJevskis modeli, danarCeni qvemoT, gv. 198.
115
GRF, gv. 148; CLG/D, gv. 171; CLG/E (I), gv. 281, Nr. 1997.
116
Ibid., CLG/E (I), Nr. 1998.
117
GRF, gv. 154; CLG/D, gv. 177; CLG/E (I), gv. 293, Nr. 2064.

109
a. ridlingeri aRniSnavda _ »farul cnobierebaSi«). 118 mokled: rac am
yvela aRwerilobas erTmaneTTan akavSirebs, aris is, rom asociaciuri
damokidebuleba mosaubre subieqtSi gadainacvlebs.
enobriv-Teoriul mkveTr sxvaobasTan, rom sintagmaturi damokidebu-
leba wminda enobriv-imanenturi, xolo asociaciuri damokidebuleba
ganmeorebiT da gamomxatvelobiT mosaubre subieqtis moxmobiT gani-
sazRvreba, kavSirSia kidev ori winaaRmdegobrivi niSan-Tviseba. amas-
Tan, pirvel rigSi, saqme exeba maT arsebobas, amavdroulad, sintagma-
turi da asociaciuri damokidebulebis gansakuTrebul formas.
orive saxis damokidebulebis arsebobas Soris principuli gansxvave-
ba momdevno monakveTSi iqneba ganxiluli:
sintagmaturi, anu mwyobri damokidebuleba arsebobs awmyoSi: is emyareba or
an met, erTmaneTis miyolebiT ganlagebul wevrs. amis sapirispirod, asocia-
ciuri damokidebuleba wevrebs absenciaSi, virtualur mexsierebaSi
akavSirebs. 119
da sintagmaturi da asociaciuri damokidebulebis gansxvavebuli wyo-
bis Sesaxeb kursSi Semdegi ramis amokiTxva SegviZlia:
maSin, roca sintagma Tanmimdevrobasa da Semadgeneli nawilebis garkveuli
raodenobis warmodgenas iwvevs, asociaciuri saxeobis wevrebi arc gansazR-
vrul raodenobas da arc gansazRvrul wesrigs ar gvTavazoben. Tu erTma-
neTTan movaxdenT sityvebis schmerz-lich, lieb-lich, fried-lich asocirebas, Tavidanve
ver vityviT, Tu ra raodenobis sityvas miviRebT, romelsac mexsiereba Semogv-
Tavazebs, an ra TanmimdevrobiT mogvevlinebian isini. 120
amrigad: Tu asociaciuri damokidebuleba arc >gansazRvrul raode-
nobas da arc gansazRvrul wesrigs ar gvTavazobs (Tumca, rogorc
davinaxeT, mxolod >absenciaSi<, rogorc >mexsierebis virtualuri
rigebi<, mosaubre subieqtis >qvecnobierSi< arseboben), aRar Cndeba
kiTxva, unda ganixilebodes Tu ara isini zogadi enaTmecnierebis Car-
CoebSi. ratomaa asociaciuri damokidebuleba sosiuris TvaliT »enis
[>langue<] sicocxlisTvis aseTi mniSvnelobis mqone 121 « da amiT lin-
gvistikis sagani? ratom unda dakavdes gansakuTrebiT linguistique de la
langue am sakiTxiT, romlis garkveuli mizanic enis, rogorc simbo-
loTa sistemis, rac SeiZleba daxuruli aRweraa, miuxedavad asoci-
aciuri damokidebulebis aSkara ganusazRvrelobisa, Tumca is mosaub-
re subieqtisgan damoukideblad ar SegiZlia ganvixiloT?
redlingeris mier sosiuris zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb meore
leqciis Canawerebis amonarididan vkiTxulobT:
erTi sityvisTvis ori varianti arsebobs, erTmaneTis msgavsi, rom isini erT-
maneTs dauaxlovdnen, erTmaneTTan kontaqtSi rom iyvnen: isini SegviZlia aR-
vniSnoT, rogorc sityvebis ori saarsebo punqti an rogorc am sityvebs So-
ris ori saurTierTo sfero. es or funqcias Seesabameba, romlebic CvenSi aq-
tiuria enasTan [>langage<] mimarTebaSi. 122
erTi mxriv, arsebobs Sinagani saganZuri, romelic mexsierebis sferoebs Se-
esabameba; SegviZlia mas sacavi vuwodoT; es im orive punqts moicavs da ori

118
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 293, II R 96, Nr. 2064.
119
GRF, gv. 148; CLG/D, gv. 171; CLG/E (I), gv. 282, Nr. 2000 – 2003.
120
GRF, gv. 151; CLG?D, gv. 174; CLG?E (I), gv. 288, Nr. 2032 – 2034.
121
GRF, gv. 147; CLG/D, gv. 170; CLG/E (I), gv. 276, Nr. 1982.
122
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 277, II R 89, Nr. 1982.

110
sferodan erT-erTs. am saganZurSi yvelaferi momaragebulia, rac meore punq-
tSi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT. da meore punqti, es aris ganxilva, saubris [>paro-
le<] jaWvi. imisda mixedviT, Tu sityvebis romel punqtze SevaCerebT yuradRe-
bas, saqme gveqneba jgufebTan, magram sruliad gansxvavebuli saxis
jgufebTan:

saganZuri (sacavi) ganxilva (jaWvi)

asociaciuri erTeulebi ganxilvis erTeulebi


(anu erTeulebi, romlebic
ganxilvisas warmoiqmneba)
jgufebi ojaxebis saxiT jgufebi sintagmebis saxiT 123

elementebis masaSi, romelic Cven virtualurad gagvaCnia da romlebic Seg-


viZlia efeqturad gamoviyenoT, am saganZurSi asociaciebs qmnian: TiToeuli
elementi meoreze fiqrs iwvevs. yvelaferi, rac raime TvalsazrisiT Sesa-
darebelia an ar aris, TiToeuli sityva aqedan gamomdinare awmyoa; sxvagva-
rad enis [>langue<] meqanizmis funqcionireba SeuZlebeli iqneboda. 124
Tavdapirvelad es SeiZleba ise gamoiyurebodes, TiTqos aq kvlavac
icvleba is, rac Cven axlaxan sintagmatur da asociaciur damokidebu-
lebasTan kavSirSi ganvmarteT: maTi gansxvavebuli lokalizacia, erT-
xel >saubris jaWvSi< an >mexsierebis sferoebSi<. da am pasaJis sul
bolos ganixileba iseTi ram, razec aqamde arasdros gvqonia saubari:
saxeldobr, es aris >enis meqanizmi< >SeuZlebeli iqneboda<, rom ara
>is yvelaferi, rac raime TvalsazrisiT Sesadarebelia an ar aris
Sesadarebeli, TiToeuli sityva, aqedan gamomdinare, awmyo iqneboda.
erTi ram cxadia: Tu asociaciuri damokidebuleba SesaZlebels xdis
>enis meqanizmis< funqcionirebas, maSin mas Tavisi ganusazRvrelobisa
da mosaubre subieqtisgan damokidebulebis miuxedavad, lingvistikis-
Tvis centraluri mniSvneloba eqneboda. da mainc, ras ewodeba aq kon-
kretulad >enis meqanizmi< da rogor SeiZleba is warmodgenil iqnas?
magaliTi:
aviRoT kompoziti ab-reißen. Cven SegviZlia warmovadginoT igi horizontalur
xazze, romelic sasaubro rigs Seesabameba:

ab-reißen

magram, amavdroulad, sxva RerZze qvecnobierSi arsebobs sxva araerTi asoci-


aciuri rigi, romelTa calkeul erTeulebs am mwkrivTan erTi elementi saer-
To aqvT, mag.:

ab-reißen

abbrechen reißen
abschneiden zerreißen
abnehmen entreißen
da a.S. durchreißen
da a.S. 125

123
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 281, II R 89, Nr. 1998.
124
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 289, II R 90, Nr. 2038.
125
GRF, gv. 153 f.; CLG/D, gv. 178; CLG/E (I), gv. 293, Nr. 2064 – 2067.

111
rac am or xazs Soris aris, ewodeba >sasaubro jaWvi<, anu is, rac
gvesmis, roca vinme saubrobs. roca bgeraTa Tanmimdevroba >abreißen<
erT sityvad gvesmis, rogorc, magaliTad, winadadebaSi »Du willst das
Band abreißen« da zmnis infinitiuri formiT abreißen movaxdenT mis int-
erpretirebas, romelic ori nawilisagan ab da reißen Sedgeba. ase rom,
is CvenTvis qvecnobierad germanuli enis sxva zmnebTan asocirdeba:
erTi mxriv, mwkrivi >abreißen, abschneiden, abnehmen< Sesabamisad >abzwicken,
abtrennen, ablösen<-Tan, an aseve >abfahren, abschneiden, abseilen, abspülen, abwis-
chen<; meore mxriv, mwkrivi >reißen, zerreißen, entreißen, durchreißen< an >aufre-
ißen, hinreißen, mitreißen<. sosiuris mosazrebiT, swored aseTi mwkrivebis
meSveobiT xdeba naTeli, rom >abreißen<-is bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobis
SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs zmnur kompozitTan, romelic ab da reißen-isgan
Sedgeba. an sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: is, rac sintagmatur damokidebu-
lebas, rogorc aseTs, Secnobads da sxvebisgan gamorCeuls xdis, aris
is asociaciuri rigebi, romlebSic maTi Sesabamisi Semdgeneli
nawilebia.
imave gziT, romliTac maTi gramatikuli formis gaanalizeba SesaZle-
beli xdeba, adgili aqvs >abreißen<-is bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobis sruli-
ad specifikur mniSvnelobas. winadadebaSi »Du willst das Band abreißen«
saubaria ara imdenad >abschneiden< an Tundac >durchreißen<-is Sesaxeb,
aramed sworedac rom >abreißen<-is Sesaxeb _ da radgan asociaciebze
dafuZnebuli aseTi »diferenciaciebi« 126 , romlebSic >sasaubro jaWv-
Si< erTmaneTis miyolebiT ganlagebuli wevrebi SeiZleba aRvweroT _
magaliTad »Du«, da ara er, »willst« da ara mußt, »das Band« da ara das Bild,
»abreißen«, SeiZleba es asociaciuri damokidebuleba gavigoT ise, ro-
gorc is, rac >sasaubro jaWvs< mniSvnelobas aniWebs. sxvagvarad rom
vTqvaT: sityvis »Sinaarsi« »zustad imis urTierTqmedebiT ganisazR-
vreba, rac mis gareT moipoveba« 127 , asociaciuri damokidebulebis meS-
veobiT, romelic sasaubro jaWvs gareTaa da miT ufro >TiToeuli
sityvisTvis awmyoa<, Sesabamisad TiToeul warmoTqmul sityvaSia
»ganTavsebuli [>flottent autuor<]«. 128 amgvarad Tu davakvirdebiT, es aso-
ciaciuri damokidebuleba »erT mTlian farul sistemas qmnis, rom-
lis wyalobiTac SesaZlebelia simboloebis CamoyalibebisTvis saWi-
ro safuZvlebis miReba. aqedan gamomdinare, amas sxva SemTxvevaSi ara-
nairi mniSvneloba ar eqneboda«. 129

»ra igulisxmeba masTan erTad«

>enis meqanizmidan< gamomdinare, romelic Cven sintagmaturi an asoci-


aciuri damokidebulebebis »urTierTzemoqmedebad« 130 , an, ukeT rom
vTqvaT, »urTierTqmedebad« 131 SegviZlia warmovidginoT, sosiuris kon-

126
GRF, gv. 155; CLG/D, gv. 179; CLG/E (I), gv. 294, Nr. 2072.
127
GRF, gv. 138; CLG/D, gv. 159; CLG/E (I), gv. 260, Nr. 1875.
128
GRF, gv. 154; CLG/D, gv. 177; CLG/E (I), gv. 293, Nr. 2068.
129
GRF, gv. 155; CLG/D, gv. 179; CLG/E (I), gv. 294, Nr. 2076.
130
GRF, gv. 152; CLG/D, gv. 176; CLG/E (I), gv. 290, Nr. 2045.
131
GRF, gv. 154; CLG/D, gv. 179; CLG/E (I), gv. 294, Nr. 2069.

112
cefciis Tanaxmad, SesaZlebelia enisa da mosaubre subieqtis damoki-
debulebis zusti dadgena: >faruli sistema, romlis wyalobiTac sim-
boloebis CamoyalibebisTvis saWiro safuZvlebi moipoveba<, sxva ara-
feria, Tu ara >Sinagani saganZuri<, >sacavi<, romelic mosaubre subi-
eqts gaaCnia; imiT, rom >sasaubro jaWvi< am >farul sistemas< ukav-
Sirdeba; imiT, rom >sityvebisTvis saarsebo orive sistema< erTmaneT-
Tan kavSirSia, mosaubre subieqts SeuZlia bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobebis
interpretireba, romelic mas esmis ise, rogorc sityvebis erTeule-
bisgan Sedgenili sintagmaturi jaWvebi, romelTac garkveuli mniSvne-
loba eniWebaT.
>enis meqanizmis< es koncefcia, romelSic mosaubre subieqtis asoci-
aciebis >faruli sistema< gadamwyvet rols asrulebs, ar ewinaaRm-
degeba enis, rogorc socialuri faqtis gagebas, aramed Sedegobrivad
mivyavarT am Sexedulebisaken 132 : winamdebare TavebSi davinaxeT, rom
ena, rogorc simboloTa sistema, mxolod maSin arsebobs, Tu is cir-
kulirebs, Tu is erTi mosaubridan meores, erTi subieqtidan meores
gadaecema da, amavdroulad, icvleba. en(eb)is cvlilebis es uwyveti
procesi, misi SefardebiTi arastabiluroba, SegviZlia aRvweroT, ro-
gorc garemoebis Sedegi, rom asociaciebis >faruli sistema<, subieq-
tebis >Sinagani saganZuri<, romlebsac ama Tu im enaSi wvlili Se-
aqvT, arasodes ar aris srulyofilad identuri, aramed TavisTavad
icvleba.
konkretulad SeiZleba imis ganWvreta, Tu Cven germanuli magaliTis
nacvlad, romelic >enis meqanizmis< ilustraciisTvis gamogvadga, mis
safuZvelze kursis mixedviT vixelmZRvanelebT da mas magaliTebi-
TurT kvlav sxvadasxva leqciebis Canawerebs SevadarebT, romlis mi-
xedviTac kursis magaliTi iqneba:

de – faire

decoller faire
deplacer refaire
decoudre contrefaire
a.S. a.S. 133

is faqti, rom franguli warmoSobis zmna iTargmna ara rogorc arra-


cher an demolir da ara rogorc se dechirer an se rompre, rogorc es ger-
manuli zmnis abreißen magaliTze germanul TargmanSi SegveZlo migve-
Ro, Cven arcTu ise gvaocebs. aRniSvnis Rirsia ufro is gansxvavebebi,
romlebic kursSi warmodgenili magaliTis formis Sesaxeb a. ridlin-

132
r. l. vagneris zemoxsenebul eseSi »L’homme et le langage« moiZebneba dRes
dasafiqrebeli mosazrebebic: »struqturuli lingvistika amJamad apirebs, enobrivi
faqtebi [>faits linguistiques<] ara mxolod TeoriaSi, aramed enis aqtualur mdgomareobaSi
Zalian konkretuli damokidebulebebiT gansazRvros, romelic mas sistemaSi ukve
gaaCnia. Zalian saintereso aRwerebi Catarda, romlebmac axali lingvisturi kvlevis
meTodebi daamuSava. Cveni azriT, sosiuriseuli cneba langue, rogorc samuSao hipoTeza,
ufro efeqturad damkvidrdeba, Tu mas SezRuduli subieqtebis ricxvSi movaqcevT da
Tu SevecdebiT, rom ganvsazRvroT faqtorebi, romlebic mis cnobierebas Seadgenen« (cf.
Wagner 1948, gv. 159 f.). Sdr. aseve merlo-ponti 1960 a.
133
CLG/E (I), gv. 293, Nr. 2066; CLG/D, gv. 178.

113
geris, l. gotiesa da e. konstantinis zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb
sxvadasxva versiebis CanawerebSi gvxvdeba.
SemdgomSi gTavazobT imas, rac samive maTganma 1909 wlis 14 ianvars
aRniSnes, erTmaneTis miyolebiT:
ce qui est
pense a côte
(associatif)
parfaire
refaire decrier refaire refaire
parfaire l’axe de- -faire faire
faire associatif. syntagm.: deplacer faire de-faire
defaire deranger parfaire de-placer
de-ranger de-ranger
de-placer l’a x e a s s o c i a t i f de-mettre
etc. 134

A. Riedlinger L. Gautier E. Constantin

samive versiaSi asociaciebis >faruli sistema< defaire-is mixedviTaa


warmodgenili, ise, rom sityvebi in absentia, romlebic am sityvis >gar-
Semoa< >ganTavsebuli<, saerTod ar xvdeba sasaubro jaWvSi. Tumca
samive versiaSi gasagebia, rom >enis meqanizmi< unda warmovidginoT,
rogorc sintagmaturi da asociaciuri damokidebulebebis >urTierT-
qmedeba<. amasTanave, es sami Canaweri erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba ara
mxolod TavianTi grafikuli gamosaxulebiT, aramed enobrivi Tval-
sazrisiTac TvalSisacemi sxvaobaa maT Soris: arc de, arc -faire
afiqsebiT Sedgenili asociaciuri sityvaTa jgufebi ar aris erTma-
neTis identuri, Tu saqme maT raodenobas, ganlagebasa da arCevans
Seexeba.
balis da seSes kursis redaqciaSi mxolod ridlingeris da goties
versiebi hqondaT xelT. 135 gvsurs aRvniSnoT, rom maT TavianT ver-
siebSi scades ridlingerisa da goties magaliTis gansxvavebuli
formirebis sinTezuri gaerTianeba. amavdroulad TvalSisacemia, rom
es magaliTi, romelsac kursidan vecnobiT, sityvebis SerCeviT orive
originalisgan Zlier gansxvavdeba: de- mwkrividan kursSi mxolod
deplacer aris aRebuli. deranger, decrire, demettre-s nacvlad, gvxvdeba decoller
da decoudre. faire-s mwkrivSi ki gvxvdeba _ contrefaire »gayalbeba«, rogorc
leqciebis wina sam xelnawerSi, parfaire _ »srulyofa«.
romelia is enobriv-Teoriuli daskvna, romelic am Sedarebidan ga-
momdinareobs? rac am erTmaneTis miyolebiT dasaxelebul oTx ver-
siaSi eqsperimentuli gziT dasturdeba, aris, upirveles yovlisa is,
rom >asociaciuri saxis wevrebi arc garkveuli raodenobiT da arc
gansazRvruli wesrigiT ar ganlagdebian<: roca zmna defaire-s daqvem-
debarebuli asociaciuri wevrebis raodenoba da wesrigi erTi versi-
idan meoreze TvalSisacemad icvleba, an ufro zustad, SeuZlia Seic-
valos ise, rom ar Seicvalos sityvis gamomxatveloba, ise Cans, ro-
gorc es ridlingerTan da konstantinTan gvxvdeba – maTi SerCeva

134
CLG/E (I), gv. 293, Nr. 2064-66.
135
e. konstantinis leqciebis Canawerebi 1958 wels xelmeored iqna aRmoCenili. Sdr. r.
godeli: »Nouveaux documents saussuriens: les cahiers E. Constantin«, in: CFS 16, 1959, gv. 23-32.

114
SemTxveviT xdeba. 136 ramdenadac asociaciuri wevrebis raodenoba da
wesrigi SemTxveviT irCeva, roca isini erTi versiidan meoreze icvle-
ba, ase rom, piriqiT, TiToeuli calkeuli versia Tavisi kuTvnili
asociaciuri wevrebis raodenobiTa da wesrigiT gansxvavdeba, radgan
isini saerTodac mkveTrad gansxvavdebian sxvebisgan.
balisa da seSes versia TiTqos yvela sxva danarCeni versiisgan mniSv-
nelovnad gansxvavdeba _ aq parfaire-s nacvlad contrefaire dgas.
SevecadoT davakonkretoT: rogorc >faruli sistemis< TvalsaCino-
eba, romlis meSveobiTac simbolos formirebisTvis defaire saWiro sa-
fuZvlebs iRebs<, esenia: >defaire, faire, parfaire, refaire< (A. R.), >parfaire, faire,
defaire, refaire< (L. G.), >defaire, faire, refaire, parfaire< (E. C.) da bolos >defaire,
faire, refaire, parfaire, etc.< (C. B. da A. S.), romlebic SeiZleba sxva SedegebiT
Tavisuflad CavanacvloT. franguli enis sistema, yovel SemTxvevaSi,
aranair safuZvels ar gvaZlevs imisTvis, rom davaskvnaT, romeli
mwkrivi iqneboda umjobesi. aq saqme gvaqvs imasTan, rom >asociaciuri
saxis wevrebi arc garkveuli raodenobiT da arc gansazRvruli wes-
rigiT ar ganlagdebian<. Tumca ramdenadac erTi romelime enobrivi
sistemis asociaciuri wevrebis raodenoba da wesrigi enaSi winaswar
ar aris mocemuli, amitom >enis meqanizmis< funqcionirebisTvis saWi-
roa garkveuli asociaciuri kavSirebis mixedviT calkeuli mosaubre
subieqtebi.
amgvaradac SegviZlia vTqvaT: asociaciuri wevrebi, romlebic >sasaub-
ro jaWvSi< ama Tu im sityvis garSemo arian ganlagebuli, marTalia,
yovelTvis enobrivi sistemidan ar momdinareoben, Tumca maTi konkre-
tuli ganlageba pirdapir ar wyvets sistemasTan kavSirs _ daaxloe-
biT frangulis msgavsad _ aramed miuTiTebs yovelTvis gansakuTre-
bul subieqtze _ magaliTad A. R., L. G., E. C., C. B. da A. S. ratomaa
asociaciuri wevrebis swored aseTi ganlageba da ara sxva, rogorc
wesi, Zneli saTqmelia. radgan es ganlageba arc gacnobierebulia da
arc winaswar ganzraxuli, aramed ufro metad imiT ganisazRvreba, Tu
ra igulisxmeba masTan erTad _ >ce qui est pense a côte<. 137
ferdinand de sosiuris erT-erTi dokumenti gadmogvcems, Tu rogor
SeiZleba gamoiyurebodes es asociaciuri procesebi >farul sistema-
Si<. oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisSi igi da sxva mravali pirov-
neba JenevaSi Toedor flurnuasTan erTad empiriul kvlevas awarmo-
ebdnen, romelsac eduard klaparedec SuerTda da maT dasves kiTxva,
Tu ra feris asociacias iwvevda maTSi xmovnebi. 1893 wels saTauriT
Des phenomenes de synopsie gamoqveynebuli kvleva anonimurad pasuxobs so-

136
CLG/E (I), gv > 288, Nr. 2033, II R 92, II C 68.
137
r. iakobsonic wers poeziis enis Sesaxeb: »zepiri poeziis fonologia da gramatika
mowmobs kompleqsuri da gamokveTili Sesatyvisebis arsebobas, romlebic Cndebian, ze-
moqmedebas axdenen da Taobidan Taobas gadaecemian ise, rom yvelasTvis ucnobia wesebi,
romlebic am CaxlarTul struqturas warmarTavs. zemoqmedebis uSualo da spontanuri
wvdoma procesebis racionaluri damuSavebis gareSe, Tu isini winaa wamoweuli, arc Tu
ise iSviaTad gvxvdeba CaxlarTuli fonologiuri da gramatikuli struqturebi poete-
bis nawerebSi. qvecnobieris doneze Sedgenil aseT struqturebs SeuZliaT logikuri
daskvnisa da naTeli mosazrebis gareSe moaxdinon zemoqmedeba [...]« (R. Jakobson: »Unbewus-
ste sprachliche Gestaltung in der Dichtung«, in: ders., Poetik. Ausgewaehlte Aufsaetze 1921 – 1971, hg. von E.
Holenstein und T. Schelbert, Frankfurt am Main 1979, gv. 325).

115
siurs _ »am TemasTan dakavSirebiT instruqciuli pasuxi, romelsac
gamoCenil lingvists, baton X-s vumadli« 138 :
»Tqveni azriT, ra ferisaa xmovnebi?« 139
»vfiqrob, SeuZlebelia SekiTxvaze (xmovnebis ferebis Sesaxeb) pasuxis gacema
imgvarad, rogorc es kiTxvaSia mocemuli. da, kerZod, im garemoebis gamo, rac
me maocebs:
frangulSi xmovnebs sxvadasxvagvarad vwerT terrain, plein, matin, chien. Tu mxolod
am xmovans ain CavwerT, maSin me mas gacrecil yviTel ferad vxedav, rogori-
caa RumelSi cudad gamomwvar agurs; Tu davwerT ein, maSin igi venebze mo-
saWer mowiTalo-moiasamnisfro rezinis STabeWdilebas tovebs; Tu in-s dav-
werT, saerTod ar vici, Tu ra feris asociacias gamoiwvevs is Cems gonebaSi
da vixrebi im mosazrebisken, rom is arc erT ferTan ar asocirdeba: da
bolos, Tu davwerT en-s (Tu mis win i gvaqvs), maxsendeba jgufi, rogorc erTi
mTlianoba, kanafis zonris gorgali, romelsac gamoyenebuli zonris moTeT-
ro elferi jer ar miuRia.
aqedan gamomdinare is, rogorc aseTi, xmovani ar aris, es imas niSnavs, rom is
yurisTvis arsebobs, romelic Sesabamis vizualur STabeWdilebas iwvevs. sxva
TvalsazrisiT, is calkeuli aso-bgeris an aso-bgeraTa jgufis daTvaliereba
araa, romelic am STabeWdilebebs iwvevs. ufro metad is xmovania imgvarad,
rogorc mas grafikuli gamosaxuleba Seicavs, is aris warmosaxviTi ram,
romelic warmodgenis pirvel asociacias qmnis da romelic sxva asociaciis
meSveobiT meCveneba, TiTqos raRac garkveuli konsistencia mqondes, romelime
konkretuli feri, zogjer konkretuli forma da surnelic ki.
feri da sxva niSan-Tvisebebi miuTiTeben, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ara akus-
tikur faseulobebze, aramed orTografiulze, romlebisganac Zalauneburad
substanciebs vakeTeb. arsi gamoirCeva konkretuli aspeq-
xmovani x
tiT, tonalobiT, SegrZnebiT.
aso_bgera x

naklebad davkvirvebivar, ucxo enaSi Sesatyvisebis Tanmimdevroba igivea Tu


ara CemTvis, rogorc frangulSi. yovel SemTxvevaSi, meCveneba, rom is iq nak-
lebad intensiuri, naklebad ganviTarebuli da naklebad zustia.

138
Cf. Th. Flournoy: Des phenomenes de synopsie (audition coloree), Paris/Genf 1893, S. 50. is faqti, rom
zemoxsenebuli >mniSvnelovani lingvistis< SemTxvevaSi saqme faqtobrivad sosiurs exe-
ba, sxvaTa Soris, im SeniSvnidanac dasturdeba, romelic mirei Cifalim klaparedis li-
teraturul memkvidreobaSi aRmoaCina: »pirovnebebis, mecnierebis mier dasmul kiTxvaze
detaluri pasuxi, sufTa sindisiT, misi sizuste yovelgvar eWvgareSea (ferdinand de
sosiuris SemTxvevaSi). Cf. Flournoy, S. 51, detalebiT savsebiT mdidaria« (cf.. M. Cifali:
»Presentation«, in: Le bloc-ntes de la psychanalyse 3, 1983, S. 133 f.). _ rogorc flurnua da klapa-
redi TavianTi wignis winasityvaobaSi weren, maTi gamokvleva 2600-dan 694 anketas da re-
zultats efuZneba, romlebic manamde sxva avtorebis mier (magaliTad a. bine an e. blo-
ileri) iqna gamoqveynebuli. zemoT citirebul mis kvlevaSi »Le debat sur l’arbitraire du signe
au XIXe siecle« a. Sevreli gviCvenebs ara mxolod imas, rom xmovanTa ferebis Tema im pe-
riodis safrangeTSi (aq upirvelesad a. rembos 1871 wels gamoqveynebul sonetTan
Voyelles kavSirSi), iseve rogorc rainis meore mxares _ vilhelm fon SlegelTan, vil-
helm fon humboldtTan, iakob grimTan da bevr sxva avtorTan _ Zalian popularuli
iyo, aramed is cdilobs masTan dakavSirebuli spekulaciebi enobrivi niSnebis SemTxve-
viTobis Sesaxeb debatebTan enobriv-Teoriul kavSirSi ganixilos (Sdr. Sevreli 1979,
S. 17 ff.). J. Jenem mimoxilviT sqemaSi warmoadgina ocze meti sxvadasxva cnobili avtoris
xmovanTa da ferTa ganlagebebi (Jeneti 1976, gv. 404). yvelaze bolo statia am TemasTan
dakavSirebiT ki ekuTvnis _ klod levi-stross: »Des sons et des couleurs«, in: ders.: Regarder,
ecouter, lire, Paris 1993, gv. 125-148.
139
»Quelles couleurs trouvez-vouz aux voyelles?« sityvasityviT aseTi iyo flurnuas SekiTxva.

116
frangulad a xmovani a anu moTeTroa, yviTelSi gardamavali; ro-
gorc konsis- aso_bgera a tencia, is erTiani, magram naklebad mkvrivia
da biZgis Se- degad grialebs, magaliTad CarCoSi gaWimu-
li qaRaldi (drois meSveobiT gayviTlebuli), Txeli kari (laqwausmeli,
TeTrad datovebuli xis kari), saidanac igrZnoba, rom mcire biZgis Semdegac
ki, igi grialiT Camovardeba, ukve gatexili kvercxis naWuWi, romelsac xelis
moWeriT ufro vatkacunebT. ukeT rom vTqvaT: umi kvercxis naWuWi aris a (da
kerZod misi feridan da obieqtis koegzistenciidan gamomdinare), magram mo-
xarSuli kvercxis guli aRar iqneba a, radgan Cndeba SegrZneba, rom obieqti
kompaqturi da winaaRmdegobis unaris mqonea. moyviTalo fanjris mina aris a;
Cveulebrivi feris fanjris mina, lurji refleqsiiT, aris a-s sruliad sawi-
naaRmdego, Tavisi feris gamo, miuxedavad imisa, rom konsistencia zustad
emTxveva.
a, romelic ar daiwereba, rogorc a, magaliTad roi-Si, am ideebs ar iwvevs –
asevea es sityva fonetikuri TvalsazrisiT rwa. [...] 140
sosiuri mecnierul statiebSi ufro momWirne da sityvaZunwia. xolo
fragmentebis saxiT SemorCenili, uTvalavi dausrulebeli winadade-
bisgan Sedgenili eskizebi zogadi enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebis Sesa-
xeb im wignidan momdinareobs, romlis damTavrebac man ver moaxerxa.
sosiuri ferebis STabeWdilebebis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs ara mxolod
mWevrmetyvelurad da detalurad, aramed SesamCnevi xalisiTa da de-
likaturad. am STabeWdilebebs masSi >sityvaTa xmovnebi< iwvevs. es
aris Zalian piraduli Tu intimuri teqsti, romelic SeiZleboda mxo-
lod im SemTxvevaSi Seqmniliyo, Tu igi sosiuris samecniero prozas
daakmayofilebda. da es teqsti marTlac rom ar aris mecnieruli
TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelo.
wina TavSi davinaxeT, Tu rogor adgens sosiuri Tavis semiotikur mo-
sazrebebs, rom >enis sul bolo kanoni imaSi mdgomareobs, rom ar ar-
sebobs iseTi ram, rac terminSi xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi iar-
sebebda< da rom >arasodes iqneba iseTi enobrivi fragmenti, romelic
yvela sxva danarCenTan mis Tanuxvedrelobisa da misi xarisxis garda,
sxva rameze iqneba damyarebuli<. am Sexedulebis Camoyalibeba, rome-
lic kursSi Semdeg formulamde daiyvaneba: »enaSi [>langue<] mxolod
gansxvavebebi arsebobs« 141 , sosiuris Memoire sur le systeme primitive des voyel-
les dans las langues indo-europeennes-dan misi pirveli publikaciebis CaTv-
liT, gansakuTrebiT 1877 wels gamoCenil »Essai d’une distinction des diffe-
rents a indo europeens«-s mosdevs. dokumentSi, romelic Tvalwin gvaqvs, sa-
ubaria xmovnebis, gansakuTrebiT xmovan a-s Sesaxeb. 142 marTalia, aq am
xmovnis mniSvneloba ama Tu im enis sistemaSi sanskrits ki ar miewe-
reba, aramed aq saubaria ferebis STabeWdilebebze, romlebsac xmovne-
bi subieqtSi _ ferdinand de sosiurSi, romlis mSobliuri enac
frangulia – marTlweris mixedviT _ iwveven. sosiuris gansazRvreba,

140
Cf. Flournoy 1893, gv. 50-52.
141
Cf. GRF, gv. 143; CLG/D, gv. 166; CLG/E (I), gv. 270, Nr. 1939.
142
sosiuris memuarebi Semdegnairad iwyeba: »im mravalricxovani formebis kvleva, ro-
melTa Soris ikveTeba is, rasac indoevropul a-s vuwodebT, am samuSaos uSualo obi-
eqtia [...]« (cf. REC, gv. 3). rogor i. vakernageli 1992 wels igonebda, memuarebis gamoCenis
Semdeg, erTma »Zalze ganaTlebulma Jenevelma qalbatonma« mis winaSe gaoceba ver da-
fara, Tu »rogor SeeZlo aseT ganswavlul da ganaTlebul kacs mTeli wigni daewera
aso-bgera a-s Sesaxeb« (cf. Gmü. 1986, gv. 81).

117
rom >calkeuli enobrivi fragmenti arasodes efuZneba sxva rames, Tu
ara Tanxvedris uqonlobas sxva danarCenTan<, >enis sul bolo kano-
ni<, misi STabeWdilebebis aRweris Tanaxmad, maTi gansxvavebuli marT-
lweris gaTvaliswinebiT, xmovnebs ukavSirdeba da ara piriqiT; es gan-
sazRvra gadamwyvet moments avsebs, ramdenadac sistematuri sxvaobebi
da faseulobebi gansazRvraven wesrigs, romlis meSveobiTac SesaZle-
beli xdeba meore, anu subieqturi diferenciaciebiT dadgenili wes-
rigis danaxva, romelSic erTi da igive bgera, marTlweris Sesabami-
sad, asociaciurad sruliad gansxvavebul STabeWdilebebsa da Sefa-
sebebs iwvevs.
amiT gamoirCeva sosiuris SekiTxvaze SesaZlo pasuxi, Tu rogor aixs-
neba Cveni >gonebis unari, damokidebuli iyos terminebze, romlebic
realurad arafers warmoadgenen< 143 : romelime enis sistemas miekuTv-
neba enobrivi bgerebi, ramdenadac isini am sxvadasxvaobis matareble-
bi arian. igive bgerebi mosaubre subieqtebisTvis da aseve maTi Sefase-
bebi asociaciuri xasiaTisaa. Tu >enis meqanizmi< mosaubre subieqtis
asociaciuri damokidebulebebis >faruli sistemis< gareSe warmoud-
genelia, es sxva arafers niSnavs, Tu ara imas, rom individualuri Se-
fasebebis mixedviT, roca maTi calke gamoyofa sruliad araa saWiro,
sasaubro enis sistemaSi ewerebian da mas amiT specifikur konsisten-
cias, Sesabamisad, subieqtidan subieqtamde gansxvavebul »Seferilo-
bas« aniWeben. en(eb)is, rogorc socialuri faqtis, aRwerisaTvis yu-
radReba eqceva ara maT individualur Seferilobas, aramed maTi ele-
mentebis sistematuri sxvaobebis wesrigs. Tu saqme individualur Se-
ferilobas exeba, romlis wyalobiTac >Cveni goneba terminebze damo-
kidebuli xdeba (romlebic realurad arafers warmoadgenen<), subieq-
turi sxvadasxvaobebis diferenciacia gvevlineba ucilobel winapiro-
bad imisa, roca isini mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iarsebeben, roca erTi
subieqtidan meores gadaecemian da cirkulireben.

enebi da metyveleba

rodesac vkiTxulobT 1893 wels anonimurad gamocemul striqonebs


xmovnebis ferebTan dakavSirebiT imavdroulad warmoSobad semiolo-
giur azrebTan konteqstSi, aSkara xdeba, rogor aanalizebda sosiuri
kompleqsur cvalebad zemoqmedebas, romelSic sistematuri da subieq-
turi enobrivi gansxvavebebi erTmaneTis safuZvelia da erTmaneTs gan-
sazRvravs. magram aseTi literatura im fenomens gvaSorebs, romelic
balim da seSem warmogvidgines rogorc sosiuriseuli enaTmecniere-
ba. 144 rodesac Cours-Si amaod veZebT iseT azrebs, romlebic aq aseTi
saxiT ganviTardnen, amas araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs imasTan, rom mis
gamomcemlebs raRac daufaravT an, ubralod, gamoutovebiaT, rac maT
damuSavebuli formiT maTTvis cnobil manuskriptSi upoviaT. azrTa
msvleloba, romlis monaxazis gakeTebasac aq Cven SevecadeT, albaT,

143
ix. zemoT, gv. 158 ff.
144
mowinave azrebi amasTan dakavSirebiT moipoveba ferTan: »ramdebad bunebrivia buneb-
rivi enebi?«, in: Lichtensteiner Excurse II, »ra iqneboda buneba?« gamocemuli n. haasis mier da
a.S., edingeni 1995, gv. 139-176.

118
ufro isaa, rac sosiurs xels uSlida, rom sakuTari naazrevi enaT-
mecnierul Teoriad Camoeyalibebina. sosiuri ar misula Camoyalibe-
bul Sedegebamde. Cven davinaxeT, rogor uxvevda igi lingvistikis
mTavari nakadidan da sruliad axali mimarTulebiT eZebda mtkicebu-
lebebs. es yvelaferi vlindeba mis SromebSi, romlebic misi enaTmec-
nieruli saswavlo da kvleviTi saqmianobis garemoSi aRmocenda.
mxolod ramdenime wlis Semdeg wamoswia win flurnuam sakiTxi sinop-
tikuri impresionizmis Sesaxeb, riTac miuaxlovda sosiuris azrs.
sakiTxi sinoptikuri impresionizmis Sesaxeb Jeneveli fsiqologis uk-
ve sxva, farTod cnobil Sromas ukavSirdeba. Cven vgulisxmobT medi-
umis _ elise-katerine miuleris, igive helen smiTis kvlevas. – flur-
nua TviTon, rogorc igi Tavisi 1900 wels gamocemuli wignis Des Indes
á la planetè Mars. Etude sur un cas de somnambulisme avec glossolalie SesavalSi
yveba, »1894 wlis dekemberSi Jenevis gimnaziis profesorma – batonma
ogiust lemetrim igi miipatiJa Tavis binaSi, raTa daswreboda erTi
arc materialuri da arc anazRaurebiT dainteresebuli mediumis
ramdenime sxdomas, romlis gansakuTrebuli, aSkarad zebunebrivi niWi
CemTvis ukve mravalgzis iyo cnobili«. 145 am pirvel sxdomaze flur-
nua ganacvifra helen smiTma, romelic »mokrZalebulad cxovrobda,
avtoritetiT sargeblobda da saarsebo saSualebas kanonierad gamo-
imuSavebda«. 146 aseve, Semosavali hqonda iseTi »movlenaTa« Setyobine-
biT, »romlebic«, rogorc flurnua wers, »Cems ojaxSi Cemi dabadebis
win momxdara da romelTa Sesaxebad axlandel Taobas namdvilad ara-
feri SeiZleboda scodnoda«. 147 mediumis am SetyobinebebiT STagone-
bulma flurnuam momdevno aT weliwadSi uamravi samecniero publika-
cia dawera, 148 sadac fsiqikur procesebs ikvlevda im dros eqsperimen-
tuli fsiqologiis gamocdilebaSi arsebuli saSualebiT, 149 Tan sxva-

145
T. flurnua: Jeneveli winaswarmetyveli. religiis, gauTviTcnobiereblobis da enis
fsiqologiis eqsperimentuli gamokvlevebi, gamomc. g. forbrodti, d. desuaris winasit-
yvaobiT, laifcigi 1914 [SemdgomSi citirebuli: SVG], gv. I. Des Indes-is germanul Targ-
manSi pasaJebi amonaridebis saxiTaa gadmoRebuli »Nouvelles observations sur un cas de somnam-
bulisme avec glossolalie«-dan, romlebic flurnuam 1902 wels Tavisi axladdaarsebuli gaze-
Tis Aechives de Psychologie pirvel nomerSi, gv. 101-255, gamoaqveyna (Sead. SVG, gv. XII-XV,
gamomcemlis Sesavali). am momdevno gamokvlevaSi flurnua yveba sxvadasxva saxis reaq-
ciebze, romlebic misma wignma publikaSi, samecniero da spiritistul wreebSi da gan-
sakuTrebiT helen smitis mxridan gamoiwvia.
146
Ibid.
147
Ibid.
148
orive ukve xsenebul SromasTan erTad, aris Semdegi Sromebic: »Quelques faits d’imagination
subliminale les médiums«, in: La Suisse universitaire, 1898, gv. 419-20; »Genése de qualques prétendus messages
spirites«, in Revue psilosophique XLVII, 1899, gv. 144ff. [imave wels, rodesac Teqvsmetwliani speci-
aluri gamocema x. egimanTanac gamoica JenevaSi]; »Observations psychologiques sur le spiritisme«, in
Quatrième Congrès international de psychologie, parizi 1900, gv. 102-112; Esprites et Médiums. Mélanges de
métapsychique et de psychologie, parizi/Jeneva 1911, 570 gv., aseve uamravi patara statia da
recenzia.
149
flurnua 1878/79 sauniversiteto wlebSi, roca iq sosuri Tavis memuarebs aqveynebda,
laifcigSi filosofias swavlobda. am wels gamoaqveyna v. vundtma Tavisi fsiqologi-
uri naSromi. rodesac flurnua 1891 wels Jenevis universitetSi miiwvies, moiTxova,
rom misi kaTedra, romelic pirveli aseTi saxis kaTedra iyo evropaSi, Faculté des Sciences
-s mikuTvneboda da saswrafod Tavisi sakuTari »laboratoire de Psychologie«-s
mowyoba daiwyo. oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi gamoaqveyna statiebis mTeli
rigi eqsperimentul fsiqologiasTan dakavSirebiT. Sead. amis gamo, e. klaparede:
»Théodore Flournoy. Sa vie, son œuvre (1854-1920)« , in: Achives de psychologie XVIII, 1923, gv. 1-125, iseve
rogorc T. flurnua: Notice sur laboratoire de Psychologie. Publiée á l’occasion de l’Exposition nationale

119
dasxva dargis eqspertebsac mimarTavda daxmarebisTvis. aq helen smi-
Tis seansebma mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSes da mis nawerebSi am medi-
umis ›aSkarad zebunebrivi‹ unarebi ikveTeboda. 150
helen smiTis TvalSisacem ›zebunebriv‹ niWs miekuTvneboda isic, rom
mas transis mdgomareobaSi, rogorc Cans, SeeZlo sxvadasxva enaze
esaubra da daewera, romelTa codnac Jeneveli rigiTi mcxovrebisgan
mosalodneli ar iyo: ase hqonda mas komunikacia ara mxolod sruli-
ad ucnob idiomze planeta marsis mcxovreblebTan 151 , aramed, rogorc

suisse á Genéve en 1896, Jeneva 1896. Sead. amasTan dakavSirebiT i. feri: »›Le mécanisme de la
langue‹ entre linguistique et psychologie: Saussure et Flournoy«, in: 120 (1995), gv. 91-105.
150
Des Indes á la planète Mars-is gamoqveynebiT wignis avtori da gmiri erTi xelis mosmiT
gaxdnen msoflioSi saxelganTqmulebi. ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi nawarmoebi mesamed
gamosces frangul enaze da jer kidev imave wels, roca franguli originali gamovida,
inglisurenovani (niu iorksa da londonSi), 1905 wlis Semdeg italiuri da 1914 wels,
sabolood, germanuli Targmani, romlidanac Cven aq citata mogvaqvs. is, rom es wigni
am saocar warmatebas ufro Tavis romanisebur xasiaTs umadloda, vidre mecnieruls,
flunuasTvis cnobili iyo. winasityvaobis Semdgom winadadebebSi ikiTxeba: »am nawarmo-
ebis ormagi saTauri gansazRvravs mis Sereul da arasakmaris xasiaTs. Tavdapirvelad
es unda yofiliyo ›somnambulizmis erTi SemTxvevis kvleva‹, anu mokle monografia,
romelic mxolod sizustes mieltvoda da zogierTi iseTi movleniT Semoifargleboda,
romlebic fsiqologebs da fiziologebs daainteresebda. magram garemoebebma sxvag-
varad gadawyvites. JenevaSi warmoSobilma polemikam, aSkara SeuZleblobam, rom erTi
SemTxvevis codna, romeliskenac farTo publikis cnobismoyvareoba ukve iyo mijaWvuli,
specialistebamde daviwroebuliyo da kidev sxva azrebma, momca imis safuZveli, rom
Cemi wminda samecniero gegmidan gadamexvia da kvelevis dros popularizaciaze gameke-
Tebina orientacia. me, sul mcire, Cemi gza meTodis simkacreze uaris TqmiT unda Se-
menarCunebina! Cemi TavisTvis Zala unda dametanebina, rom yvelaferi amomeRo, rac am
dros cnobier interesze, moralur refleqsiebze, istoriul Sedarebaze, leteratu-
rul wyaroebze arsebobda! magram es ar msurda. urTierTdapirispirebuli mimarTulebe-
bis gadauwyveteli mona davrCi, romelTa Sorisac arCevani unda gamekeTebina. erTbaSad
or kurdRels mivdevdi da aRar vici, aqedan ra gamova.
es aris am wignis genezisi, romlis diapazonic misi Sinaarsis mniSvnelobaze metia. esaa
teqnikuri terminebiT da barbarizmuli gansazRvrebebiT Zalian gadatvirTuli, raTa
farTo publikisaTvis raRac meTqva, Zalian Sevsebuli elementaruli da banaluri
ganmartebebiT, raTa specialistebis yuradReba damemsaxurebina; mas arc forma aqvs, rac
pirvelebisTvis aucilebelia da arc Sinaarsi, romlis moTxovnis uflebac am ukanas-
knelT aqvT. miuxedavad amisa, aseve gamovaqveyneb me mas – rogorc aramisabaZ magaliTs,
raTa amaze aRar vifiqro. sabolood aravinaa valdebuli, rom is iyidos da waikiTxos«
(SVG, gv. XVI-XVII). is, rom Semqmnelis TviTironiuli gafrTxilebebis cota eSinodaT,
SeimCneva agreTve im literaturuli kvlevebidanac, romelsac Des Indes tovebda. »Hélène,
c’est moi«, ambobs nadia andre bretonis amave saxelwodebis wignSi, da siurealisturi
Jeu de Marseille-is rukazec gvxvdeba flurnuas gmiri (gamoxatuli o. flurnuaSi: Théodore
et Léopold. De Théodore Flournoy à la psychanalyse, noienburgi 1986, gv. 160 f.). siurealistebis
gverdiT, Jeneveli fsiqologis wignma, rogorc Cans, azri STabera, agreTve, Sveicariis
germanul da frangulenovan literaturaSi or sruliad sxvadasxva avtors.
gi de purtales gmiri avtobiografiuli Seferilobis mqone romanidan ismens (1915
wels, flandriaSi, TavdasxmaSi moxvedrisas, daSavebuli, Slamian miwaze mwoliare,
sikvdilis pirispir mdgomi) sando xmiT naTqvam sityvebs: »›Be a man my Boy.‹ La voix d’Ellen
Smith, sa vieille bonne de Tannery, lui revenait avec ces mots anglais. ›Be a man.‹« ara am »SesaniSnav
saxelze« (cf. J. Lacan, L’acte psychanalytique, 1967 wlis 22 noembers gamouqveynebeli seminari),
magram albaT spiritistuli movlenebis da intrigebis ukuRmarTobasTan mebrZol Jene-
vel fsiqologiis profesors vxvdebiT fridrix glauzeris pirvel kriminalur roman-
Si «sami moxuci qalbatonis Cai». is azri, rom lui dominiks da flurnuas Soris arc
Tu ise didia gansxvaveba, iqidan gamomdinareobs, rom erTi protagonisti imavdroulad
kriminalur romanTan warmoqmnil moTxrobaSi “demonebi bodenis tbasTan”, swored im
wigns kiTxulobs, romelic andre bretons aRafrTovanebda.
151
rogorc flurnua samarTlianad aRniSnvs, im droisTvis k. flamarionis 1892 wels
gamocemuli popularuli samecniero nawarmoebis Mars et ses conditions d’habitabilité saSuale-
biT ara mxolod spiritistuli wreebi gadavidnen am TanavarskvlavedSi. ena, romelzec

120
Cans, reinkarnaciac ganicada, roca masSi Casaxlda indoeli princ
sivruka-naiakas meTerTmete coli – arabi princesa simandidi. am dros
heleni sanskritze Tu mis msgavs enaze metyvelebda da devanagaris
msgavsi anbaniT werda. 152
flurnuas varaudi, rom helen smiTis ›induri ena‹ sanskritis Jenevel
profesors daainteresebda, gamarTlda: sosiurma araerTxel gadauxa-
da madloba flurnuas amasTan dakavSirebiT miweril werilSi sainte-
reso masalisaTvis da siamovnebiT SesTavaza mas Tavisi samsaxuri.
sosiuris anTebuli interesi imiT aris kidev ufro gansacvifrebeli,
rom mas flurnuas SekiTxvaze ucbad SeeZlo gaeca pasuxi: mediumis
ena aris ara sanskriti, aramed »sanskritoiduli«. 153 sityvebiT savse
Kauderwelsch, »charabia«. am daskvnis miuxedavad, sosiurma Semdgomi masa-
lac moiTxova da am SemTxvevaze flurnuasTan sasawrafo saubari
moisurva.
amiT STagonebuli soisuris detaluri filologiuri komentarebi
uxvadaa Des Indes à la planate Mars-Si. magram agreTve SevityveT, rom
sosiuri TviTon, Tumca ki iSviaTad, 154 flurnuasTan Catarebul
spiritistul seansebSi monawileobas iRebda. 1897 wlis 26 ivnisis
seansis oqmSi Cven vxedavT mas, rom »sruliad axlos dgas helenTan,
romelic mReroda da iatakze ijda. 155 Semdeg filologiuri sizustiT
adgenda, ra enaze metyvelebda heleni 156 da cdilobda Caewera, Tu ras
akeTebda mediumi Cumi xmiT artikulaciisas: »gâya gaya naïa ia miya gayâ
briti . . . gaya vayayâni pritiya kriya gayâni i gâya mamata gaya mama nara mama patii si
gaya gandaryô gâya ityami vasanta [. . .]« 157 da. a.S.
aq uSualod mocemuli striqonebidan miviRebT daskvnas, Tu rogori
Semdgomi procesi mohyva am sxdomas da, amasTan, naTeli STabeWdileba
gveqmneba flurnuas muSaobis Sesaxeb:

heleni marsis mcxovreblebs esaubreboda, dokumentirebulia ormocze meti mokle da


grZeli teqstebis korpusis saSualebiT. Des Indes-s gamocemidan erTi wlis Semdeg pa-
rizSi gamovida v. henris Le langage martien. Etude analytique de la genèse d’’langue dans un cas de
glossalalie somnambulique, romelSic sorbonelma profesorma helenis sityvaTa marags lin-
gvisturi analizi dauTmo (axali gamocema SesavliT, aseve bio-bibliografiuli mona-
cemebiT v. henri: Antinomies linguistiques/Le langage martien, parizi, 1991).
im droisTvis, rodesac flurnua da sosiuri laifcigSi swavlobdnen, iq da sxva ger-
manul universitetebSi samecniero sferoebSi iseT spiritistul RonisZiebebs awyobd-
nen, rom vundti iZulebuli xdeboda gamoxmaureboda am movlenebs. Sead. »spiritizmi.
Ria wigni batoni profesor ulrixis mimarT haleSi« [1879], in: v. vundti, eseebi, laif-
cigi 1885, gv. 342/366, aseve s. hali: Tanamedrove fsiqologiis damaarseblebi (loce, feh-
neri, helmholci, vundti), laifcigi, 1912, gv. 140 ff.
152
Sead. gv. 330/411, induri cikli. SemdgomSi farTodgavrcelebul gamokvlevebSi, rom-
lebSic man saxelovani orientalistebis da istorikosebis azri gaiziara,flurnua
eZebda am »romanis« wyaros da sjeroda, rom sabolood ipova eqvstomiani, 19828 gamoce-
muli Histoire générale de l’Inde ancienne et moderne, depuis l’an 2000 avant J.-C. jusqu’à nos jours von de
Marlès formiT.
153
SVG, gv. 385.
154
kerZod, zustad oTxjer, rogorc flurnua adgens, gv. 393.
155
Cf. SVG, gv. 382.
156
Ibid.
157
Ibid.

121
am sxdomis dasruleba gadawyvita leopoldma, 158 albaT, sakmaod iSviaTi
stumris _ de sosiuris pativsacemad... heleni Tavisi sanskritis sityvebiT Se-
reuli induri simReris interpretacias mieca, romelic sityvasityviT Semdeg-
nairad JRers: »imRere, Cito, gvamRereT Cven” gaia... gvamRereT gazafxulze; me
dRe da Ram bednieri var! gvamRereT Cven! [...]
Tu am Targmans indur teqstTan SeadarebT, maSin maT Soris aRmoaCenT gark-
veul Sexebis wertilebs: garda zusti sityvis gaya = »imRere« da vasanta = »ga-
zafxuli«, ipovi azrs »gvamRereT Cven« in = priti und briti (sanskriti priti,
siyvarulis saqmianoba). [...]
es magaliTebi sakmarisia imisTvis, raTa helens indurze warmodgena Segveq-
mnas. rogorc Cans, saqme aq exeba ara romeliRac axla arsebul dialeqts.
lardons miaCnia, rom es arc hindia da arc urdu, igi masSi xedavs namdvil
narevs, albaT, sanskritis terminebis da gamogonili sityvebisas, mas Semdeg,
rac dasawyisSi martivi hipoTezis formiT idea gamoxata, rom es SeiZleboda
Tamili da nahratta yofiliyo. migeli gansjis, rom simandinis ucnaur Kauder-
velsch-Si situacias sakmaod kargad morgebuli sanskritis nawilebia
mocemuli. yvela Cemi korespondenti am azrs sruliad iziarebs; me am azris
gadmocema ukeTesad ar SemiZlia da amitomac de sosiurs vaZlev sityvas:
kiTxvaze: aris Tu ara es yvelaferi ›sanskriti‹, rogorc Cans, uariT unda
vupasuxoT; SeiZleba mxolod iTqvas: 1. es aris marcvlebis gaurkvevloba.
masSi, udavod, aris 8-10 marcvali erTmaneTis Semdeg, romlebic winadadebas
logikurad wyveten (gansakuTrebiT brZanebiTi/Zaxilis winadadebebi, mag. Mama
prya = Cemo mravalmxriv sayvarelo, mama soukha = Cemo aRfrTovanebav!) – 2.
danarCen, garegnobis mixedviT gaugebar marcvlebs arasodes aqvT antisanskri-
tuli xasiaTi, anu isini arasodes gviCveneben jgufebs, romlebic zogadi sa-
xiT materialurad sanskritis sityvebs upirispirdebian. – 3. sabolood, am
ukanasknel dakvirvebas aufasurebs is movlena, rom smiTi xmovan a-s naklebad
aniWebs upiratesobas. sanskriti ki aris ena, romelic a-s oTxjer ufro xSi-
rad iyenebs, vidre sxva xmovnebs. ase rom, rodesac 3-4 marcvali a-Ti gamoiTq-
mis, ar vifiqroT, rom sanskritTan gvaqvs saqme.” 159
Tumca, Tavisi aRweris dros, flurnua eyrdnoba induri enis sxva spe-
cialistebs _ aq galrdons da migels, sxvagan barts da oltramares,
magram ukanaskneli sityva mainc sosiurs ekuTvnis. da Tu sxva
SemTxvevebSi misi werilebi mosabodiSebeli sityvebiT aris savse, aq,
rogorc Cans, sosiurs Tavisi »epistolofobia« 160 , »Tavisi avadmyofu-
ri SiSi bumbuliani kalmis winaSe« 161 daZleuli aqvs. flurnua misgan
werilebs Zalian xSirad iRebs – da maSinac ki, rodesac Des Indes
gamocema gadawyvetili iyo:
winamdebare gverdebi ukve ibeWdeboda, rodesac sosiurs erTi azri mouvida.
man me, araindolog mkiTxvels, ufleba momca, rom helenis saubari laTinuri
asoebiT Camewera. 162
saidan modis sosiuris es aSkara aRfrTovaneba, roca is flurnuas
sul axal-axal »ideebs« uziarebs, aramed TviTonac helenis hindis
mixedviT adgens laTinur teqsts? ratom aaRelva is am mediumis enam
ufro metad, vidre sxva eqspertebi? arsebobda aq raime SemTxveva, ra-

158 suli Tavis Tavs leopolds uwodebs, romelic spiritistuli msoflmxedvelobis mi-
xedviT, helenis saSualebiT saubrobs.
159
Cf. SVG, gv. 382-384.
160
Cf. SVG, gv. 93.
161
Cf.LAM, gv. 8.
162
Cf. SVG, gv. 396; Sead. teqstebs, gv. 49.

122
mac sosiuris enobriv-Teoriuli interesi win wamoswia? an iqneb mize-
zi misi »moTmineba da uzomo Tavazianoba« 163 iyo (risTvisac flurnua
Tavis winasityvaobaSi xazgasmiT ixdis madlobas) swored imitom, rom
hindisadmi helenis interesi mas mtanjveli enobriv-Teoriuli prob-
lemebidan gadarTavda?

cnobierebis talRis qveS

g. lepSi, romelic ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, 1974 wels gamoce-


mul Tavis TxzulebaSi «Saussure e gli spiriti» 164 Tavdapirvelad Jeneveli
lingvistebis wvlilze flurnuas erT dros msoflioSi cnobil, ma-
le ki daviwyebas micemul wignze amaxvilebda yuradRebas, am kiTxvaze
pasuxs ar gvaZlevs. Tavisi Txzulebis mravlismomcveli saTauris
miuxedavad, igi masSi, upirveles yovlisa, flurnuas samecniero-isto-
riul mniSvnelobaze saubrobs, xolo rac Seexeba sosiurs, igi, Ziri-
Tadad, misi filologiuri komentarebis gadmocemiT Semoifargleba.
c. todorovi, romelic 1977 wels gamocemul wignSi „Theories du symbole“
am SemTxvevas kuriozad miiCnevs da kmayofildeba fraziT: «hindis ana-
lizs [‹langue›] sosiuri im zomiT acocxlebs, rom misi mxolod war-
modgenac ki Zneli SesaZlebelia“. 165
rogorc todorovi varaudobs, sosiurisTvis helenis «Hindi»-s ganxil-
visas mniSvnelovani rom iyos mxolod is sakiTxi, aq saqme sanskrits
exeba Tu ara, misi moWarbebuli interesi, misi «moTmineba da uzomo
Tavazianoba» marTlac Zalian gasaocari iqneboda. magram Des Indes mi-
marT misi wvlilis yuradRebiT gadakiTxva gviCvenebs, rom sosiuri,
mas Semdeg, rac igi Seecada Tavdapirvelad flurnuasgan misi misa-
marTiT dasmul SekiTxvaze filologiuri meTodiT gaeca pasuxi, ma-
le ukve sxva problemebiT dainteresda. yvelaze naTlad sosiuris
dainteresebis sferos es cvlileba im komentarebze dayrdnobiT
gamoCnda, romelic helenis mier Tavis «Hindi»-enaze naTqvam winadade-
bas exeboda.
iseve rogorc yvela sxva eqsperti, romlebic amasTan dakavSirebiT
bWobdnen, sosiuri Tavis ukve naxseneb, 1896 wlis 1 ivnisiT daTariRe-
bul werilSi flurnuas misamarTiT mxolod imiT Semoifargla, rom
helens «Hindi»-sa da sanskrits Soris msgavsebebi moZebna. 166 TiTqmis
erTi wlis Semdeg, 1897 wlis 19 ivniss, sosiuri kidev erTxel daub-
runda sadavo winadadebas – atiêyo Ganapatinâmâ _ da Tavis vrcel komen-
tarSi sruliad sxvagvarad gamoxatuli interpretacia warmoadgina.
gvsurs safuZvlianad ganvixiloT es samecniero istoriuli mniSvne-
lobis mqone dokumenti:

163
SVG, gv. XIX.
164
In: Studi saussuriani per Robert Godel, gamocem. r. amakeri, t. de mauro da l. j. prieto,
bolonia, 1974, gv 181-200.
165
todorovi 1977, gv. 324. sepSis statias todorovi, sxvaTa Soris, erTi sityviTac ar
axsenebs.
166
Sdr. o. flurnua 1986, gv. 183 f. (=B.042)

123
P.S. safuZvlianad Tu usafuZvlod, me vixrebi im mimarTulebisaken, rom Sivruka
-winadadebebSi marsis enis analogi davinaxo, romelsac mxolod drodadro
ereva sanskritis elementebi.
davuSvaT, rom Cemi azris, an ufro metad, Cemi STabeWdilebis martiv ilust-
raciad, simandins eTqva aseTi winadadeba: Je vous bénis au nom de Ganapati @»me glo-
cavT Tqven ganapatis saxeliT«.
sivrukas mdgomareobaSi erTaderTi, rac mas azradac ar mosdis, aris is,
rom man frangulad gamoTqvas es, magram miuxedavad amisa, franguli sityvebi
rCeba im yvelafris Temad Tu substratad, risi Tqmac mas unda. kanoni, ro-
melsac misi suli emorCileba, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom TiToeuli am kargad
nacnobi sityvidan Tavisi warmomadgenlobiTi, egzotikuri feriT gadmoices.
rogor _ es ukve meorexarisxovania; upirveles yovlisa da mxolod is aris
saWiro, rom is mis TvalSi frangulad ar gamoiyureba da misTvis sakmarisia,
roca is – magaliTad, Madame-is nacvlad, Maguish-s, xolo Mademoiselle-is
nacvlad, Manogadish-s gamoTqvams – mis sulSi TiToeuli franguli sityviT
markirebul adgils SemTxveviT axali bgeriTi formebiT avsebs.
erTaderTi, rac amas emateba (Cems qvecnobier »axsnasTan«) aris is, rom subs-
titucia xan sruliad mizanmimarTulad, xan ucxo sityvis gaxsenebiT (iqneba
es germanuli, inglisuri, ungruli Tu sanskriti), im idiomis bunebrivi upi-
ratesobis miniWebiT, romelic moqmedebis adgils yvelaze metad Seesabameba,
amis gaTvaliswinebiT, vcdilob es hipoTezuri gza zemoT moyvanili winadade-
bis magaliTze »Je vous bénis au nom de Ganapati« zustad gadavitano.
1. »Je« forma unda Seicvalos. gvawvdis mexsiereba raime egzotikur sityvas
»Je«-sTan dakavSirebiT? ara; maSin kaci aq SemTxveviT mis nacvlad aiRebs a-s.
(SeiZleba es a marTlac inglisuri i-dan aris nawarmoebi, romelic aϊ-d gamo-
iTqmis, rac ukve saWiro aRar aris).
2. »Vous bénis« an »bénis vous«. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu magaliTad »Je«-s Sesabamisi
sityva inglisuriT aris STagonebuli, Sedegad SeiZleba miviRoT is, rom ing-
lisuri winadadebis wyoba pirdapir masze damatebul sityvebSi uneblied
aris SemCneuli,
Sedegad aRiniSneba:
»bénis vous«
mit tiê yo
yo SeiZleba inglisuri you-dan iyos nasesxebi. tiê, »bénis« arsaidan ar aris gad-
moRebuli, iseve, rogorc marsis enaSi.
3. »Au nom de Ganapati«. gvari Ganapati TviTon dgas, ra Tqma unda, am mTliani
meqanizmis gareT da saidanRac unda iyos gadmoRebuli. rCeba »au nom de«, rac
gadmoicema nàmà-Ti, iqneba es germanuli Name-s gaxsenebiT, Tu aseve sadRac
aRqmuli sanskritis sityva nàmà-s gacocxlebiT; franguli winadadebis wyo-
bis sapirispiro konstruqcia sabolood masTan germanuli Name-s frTebiT
mifrindeboda, anu sakiTxis cvlilebis Tanaxmad, RmerTis saxeliT, ganapatis
saxeliT in Gottes Namen, in Ganapatis Namen.
aseTia daaxloebiT im procesis saxe, romelic warmomidgenia. franguli wina-
dadebis bgeriTi forma am SemTxvevaSi CemTvis umniSvneloa.
mokled rom vTqvaT, Kauderwelsch-i, romelic Tavis elementebs sadac SeuZlia
sesxulobs da danarCenebs igonebs erTaderTi wesis Tanaxmad – franguli
kvali, romelsac is mihyveba, ar gamoaCinos. es ki, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,
aris Cemi Sexeduleba, romelic me TqvenTvis ubralod mindoda gadmomeca, mi-
uxedavad imisa, mniSvnelovania igi Tu ara. 167
TviTon am striqonebis sufTa toniT gaocebuli da im naxtomebiT aR-
tacebuli, romelic man frangulidan inglisuri da germanuli enis

167
Cven am postskriptums gadmovcemT o. flurnuas wignSi gv. 193 f. dabeWdili origina-
lis Tanaxmad, 1914 wels gamocemuli germanuli Targmanis gamoyenebiT (SVG, gv. 385 f).

124
elementebis saSualebiT helenis »Sivruka / winadadebebSi«@ ganaxorci-
ela, sosiuri, rogorc Cans, yoymanobda Tavdapirvelad maT Setyobine-
basTan dakavSirebiT, Semdeg ki veRar SeZlo SewinaaRmdegeboda im
survils, rom flurnuasTvis Tavisi axali ideis @ilustracia, sul
mcire, postskriptumad miewvdina. rogorc ar unda iyos, am komentaris
Sesaxeb flurnua saubrobs »maxvilgonivrul koniunqturaze« 168 _ ro-
gorc sosiuri garkveviT gvatyobinebs, sabolood amas sanskritis
codnasTan raRac saerTo aqvs. aq saqme exeba mxolod imas, rom is ›me-
qanizmi‹ axsnas, romlis saSualebiTac es mediumis ›Kauderwelsch‹
moqmedebs. 169
ZiriTadi varaudi, romelsac es komentari eyrdnoba – is varaudi,
romlis mixedviTac heleni »Hindi«-s miRma frangul winadadebebs ma-
lavs da maT gamoTqmas Tavs aridebs, an ufro zustad rom vTqvaT,
ris gamoc misi ›Kauderwelsch‹-i moqmedebaSi modis _ is varaudia, ro-
melzec sosiuri Tavisi postskriptumis dasawyisSi xazgasmiT miuTi-
Tebs. imave meTodis saSualebiT flurnua, Tavisi mxriv, heleniseuli
marsis enis fsiqikuri genezisis axsnas cdilobs. 170 amasTanave, flur-
nuaseul ZiriTad hipoTazasTan dakavSirebiT, sosiuri Tavis ›Sivruka-
winadadebebis‹ analizSi, agreTve, helen smiTis pirovnebisa da cxov-
rebis Sesaxeb informaciebs eyrdnoba. Tu igi asociaciur masalad
swored ungruls, germanuls, inglisurs da ramdenadme sanskrits ga-
nixilavs, ubralod im mizeziT, rom man flurnuasgan icoda, rom es
is enebia, romlebTanac helens Tavisi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi Sexeba
hqonda. 171
sosiuris komentarze flurnuas es zemoqmedeba imitom wamovwieT win,
rom helen smiTis varaudebisa da informaciis miRma, mecnierul-isto-

168
(SVG, gv. 386).
169
SeiZleba daisvas SekiTxva a. seSes mier monaTxrob ambavTan dakavSirebiT, romelzec
sosiurisadmi nekrologSi wers. man sosiurisgan erTxel sanskritis savarjiSo miiRo.
mas, isev da isev, grZeli a mokleSi eSleboda da gadawyvita aseTi sanskritidan »par à
reu près« Tavi Seekavebina Tavisi pativsacemi maswavleblis ›maxvilgonivrul koniunqtu-
raze‹. a. bretons ki am ›procesis‹ aRweraSi im »fsiqologiuri avtomatizmis« prolef-
sisi daunaxavs, romelsac igi siurealizmis pirvel manifestSi Semdegnairad aRwers:
»wminda fsiqiatriuli avtomatizmi, romlis saSualebiTac verbalurad, werilobiT Tu
sxva saxiT azris namdvili msvlelobis gadmocema surs. azrTa karnaxi, romelic arana-
iri gonebrivi kontrolisgan ar iRebs zians, romelic Tavisufalia nebismieri esTeti-
kuri Tu moraluri marwuxebisgan... siurealizmi emyareba garkveuli asociaciebis for-
mebis umaRlesi realobis rwmenas, romlebic iqamde arsebobda, sizmris Zalauflebas,
azrovnebis TamaSs« (citirebulia J. starobinskis mixedviT: »froidi, bretoni, maiersi«,
in: ders., fsiqoanalizi da literatura, mainis frankfurti 1990, gv. 148 f.).
170
mxolod dasasruls vixsenebT am varaudis naTesaobas im hipoTezasTan, romliTac
sosiuri legendis kvlevaSi xelmZRvanelobs. iq daaxloebiT ase ewera: ›warmosaxvis
unari mexsierebis sicarielis Sesaxeb cvlilebis umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria‹ (Sead.
enebi, gv. 105ff.). an, ufro garkveviT: »raimes gacnobierebuli gamogoneba, raTa raime sxva
Seicvalos, rac mTxrobels sasurvel momentSi azrad ar mosdis, mTxrobelisTvis aris
patara, warmavali damcireba, romlis dafarvasac cdilobs msmeneli sazogadoebis wi-
naSe, legendis zogadi gansazRvrisTvis igi aris qmedebis erT-erTi umTavresi faqtor-
Tagani [›transformacia‹] [ ] (cf. LEG, gv. 440 an teqstebi, gv. 435).
171
rac Seexeba helenis mier sanskritis rudimentul codnas, flurnua miiCnevs, rom he-
lens erTxel sanskritis gramatika Cauvarda xelSi. “Nouvelles observations”-Si saubrobs
igi, rom man (flurnuam) aseTi ram namdvilad ipova, Tumca heleni amas umalavs, »Y-Tan,
pativsacemi ›sazogadoebis fsiqikuri kvlevebisaTvis‹ wevri« (rogorc spiritistebis mi-
baZviT Tavis anglo-saqsonur prototipebs uwodeben) (SVG, gv. 395).

125
riulad ufro mniSvnelovani debuleba iCens Tavs zogadad im mosaz-
rebebs Soris, Tu rogor warmogvidgens sosiuri maT aq da flurnuas
spirituli fenomenebis fsiqologiuri axsnis models Soris. flur-
nua spiritizmis Sesaxeb Tavis xangrZliv gamokvlevebSi Semdegnairad
xelmZRvanelobs: rogorc Cans, mediumis ›zebunebrivi‹ unarebi sinam-
dvileSi sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara warmodgenis asociaciebis produq-
ti, romlis saxe da warmomavloba mxolod imitom Canda gaugebrad,
radganac isini cnobierebis talRis qveS yalibdebodnen. Tu es asea,
maSin SeiZleba, mediumis dakvirvebis sawinaaRmdegod, mzera swored am
cnobierebis talRis qveS ›sublimaciuri warmosaxvis Zalis‹ meqanizme-
bisken warvmarToT:
egreT wodebul spiritistul fenomenebze msurs visaubro da sakiTxis mniSv-
nelovani nawili wamovwio win, romelic sublimaciuri warmosaxvis Zalas ub-
rundeba. Cven vflobT uamrav dokuments gaucnobierebeli aRqmis rolTan da-
kavSirebiT, romelic codnis gareSe, azris saSualebiT, mudmivad axal-axal
obieqtebs aRmogvaCeninebs. es obieqtebi imisTvis arian gankuTvnili, rom Cveni
ocnebebi da (Tu Cven sakuTar Tavs spiritistul savarjiSoebs vaZlevT) Cveni
savaraudo komunikaciebi deinkarnirebulebs mivuaxlovoT. aseve SesaniSnavad
aris cnobili latenturi mexsierebis mniSvneloba, romelSic SenarCunebulia
Cveni me-s mier daviwyebas micemuli mogoneba, ise, rom Cven maT veRar Sevic-
nobT da gvjera, rom masSi originalur ideebs an namdvil cnobebs im mxridan
SevicnobT, Tuki isini moulodnelad isev amotivtivdebian. 172

helenis ›Sivruka-winadadebebTan‹ dakavSirebiT sosiuris komentari Se-


umCnevlad erTveba spiritistuli fenomenebis ganmartebis modelSi,
romelic flurnuam fsiqologiis meoTxe saerTaSoriso kongresze
parizSi SemogvTavaza. metic: am programuli striqonebis miRma, sosi-
uris teqsti ikiTxeba rogorc mcdeloba, romelic flurnuas mier
postulirebuli ›sublimaciuri warmosaxvis Zalas‹ am amovardnili
winadadebebis analizSi gamokveTs da Tavidan ayalibebs. sosiuri
cdilobs detalurad gviCvenos savaraudo talRisqveda “meqanizmi”,
“latentur mexsierebaSi” CarTul asociaciur kavSirebs gamouTqmeli
franguli sityvebidan Sida substituirebuli “egzotikuri” sityvebis-
ken rogor mivyavarT.
helenis ›Sivruka-winadadebebis‹ gamoyenebis saSualebiT sosiuri ara
mxolod spiritizms Seexo, aramed gaucnobierebeli fsiqikuri proce-
sebis bunebis Sesaxeb samecniero Teoriasac. 173 Des Indes-s winaTqmaSi
flurnua xazgasmiT miuTiTebs am samecniero konteqstze, rodesac is,
sxvebTan erTad, froids da Jenes moixseniebs. man spiritistuli feno-
menebis fsiqologiuri axsnis modelis kvleva Tavis Tavze aiRo. 174

172
cf. flurnua 1900 b, gv. 107.
173
g. marfis citatebis mixedviT, h. elenbergeri Tavis monumentur nawarmoebSi “dinami-
uri fsiqiatriis Seucnobelis aRmoCena. istoria da evolucia” adgens, rom »daaxlo-
ebiT 1895 wels ›varaudi, rom xelisSemSleli tendenciebi SeucnobelSi SeiWrebodnen,
TavisTavad cxadi‹ iyo« (elenbergeri 1973, gv. 443). Sead. amasTan agreTve m. Cifali, »Te-
odor flurnua, la decouverte de Pinconscient«, in: Le blocnotes de las psychanalyse 3, gv. 111-131, aseve
e.rudinesko, La bataille de cent ans. Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, parizi 1986, tomi I, gv. 122ff.
174
im garemoebas, rom Des Indes-Si »avtoris citatebi« iSviaTad gvxvdeba, flurnua Sem-
degnairad ganmartavs: »me upiratesoba mivaniWe im moments, rom sakuTari TavisTvis es
siamovneba SemezRuda – raTa es isedac ukve mZime tomi kidev ufro ar dametvirTa, da
ramdenime bibliografiuli monacemiT Semovfargluliyavi, romlebic TavisTavad gamax-
sendeboda. TumcaRa zogierTi, sxvaTa Soris, monaTesave da nawilobriv paralelur

126
am samecniero garemosTan kontaqti sosiuris Semoqmedebas gamoacocx-
lebda, imitom, rom aq sruliad sxva mxriv erT sakiTxs Seexnen, rom-
lis enobriv-Teoriuli mniSvnelobas igi Tavisi Jenevis profesoris
Tanamdebobaze daniSvnasTan dakavSirebuli leqciidan moyolebuli
kvlavac xazs usvamda: kerZod ki is sakiTxi, »enobrivi movlenebi SeiZ-
leba CaiTvalos Tu ara, rogorc Cveni nebis qmedebis Sedegi«, 175 anu
emyareba Tu ara isini Segnebulad an Seugneblad mimdinare proce-
sebs. 176 es sakiTxi gansakuTrebiT maSin xdeboda aqtualuri, rodesac
asociaciur da sintagmatur kavSirebs Soris cvalebadoba TvalSi
gvxvdeboda. swored amaze miuTiTebda 1884 wels nikolai kruSCevski
Tavis enaTmecnierebis principebSi. erTi enis farglebSi sityvebis
moTamaSe msgavsebebs da maT kavSirebs ›enis is meqanizmi qmnis, romlis
sqemac sosiurma, wlebis Semdeg, Tavis leqciebze zogadi enaTmecni-
erebis Sesaxeb Camoayaliba. 177 mediumis enobrivi sakiTxebiT flurnuas

droSi Seqmnili Teoriebis gaxseneba mosvenebas mikargavs, radganac maT gamoTqmebs, Zi-
riTad punqtebs, metaforebs yovelTvis vsesxulobdi. ase rom, praqtikulad gaZnelde-
boda am TeoriebisTvis gverdis avla. sagangebod minda vaxseno p. Jenes Désagrégation men-
tale (L’atomatisme psychologique, parizi 1989; Etat mental des hystériques da a. S.); m. desuas ormagi-
me (laifcigi 1890); broineris da froidis hipnoiduri mdgomareobebi (gamokvlevebi is-
teriaze, vena 1895) da gansakuTrebiT, f. v. maiersis qvecnobiereba (The subliminal conscious-
ness, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, tomi VII, gv. 298 da Semdgomi tomebi) (SVG,
gv. XXIf). froidiseuli fsiqoanalizis da sosiuriseuli enaTmecnierebis kavSiris
TvalsaCinoebisTvis ixile feri 1989 da ders.: » ›Bœuf, lac, ciel‹ - ›consierge, chamise, lit‹ «, in :
Actes du Colloque »Saussure aujourd’hui«, Carisy-la-Salle (13-23.8.1992), parizi 1995, gv. 431-438.
175
Canawerebidan Sesaferisi pasaJi Semdegnairia: “SeiZleba Tu ara, rom lingvisturi sa-
kiTxebi Cveni nebelobis aqtis Sedegebad CaiTvalos? enis [›langage‹] mecniereba adastu-
rebs am sakiTxs. magram maSinve unda aRvniSnoT, <rom arsebobs bevri gacnobierebuli
Tu gaucnobierebeli nebelobis cnobili xarisxi; > yvela enobriv aqts aqvs Tviseba,
naklebad refleqtirebuli, naklebad mofiqrebuli iyos, iseve, rogorc is, rom igi
sruliad arapirovnulia yvela aqts Soris“ (cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 6, N I.I, nom. 3283).
176
am sakiTxs sosiuri Tavisi profesoris Tanamdebobaze daniSvnasTan dakavSirebuli
leqciis meore gakveTilze »fonetikuri« enis ganviTarebisa da »analogiuri« enis
ganviTarebis gansxvavebasTan dakavSirebiT Seexo: »erTi mxriv, arsebobs fonetikuri
cvlilebebi [›changement phonétique‹] da, meore mxriv, sxvadasxva sityvebiT warmodgenili
ganviTareba, <romelTaganac arc erTi ar gamoirCeva,> magram maT Soris yvelaze metad
analogiuri cvlileba gamoiyeneba. Cven uSualod davinaxavT, ratomac. SeiZleba es
orive faqtori enobrivi ganaxlebis sxvadasxva kuTxiT erTmaneTs davupirispiroT, ro-
desac vambobT, rom pirveli metyvelebis fiziologiur da fizikur mxares warmoadgens,
maSin roca meore igive aqtis fsiqologiur da mentalur mxares <Seesabameba>, rom
pirveli gauTviTcnobierebelia, rodesac meore gaTviTcnobierebulia; yovelTvis, ro-
desac mogonebaSi amotivtivdeba, rom cnobierebis cneba garegnulad SedarebiTia, iseT-
nairad, rom saqme mxolod cnobierebis or xarisxs exeba, romelTaganac ufro aRmatebi-
Ti jer kidev <wminda> gauTviTcnobierebloba Sedarebulia azris xarisxTan, romelic
Cveni metyvelebis saxeebs axlavs Tan – [...]«…cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 9, N 1.2, nom. 3284).
177
araerTxel samarTlianad miuTiTa – Tavdapirvelad Tavis Jenevis profesoris Tanam-
debobaze daniSvnasTan dakavSirebuli leqciaze, xolo momdevno wlebis Semdeg, Tavis
kritikul CanawerebSi a. seSes mimarT Programme et méthode de la linguistique théorique, _ gar-
dacvlili poloneli enaTmecnieris mniSvnelobaze Tanamedrove lingvistikisTvis. ixi-
le teqstebi, gv. 246 da gv. 381, aseve r. iakobsonis Txzulebebi: »L’importance de Kruszewski
dans le développement de la linguistique générale«, in: ders., Essais de linguistique générale. 2. Rapports internes
et externes du langage, parizi 1973, gv.238-257, da: »gaTviTcnobierebulis da gauTviTcnobiere-
belis problemis lingvistur midgomaze«, iakobsoni, 1988, gv. 522-543. asociacionizmis
da gansakuTrebiT j. s. milis deduqciuri da induqciuri logikis sistemis kruSCev-
skiseuli analizisTvis ix. feri 1987, gv. 28-47, da p. kausati: »nikolai kruSCevski: la »loi
phonétique« entre substance et fonetion«, in: Linx 23, 1991, gv. 81-101.

127
daintereseba nebas aZlevda sosiurs, am gaucnobierebeli enobrivi
procesebis funqcionirebis saxe konkretul SemTxvevaSi gamoekvlia
da Tavisi dakvirvebebi da azrebi interdisciplinur konteqstSi
ganexila.
helenis Kaudewelsch-Tan dakavSirebiT sosiuriseul komentars enobriv-
Teoriulad mniSvnelovans xdis masSi mocemuli Sedegi, rom “Sivruka-
winadadebebi” mxolod maSin da mxolod im gziT SeiZleba gaanaliz-
des, rom isini im subieqturad determinirebul, sxvadasxva warmomav-
lobis enobrivi masalis momcvel “latentur mexsierebas” unda dau-
kavSirdes, romlis heterogenul SemadgenlobaSi helenis cxovrebise-
ulma garemoebebma da istoriam Tavisi gamoxatuleba hpova. sosiuris
es xedva gamoixateba mis momdevno ›enis meqanizmis‹ modelSi iq, sadac
aSkara xdeba, rom es ›meqanizmi‹ mWidrod ukavSirdeba TiToeuli mo-
laparake subieqtis gansakuTrebul asociaciur gansazRvrebebs.
aq warmodgenili literatura, romelic mowmobs sosiuris wvlils
Des Indes-Si, SeiZleba aranakleb mniSvnelovani gamoCndes, vidre sosi-
uri ifiqrebda. igi cdilobda warmoedgina ›meqanizmi‹, romelsac he-
len smiTis enobrivi produqciebi emyareboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi, aq
gaTvaliswinebuli teqstebiT naTeli xdeba, rom Cours-Si gakeTebuli
daskvna _ ›langue mosaubre subieqtis erTi funqcia‹ rodia (Tu sa-
erTod aris funqcia) _ sosiuris enisa da enobrivi subieqtis kavSi-
ris koncefcias mxolod calmxrivad ukeTebs reziumes. sosiuris az-
rovneba, upirveles yovlisa, gamoirCeva imiT, rom is »langue«-s warmo-
adgens, rogorc erT, damoukidebel, ara fsiqologiur kategoriebze
dabrunebad wyobas. balis da seSes damsaxurebaa, rom am ara mxolod
enaTmecnierebis istoriaSi revoluciur gamovlinebas Cours-i daexmara.
magram Tu am movlenas seriozulad aRiqvam, naTeli gaxdeba, ratom
daainteresa sosiuri ase intensiurad da xangrZlivad sakiTxma enob-
riv subieqtSi enis damkvidrebis an enis zemoqmedebis problemam im
pirTa mimarT, romlebic ama Tu im konkretul enaze saubroben.

128
D
konturebi

sruliad gaugebari iqneboda, ar gamogtydo-


modiT, rom bumbuliani kalmis mimarT avadmyofu-
ri SiSi maqvs da rom es Canaweri CemTvis warmo-
udgenlad mtanjveli sasjelia, romelic am naS-
romis mniSvnelobasTan aranair kavSirSi ar aris.
Tu saqme lingvistikas exeba, amas is faqtic amw-
vavebs, rom yoveli cxadi Teoriis (da kerZod,
rac ufro cxadia, miT ufro metad) lingvistika-
Si asaxva SeuZlebelia; me amas miviCnev, rogorc
faqts: am mecnierebaSi ar arsebobs arc erTi cne-
ba, romelic odesme raime cxad warmodgenebs eyr-
dnoboda ise, rom winadadebas dasrulebamde xan
xuTjer an eqvsjer cvlidnen.
werilis dauTariRebeli Canaweri furclis
amonaglejidan

X. gamoqveynebuli da gamouqveynebeli

1922 wels, Cours de linguistique générale-is gamoqveynebidan eqvsi wlis da


amavdroulad misive meore, msubuqad koreqtirebuli gamocemis Sede-
gad, S. balim l. gotiesTan erTad JenevaSi da, imavdroulad, haidel-
bergis gamomcemlobaSi gamosca Recueil des publications scientifiques de Ferdi-
nand de Saussure. 1 am wvrilad nabeWd eqvsasgverdian tomSi Tavmoyrilia
yvela is enTmecnieruli naSromi 2 , romelic sosiurma Tavisi sicocx-
lis ganmavlobaSi gamoaqveyna. am teqstebis moculobisa da gamocemis
mokle mimoxilva gviCvenebs ara marto imas, rom aq aRniSvnaSi »publica-
tions scientifiques« gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis mqone cnebebi gaaerTianes,
aramed imasac, rom yvela es teqsti erTi uwyveti da sworxazovnad
mimdinare procesidan unda gamomdinareobdes.
tomis naxevarze meti moicavs im orive naSroms, romelic axalgazrda
studentma sosiurma laifcigSi Seqmna: 1878 wlis dekemberSi gamocemu-
li Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-européennes 3 da

1
Sdr. danarTi, gv. 557. rogorc Recueil-is saukeTesod dokumentirebuli damatebidan
gamomdinareobs (amakeri da buke a. meiesa da C. beilis Soris mimoweras urTaven TavianT
gamocemas), rom sosiuris gardacvalebidan ramdenime TveSi meieis Jenevel moswavleeb-
Tan erTad aseve v. straitbergi sosiuris naSromebis krebulis gamoqveynebaze zrunav-
da. rTuli molaparakebebis Sedegad miRebuli erToblivi gamocemis es proeqti («geor-
gi JenevaSi», «Cempioni parizSi», «zamTari da indogermanuli biblioTeka haidelberg-
Si») SemdgomSi pirveli msoflio omis dawyebam Seaferxa (Sdr. amakeri da buke 1989
(1990), gv. 121 _ 125).
2
Recueil-Si ar Sesula mxolod ori recenzia, romlebic 1883 (A. 38) da 1907 ww. (A. 39)
gamoica. Sdr. danarTi, gv. 553 da 556.
3
pirveli gamocemis Tavfurcelze darTulia »Leipsick 1879« (Sdr. m. mairhoferi: »sosi-
uris memuarebis Semdgomi efeqtis Sesaxeb«, in: Kratylos 33, 1988, S. 1). 1887 wels parizSi
gamoCnda misi pirveli nabeWdi varianti. sosiuris memuarebis Sesaxeb zemoxsenebuli

129
misive ori wlis Semdeg gamoqveynebuli disertacia sanskritSi abso-
luturi genitivis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. 4 araerTgzis naxsenebma memua-
rebma, rogorc v. Straitbergi 1915 wels sosiurisadmi miZRvnil nek-
rologSi wers, »avtoris saxeli myisierad cnobili gaxada« 5 , amasTan
erTad gaaRviZa uzarmazari molodini 6 , romlis Sesrulebac sosiuris
disertaciam da misma Semdgomma naSromebma, iseve rogorc misma bevrma
Tanamedrove da Tanamoazre avtorma, ver SeZles. amasTan dakavSirebiT
Straitbergi aRniSnavs:
vinc memuarebidan masze [sosiuris disertaciaze] gadava, gaoceba ar acdeba:
ufro did winaaRmdegobas verc ki moifiqreb. iq genialuri, yovlismomcveli
sistema, aq ki – Sromatevadi mciredi samuSao, miZRvnili SedarebiT naklebad
masStaburi Temisadmi. 7
t. de mauros mixedviT im disertaciebis Sinaarsi, romelic ocdaoTxi
wlis sosiurma 1881 wels gamoaqveyna, SeiZleba ufro dadebiTadac Se-
fasdes 8 , Tumca, rogorc Cans, Straitbergi gamarTlebas uZebnis mas-
Tan aranair kavSirSi myof orive naSromis efeqtur istorias: sosiu-
ris mwiri sadoqtoro naSromi verasodes daaRwevda Tavs »genialu-

meoradi literaturisa (Sdr. enebi, gv. 77) da aseve r. giuris 1986 wels gamocemuli
monografiis garda, unda mivuTiToT gmiuris kidev erTi naSromi (»sosiuris memuaruli
principebi missave gviandel indogermanul naSromebSi«, amakeri da engleri 1990, gv. 39
– 51), iseve rogorc mairhoferis 1981 wlis naSromi.
4
Originaltitel: De l'emploi du génitif absolu en sanskrit. These pour le doctorat presentee a la Faculte de
philosophie de l’Universite de Leipzig, Genf 1881. sosiuris disertaciis Sesaxeb meoradi lite-
ratura uaRresad mwiria. Sdr. amasTan mairhoferi 1981, gv. 107, gmiuri 1990, gv. 40 da
vilani 1990. gv. 10 f.
5
straitbergi 1915, gv. 208. straitbergis mosazreba naCvenebia Semdegi anekdotiT, ro-
melsac f. de krues redaqciiT gadmogcemT: »roca man Tavisi sadoqtoro gamocdis mo-
samzadeblad laifcigis universitetSi iqaur profesors sakuTari Tavi warudgina, is
SeekiTxa, akavSirebda Tu ara raime naTesaoba misive saxelis mqone cnobil enaTmecnier-
Tan. saukeTeso pasuxi iqneboda misi sadoqtoro gamocdis [...] pasuxi. man is universi-
tetis istoriaSi udidesi warCinebiT daasrula: summa cum laude da dissertatione egregia« (cf.
F.d.S, S.16). radgan aq, SemoTavazebuli formatis simciris gamo, SeuZlebelia, sosiuris
adreuli naSromis Sinaarsis konturebi saTanadod gamovkveToT, amitom gTavazobT T.
Seereris (Sdr. gmiuri 1986, gv. 202) Semdeg daxasiaTebas: »am naSroms istoriul-Sedare-
biTi gramatika, erTi mxriv, umaRles mwvervalze ahyavs, radgan is indoevropul xmo-
vanTa sistemis Sesaxeb pirveli gvawvdis yovlismomcvel da mTlian suraTs. sxva mxriv,
is meTodis TvalsazrisiT gadalaxavs axali gramatikebis SezRudvas da ase miuTiTebs
Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis aRweris meTodebze« (Seereri 1980, gv. 14).
6
da saxeldobr Zalian konkretuli formiT. memuarebis pirveli recenzenti, frangi fi-
lologi l. have, romelic 1879 wlis 25 Tebervals Jenevis JurnalSi sosiuris mier
adreuli naSromis gamoqveynebas enTuziazmiT, magram kritikis gareSe ar Sexvedria, Ta-
vis statias Semdegi winadadebiT asrulebs: »sosiuris wigni erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi
enaTmecnieruli naSromia, romelic gamoCnda ara mxolod Tavisi SedegebiT, aramed
imiTac, Tu ra momavali eqneba mas. aqedan gamomdinare, moxdeba mecnierebis erTi nawi-
lis ganaxleba. magram am Zvirfas xelnawerSi yvelaze faseulia is, Tu ras unda velo-
doT Cven misi avtorisgan: ferdinand de sosiuri ocdaerTi wlis aris« (cf. »Louis Havet et
le Memoire«, in: CFS 32, 1978, gv. 122). msgavsad werda indogermanisti h. hiubSmani 1879 wlis 20
oqtombers sosiurisadmi erT-erT werilSi: »Tu Tqvens codnas gaafarToebT da gaaR-
rmavebT da sruliad mkacr meTodebs miemxrobiT, Tqven araerT SesaniSnav naSroms Seq-
mniT da mniSvnelovan wvlils SeitanT enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebaSi« (citireba gmi-
uris mixedviT 1986, gv. 78).
7
straitbergi 1915, gv. 210. sxvaTa Soris, orive adreul naSroms Soris kontrasts mis
msgavsadve axasiaTebs meiec; Sdr. F.d.S., gv. 74f. gansakuTrebiT germaniaSi memuarebis mi-
marT mkacrad gamoTqmuli kritikis Sesaxeb Sdr. gmiuri 1986, gv. 64 ff.
8
Sdr. CLG/D, gv. 330 f. aseve Scheerer 1980, gv. 22 f.

130
ri« 9 memuarebis Crdils, romelic dResac ki, misi gamoCenidan sauku-
neze meti xnis Semdeg, Tanamedrove indogermanistikis amosaval
punqts warmoadgens. 10 sanskritSi absoluturi genitivis Sesaxeb
ganxilvaSi mogvianebiT aRsaniSnavi ram Cndeba, mecnierul-istoriuli
TvalsazrisiT: rom is, yvelas molodinis sapirispirod, sosiuris
bolo damoukidebel gamoqveynebul wignad darCa. amgvarad, Recueil-is
darCenili mcire nawili, ZiriTadad, samecniero Jurnalebisa da
saiubileo krebulebis umetesad mcire moculobis mqone statiebidan
Seadgines. 11
gacilebiT mravalricxovania aq SedarebiT momcro etimologiuri Ca-
nawerebi, romlebic sosiurma parizSi yofnis dros, anu 1880-dan 1890
wlamde, Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique-Si gamoaqveyna, romelic Societe
Linguistique-is parizis biuroSi mdivnad muSaobis periods emTxveva, sa-
dac is aseve saredaqcio xelmZRvaneladac muSaobda. 12 Jenevis univer-
sitetSi misi pedagogiuri moRvaweobis dawyebisTanave Sewyda misi ram-
denimestriqoniani statiebis seriis gamoqveyneba. 13 1890-dan 1897 wlamde
sosiurma mxolod erTi recenzia 14 da litvuri enis Sesaxeb sami mniS-
vnelovani Txzuleba 15 gamoaqveyna. pirvel sam statiaze dayrdnobiT
sosiuri 1894 wlis 4 ianvars a. meies werilSi uSualod wers am komen-
taris SesavalSi citirebul pasaJs:

9
Streitberg 1915, gv. 206. Vom »schönsten Buch, das je in der Komparatistik geschrieben wurde«, sprach
seinerseits Meillet (cf. F.d.S, gv. 85)
10
Sdr. gmiuri 1986, gv. 206.
11
sosiuris publikaciebis TvalSisacemi simwiris gamo, rogorc mairhoferi samarTli-
anad aRniSnavs, ar unda SevcdeT maTi mecnierul-istoriuli mniSvnelobis SefasebaSi:
»albaT Semdgomi publikaciebi gaiTvaliswineben, rom aseTi uprecedento gavlenis mqo-
ne avtoris sikvdilis Semdeg gamocemul wigns [Cours] ideebiT (da ara gverdebis raode-
nobiT) mainc produqtiuli naSromi ajobebda; adreulma memuarebma da Semdgomma kvle-
vebma [ix. SeniSvna 14] Tanamedrove indogermanistikasa da yazansa da praRaSi mis sko-
lebze xangrZlivi zegavlena iqonia, ris Sedegadac ganviTarda zogadi enaTmecniereba«
(mairhoferi 1988, gv. 13).
12
ix. CLG/D, gv. 339 ff.
13
am momcro etimologiuri naSromebis mTeli rigidan (REC, gv. 402-419, 433-463, 477-480)
unda gamovyoT 1884 wels gamoqveynebuli kvleva »Une loi rythmique de la langue grecque« (REC,
gv. 464-476; Sdr. Straitbergi 1915, gv. 211), iseve, rogorc statia »Sur un point de la phonetique
des consonnes en indo-europeen« (REC, gv. 420-432; Sdr. Streitberg, Ibid.). 1987 wels s. bukem a. meieis
literaturuli memkvidreobis kvaldakval aRmoaCina gamoqveynebuli SeniSvnebis
stilSi Semonaxuli sosiuris Canawerebis sakmaod didi raodenoba (ix. r. amakeri da s.
buke »Dix – huit notes etymologiques inedites de Ferdinand de Saussure«, in: CFS 42, 1988, gv.215-244).
14
»i. Smidti: sonantebis Teoriis kritika. enaTmecnieruli gamokvleva« (REC, gv. 539-541).
15
»A propos de l’accentuation lituanienne. (Intonations et accent proprement dit)« (REC, gv. 490-512) da
»Accentuation lituanienne« (REC, gv. 526-538). am orive naSromTan dakavSirebiT, straitbergis
mier 1915 wels gamoTqmuli daskvna _ »rasakvirvelia, am SeniSvnebSi yvelgan bolomde
yvelaferi naTqvami ar aris, xarvezebis damtkicebac SeiZleba, magram samarTlianad
SegviZlia davamtkicoT, rom isini yoveli Semdgomi gamokvlevisaTvis amosaval wer-
tils qmnian« (gv. 201) _ mairhoferma daadastura: »litvuri aqcentis Sesaxeb orive naS-
romi aris baltiuri (da slavuri?) maxvilis dasmis sitemis warmoSobis dRevandeli
asaxvis winapiroba« (gv. 13). Sdr. aseve Seereri 1980, gv. 23. sosiuris mesame moculobiTi
gamokvleva litvuris Sesaxeb _ »Sur le nominative pluriel et le genitif singulier de la declinaison consonanti-
que en lituanien« _ aseve 1894 wels gamovida (REC, gv. 513 – 525). sosiuris yvela am naSromis
Sesaxeb detaluri bibliografiuli monacemebi SigiZliaT ixiloT danarTSi, gv. 552 ff.

131
intonaciis Sesaxeb Cemi statiis dasawyisi gamovida. statiis 16 meore nawilSi
amoRebulia is, risi Tqmac msurda intonaciis Sesaxeb da Seicavs Cems or
SeniSvnas latviuri (an litvuri) intonaciis aqcentirebis Sesaxeb. (ukve giT-
xariT?). aq aqcentirebasTan dakavSirebiT, ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli litvu-
ri intonacia! am yvelafriT aRSfoTebuli var. amas is sirTulec erTvis, rac
enobriv faqtebs [>faits de langage<] Seexeba. arafris momcemia mxolod aTi stri-
qonis dawera, romlebis azri yvelasaTvis gasagebia. 17
amrigad, litvuris gamokvlevebis Sesaxeb publikaciebi zustad im pe-
riodis dasawyiss emTxveva, romelSic, godelis Tanaxmad, >enis bune-
bisa da lingvistikis safuZvlebis problema sosiurisTvis iZulebiT
xasiaTs iRebda<. rogorc gvaxsovs, 1894 wels gamovida zogadi enaT-
mecnierebis Sesaxeb wignis eskizi da wignisadmi miZRvnili mosagonari
werili, romlebSic sosiuri pirvelad saubrobs enis >specifikuri
semiologiis< Sesaxeb. sosiuris intensiuri refleqsuri samuSaos,
koncefciebisa da mosazrebebis mniSvnelovan kvals ver vpoulobT
imave periodSi gamoqveynebul TxzulebebSi, garda ori-sami masSi gab-
neuli SeniSvnisa, romlebic SeiZleba Semdgom ganvixiloT, rogorc
sosiuris enobriv-Teoriuli da mecnierul-Teoriuli mosazrebebis-
Tvis delikaturi miTiTebebi. 18 magram am mosazrebebis azrobrivi bir-
Tvidan, kerZod, misi mcdelobidan, enaTmecnierebis obieqti semiotiku-
rad Seafasos, ar gamomdinareobs arc erTi es publikacia.
Semdgom rva weliwadSi, 1897-dan 1905 wlamde sosiurs araferi gamouq-
veynebia, garda ori frigiuli warweris 19 Sesaxeb kvlevisa. im etimo-
logiuri Sefasebebidan gamomdinare, romlebic sosiurma gardacvale-
bamde gamoqveynebul sam statiaSi gamoTqva, rogorc Cans, im yvela-
fers, riTac am periodis ganmavlobaSi aqtiurad iyo dakavebuli, nak-
lebad eyrdnoba da kvlav Tavisi parizSi gamoqveynebuli naSromebis
stils da weris maneras ubrundeba. 20
Tumca es imas ar niSnavs, rom aq warmodgenili SeniSvnebi ar SeiZle-
ba ukavSirdebodes im Temebs, romlebsac sosiuri Tavis mecnierul

16
faqtobrivad, sosiuris 1894 wels gamocemuli statiis »A propos de l’accentuation lituanienne«
boloSi aris aRniSvna »A suivre«. es aRniSvna Recuil-Si lakonurad aris dazustebuli:
»gamocxadebuli Sedegi ar gamoqveynebula« (cf. REC, gv. 512).
17
Cf. LAM, gv. 95, Sesabamisad teqstebi, gv. 516 f.
18
daaxloebiT ase wers sosiuri Smidtis sonantebis Teoriis kritikis recenziaSi: »ar
SegviZlia zedmiwevniT SevTanxmdeT, magram rodesac pirvelad cdilob enis [>langue<]
Teoriis SemuSavebas, upirvelesi principi unda iyos is, rom arasodes, araviTar SemT-
xvevaSi norma ar unda dairRves (an SeiZleba aseT darRvevas erTxel hqondes adgili),
romelic erTi enobrivi mdgomareobisTvis [>etat de langue<] (=ori Tanadrouli cnebis-
Tvis) Seiqmna da ara erTi konkretuli fonetikuri movlenisaTvis (=ori Tanmimdevruli
cnebisTvis)« (cf. REC, gv. 540). aq ukve aSkaraa sinqronuli da diaqronuli enaTmecniere-
bis Semdgomi gamijvna erTmaneTisagan. Sdr. godeli 1894 ( SM/G, gv. 37), engleri 1897
(Engler 1897, gv. 839) daTariRebuli Canawerebi N11 da N12, ixile teqstebi, gv. 329 ff. siste-
muri naazrevi, romelic sosiuris memuarebs safuZvlad udevs, gamoixateba SemdegSi,
kerZod litvuris konsonanturi brunebis Sesaxeb sosiuris statiis SeniSvnaSi axali
gramatikis winaaRmdeg: »aq yvelaferi gonebazea damokidebuli, romlis mierac tardeba
es gamokvleva da romelic mkiTxvelis keTilgonierebas unda mivandoT. upirveles yov-
lisa, ar unda davSordeT im warmodgenas, rom ama Tu im formis faseuloba teqstSia,
romlisganac igi iqmneba, anu morfologiur, fonetikur, orTografiul garemoebebTan
kavSirSi, romelic mas gars akravs da romlebic mas naTels hfenen« (cf. REC, gv. 514).
19
»Inscriptions phrygiennes«, in: E. Chantre, Recherches archeologiques dans l’Asie Occidentale, Paris 1898, gv.
165 – 191, bzw. REC, gv. 542 – 575.
20
Sdr. REC, gv. 576 – 599.

132
publikaciebSi ganixilavda. piriqiT, rogorc davinaxeT, am SeniSvnebis
amosavali wertili da obieqti kvlavac enaTmecnieruli praqtika, kon-
kretul, calkeul enaTa fenomenebis aRweraa. da roca sosiurs amas-
Tan enaTmecnierul-filosofiuri sidideebi, rogorc niSnobrivi cne-
ba Semoaqvs, amas akeTebs ara imisTvis, rom ganaviTaros enobrivi Teo-
ria, aramed ufro metad imis saCveneblad, Tu rogori saimedo safuZv-
lis Seqmna SeeZleboda lingvistikas.
gamoxatvis formebis, indoevropuli enobrivi ojaxis zepiri da weri-
lobiTi dokumentebis Sesaxeb Tavisi TiTqmis ormocwliani 21 moRvawe-
obis ganmavlobaSi, sosiurma gamoTqva Sexeduleba, rom rogorc man
1910 wels, zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb Tavisi bolo leqciis da-
sawyisSi, isaubra, >enebs Soris geografiuli gansxvavebebi< enaTmec-
nierebisTvis >gadamwyveti faqtia<. enebis sivrcobrivi gansxvavebebis
Sesaxeb empiriul daskvnaze aranakleb safuZvliania Semdegi mosazre-
ba: gansxvaveba ara qveynebs, aramed konkretul adgilebsa da mosaub-
reebs Soris 22 _ uSualod da yvelasaTvis TvalsaCinod unda iyos
warmodgenili enebis da, Sesabamisad, >droSi enaTa moZraobis abso-
luturi principis< temporaluri gansxvaveba.
modeli, romelic sosiuris mier am ori daskvnis gansamartad datove-
buli uricxvi Canawerebidan SeiZleba SevadginoT, ori winadadebiT
Semdegnairad SeiZleba warmovadginoT. pirveli: >droSi enis uwyveti
moZraoba<, romelic >mudmivad, bunebrivad, yovelgvari garegani faq-
toris miuxedavad arsebobs<, gulisxmobs, rom enebis SemTxvevaSi saq-
me exeba sistemebs, romlebic nebismieri, magram TavianTi Tanaarsebo-
biT urTierTganmapirobebeli da urTierTganmsazRvreli niSnebisgan
Sedgeba. da meore: ramdenadac enobrivi niSnebis aseTi sistemebi mxo-
lod socialuri cirkulaciis procesSi arseboben, isini >wamieria<
da cvalebadi, mokle an grZeli, gardauvali.
arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone istoriul-SedarebiTi gramatikidan gamo-
mdinare, sosiuris mier enobrivi cvlilebis axsnis sakiTxis ise das-
ma, rom axalgazrda gramatikosebis skolas mTlianad exebodes 23 , ma-
Sin misi mcdeloba Tanamedroveebisa da laifcigis yofili maswavleb-

21
»sosiuri Tavisi monacemebiT Tormeti-cameti wlis asakSi mivida enaTmecnierebamde.
kargia, rom adreul gonebriv simwifes ar dascines da sityva >mecniereba< am konteqs-
tSi seriozulad miiRes«, wers Seereri (1980, gv. 8), da man da sxvebmac samarTlianad
miuTiTes, rom »Essai pour reduire les mots du grec, du latin & de l’allemand a un petit nombre de racines«
(in: CFS 32, 1978, gv. 73 – 101), romelic jer kidev TxuTmetiode wlis sosiurma Tavis pativ-
sacem adolf piqtes warudgina, »gadaWarbebis gareSe SeiZleba amovikiTxoT is, rac
mogvianebiT calsaxad da farTo masStabiT tipur sosiuriseul azrovnebad amoicnobo-
da« (ibid.). ix. amasTan, upirveles yovlisa, raixler-begelini 1990, gv. 21 ff.
22
a. piqtes zemoxsenebul recenziaSi Les origins indo-europeennes ou les aryas primitifs aris sagu-
lisxmo winadadeba, romelSic sosiuri im mosazrebas, romelsac man bolos zogadi
enaTmecnierebis amosavali wertilis Sesaxeb xazi gausva, mis pativsacem swavluls
miawers: »piqtem Tavdapirvel berketSi [indogermanul enebSi] sxvadasxva dialeqtebi mi-
iRo da amiT daSorda warmodgenas, rom ori eri, romlebic erTmaneTs Sordebian, imave
enas [>langue<] itovebs. man enis diferenciaciulobis [>diversite de langue<] Sesaxeb warmod-
gena geografiuli da politikuri erTeulebis SigniT warmodgeniT Caanacvla« (cf. REC,
gv. 398 f.).
23
fenomeni, romelsac unda aexsna axalgazrda gramatikosebis mier postulirebuli sa-
ocari >xmovanTa kanonebis absoluturoba<, sxva araferia, Tu ara enobrivi gardaqmnis
fenomeni. Sdr. aseve arensi 1969, t. 1, gv. 337 ff., da S. Auroux, »La querelle des lois phonetiques«,
in: Lingvisticæ Investigationes III, 1979, gv. 1 – 27.

133
lebisa da kolegebis Sesabamis mcdelobebs daemsgavseboda 24 :
axalgazrda gramatikosebis SexedulebiT, niSnis cnebasTan mibruneba
utoldeboda enaTmecnierebis miRweuli istoriuli safexuridan ukan,
filosofiur enaTmecnierebaze 25 dabrunebas. faqtobrivad, istoriul-
SedarebiTi gramatikis gamoCenas _ f. bopsis 1816 wels gamocemuli
epoqalur naSroms »sanskritis uRlebis sistema berZnulis,
laTinuris, sparsulisa da germanuli enis uRlebis sistemasTan
SedarebiT« _ emTxveva niSanTa im problematikis TandaTanobiTi
ukandaxeva da mcire droSi misi sruli gaqroba, romelic saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi Tan axlda filosofiur davas enis Sesaxeb. am
TvalsazrisiT Tu SevxedavT, gasaocari ar aris, rom sosiuri im
statiebSi, romlebsac igi aqveynebda, delikaturad aridebda Tavs
niSnebis Sesaxeb saubars.
Tumca, rogorc vcadeT gveCvenebina, sosiuris semiotikuri Sexedule-
bebi safuZvlianad gansxvavdeba filosofiuri semiotikis konceptebi-
sagan; kerZod imiT, rom maTi Seswavlis obieqtia enobrivi gardaqmnis
bunebis Sesaxeb me-19 saukunis ganmavlobaSi istoriul-SedarebiTi
gramatikis miRwevebi, bopTan kavSirSi 26 . sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: sosi-
uris sawyisebs gamoarCevs is, rom igi cdilobda Tavisi drois enaT-
mecnierebis empiriuli daskvnebi niSnebis ukve daviwyebul Tematikas-
Tan kavSirSi Teoriulad Camoeyalibebina. sosiuri enobriv gardaqmnas
semiotikas upirispirebda da orive maTgani gardaiqmneboda manamde
gayofil ganxilul sferoebad, saidanac TvalsaCino xdeboda, rom
sosiuri semiotikis nacvlad, >jer ararsebul mecnierebaze< _ semio-
logiaze _ saubrobs, romelic >niSanTa arsebobas socialuri cxov-
rebis farglebSi swavlobs<. am semiologiurma sawyisma sosiurs sa-
Sualeba misca, enaTmecniereba ufro farTo konceptualur CarCoebSi
moeqcia. Tumca man, imavdroulad, daiwyo fiqri iseT sakiTxebsa da
Tematikaze, romlebsac misi drois enaTmecnierebaSi adgili ar hqon-
da. sosiurisTvis germanuli legendebic da Sualeduri gvaris enob-
rivi produqciac imdenad Sors idga, rom mis semiologiur mcdelo-
bebSi ver iqneboda asaxuli.
amasTan, kursis SesavalSi gakeTebuli daskvna, rom >lingvistika, ramdenadac
is semiologias SegviZlia mivakuTvnoT, pirvelad imkvidrebs myar adgils
mecnierebebs Soris<, mxolod nawilobrivaa simarTle: rogorc semiologiuri
mecniereba, lingvistika sosiurisTvis sulac ar iyo uproblemo sakiTxi da
mas, bolos, rogorc meiesadmi miwerili werilidan Cans, Tavisi mosazrebebis
faseuloba aeWvebda. ukeTesi iqneboda, es eWvi TviTon gaemJRavnebina 27 .

24
roca cxrameti wlis sosiurma 1876 wels laifcigSi swavla daiwyo, h. osthofi ukve
»privatdocenti« iyo. axalgazrda gramatikosTa skolis meore »xelmZRvaneli da wamyva-
ni figura« (h. arensi) k. brugmani, ukve sadoqtoro disertaciis avtori iyo 1877 wels.
Sdr. amasTan SOU, gv. 12-25. axalgazrda gramatikosTa swavlebis retrospeqtuli kon-
frontaciebi. ix. P. Caussat, »La querelle et les enjeux des lois phonetiques. Une visite aux neo-gram-
mairiens«, in: Langages 49, 1978, Saussure et la linguistique pre-saussurienne, hg. von C. Normand, gv. 24- 45.
25
am gansxvavebas gviCvenebs b. delbriuki enobrivi swavlebis SesavalSi, laifcigi 1893,
gv. 142.
26
Sdr. amasTan aseve i. feri, »sosiursa da deridasTan niSnebis Teoria an Jak deridas
sosiuris leqciebi«, in: CFS 46, gv. 35-54.
27
Cf. LEG, gv. 78.

134
misi azriT, moZRvrebis erT tips unda daveyrdnoT, romelic misi
survilis sawinaaRmdegoa.
am winadadebiT, romelic nibelungebis simReris Sesaxeb sosiuris
CanawerebSi gvxvdeba da romelic Cven am naSroms wavumZRvareT, SeiZ-
leba kursSi sosiuris azrTa warmodgenis problematikis Sejameba:
Tu, magaliTad, sosiuri, im studentebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelTaT-
visac misi leqciebi zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb >sagamocdo masa-
las< warmoadgenda, >cota gaamartivebda< da Temas >mTeli kompleq-
surobiT< ar ganavrcobda, maSin kursis gamomcemlebi sosiuris mier
warmodgenil Teorias nominalur mniSvnelobas mianiWebdnen da mas >
eWvis< mokrZalebul gamovlinebad ar miiCnevdnen. Tumca is faqti, rom
lingvistikis dabrunebas niSnebTan mecnierebebs Soris kuTvnili ad-
gili ar uWiravs, da >asmag sirTules< warmoSobs, sosiurma 1894
wels aRiara.
Tu ra tipis iyo is sirTuleebi, misi Canawerebidan vcadeT dagvezus-
tebina. aq mxolod ori maTgania kvlav dasaxelebuli: mosazreba, rom
>ena daxuruli sistemaa< da am mosazrebasTan dakavSirebuli moTxov-
na, rom >Teoriac aseve daxurul sistemas unda warmoadgendes<, upi-
rispirdeboda Tvalsazriss, rom es sistema mxolod socialuri cir-
kulaciis procesSi SeiZleba arsebobdes da masTan erTad gamaerTia-
nebel obieqtivizacias SeiZleba gaurbodes. 28 sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT:
sosiuri Tavis amocanad isaxavda, efiqra iseT sistemaze, romlis ar-
sebobasac is ekuTvnoda, arasodes warmoedgina erTeuli yovlis-
momcvelad:
warmodgena, rom enis [>langue<] sagnebi erTaderT da uwvet gzaze SegviZlia
warmovadginoT, mcdaria, Tu davuSvebT, rom ena [>langue<] TviTon aris raRac
standartuli [>une chose une<]. niSnavs, rom Cven ar vewinaaRmdegebiT imas, rom
ena [>langue<] standartulia [>une chose une<]. 29
enis, rogorc araerTgvarovani sistemis koncefcia, romelic mudmivad
ganicdida cvlilebebs, arc drosa da arc sivrceSi ar iyo Sez-
Rudvadi da aucileblad >emorCileboda SeuzRudav danawevrebas<,
marTalia, gamoirCeoda Sinaarsobrivad dauZleveli ganmartebiTi saw-

28
Sead. aseve J. – C. Milner: L’amour de la langue, Paris 1978, gv. 44 f.
29
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299. g.a. mileris erT-erT rCevas Tu mivyvebiT, movixmobT
1899 wlis 28 ivliss misi kolegis, r. vedekindisadmi miwerili werilidan erTi monak-
veTis citatas: »Tu sagnebis garkveuli mravalricxovnebis (sistemis, gansaxierebis)
cnebidan gamovalT, CemTvis cxadi gaxdeba imis aucilebloba, rom orgvari mravalric-
xovneba (isev garkveul mravalricxovnobebs vgulisxmob) gavarCio.
mravalricxovneba ki ise SeiZleba Seiqmnas, rom misi yvela elementis >erTad yofnis<
varauds winaaRmdegobamde mivyavarT, ise, rom SeuZlebelia, mravalricxovneba aRviqvaT,
rogorc erTianoba, rogorc erTi >mza sagani<. aseT mravalricxovnebebs absoluturad
usasrulo an inkonsistenciur mravalricxovnebas vuwodeb« (g. kantori, maTematikuri
da filosofiuri teqstebis Semajamebeli ganxilvebi. ganmartebuli miTiTebebiT da kan-
tor-dedekindis mimoweris danarTebiT, gamocemuli e. cermelos mier, berlini 1932, gv.
443). imisTvis, rom sosiuris enis sistema pirdapir, kantoris TvalsazrisiT >inkonsis-
tencialur mravalricxovnobad< aRvniSnoT, am orive formulirebas Soris msgavseba da
maTi temporaluri Tanxvedra mainc TvalSisacemia. Sedareba miT ufro macduria, Tu
gavixsenebT wina TavSi asaxul koncefcias >enis meqanizmis< Sesaxeb, romelic sosiu-
ris Tanaxmad, in presentia asociaciebis >urTierTqmedebas< efuZneba isve, rogorc in absen-
tia. jer kidev ar aris damtkicebuli, SesaZlebelia Tu ara savsebiT gansxvavebul dis-
ciplinasa da mecnierul-istoriul konteqstebSi ganviTarebul am or Teorias Soris
racionalurad realizebadi naTesaobiTi kavSiri.

135
yisebiT enobrivi gardaqmnisTvis, Tumca imavdroulad am koncefcias
radikaluri Sedegebi mohyva, romlebmac tradiciuli enaTmecnierebis-
Tvis usityvo winapirobad qceuli warmodgenebi enis bunebis Sesaxeb
dausabuTebeli datoves. sosiuris mosazreba, rom (>mcdari, magram
farTod gavrcelebuli warmodgenis sawinaaRmdegod<) ena meqanizmi ar
aris, romelic cnebebis gamosaxatad Seiqmna<, kursSi zogadad aris
naxsenebi. rogor unda yofiliyo >enobrivi viTareba< >Cveni nebelo-
biTi aqtis Sedegi< (rogorc es >enaTmecnierebam daadastura<), Tu
>ena ar Seicavs adamianis mier Sesworebad da warmarTvad wesebs<? da
rogor unda warmovidginoT piriqiT, enasa da metyvel subieqts Soris
damokidebuleba, Tu am kiTxvas uaryofiT pasuxs gavcemT? rogor
SeiZleba enobrivi niSnebis meSveobiT saubari, roca isini >efuZnebian
SemTxveviTobas< da TavisTavad >nulis da araraobis tolia<?
wina TavSi vikvlevdiT im mosazrebebs, romlebic sosiuris enaTmecni-
eruli Canawerebis kiTxvebidan da Teodor flurnuas naSromebis Se-
saxeb statiebidan SeiZleboda dagvedgina. sosiuris burusiT moculi
anagramis kvleva (romliTac ufro detalurad ar davinteresebul-
varT, im TvalsazrisiT, rom isini am kiTxvebs pasuxoben), gvsurs mom-
devno TavSi warmogidginoT.

XI. vin saubrobs?

sosiuris anagramis Sesaxeb kvlevidan amonaridebis gamoqveynebam sta-


tiebis seriis saxiT, romelic gamomcemelma, Jan starobinskim, 1971
wels mravlismTqmeli saTauris Les mots sous les mots. Les anagrammes de
Ferdinand de Saussure qveS gaaerTiana, myisve farTomasStabiani da mraval-
mxrivi gamoZaxili hpova. maSin, roca r. iakobsoni uyoymanod saubrob-
da »sosiuriseul meore revoluciaze«, romelic »poeziis lingvis-
tur kvlevas arnaxul perspeqtivebs dausaxavda« 30 , sxva enaTmecnierebi
ki amaSi mxolod »drois absurdul flangvas«, »sabediswero cdomi-
lebas« xedavdnen (r. amakeri) 31 , romelzec »mxolod usiamovnod saub-
roben« (g. redari) 32 , an »genialur Secdomas« (p. vunderli) 33 Tu »amo-
uxsnel« »ucnaur sakiTxs« (r. engleri) uwodebdnen. 34 g. monini bolos
gamoexmaura m. degis 35 statias »La folie de Saussure«. es gamoxmaureba, pir-
vel rigSi, eZRvneboda parizul tel-kelis jgufs 36 da miseuli anag-
ramis kvlevas, sadac aseTi gansazRvreba iyo warmodgenili: »mecnie-
ruli kulturis transformaciis kvazi-kulturaSi ukeTesad ilust-
rireba sxvas arafers SeeZlo« 37 .

30
Cf. iakobsoni 1971, gv. 23. ix. aseve misive: La charpente phonique du langage, Paris 1980, gv. 268 ff.,
»La poetique phonisante< de Saussure vue d’aujourd’hui«.
31
Cf. Linguistique saussurienne, Genf 1975, gv. 17.
32
Cf. »Deux Saussure?«, in: CFS 32, 1978, gv. 27.
33
Ferdinand de Saussure und die Anagramme. Linguistik und Literatur, Tübingen 1972, S. VII.
34
Cf. Engler 1975, gv. 844, bzw. Engler 1976, gv. 8.
35
In: Critique 25/260, 1969, gv. 20-26.
36
aseve ix. iulia kristeva: »Pour une semiologie des paragrammes« [1966] und »L’engendrement de la
formule« [1969], orive dabeWdilia: Σημειωτιχή. Recherches pour une semanalyse (Extraits), Paris 1978, gv.
113 – 146 aseve gv. 217 – 310.
37
Cf. »Les anagrammes de Saussure«, in: Amacker, Prieto und De Mauro 1974, gv. 241.

136
gamarTlebuli iyo Tu ara es sarkastuli SeniSvna, ar vici, magram
erT rames ver uarvyofT: mas Semdeg, rac ormocdaaTiani da samociani
wlebis parizSi m. merlo-ponti, k. levi-strosi, J. lakani da bevri
sxva inteleqtuali kvlavac kursis Sesaxeb miuTiTebda, sosiuri yve-
laze aqtualur Teoretikosad iqca. diax, froidTan da marqsTan er-
Tad, mas »struqturalistebis samTa kavSirs« miakuTvnebdnen, romleb-
mac subversiulobis kanoni SeimuSaves. 38 davamatoT isic, rom r. gode-
lis Sources manuscrites du Cours de linguistique generale-is gamoCenisa da masSi
dokumentirebuli da kritikuli publikaciebis 39 meSveobiT, cxadi
gaxda, rom Jeneveli ostatis azrovneba gacilebiT kompleqsuri iyo,
vidre amas sosiuris aqamde cnobili wigniT vivaraudebdiT. is faqti,
rom am sferoSi aqamde ucnobi da starobinskis mier brwyinvaled
warmodgenili egreT wodebuli anagramis gamoCenam didi miTqma-moTqma
gamoiwvia, SemdgomSi aravis gaakvirvebs. wamyvani Teoretikosebis mier
warmarTuli debatebis 40 dadebiT Sedegs warmoadgens ara is, rom sta-
robinskis wigni 1980 wels germanulad iTargmna 41 , aramed ZiriTadi sa-
kiTxebis Sesaxeb publikaciis gamoCenidan TiTqmis naxevari saukunis
Semdeg sosiuriseuli teqstebis pirveli da erTaderTi publikacia
gamoica. magram mainc zustad ris Sesaxebaa saubari »anagramebis am
cnobil, CaxlarTul TeoriaSi«? 42
Tavdapirvelad sosiuris midgomasTan dakavSirebiT erTi winaswari
SeniSvna: is, rogorc wesi, Zalian akuratulad werda, umetesad sasko-
lo rveulebSi, xolo nawilobriv did, cariel furclebze calkeul
laTinur striqonebs, romelTa Soris Semdeg zogs feradi melniT
niSnavda, bgerebsa da bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobebs iniSnavda, romlebic
misTvis mniSvnelovani iyo. qronologiurad ganlagebul magaliTebs
Soris Semdgomi mesame magaliTi, romelic uTvalavi Sesadarebeli Ca-
naweridan amoviReT, yvelaze TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs am midgomas. pir-
vel magaliTSi sosiuri ganmartavs, Tu ras gulisxmobs is anagramis,
Sesabamisad, hipogramis cnebaSi, meore magaliTi sabolood gviCvenebs,
Tu rogor gaxda sosiuri laTinuri teqstebis anagramebis ZiebaSi
siaxlis aRmomCeni:
I. [saturniseuli strofis magaliTi]

Taurasia Cisauna Sanmio ce pit

38
Sead. peSo: »Sur la (de-)construction des theories linguistiques«, in: DRLAV 27, 1982, gv. 6, Milner 1994, gv.
3 f. aseve dose 1991, gv. 65 ff.
39
Sead. danarTi, gv. 556 ff. bzw. 572.
40
zemoxsenebul lingvistebTan erTad, am debatebSi monawileobdnen aseve J. derida, l.
irigarei, J. lakani, s. lotringeri, m. rifateri da kidev sxva mravali. Sdr. danarTi,
gv. 573. yvelaze saintereso mcdeloba, am konteqstSi lingvisturi da fsiqoanalitiku-
ri mosazrebebis Setanisa, moiZebneba J.-k. milnerTan, L’amour de la langue, Paris 1978, gansa-
kuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia me-6 Tavi, »Un linguiste desirant«, gv. 85-97.
41
sityvebi sityvebis qveS. ferdinand de sosiuris anagrama, Targmnili henriete beses
mier, mainis frankfurti/berlini/vena 1980. am wignis meSveobiT sosiuris anagramis kvle-
va germanulenovani publikisTvis garkveulwilad ukve xelmisawvdomia da amitomac aq
Cven mxolod erTi xelnaweris amonaridis gadmocemiT SemovifarglebiT (ixileT infra,
magaliTi III). sadac Cveni teqsti Targmanisgan gansxvavebulia, mivuTiTebT damatebiT
franguli originalis Sesabamis gverdebs.
42
Cf. D. Shepard, »Saussure et la loi poetique«, in: Amacker/Engler 1990, gv. 237.

137
es strofi anagramulia imdenad, ramdenadac is srulad Seicavs scipionis sa-
xels (marcvlebSi cί – pί – iǒ, amas garda Samnio-s S-Si, cepit, es erTi jgufis ini-
cialebia, romelSic TiTqmis mTeli sityva scipio brundeba. _ [...]) 43
II. [laTinuri proza]
vfiqrob, Tu aRmoCndeboda, rom iulius keisari werisas an cxovrebaSi ramde-
nime wuTs imisTvis kargavda, rom hipogramatikuli sityvaTa TamaSi moefiq-
rebina, am SemTxvevaSi laTinurenovani prozaikosebisTvis saqme Zalian gar-
Tuldeboda. magram bevrad ukeTesi ram moxda: hipogramebi keisris teqstidan
moedineba iseve Warbad, rogorc _ literator-mweralTa ricxvia
komentarebze metad niSandoblivia misi ramdenime werili, romelic xelT
gvaqvs: radgan isini erTi SexedviT gvaoceben, sadac yvelaferi sxvagvaradaa
gadmocemuli, vidre ubralod »xelnawerSi«, ase, magaliTad, roca arminumi
cicerons swers:
Postremo, qui viro bono…, romelic am sityvebiT mTavrdeba:
civilibus controversies? quod nonnulli quer-
CI---------------------C---RO-ER-------- C--- -----------I C------- 44
III. [axali laTinuri: rosati, Ad Ferdinandum Lessepsum. Elegia.]
1. Fata fuisse tuum voluerent, Gallia, alumnum (2) Grande tibi e paucis qvi peperere decus
F----F----E -ER- -E------E--------------E-ER-ER-D-
(i---------n) R—D----I------------I-
a------a
A-------------------N-----------A A----------AND----------------------------D----US
3. Heu qvantum illius leto splendoris ademptum (4) Heu virtus priscis aeqviparanda viris!
-AN----------------------ND- -D---
U---------------US -LE-
LL-------LE--S---------S
-S-------------S---E (e-----p)
P---------S (e-p)-------------S|P S---S---------V -S
S--------------U----US
ukeTesi ram xdeba [ ] 45
rac ar unda damabneveli iyos es notacia, mainc advilad SevicnobT,
rom aq aRwerili fenomenis SemTxvevaSi saqme exeba ara anagramas,
cnebis mkacri, klasikuri gagebiT, anu ara »sityvebsa Tu winadade-
bebs, romlebic ama Tu im sityvis Tu winadadebis asoebis gadaadgi-
lebis meSveobiT warmoiqmnen«. 46 is, rasac sosiuri anagramas, an, Sesa-
bamisad, >hipogramas< uwodebs, cota sxva ram aris, saxeldobr, »rome-
lime sityvis an saxelis bgeriTi perifrazi« 47 teqstSi. ufro zustad:
sosiuri miiCnevs, rom teqstebis bgeriTi masalebi isea SerCeuli, rom
yovelTvis im sityvebisa Tu saxelebis >perifrazireba< Tu >imitire-
ba< 48 xdeba, romlebic pasaJis SigniT Tu mis farglebs gareT mniSvne-
lovania. mesame magaliTSi sosiuri amodis iqidan, rom strofis bge-
riTi masala ise iyo ganlagebuli, rom igi axdenda saxelis >Ferdinan-

43
Cf. WUW, gv. 22.
44
Cf. WUW, gv. 93.
45
BPUG, Ms. fr. 3969, gamouqveynebeli.
46
Unica Zürn, Das Weiße mit dem roten Punkt, Berlin 1981, S. 211. andre Tomkinsis mier moxmobili
fraza – daiviwye ego – aris anagrama, am klasikuri gagebiT – Seedorn Verlag.
47
WUW, gv. 106.
48
Cf. LAM, gv. 109.

138
dus Lessepsus< perifrazirebas, romelsac eZRvneba es leqsi. es, »erTi
SexedviT ucnauri«, 49 meTodi, sosiuris Tanaxmad, »yoveli literatu-
ruli kompoziciis aucilebeli da ganuyofeli piroba iyo saukune-
ebis ganmavlobaSi mraval sferoSi, romelic laTinurma kulturam
gamoscada« 50 :
im droidan moyolebuli, rac laTinuri poezia jer kidev saturniseul
strofebs iyenebda, uZvelesi epoqidan Sua saukuneebamde strofSi sityvebis
arCevisas anagramis upiratesobas ewinaaRmdegeboda [...]. 51
misi mtkice intonaciis sapirispirod, am striqonebSi ar aris gamoxa-
tuli sosiuris mier fenomenis saboloo Sefaseba. amis nacvlad, xaz-
gasmulia intensiuri samuSao procesis mraval etapTagan erT-erTi,
romlis msvlelobaSic sosiuri Tavisi kvlevis vels mudmivad afar-
Toebda da, amavdroulad, cdilobda savaraudo enobrivi meTodis
sul ufro axleburi definiciis moZebnas, rac man Tavisi kvlevebis
Zlier cvalebadi terminologiebis magaliTzec aRwera: anagramisa
da hipogramis garda, igi »paragramaze« 52 , »logogramaze« 53 , »antigra-
maze« 54 , »homogramaze« 55 da »kriptogramaze« 56 , Sesabamisad »paranomasi-
aze« 57 , »paraminze« 58 , »paramorfemaze« 59 da sxv. saubrobs. kvlevebi sa-
Taves iRebs 1906 wels, sosiuris romSi yofnis dros 60 , sadac mas axa-
li »Tavsatexi« 61 gauCnda _ cdilobda gaeSifra »forumis arqaistuli
xelnaweri« 62 . im varaudiT, rom saturniseuli strofi mkacrad ganla-
gebul, amouxsnel bgeraTa gameorebebs efuZneba 63 , sosiuri zemoT es-
kizis saxiT warmodgenil SexedulebasTan mivida: anagrama »gariTmvis
safuZvelia«. 64 rac ufro intensiurad iyo is anagramebze muSaobiT
dakavebuli, miT ufro farTovdeboda teqstebis raodenobac: saeWvo
fenomenebi ara mxolod saturniseul, aramed laTinur poeziasa da,
zogadad, romaul mwerlobaSic SeimCneoda; ara marto antikur laTi-
nurSi, aramed Sua saukuneebidan Tanamedroveobis laTinur poeziaSic;
ara marto laTinurad Seqmnil teqstebSi, aramed vedebis poeziidan
berZnuli literaturiTa da germanuli poeziiT dasrulebuli; mok-
led, anagramul meTodSi sruliad aSkarad Canda »indoevropuli poe-
ziis pirveli principi« 65 .
am mudmiv ZiebaSi eWvic TandaTan Zlierdeboda. sosiuri am dakvirve-
bebis sawyis etapze Tavs aridebda _ iseT »mniSvnelovan sakiTxs, ro-

49
Cf. ibid.
50
WUW, gv. 96.
51
WUW, gv. 106.
52
WUW, gv. 24.
53
WUW, gv. 25.
54
Ibid.
55
WUW, gv. 105.
56
Wunderli 1972, gv. 51.
57
WUW, gv. 24.
58
Ibid.
59
WUW, gv. 104.
60
Cf. LAM, gv. 106.
61
Cf. ibid.
62
Cf. ibid.
63
Sead. Texte, gv. 455 f. bzw. 468 ff.
64
WUW, gv. 23.
65
WUW, gv. 30.

139
goricaa _ ras unda vfiqrobdeT realobisa da fantasmagoriis Sina-
arsis Sesaxeb mTlian mocemulobaSi« 66 :
roca Tavidan pirveli anagrama Cndeba, ise Cans, TiTqos es naTelis mofenaa.
mere, roca vxedavT, rom mas SegviZlia meore, mesame, meoTxe anagrama davuma-
toT, eWvebi gviCndeba da vcdilobT iseTive absoluturi ndobiT ar viyoT
gamsWvaluli, rogorc pirvelis mimarT. bolos iqamde mivdivarT, rom vikiT-
xoT, SesaZlebelia Tu ara teqstSi yvela SesaZlo sityvis povna 67 da
Seicaven Tu ara isini damTxvevebis did raodenobas.
sosiuris dilema bolomde yvelasTvis gasagebi ar aris: is Tavis xed-
vas mimarTavs iqiT, rom anagramebi >asobiT uwyvetad moedineba<, rom
»vedebis poezia anagramebiT aris gajerebuli« 68 , »TiToeuli saturni-
seuli pasaJi mJReri marcvlebisa da bgeraTa jgufebis nakrebia« 69 ,
»ciceronis yvela naSromi, sadac ar unda gadaSaloT misi tomebi [...],
uamrav hipogramas waawydebiT« 70 . Semdeg daaskvna, rom sosiuri uary-
ofs mis mier gamoTqmul varauds. Tu is »amaod Seecdeba, cariel
pasaJs waawydes« 71 , anagramas zustad iq naxavs, sadac yvelaze nakle-
bad elis. es aucileblad migiyvans kiTxvamde, >SesaZlebelia Tu ara
teqstSi yvela SesaZlo sityvis moZebna<. da bolos, SevecadeT gveCve-
nebina, rom Cvens mier aRwerili fenomeni »anbanis 24 asos Soris Se-
saZleblobebis bunebrivi TamaSidan« 72 ki ar gamomdinareobs, aramed
ufro metia, vidre indoevropuli literaturidan amokiTxuli uTva-
lavi anagrama: amas Tan mohyva >Taviseburi garantiebi<. magram sad da
rogor unda vipovoT isini?
asaxuli dilemidan yvelaze axlo gamosavali imaSi mdgomareobda,
rom eZebnaT mtkicebulebebi, romlebSic dadgenili iqneboda savara-
udo meTodis »SesrulebiT« 73 »poetisadmi dakisrebuli yvela saxis
valdebuleba da movaleobani«. Tumca sosiuri ase ar Tvlis, rogorc
Tavis erT-erT rveulSi aqvs CaniSnuli:
amasTan ver vpoulob axsnas im Znelad sarwmuno da Znelad gasagebi faqtisas,
rom arc erTi laTinurenovani avtori, romelic metrikas werda an, zogadad,
literaturul kompoziciebze saubrobda, ar qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom icis,
an surs, rom icodes Semdegi: poeturi kompoziciis umTavresi safuZveli ima-
Si mdgomareobs, rom ama Tu im saxelis logogramebi gamoiyenos; da is, rom
imperiis yvelaze daSorebul provinciebSi, yvela literaturuli centrisgan
moSorebiT, albaT, ar arsebobs arc erTi mokrZalebuli epitafia, TviT uxeSi
laTinuri poeziis nimuSis ramdenime striqonic ki, iseve rogorc avtorebi,
romlebic swavlulis kompoziciis labirinTebSi ibnevian da anagramis sakma-
ris safuZvelsac ki ver qmnian 74 .

is faqti, rom amas antikur leqswyobaSi mniSvneloba ar aqvs, sosiu-


ris TvaliT, sulac ar niSnavda imas, rom >anagramebis Teoria< ar

66
WUW, gv. 123.
67
WUW, gv. 105.
68
Cf. LAM, gv. 113.
69
Cf. LAM, gv. 110.
70
WUW, gv. 92.
71
WUW, gv. 91.
72
WUW, gv. 124.
73
WUW, gv. 18.
74
WUW, gv. 108; MSM, gv. 136.

140
unda ganviTarebuliyo. Tu yvela gamokvleuli teqsti >sakmaod moi-
cavda anagramas<, SeiZleboda is »okultur tradicias« 75 wawydomoda.
ufro metic: »anagramebis marTlac mkacri kanonzomierebebis« aTvise-
ba, yvela ganaTlebuli romaelisaTvis imdenad rTuli iyo, rom SeZ-
lebdnen ki umniSvnelo sityva mainc eTqvaT«? 76 . amrigad, laTinurad
mosaubreTa Soris »hipogramam Seucvleli da Rrma fsiqologiuri so-
cializaciis 77 xarisxs miaRwia«. romeli paTologiuri aspeqtebi 78 Se-
eZlo mieRo mas? Tu am SemTxvevaSi saqme exeboda »religiur an poe-
tur kanons« 79 , ese igi ra gamodis, »mwerals sakuTari striqonebis Ca-
weris ufleba ar unda hqonoda, «? 80
rac ar unda gonivruli da mravalSriani iyos es varaudebi, sosiuri
ar gaurboda imis aRiarebas, rom am spekulaciuri gziTac ki SeuZle-
beli iyo misTvis umniSvnelovanes kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema _ >ra unda
vifiqroT realobisa da fantasmagoriis erTiani Semadgenlobis Sesa-
xeb<. garemoebebma aCvena, rom »uaryofiTad ganwyobili kolegis azris
gaTvaliswinebiT« SeiZleboda anagramebis Teoriis »mSralad Sefase-
ba« 81 . aqedan gamomdinare, 1906 wlis 12 noembris werilSi sosiuri
mimarTavs meies:
Zalian damavalebdiT, Tu megobrul samsaxurs gamiwevT da homerosis poezia-
Si anagramebis Sesaxeb Canawerebs waikiTxavT, romlebic sxva kvlevebTan er-
Tad, saturniseul strofebze muSaobisas aRvwere; amasTan dakavSirebiT ndo-
biT mogmarTavT rCevisTvis, radgan visac es idea gaqvT, daaxloebiT minda vi-
code, iluziis msxverpli xarT Tu Tqveni idea simarTles an Tundac naxev-
rad simarTles emyareba. mas Semdeg, rac vakvirdebi, Tu vin SeiZleboda yofi-
liyo Cemi hipoTezis Semmowmebeli, ukve didi xania aseTad mxolod Tqven
migiCnevT. ar dagimalavT, rom Tuki dainteresdebiT, momdevno fostiT Torme-
tidan TxuTmet rveuls miiRebT. asea Tu ise, es Canawerebi mkiTxvelis Tva-
liT aris Sedgenili, rac miznad mqonda dasaxuli da amiT isini leqciebisas
sirTuleebs ar qmnian. 82
meiem mokle SeniSvnebSi mainc gaimeora, rom sosiuris >ideis< momx-
rea da SekiTxvaze manac ar icoda imaze ukeTesi pasuxi, vidre C. bei-
lim da l. gotiem, romlebic sosiurma Semdgom Tavis kvlevebSi Car-
To. Tumca Tavisi gamokvlevebis msvlelobisas bolos Tanamedrove
laTinur teqstebSi anagramas waawyda. amjerad misi arCevani SeCerda
j. paskolize, romelic im dros boloniis universitetis profesorad
muSaobda da italiur literaturas aswavlida. erT-erT pirvel we-
rilSi _ 1909 wlis 19 marts _ romelSic man am problemis Sesaxeb
bundovnad miuTiTa. sosiurma 1909 wlis 6 aprils misgan pasuxi miiRo,
sadac profesori mouwodebda, Tavisi naSromidan konkretuli nimuSe-
bi waredgina:

75
WUW, gv. 106. kabalistebis, egreTwodebuli »Temuras« anagramuli praqtikis saintere-
so asaxva, romelsac sosiuri Tavisi varaudiT »okultur tradiciad« miiCnevda, Eco
1994, gv. 38-46.
76
WUW, gv. 94.
77
WUW, gv. 96.
78
WUW, gv. 92.
79
WUW, gv. 30.
80
WUW, gv. 96.
81
Cf. LAM, gv. 112 bzw. Texte, gv. 519 ff.
82
Cf. Jakobson 1971, gv. 16.

141
pativcemulo batono da kolegav,
im striqonebisTvis, romlebic wina TveSi megobrulad gamomigzavneT, madlie-
rebas gamovxatav, radgan isini Cems Txovnaze pasuxsac Seicavs.
ori an sami elementi sakmarisi iqneba, sakiTxis mniSvneloba rom agixsnaT,
romelmac damafiqra. raTa amaze zogadi pasuxebi gagceT. Tu aq ubralo
damTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme, romelic mxolod am ramdenime nimuSSi gvxvdeba,
maSin SegviZlia frTxili daskvna gavakeToT: is sxva yvelafris mimarTac ima-
ve damokidebulebaSia. Tu Tqveni werilis zogierTi frazis mixedviT vimsje-
lebT, saqme unda exebodes savaraudod martiv SemTxveviT Sesabamisobebs:
1. SemTxveviTia Tu ara, rom katulokalvos me-16 gverdze saxeli falerni gare-
moculia sityvebiT, romlebic am sityvis marcvlebis reproduqcias axdenen
. . . /facundi calices hausere - a l t e r n i /
FA AL ER AL ERNI
2. Ibidem S. 18; mxolod damTxvevaa, rom ulixe-s marcvlebi saZebaria, sityvaTa
iseT TanmimdevrobaSi rogoricaa
/Urbium sim ul / Undique pepulit lux umbras . . . resides
U___ UL U_ ULI- X- S- S- ES
iseve rogorc Circe
/Cicuresque/ . . .
CI__R_CE
[...]
rogorc vambobdi, es magaliTebi sakmarisia, miuxedavad imisa, rom didi rao-
denobiT magaliTebs Soris aris amorCeuli. problemaSi aris damabneveli ra-
Rac. rac ufro meti magaliTi gvaqvs, ufro meti safuZveli arsebobs imis
warmodgenisa, rom es anbanis 24 asos Soris bunebrivi TamaSia, romlebic am
Tanxvedras regularulad, Tanabrad awarmoebs. radgan am SemTxvevaSi alba-
Tobis gamoTvla gamocdili maTematikosis niWs moiTxovs, CavTvale, ufro
mokle da sarwmuno iqneboda, mimemarTa pirovnebisTvis, vinc SeZlebda gane-
marta CemTvis is mniSvneloba, romelic xalxis aseT Sexvedras miewereba.
Tqven mier sapatio da megobruli SemoTavazebis gamo, Sefasebebs aRar
Sevudgebi. 83
am istoriis dasasruli cnobilia: goties Tanaxmad, meore werili
upasuxod darCa da radgan sosiuri am dumils aSkara uaryofis niS-
nad miiCnevda, man anagramis Sesaxeb Tavisi kvlevebi Sewyvita. 84 da ma-
inc, iyo Tu ara sosiuri >iluziis msxverpli< da mTeli es sakiTxi
>fantasmagoria<? paskolisadmi werilidan TvalSisacemia, rom sosiu-
ri cdilobs Tavisi kiTxva mtkice alternativaze daiyvanos: teqstebis
avtoris mier anagramebi an iyo gaTvaliswinebuli, an isini sruliad
SemTxveviTi iyo da, Sesabamisad, yuradReba ar Rirda. am alterna-
tivas poeturi moRvaweobis procesis igive racionaluri warmodgena
udevs safuZvlad, romlebic sosiurma franguli leqswyobis Sesaxeb
Tavis CanawerebSi ase Camoayaliba:
Cemi sistema imaSi ki ar mdgomareobs, rom Cemive naSromis Tayvanismcemlad
maqcios da am ganmartebisgan rames velodo... Cemi sistema piriqiT, raciona-
luri sqemebis garda, sxva ramis daSvebas SeuZlebels xdis da gvexmareba,
rom Zalian mSralad SevafasoT, misdevs Tu ara esa Tu is avtori raciona-
lur sqemebs. [...]

83
Cf. »Lettres de Ferdinand de Saussure a Ciovani Pascoli«, hg. von G. Nava, in: CFS 24, 1968, S. 80; WUW, gv.
123 f.
84
WUW, gv. 124.

142
prozaSi, iseve, rogorc leqsebSi aris raRac, rasac weras vuwodebT da ra-
sac literaturis kritikosebi Seiswavlian. weris niWi naSromis bgeraTa er-
TianobaSia. aq mTavri lamazi winadadebebis Casma rodia, aramed avtori
srulyofilad unda flobdes Tavis azrebs [>pensee<] [...]. 85
klasikuri esTetikis am warmodgenas, rogorc d. Separdi aRniSnavs 86 ,
anagramebi kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayeneben. sosiuris mocemuli formuli-
rebiT, mis mier gamokvleuli teqstebis »JReradoba [>phonisme<] misi
saxelisgan gansxvavdeba« 87 , terminebi »damTxveva Tu gamiznuloba«
arasworadaa naxmari. literaturis Teoriis problema anagramebis
kvlevas isaxavda miznad: aq gamoikveTa, rom is, rasac viRaca ambobs,
manera, Tu rogor ambobs, ganisazRvreba im mimarTebebiT, romlebic
enobriv masalaSia ganTavsebuli; mimarTebebiT, romlebic yovelgvar
winaswar gansazRvrul Canafiqrs moklebulia da, Sesabamisad, warmo-
udgeneli efeqtis moxdena SeuZlia. 88 Tu dakvirvebas movaxdenT >enis
meqanizmis< Tvalsazrisze, romlis eskizic sosiurma anagramebze mu-
Saobis bolo etapis paralelurad zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb
gamarTul meore leqciaSi warmogvidgina, cxadi gaxdeba, rom enasa da
metyvel subieqts Soris amgvari kompleqsuri damokidebuleba SesaZ-
lebelia mxolod maSin, Tu >enis meqanizmi< >mTlian farul siste-
mas< moicavs, >misi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia niSnis SeqmnisTvis saWiro
sawyisebis miRebac<. Tu >sityvis mniSvnelobis zusti gansazRvra kon-
teqstidan SesaZlebelia, < Sesabamisad, >sityvis garSemo yvela forma
awmyoa<, maSin advili dasaSvebia, rom >saxelebi<, romlebic teqstis
Temas warmoadgenen, maTi >JReradobisgan gansxvavdebodnen<. sosiuri
anagramebis kvlevisas waawyda <okulturi tradiciis< Sesaxeb mosaz-
rebas (romlis Sesaxebac homerosidan dawyebuli paskoliT damTavre-
buli, yvela avtori dumda).
anagramebis meSveobiT ki swored misi modelis gamosaxva mtkicdeba.
aseTi daskvna, erTi mxriv, imas SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom aRwerili fe-
nomenis SemTxvevaSi saqme ara specifikur literaturul cnebas exeba
(sosiurisTvis es, pirvel rigSi, gadaxra unda yofiliyo), SesaZlebe-
li iqneboda >enis sayovelTao problemis< gamomJRavneba: meore mxriv,
amiT am Sexedulebis iluziuroba gamoaSkaravdeboda ise, rom teqstis
avtori iqneboda Tavisi naSromis pirveli da ukanaskneli instancia.
sosiuri yovelTvis miuTiTebda enobriv-filosofiuri tradiciidan
momdinare im warmodgenis aradamakmayofileblobis Sesaxeb, rom
>enobrivi faqtebi Cveni nebis aqtebis uSualo Sedegia<; aseve miuTi-
Tebda enobrivi fenomenebis aRwerisas maTi gamousadegarobis Sesaxeb.
da mainc, am racionalisturi warmodgenis saSualebiT cdilobs mis
etapobrivad daZlevas, aseve enasTan misive dapirispirebis gadalaxvas.
diax, albaT, SesaZlebelia, kiTxvaSi _ vin metyvelebs? _ ganvsazRv-
roT azrobrivi lokacia, romlidanac momdinareobda eWvi, romelmac
sosiurs Tavisi naSromebis gamoqveynebaze uari aTqmevina.

85
Cf. Shepheard 1990, gv. 237f.
86
Ibid.
87
WUW, gv. 45, Hervorhebung hinzugefügt.
88
meieisadmi miweril erT-erT werilSi, romelSic mas atyobinebs, rom saturniseuli
strofebis gasaRebs, savaraudod, »aliteraciaSi« miagno, sosiuri uCveulod mebrZoli
sityvebiT wers, rom »mZime artileriidan sroliT win miiwevs« (Sdr. WUW, gv. 14).

143
Tu sityvebi rames amboben, ubralod imitom ki ara, rom Cven ase
gvsurs, aramed ufro metad imitom, rom isini cirkulireben da erT
sistemaSi mudmiv urTierTqmedebaSi imyofebian, sistemaSi, romelic
Taobidan Taobas gadaecema da Tan aucileblad icvleba. sityvaTa am
TamaSis gakontroleba SeuZlebeli iyo maTi werilobiTi dafiqsire-
biT. mxolod mas, vinc dawera, SeeZlo gageba, ras gulisxmobda Cana-
werSi _ imave F-e-r-d-i-n-a-n-d-u-s-s Tu sxva saxelsac?
yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tu misi gardacvalebidan TiTqmis naxevari sauku-
nis Semdeg franguli struqturalizmis wamyvani Teoretikosebi sosi-
urs miubrundebian, ara ubralod imitom, rom masTan lingvisturi
konceptebi aRmoaCines, romlebic sxva humanitarul sferoebzec SeiZ-
leba ganivrcos. aqedan gamomdinare, struqturalizmis ganviTarebis-
Tvis sosiuris mniSvneloba gacilebiT didia, rac man Tavis naazrevSi
aCvena, Tu rogor SeiZleboda (metyveli) subieqtis racionalisturi
koncefciebis daZleva da kidev, Tu raoden mniSvnelovani iyo enis
semiologiuri aRqma:
niSnebis buneba... mxolod enaSi [<langue<] SeiZleba iyos danaxuli da es bu-
neba im sagnebisagan Sedgeba, romelsac yvelaze naklebad ikvleven. swored
amitom, pirvel rigSi, semiologiuri mecnierebebis gansakuTrebul saWiroebas
da aucileblobas ar ikvleven, roca enas [<langue<] zogadi filosifiuri
TvalsazrisiT ganixilaven; roca sxva sagnebs enis saSualebiT [<langue<]
ikvleven. 89
enaSi [<langue<] individualur da socialur nebas Tavs aridebs niSnis mniSv-
nelovani Tviseba da isic, rom, erTi SexedviT, is naklebad avlens Tavs. 90 Tu
niSans am TvalsazrisiT SevxedavT, sakmaod bevr moulodnelobas wavawyde-
biT. kvlevis procesSi davinaxavT, rom isini kvlevis erT sferos, niSnis gan-
sakuTrebuli arsebobis sferos, semiologias ganekuTvnebian. 91
danatovari Canawerebis Sesaxeb SesavalSi gavarkvieT sakiTxi, Tu ra-
tomaa, rom sosiurisTvis >is, rac enaSi individualur da socialur
nebas Tavs aridebs, niSnis mniSvnelovani Tvisebaa<. amasTanave, warmo-
iSva azrTa daZabuli jaWvi, romelic sosiuris mier legendebis kvle-
vis lingvistur refleqsiebs da Teodor flurnuasa da anagramebis
kvlevis Sesaxeb mis statiebs Tan gasdevs. amasTan, warumatebeli da
Semcirebuli iqneboda sosiuris mecnierul-istoriuli mniSvneloba,
mxolod am erTi sakiTxis WrilSi rom gangvexila. Tu Cveni Sesavali
winaaRmdegobas gamoiwvevs da survils aRZravs, sosiuris teqstebi
gansxvavebuli TvalsazrisebiT gamoikvlion, maSin man Tavis upirve-
les mizans miaRwia.

89
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 51, II R 22, Nr. 313-314.
90
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 51, II R 23, Nr. 312.
91
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 51, II R 23, Nr. 315.

144
meore nawili

ferdinand de sosiuris
teqstebi

145
E.

saredaqcio miTiTebebi da
teqstis kritikuli niSnebi

...filologia radgan sxva araferia, Tu ara vrce-


li komentari, romelsac literaturuli naSro-
mis boloSi weren. is absoluturad literaturu-
li mizania, romelsac, erTsa da imave dros, fi-
lologiuri mecnierebis saarsebo safuZveli da
erTianoba Seadgens, romlebic yovlad gansxvave-
bul kvlevebs moicaven.
dauTariRebeli Canaweri

teqstis kritikuli niSnebi

[ ] gamotoveba, wyvetis adgili


<> yvelaferi, rac striqonebis zemoT, qvemoT da gverdiT
xeliT aris miwerili da rac wakiTxul unda iqnes (Cama-
teba, gadakeTeba, koreqcia, glosa da a.S.)
xxx gadaxazuli, magram amokiTxvadi pasaJebi
[>français<] franguli originalis teqsti sityvasityviT

saredaqcio miTiTebebi

sosiuris literaturuli memkvidreobis xelnawerebi Zalian gansxvave-


bulia. isini, amasTanave, sruliad gansxvavebul mecnierul konteqs-
tebSi gamoiyeneba da aqamde frangulad calkeuli kriteriumebis mi-
xedviT ar dauyviaT. aqedan gamomdinare, gonivruli Cans, calkeul
teqstebSi maT danarTSi Sesabamisi saredaqcio miTiTebebi SevitanoT
aRniSvnebis formiT.
teqstebze muSaobis ganmavlobaSi gamocemebisTvis sayovelTaod dam-
kvidrda Semdegi principi: TargmanisTvis amosavali wertili yovel-
Tvis frangul enaze Sesrulebuli teqstebia. wina ganzraxva, uSua-
lod xelnawerebidan eTargmnaT, praqtikaSi miuReblad miiCnies. so-
siuri Tavis xelnawerebs xSirad safuZvlianad amuSavebda, koreqti-
vebi Sehqonda, striqonebs Soris da mindorze Camatebebs akeTebda
(Sdr. faqsimile N. 23.7, S. 235 ff.). ara mxolod franguli da germanuli
enebis gansxvavebuli sintaqsuri struqturis gamo gaxda SeuZlebeli,
rom es xelnaweri wasakiTxad da filologiuri TvalsazrisiT gadmo-
gveca. punqtuaciisas masTan dakavSirebuli problemebisTvis Semdegi
gadawyveta avirCieT: iq, sadac sosiuri franguli punqtuaciis sivr-
ces niSandoblivad iyenebs, iqac ki xandaxan gansxvavdeba Targmani
germanuli werilobiTi enis wesebisagan.

146
zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb Canawerebis SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia r.
engleris (CLG/E) sqemas gavyveT: sosiuris mier xelnawerebis xangr-
Zlivi gadamuSaveba, rogorc aseTi, aRniSnulia (Sdr. teqstis kritiku-
li niSnebi). igive SeiZleba iTqvas a. marinetisa da m. melis mier ger-
manuli legendebis (LEG) Casworebuli Canawerebis Sesaxebac, romel-
Ta filologiuri miTiTebani TargmanSi Sesabamisi formiT aris damu-
Savebuli. rogorc yvela teqstis kritikuli naSromis SemTxvevaSi,
gamocema aqac (ufro metad, vidre es Targmanis SemTxvevaSia) mxolod
xelnawerTa variantebs emsgavseba.
aq moxmobili teqstis gamocemebis Sedarebam Bibliotheque publique et univer-
sitaire de Geneve-Si Senaxuli sosiuris xelnawerebTan _ daaxloebiT
8500 rveulebad Sekrul furcelTan (vgl. BB. 01) _ gviCvena, rom misi
teqsti sityvasityviT aris gadmocemuli. aSkarad mcdari interpreta-
ciebi ki SevasworeT. msgavsi viTarebaa ukve arsebuli Targmanebis pa-
saJebTan muSaobisas, romelic aq movitaneT.
amgvari midgoma, Sesabamisi franguli teqstebis moZieba da citireba,
aadvilebs da SesaZlebels xdis teqstis kritikuli niSnebis mokrZa-
lebul gamoyenebas, rac teqstebis kiTxvadobas uwyobs xels.
ramdenime gamonaklisis garda, aq naTargmni yvela teqsti Bibliotheque
publique et universitaire de Geneve-Si Senaxuli sosiuris xelnawerebidan
momdinareobs da, ramdenadac cnobilia, 1891-dan 1911 wlamde periods
ekuTvnis. danarCeni, nawilobriv adreul periodSi dawerili 638 fur-
celze ganTavsebuli sosiuris memkvidreoba, romelic 1967 wlidan
harvardis universitetis hoTonis biblioTekis sakuTrebaSia, cota
xnis win dokumentirebul iqna h. pares mier axlaxans gamocemul far-
To mimoxilvaSi (Sdr. danarTi, gv. 563). iqvea SedarebiT patara monak-
veTebi, sxva formaSi gadatanili ki ara, aramed mxolod TargmnisTvis
gamosayeneblad.

147
F.
faqsimile, transkrifcia da
xelnaweris amonaridis Targmani
...magram sainteresoa, davakvirdeT amoucnob
bloks da davrwmundeT de visu-s interpretaciaSi.
isini me ueWvelobis xarisxiT yvelgan damkvidre-
buli ar mgonia. piriqiT, utyuarad miCneulia is,
rasac is ar warmoadgens...
1906 wlis 23 ianvari,
antuan meieisadmi werilidan

BPUG, Ms. fr. 3951.23/7, gv. 27 recto (=N 23.7).

148
1 [Valeur.] Ce qui est inseparable de toute rac ganuyofelia im mniSvnelobisgan,
valeur, ou ce qui fait la valeur, ce n’est <ni>, is unda mivakuTvnoT sistemas, erTmane-
a) d’etre inseparable d’une serie de grandeurs Tis miyolebiT arsebuli sidideebis
opposables formant un systeme, ni TvalsazrisiT, romlebic sistemas
b) d’avoir [] qmnian 2 , an rac mniSvnelobas Seadgens,
mais les deux choses a la fois et <arc> a) erTmaneTis miyolebiT arse-
inseparablement <liees entre elles>. Valeur buli sidideebis seriisgan ganuyofe-
est <eminemment> synonime <a chaque in- lia, romlebic qmnian sistemas da arc
stant> de terme situe dans un systeme <de b) [ ] es sistema gaaCniaT, aramed orive
termes similaires>, de meme qu’il est sagani pirdapiraa <erTmaneTTan dakav-
<eminemment> synonime a chaque instant Sirebuli>.
de chose echangeable. [] Prenant la chose [ ]
echangeable d’une part, de l’autre les termes mniSvneloba <am momentSi> srulebiT
co-systematiques, cela n’offre aucune paren- <mniSvnelovania> terminis sinonimuro-
te. C’est le proper de la valeur de mettre en bis TvalsazrisiT, romelic situaci-
rapport d’une maniere <qui va jusqu’a de- ur mimarTebaSia sistemasTan <msgavs
sesperer> l’ esprit par l’impossibilite de scru- terminebTan>, iseve, rogorc is yovel
ter s ices deux faces de la valeur different momentSi srulebiT <eminenturi> sino-
<pour elle> ou <en quoi>. La seule chose nimia cvladi sagnisa. [ ] Tu aviRebT
<indiscutable> est que la valeur va dans ces <erTi mxriv> mniSvnelobis arsSi Sema-
deux axes, est geterminee selon ces deux axes val sidideebs, xolo meore mxriv, ko-
concouramment: sistematur terminebs, maT Soris naTe-
saobas ver aRmovaCenT. es aris mniSvne-
… … lobis Tavisebureba, rom es ori saga-
ni daukavSiros erTmaneTs. es ki asea
warmodgenili, SiSma da umweobam Se-
iZleba goni <sasowarkveTilebamde mi-
iyvanos>, cdilobs daadginos, mniSvne-
lobis es ori mxare gansxvavdeba Tu
[↔Similia _ _ _ _ _ Similia Similia
ara misgan da <riT>. cxadia, mxolod
Semile erTi ram aris usaTuod eWvgareSe: mniSv-
neloba, romelic am orive RerZs miuy-
veba, orive RerZis mier ganisazRvreba:

… …

[↔ Similia _ _ _ _ _ Similia Similia


Semile

1
marcxena svetSi gadmovcemT teqsts im formiT, rogorc r. englers aqvs motanili. mar-
jvena svetSi ki mocemulia Cveni germanuli Targmani (Seadare. Texte, gv. 403 f.).
2
es pasaJi (iseve, rogorc Semdegi, gadaxazuli pasaJebi) r. englerma ar moixmo. rogorc
wesi, germanuli Targmanis gadaxazul adgilebSic moiZebneba is CLG/E-Si, sadac igi
aRniSnulia miniSnebiT <xyz> [biffe] bzw. <xyz>[b.].
imisTvis, rom ar davazianoT Targmanis kiTxvadoba, ramdenime pasaJi, sadac Cveni Tar-
gmani CLG/E-is transkrifciisgan gasxvavdeba, damatebiTi teqstis kritikuli niSnebiT
aRar aris aRniSnuli. faqsimiles, transkrifciisa da Targmanis Sepirispireba naTels
hfens im faqts, rom sasurveli iqneboda sosiuris mTliani literaturuli memkvidreo-
bis erTiani franguli gamocema.

149
BPUG, Ms. fr. 3951.23/7, gv. 27 recto (=N 23.7).

150
Il n'est pas absolument important de s'apercevoir umniSvnelod mimaCnia imis aRniSvna,
que les similia à leur tour sont <chacun naturelle- rom Sedareba, Tavis mxriv, <buneb-
ment pourvus de leur> dissimile, et que le tableau rivad> SepirispirebasTan erTad
juste serait donc: moiazreba da zusti suraTi amas-
Tan dakavSirebiT iqneba:
Similia> Similia> Similia
Similia> Similia> Similia Similia> Similia> Similia
Similia> Similia> Similia
Au contraire c'est ce tableau final et banal qui lait
ressembler la valeur à une chose <qui voit sa amis sapirispirod, bolo suraTi,
règle en elle>, en laissant supposer faussement romelic banaluria da romelic
quelque réalité absolue. Garder en tous cas le faseulobas da sagans erTmaneTs
schéma uTanabrebs, <Tavis wesebs Tavis
TavSi moiazrebs> imiT, rom mcdar
Disimile absolutur realobas cnobs.
Similia←Similia←Semile→Similia→ Similia yovel SemTxvevaSi, vinarCunebT
sqemas:
Disimile
Le rapport simile : dissimile est une chose Similia←Similia←Semile→Similia→ Similia
parfaitement dilférente du rapport simile : similia,
et ce rapport est néanmoins insaissisa-blement et mimarTeba Simile : Dissimile sruliad
3
jusqu'au tréfonds de la notion de valeur. gansxvavdeba mimarTebisagan Simile :
Similia da es mimarTeba dausabuTeb-
lad, kerZod ki Sinagani siRrmiT
[>jusqu’au trefonds<] fasulobis cne-
basTan [ ] aris dakavSirebuli.

3
Cf. CLG/E (I), S. 260, N23.7, Nr. 1864

151
G.
Canawerebi
sosiuris memkvidreobidan

ramdenime WeSmariteba, romelic sakuTar Tavs


kvlav poulobs. aq laparaki ar gveqneba arc
aqsiomebze, arc principebsa da arc Tezebze.
martivi da mkveTri etimologiuri Tvalsaz-
risiT, saqme exeba aforizmebs, farglebs –
sazRvrebs, romelTa Soris WeSmariteba yo-
velTvis poulobs sakuTar Tavsac da imasac,
risganac igi ibadeba.
dauTariRebeli Canaweri

1. Canawerebi zogadi enaTmecnierebisaTvis 1

# 1.1, # 1.2, # 1.3 2


`Canawerebi Jenevis sadebiuto leqciisaTvis, noemberi, 1891~ 3

# 1.1 `pirveli saaTi~ 4

Tu Cveni universitetis kaTedra, romlis gamgis Tanamdebobis dakave-


bis pativi dRes maqvs, humanitaruli mecnierebis fakultetis axal
dargs warmoadgens da Tu Cemi dRevandeli movaleoba an pativia, im
saswavlo taZarSi SegiZRveT, romlis SenebisTvisac ager ukve 70 we-
lia enaTmecniereba [>science du langage<] iRvwis da mTavar StrixebSi
warmogidginoT misi warsuli, romelsac arc Tu didi xnis istoria
aqvs, an misi momavali ganvWvrito, misi mizani ganvsazRvro, misi sar-
geblianoba, misi is adgili movniSno, romelic adamianis cnobiereba-
Ta wreSi ukavia da damsaxurebac vaCveno, romelic humanitaruli mec-
nierebis sferoSi gaaCnia, vSiSob, Cems movaleobas kargad gavarTva
Tavi, magram darwmunebiT ki SemiZlia imis Tqma, rom am saqmeSi marto
da mitovebuli ar viqnebi. lingvistikis damsaxurebis gareSe, gadaW-
riT imis Tqma, Tu ra saWiroa, magaliTad, klasikuri ganaTlebisaTvis

1
Cf. BPUG, frang. xeln. 3951. Targmani Sesrulebulia, r. engleris kritikuli gamocemidan,
CLG/E(I)+(II). garda # 14 C-is, # 20-is, # 22.2-3-is, # 23-2-is da # 24 b-f-isa, gaTvaliswine-
bulia agreTve ramdenime mcire zomis gamoxmaureba, aseve Targmnili r. engleris mier
gamocemuli sosiuris enaTmecnieruli xasiaTis xelnawerebidan.
2 bibliografiuli monacemebi formiTa da SinaarsiT eyrdnoba SM/G, CLG/E-sa da engle-
ris 1975a gamocemas. kursis mindvrebze gakeTebuli minawerebis citirebis meTodi –
kvlav ubrundeba r. godelis meTods, romelmac de sosiuris memkvidreoba ormocdaaTi-
ani wlebis bolos moawesriga. amisaTvis Sead. r. godeli: `Inventaire des manuscrits de F. de
Saussure remis à la Bibliothèque publique et universitaire de Genève~, CFS- 17-Si, 1960, gv. 5-11, >N1.1< =
sosiuris Canawerebis godeliseuli klasifikacia da katalogizeba.
3 Targmanebze wamZRvarebuli saTaurebi, rogorc wesi, de sosiurisagan ar momdinare-
obs da SeiZleba Sinaarsis ZiriTadi azris gamomxatvelad iqnas gagebuli. Sead. gode-
li, 1960, gv. 5-11.
4 upirveles yovlisa, leqciebis am mosamzadebeli samuSaos pirveli gverdebi nawilob-
riv Znelad gairCa da safuZvlianadac aris gadamuSavebuli, amitom yvelgan ver moxer-
xda winadadebaSi azris logikuri mdinarebis rekonstruireba (Sead. CLG/E).

152
berZnuli, laTinuri da franguli enebis [>langues<] codnis garda, am
mecnierebidanac gaigo [>Tuki mxolod wminda literaturuli mizani
geqneboda<], ra mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondes am mecnierebas istoriis
an civilizaciis istoriisaTvis. _ am SemTxvevaSi erTi Jeneveli
pirovnebis saxels movuxmobdi, romliTac Cven sxva mxrivac vamayobT.
es gaxlavT adolf piqte, romelmac gaiazra, Tu ra sargebeli SeiZ-
leba vnaxoT enis [>langue<] wyalobiT, Tuki mas preistoriuli peri-
odis sabuTad ganvixilavT, romlis monacemebs vendobiT (da SeiZleba
Zalianac), <rogorc enTuziazmis gaRviZebisaTvis, romelmac moulod-
neli samyaros, _ <absoluturi Rirebulebis WeSmaritebis> uecari aR-
moCena moaxdina. yovel SemTxvevaSi, adolf piqtem Cauyara safuZveli
seriozul swavlebas, romelsac swavlulebi dResac ufrTxildebian
da mec, maT kvalad, gansakuTrebuli SeupovrobiT davicavdi im zus-
tad gansazRvrul mniSvnelobas, romelic lingvistikam eTnografiaSi
moipova im TvalsazrisiT, rom enobrivi monacemebi yovelTvis, Semd-
gomi informaciis miRebamde, mis gankargulebaSi rCeba. es eTnografe-
bisaTvis pirveli sabuTia da Tu ikiTxaven, am monacemebis gareSe eT-
nologebi aqamde rogor movidodnen, <saCveneblad>, SeiZleba aseTi
magaliTis moxmoba. <(aTasidan erTis amorCevac ikmarebs)>, ungreTSi
boSebi madiarebisagan sruliad gansxvavebul rasas warmoadgenen, Ta-
vad ungrelebi ki avstriis samefoSi Cexebisa da germanelebisagan
sruliad gansxvavebul rasad iTvlebian. amis sapirispirod, Cexebi da
germanelebi, romlebsac mTeli guliT sZagT erTmaneTi, Zalian axlo
(naTesavebi) arian. Tavis mxriv, ungrelebi <axlo> biZaSvilebi arian
ruseTis samefoSi Semavali baltiis zRvis sanapiroze mcxovrebi fi-
nuri mosaxleobisaTvis. <Tavad mas ki arasodes smenia, rom, Tavis
mxriv, boSebi indoeTidan wamosuli xalxia>. winare istoriisa da eT-
nologiis am sakiTxze SeiZleba mxolod mniSvnelovani amerikeli
lingvistis uiTnis citireba: lingvistikas sayvedurobT, rom igi mxo-
lod pirobiT, koreqturas daqvemdebarebul monacemebs qmnis, magram
dafiqrdiT, romelia meore mecniereba, romelic epoqebis Sesaxeb ra-
ime cnobebs mogvawvdida? me am sakiTxebze gadaverTvebodi da vidre
igi sakvlev saganTan migvaaxlovebda, imasTan, ris gadakeTebasac Za-
lian meeWveba, rom fsiqologia apirebdes, umal enis [>langue<] swavle-
biT daviwyebdi, radgan swored amiT SeviqmniT samkals. magram jer
aseT kiTxvas davsvamdi: seriozulad fiqrobT, rom enaTmecnierebas
yvelaferi es sWirdeba, raTa Tavi imarTlos <an Tavisi arsebobis ga-
mo Tavi imarTlos> amtkicos, rom igi sxva mecnierebebisTvisac saWi-
ro sagania? es is moTxovnaa, romelsac, rogorc igi ganmartavs, enaT-
mecniereba mniSvnelovnad Seesatyviseba <da albaT, ufro metadac,
vidre mTeli rigi mecnierebebisa>, magram vaRiareb, rom ver vxedav
<Sedegs> da imas, rom es moTxovna safuZvliania. romeli mecnierebis
arsebobas gaxdi winaswar pirobebze damokidebuls, rom igi <iZule-
buli iqneba, winaswar ganWvritos Sedegebi, romlebic wayenebuli pi-
robebis mixedviT aris gansazRvruli> da sul sxva sagnebiTa da amo-
canebiT dakavebuli mecnierebebis gamdidrebisaTvis gankuTvnili.5 <es

5
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 3, N 1.1, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

153
niSnavs sakuTar saganTan misasvlel gzaze uaris Tqmas>. yoveli mec-
nierebisagan, <romelic aRiarebisaken iswrafvis>, SeiZleba mxolod
is moiTxovo, rom igi iseTi sakiTxebis kvlevas awarmoebdes, rom-
lebic seriozul yuradRebas imsaxurebs, anu iseTi sakiTxebisas, rom-
lebic universumis sakvlev saganTa Soris ueWvel rols asruleben.
<pirvel rigSi, sagnisaTvis>, romelsac kacobrioba ganagebs da esa
Tu is mecniereba Tavis adgils imis proporciulad daiWers, ra mniSv-
nelobisac iqneba misi kvlevis sagani. amJamad miiCneven, rom ena [>lan-
gue<] am erTobliobaSi an <faqtoria, romelic imsaxurebs dakvirvebas,
an> ugulvebelsayofi ram. am pirobiT (da mxolod am pirobiT) SeiZ-
leba, rom enaTmecnierebis Rirebulebaze <samarTliani> da saqmis
codniT gamotanili <ganaCeni> zogadi codniT iyos gapirobebuli. si-
naTlis sxivi, <ra intensivobisac ar unda iyos>, SeiZleba sxva dis-
ciplinebsa da sxva sagnebs uSualod enidan [>langue<] efinebodes, <Se-
iZleba> <am mecnierebis> Sinagani ganviTarebisa da miznisaTvis, rom-
liskenac mimarTulia igi, enis [>langue<] swavlebas sruliad epizodu-
ri da SemTxveviTi, Tanamdevi mniSvneloba hqondes. <TavisTavad> Rirs
ki wvalebad enis [>langue<] fenomenis kvleva, gnebavT Tavis mravalm-
xriv gamovlinebaSi, gnebavT Tavisi sayovelTao kanonzomierebis gamo-
savlenad, romelic gansakuTrebuli formis garda, sxvagvarad <aras-
dros> ar SeiZleba iyos warmoebuli? es aris, <Tu igi> sruliad naT-
lad da kategoriuli saxiT <iqneba naCvenebi>, arena, romelzec Tana-
medrove enaTmecniereba damkvidrda. ena [>langage<]. magram metyveleba
[>parole<]? es isaa, rac Cven saerTod daviviwyeT, radgan [ ] ena [>langa-
ge<] an ena [>langue<] erTi da igivea da pirveli sxva araferia, Tu ara
meoris gasayovelTaoeba [ ]. SeiZleba, rom ena [>langage<] an, Sesabami-
sad, ena [>langue<] CaiTvalos sagnad, romlis, rogorc calke aRebulis,
kvleva Rirdes? <es aris kiTxva, romelic TavisiT Cndeba. me pirveli
ar var, vinc amas ikvlevs. unda giTxraT>, batonebo, rom Cvens <saw-
yal> kacobriobas, <rogorc ganmasxvavebel niSans>, danarCen cxovel-
Ta saxeobebisagan, yvelaferze uari uTxres. yvelaferze da sruliad
yvelaferze. TviT gulmodginebaze [>l'instinct d'industrie<], TviT religi-
urobaze, moralze, gansjis unarze da gonebaze. _ yvelaferze, garda
enisa [>langue<], an, rogorc amboben, enaze [>langue<], metyvelebaze [>paro-
le<], artikulirebul <metyvelebaze> [>parole articulée<]. <Tanac es cneba
artikulirebulia>, arsebiTad, <bundovnad da gaurkvevlad> ise, rom
amasTan dakavSirebiT <didi SeniSvna> maqvs. sulac ar maviwydeba, rom
Cvens droSi gazeTebi maimunebis gansxvavebuli saxeobebis Sesaxeb
<ityobinebodnen>. ganzraxulia, rom Cvens gvirgvins es ukanaskneli
<Tviseba, es ukanaskneli kbilana CamovamtvrioT, _ artikulirebuli
ena [>langage articulé<]>. amaze ar vkamaTob, <vaRiareb> ra, rom es maimu-
nebi, iseTi Tvisebis matareblebi arian, romelzec Rirs dakvirveba.
is, rac <cxadia>, rogorc es aTasjerac gaumeorebiaT, aris is, rom
enis [>langage<] gareSe adamiani SeiZleba adamianad darCeniliyo, magram
is iqneboda arseba, romelic mxolod kvebis xasiaTis mixedviT emsgav-
seboda im adamians, <rasac Cven vicnobT da rac Cven varT>, radgan

154
ena [>langage<], koleqtiuri procesis da individualuri formirebis es
<udidebulesi intrumenti>, sxva mxarea; iaraRi, romlis gareSe <verc
erTi individumi da verc saxeoba, rogorc aseTi>, ver SeZlebda, raime
saxiT Tavis Tandayolil unarTa ganviTarebisaken swrafvis
ganxorcielebas. 6
axla im sayveduris, <Cveni azriT, met-naklebad dasabuTebulis>,
droc dadga: enis [>langue<] swavleba Tqven aqcieT enis [>langage<] swav-
lebad, <enisa [>langage<], romelic ganixileba, rogorc adamianis unari,
rogorc Tavisi saxeobis erT-erTi ganmasxvavebeli niSani, rogorc an-
Tropologiuri an, ase vTqvaT, zoologiuri niSani. batonebo, aq aris
erTi momenti, romelzec Cemi mosazrebis warmosadgenad da dasasabu-
Teblad didi dro damWirdeboda da es sxva araferia, Tu ara Ta-
namedrove lingvistTa mosazrebebis msgavsi ram. kerZod, is rom enis
[>langage<] swavleba, <rogorc> adamianuri <faqti> [>fait humain<], mTlia-
nad an TiTqmis mTlianad enis [>langue<] swavlebas moicavs. fiziologs,
fsiqologs <da logikoss> SeuZliaT didxans ilparakon; filoso-
foss SeuZlia kombinirebuli Sedegebis mixedviT logikis, fsiqolo-
giisa da fiziologiis erTianobaSi wvdoma, magram Cems Tavs imis
Tqmis uflebas mivcem, rom enebis [>langues<] swavlebis pirvel da bo-
lo instanciebTan mibrunebis gareSe enis [>langage<] uelementarulesi
fenomenebi verasodes gaxdebian navaraudevi an naTlad danaxuli,
klasificirebuli da Secnobili. ena [>langue<] da ena [>langage<] erTi da
igive sagania, mxolod erTi meoris ganzogadebaa. <maT Soris arsebu-
li gansxvavebuli garegnuli formebi swored enebis [>langues<] kvlevis
obieqtebia>. enis [>langage<] swavlis survili, didi Sromis Cadebis ga-
reSe, sruliad fuWi da auxdeneli wamowyeba iqneba. <sxvagvarad>, ga-
sarkvevia enebis [>langues<] kvlvis ganzraxva, roca iviwyeben, rom es
enebi [>langues<] mniSvnelovani <garkveuli> principebiT ganisazRvre-
bian, romlebic enis [>langage<] TvalsazrisiT erTiandebian. <ufro me-
tic>, yoveli seriozuli Tu namdvil mecnierul safuZvels moklebu-
li samuSaoc aseTi principebiT ganisazRvreba. amitomac enis [>langa-
ge<] sayovelTao swavleba gamudmebiT kvebavs sruliad gansxvavebul
dakvirvebebs, romlebic ama Tu im enis [>langue<] gansakuTrebul sfero-
Si iqmneba. aseve, Tu dauSveben, rom adamianebis varjiSi metyvelebaSi
[>parole<], <rac bunebriv funqcias warmoadgens> da sadac vawydebiT
mTavar, ZiriTadad, mcdar pozicias, romelsac gansazRvruli anTro-
pologiuri da lingvisturi skolebi mimarTaven, saWiroebs im azris
kategoriulad [>absolument<] dacvas, rom mecnierebisaTvis am funqciis
Sesruleba mxolod enis [>langue<] an arsebuli enebis [>langues<] saSua-
lebiT miiRweva.
magram piriqiT, am arsebuli enebis [>langues<] kvleva imitomaa ganwiru-
li uSedegobisaTvis, yovel SemTxvevaSi, meTodebisa da saxelmZRvane-
lo principebis gareSe darCenisaTvis, rom igi mudmivad amisken ar is-
wrafvis, anu ar eswrafvis imas, rom enis [>langage<] zogadi probleme-
bis ilustrireba moaxdinos, ar cdilobs, rom yoveli detalis, <ro-

6
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 4, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

155
melsac is akvirdeba>, azrsa da saWiroebas is naWuWi Semoacalos,
romelsac Cveni codnisaTvis saWiro operaciebi mohyveba. 7 amas ki su-
lac ara aqvs raRac ubralo, wyalwyala da zogadi mniSvneloba: yve-
la, vinc mecnierebis Cvens sferoSi kargad aris Caxeduli, icis, ra
didi sixaruliTa da rogori triumfiT iziarebs TiToeuli mkvleva-
ri yovel axal Teoriul movlenas, sadac ar unda moxdes, iqneba es
Cveni uiSviaTesi dialeqti [>patois<], Tu erTi martivi polineziuri
idiomi. amiT ki igi erT qvas umatebs Senobas, romelic arasdros da-
ingreva. enaTmecnierebis yvela sferoSi [>science du langage<] gamudmebiT
iRvwian imisaTvis, rom, upirveles yovlisa, gamoamzeuron, Tu ras Se-
iZleba moicavdes ena [>langage<]. <kidev erTi niSandoblivi fenomeni>
aris <Teoriuli> dakvirvebebi, romlebsac ama Tu im gansazRvrul
sferoze koncentrirebuli dakvirvebebiT SeaqvT Tavisi wvlili. aRsa-
niSnavia, rom germanikuli da romanuli kvlevebi sagrZnoblad met
aRiarebasa da yuradRebas pouloben, vidre im enaTmecnierTa nawerebi,
romlebic enaTa [>langues<] farTo speqtrs amuSaveben. damtkicebulia,
rom ama Tu im fenomenis bolo detali, imavdroulad, misi bolo say-
rdenic aris [>c'est le déteil ultime des phénomènes qui est aussi leur raison ultime<]
da rom mxolod ukidures specializacias SeuZlia efeqturad emsaxu-
ros ukidures ganzogadebas. aRar arian iseTi lingvistebi, rogoric,
vTqvaT, fridrix miuleri iyo <venis universitetidan>, romlebmac de-
damiwis lamis yvela idiomi mimoixiles da amiT enis Sesaxeb codna
[>connaissance du langage<] kus nabijiT mainc waswies win. imaTgan, rom-
lebic am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT araerTgzis mosaxseniebelia, SeiZ-
leboda dagvesaxelebina iseTi romanuli enebis specialistebi, rogo-
rebic arian: gaston pari, pol meieri, <Suxardti>; germanistebi _
<ermani>, pauli; rusuli skolidan, romlebic ZiriTadad rusul da
slavur enebze muSaobdnen, _ boduin de kurtene da kriJevski.
batonebo, pozicia, romlamdec Cven mivediT da romelic, ubralod po-
ziciaa, romelzec <gamonaklisis gareSe> enebis kvlevisaTvis enaTmec-
nierebis yvela sferoa orientirebuli, sruliad naTels xdis, rom
igi enis [>langue<] swavlebasa da enebis [>langues<] swavlebas Soris [Se-
sabamisad, gansazRvruli enis [>langue<] an enaTa ojaxis [>famille de langu-
es<] araviTar wyalgamyofs ar qmnis, magram is faqti, rom meore mxriv
yovel enobriv erTobad da qveerTobad dayofa [>division et subdivision de
langue<] axal faqtobriv maslas qmnis, rogorc nebismieri sxva momenti,
sainteresoa, rogorc enis [>langage<] universaluri faqti. Jenevis uni-
versiteti Tavisi arsebobis pirveli dRidanve Tavis movaleobad enaT-
mecnierebisaTvis [>science du langage<] mniSvnelovani adgilis daTmobas
miiCnevda. da es gaakeTa kidec, roca `lingvistikis kursi~ [>Cours de
Linguistiques<] Seqmna da zusti saxelwodebis miniWebiT mTeli is kvle-
vebi moicva, rasac adamianuri metyveleba [>parler human<] gulisxmobs.
albaT, saWiro ar aris imis Tqma, rom es kursi, romelic ager ukve
TxuTmeti welia Seiqmna da Tavisi mecnieruli doniT, 8 gamocdilebiT,
rasac Tqven am leqciebidan ar elodiT, kerZod imas, _ <rom am leq-

7
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 515, N 1.1, Nr. 3281.
8
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 4, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

156
ciebs Tavis programaSi araferi iseTi ar Heqneboda>, rac ama Tu im
gansakuTrebul sferos <gamoricxvas SeZlebda>, rogoricaa iseTi
sferoebi, romlebic romanuli an semituri da a.S. enebiT [>langues<]
arian dakavebuli. piriqiT, igi Tavis garSemo ikrebs am ganskuTrebul
sakvlev sfroebs da warmoadgens kompetentur da misaReb mtkicebule-
bebs, romlebsac amjerad imisaTvis movuxmob, rom es axali leqciebis
kursi `Département de I'Instruction Publique~-s mier indoevropuli enebis
[>langues<] lingvistikis Tanamedrove, mniSvnelovan kaTedrasTan sruli
SeTanxmebiT Seiqmna.
msgavs akademiur centrebSi, rac ufro meti specialuri enaTmecnieru-
li ganxrebi iqneba, romlebic enebis [>langues<] garkveuli jgufebis
kvleviT iqnebian dakavebuli, urTierTmxardaWeriT miT ufro ganmtki-
cdebian, miT ufro mogebuli darCebian da miT ufro metad Seicnoben
sagnis zogad saxesac, romelic Camqrali da gaTiSuli saxiT gvevli-
neba iq, sadac mowafeebisa da maswavleblebis Secdomebis gamo, in-
formaciebi moulodnelad interessa da sicocxlisunarianobas karga-
ven. amitom mniSvnelovani iqneba enaTmecnierTa mtkiced darwmuneba
imaSi, rom enaTmecnierebis kaTedris usazRvro warmateba moindomon
(<yovel SemTxvevaSi, vaRiareb, rom am> usazRvro <ganviTarebam> SeiZ-
leba yvelas didi xnis manZilze <SemaSfoTebeli> Tanmdevi movlenebi
moutanos). Tu <mravali an erTaderTi enis> [>langues<] <enaTmecnieru-
li> kvlevisas, rogorc <saboloo> da umTavresi mizani, romelmac
enis [>langage<] <universaluri> kanonebisa da procesebis <Sedareba da
kvleva> aRiara, ikiTxavdnen, ra farglebiT ganisazRvreba humanita-
rul fakultetze am kvlevis areali, an aseTive Sesatyvisi adgili
sabunebismetyvelo fakultetze, es iqneboda <saukeTesod nacnobi> sa-
kiTxis ganaxleba, romelic Tavis droze maqs miulerma da Slaiherma
wamoswies. iyo dro <Tqven kargad mogexsenebaT, batonebo>, roca enaT-
mecnierebi Tavad iyvnen darwmunebuli, rom TavianTi sakvlevi sagani
sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebas, <TiTqmis fizikis mecnierebas>, gane-
kuTvneboda. vfiqrob, ar Rirs varkvio, <ra azri hqonda> am did ilu-
zias. arc imaze vfiqrob, raRac davadgino da amiT debatebi dasrul-
des, diax, sabolood dasruldes imis gamo, rom ukeTesad esmiT enis
<faqtobrivi> buneba [>faitr de langage<], rac <CvenTvis aseTi axlobelia,
magram swored amitomac ufro Znelia mis arsSi wvdoma>. gonivrulad
Seiqmna azri imis Sesaxeb, rom mecniereba enebis [>langage<] Sesaxeb is-
toriuli mecnierebaa da sxva araferi, Tu ara istoriuli.
amaze miuTiTebs enaTmecnieruli kvlevebi. igi humanitaruli mecniere-
bis arealSi unda moiazrebodes [>figurer dans une Faculté de lettres<]. radgan
istoriaze aseTi warmodgenis Sesaxeb am leqciis saTaurSic dabeji-
TebiT esmeba xazi moTxovnas, sadac sxva mimarTulebebic aris war-
modgenili, rogoric, magaliTad, SedarebiTi gramatikaa, _ vfiqrob, _
azris zogadi monaxazis msgavsi da arasrulfasovani komentari unda
gamomivides, raki sityva istoria lingvistebTan dakavSirebiTaa naxma-
ri. am Temaze Tqveni yuradRebis mipyroba winaswari SeniSvnis gareSe
mindoda, radgan igi moicavs yvelafers: rac ufro metad uRrmavdebi
enas [>langue<], miT ufro metad xvdebi, rom faqtebiT darwmunebaa saWi-
ro, rom enaSi [>langue<] yvelaferi istoriaa. da, maSasadame, igi isto-

157
riis sagania da ara abstraqtuli <analizi> da rom igi kanonebisagan
ki ara, faqtebisagan Sedgeba da, rom yvelaferi, rac enaSi [>langage<]
organulad moCans, sinamdvileSi nawilia da amave dros – sruliad
SemTxveviTi.
arsebobs pirveli, zerele xerxi imisaTvis, rom lingvistika istori-
uli mecnierebis saxiT ganvixiloT. am xerxis mixedviT, saWiroa mixv-
de, rom ama Tu im xalxs maSin icnob srulyofilad, roca misi ena
[>langue<] ici, an masze raime warmodgena mainc gaqvs; da rom ena [>lan-
gue<] mniSvnelovani nawilia imisa, rasac erebi sakuTar TavSi atareben
da nebismieri epoqis sazogadoebis daxasiaTebaSi Tavisi wvlili Se-
aqvT. galebSi kelturi idiomis arseboba da romaelTa batonobis
qveS TandaTanobiTi gaqroba didi istoriuli faqtis naTel magaliTs
warmoadgens. magram es istoriaSi enis Sesaxeb Tvalsazrisia da ara _
istoria enaSi [>langue<]. cxadia, rom ena [>langue<] istorikosebs aTaso-
biT faqtis gamo daainteresebT. me mainc davamatebdi, rom istoriko-
sebi, albaT, yovelTvis ar interesdebian eniT. safrangeTSi Zalian
cotaa adamiani, romelic, magaliTad, Tavis Tavs HkiTxavda, romel
enaze [>langue<] laparakobdnen karlos didis karze [>Charlemagne<] – iyo
es romaelTa Tu germanelebis ena, da Tu germanuli iyo, xom ar iyo
es gadaSenebuli dialeqti an erTi im dialeqtTagani, romelic dRe-
sac ganagrZobs arsebobas? istorikosTa Soris Zalian cota Tua ise-
Ti, vinc amCnevs, rom hunebis meTaurTa iseTi saxelebi, rogoricaa,
vTqvaT, atila hunuri ki ara, germanuli saxelia, rac mTeli rigi sa-
intereso saqmis mtkicebulebad gamodgeba da rom es germanuli saxe-
lebi nebismieri dialeqtidan ki ar momdinareoben <arc saqsonuri da
arc skandinaviuridan>, aramed eWvgareSe goTuri warmomavlobisaa.
magram yvela es didi Tu mcire faqti, romlis meSveobiTac ena [>lan-
gue<] xalxis cxovrebasTan, mis socialur, politikur, kulturul yo-
fasTan kavSirSi xedavs sakuTar Tavs [>se trouve mêlée à<], ar aris, vimeo-
reb, an mxolod dro da dro aris is, rasac SeiZleba Tavad enis si-
cocxle [>la vie de la langue ellemême<] ewodos.
magram arsebobs sxva TvalTaxedva, romlis gamoc enaTmecniereba moi-
Txovs, rom mas istoriuli mecniereba erqvas. kerZod, imdenad, ramde-
nadac ena [>langue<] Tavissave TavSi Seicavs istorias, romelic gamud-
mebiT miedineba da erTierTmaneTze miyolebuli enobrivi movlenebisa-
gan Sedgeba, garegnulad aranairi efeqti ar hqonia da cnobili moqan-
dakis saWreTliT arc arasdros Cawerila [>n'ont jamais étè inscrits par le
célèbre burin de l'histoire<] istoriaSi iseve, rogorc Tavis mxriv, saer-
Todac, sruliad damoukidebelia imisgan, rac mis gareT TamaSdeba.
yoveli ena [>langue<] <daaxloebiT iseT suraTs aCens, rogorsac es
uzarmazari morenebi, Cveni myinvaris napirebze rom moCans>; uzarmaza-
ri grova sagnebisa, romlebic saukuneebs gadmoecemian. am sagnebs Ta-
riRebi gaaCniaT, Tumca _ gansxvavebuli TariRebi da iseve, rogorc
Cems mier SedarebisaTvis zemoT moxmobili <myinvaris> TariRis dad-
gena SeiZleba danaleqebis mixedviT, vTqvaT ase, rom granitis es naWe-
ri mravali milis siSoridan aRmoCnda aq, kerZod, mTianeTis umaRlesi
mwvervalidan, rodesac kvarcis es bloki swored mTianeTis ganapira
mTidan CamoeSva..., aseve enasac [>langue<] aqvs istoria da es misi mara-

158
diuli niSania. aris ki <mxolod> es istoriuloba gadamwyveti imi-
saTvis, rom enaTmecniereba istoriul mecnierebas mivakuTvnoT? namd-
vilad ara. dedamiwas aqvs istoria, romelsac geologebi swavloben,
Tumca es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom geologia istoriuli mecniere-
baa, sul mcire, viwro da zusti azriT, rasac Cven am meryev termins
vaniWebT. romelia is meore piroba, romelic enaTmecnierebas istori-
ul mecnierebas akuTvnebs? es is pirobaa, rom sagani, romelic sais-
torio masalas qmnis, <magaliTad, xelovneba, religia, tansacmeli da
a.S.>, 9 raRac saxiT adamianuri aqtia da adamianuri nebiTa da adami-
anuri kulturiT warimarTeba, xolo danarCeni ise unda iyos
Seqmnili, rom ara marto individums, aramed erTobasac exebodes.
SeiZleba, rom enobriv-lingvisturi faqtebi Cveni nebis aqtis Sedegad
CaiTvalos? es aris sakiTxi, romelsac enaTmecniereba [>langage<]
aqtualurad miiCnevs da dadebiTad pasuxobs. magram aqve unda
davZino, <rom arsebobs cnobieri Tu qvecnobieri nebis bevri
safexuri>; yvela aqts, romelTa Sedarebac SeiZleba, enobrvi Tviseba
gaaCnia [>l'acte linguistique<] Tu SemiZlia mas Tviseba vuwodo, sul mcire,
pretenzias mainc Tu acxadebs, rom, sxva Tu araferi, gaazrebuli
mainc iyos ise, rogorc yvela aqts Soris yvelaze arapirovnuli
aqti. arsebobs TandaTanobiTi gansxvaveba, romelic ise Sors midis,
rom didxans iseT STabeWdilebas qmnis, TiTqos es procesi
mokrZalebul gansxvavebas iZleva, sinamdvileSi ki igi TandaTanobiT
gansxvavebas gvTavazobs. axla cota ufro axlodan davakvirdeT,
batonebo, ra Sinaarss Seicavs sityva istoria da enasTan [>langue<]
mimarTebiT masTan dakavSirebuli xedva. TiTqmis pirdapir wamoyofs
Tavs imis saWiroeba, rom Cveni warmodgenebi simZimis or centrad
gavyoT. ena [>langue<] diferencirdeba erTdroulad drosa da
sivrceSi. ena [>langue<], ganxiluli drois or sxvadasxva monakveTSi,
Tavissave TavTan ar iqneba identuri. aseve Tavissave teritoriis met-
naklebad dacilebul or punqtSi ar iqneba igi Tavissave TavTan
identuri. Tuki sagnebze zusti xedva ginda rom Seiqmna, orive moment-
ze yovelTvis erTbaSad da erTmaneTis gverdiT unda moaxdino dak-
virveba. Tumca, <cxadia>, iZulebuli varT, <Teoriulad> erTmaneTisa-
gan davaciloT isini, raTa mowesrigebulad waviwioT win.
amdenad, dRes mxolod enis [>langue<] droSi cvlas Sevexebi, Tanac ima-
sac vuSveb, rom aranairad ar movicav geografiuli distanciis faq-
tors. aseve, CemTvis SeuZlebeli iqneba, am erT saaTSi erT mTavar sa-
kiTxze mets Sevexo, radgan igi CaRrmavebas moiTxovs. vgulisxmob dr-
oSi uwyvetobis princips. samSabaTis leqciaze mogvixdeba im princip-
ze msjeloba, romelic misi sapirispiro iqneba. kerZod, droSi trans-
formacia. Semdeg ki Cveni dakvirvebis areSi movaqcevT, Tu risi Tqma
SeiZleba sivrceSi uwyvetobasa da amasTanave, mis gverdis avlaze. am
moxsenebis Semdeg, ufro gagviadvildeba swavlebisas calkeuli faq-
tebis sruliad gansazRvrul niadagze dafuZneba. uTuod daviwyebT
berZnuli da laTinuri enebis fonetikis specialuri nawilis Seswav-
liT, romlis drosac situaciebi ganuwyvetlad gvikarnaxebs am zoga-
di principebis gamoyenebas. <marTlac,> pirveli aspeqti, romlis mixe-

9
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 5, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

159
dviTac, Tu sakiTxi enas [>langue<] exeba, dasabuTdeba, rom enas [>lan-
gue<] istoria gaaCnia, es droSi uwyvetobis ZiriTadi faqtori iqneba.
ver getyviT, rogor aris SesaZlebeli statikur mdgomareobaSi misi
uwyvetobis faqtebis SemCneva [>fixité<], <ris Sesaxebac axla visaub-
rebT>, magram albaT Rirs, uwyvetobis am <ZiriTad, sawyis, naTel>
principze an garduval SeuCereblobis principze cota xniT SeCereba,
radgan igi adamianuri metyvelebis [>la première loi à la transmission du parler
humain<] Semdgom gadacemis <pirveli niSani an pirveli kanonia>, igi
aseve yovelTvis SeiZleba yvela saxis revoluciebsa da ryevebsac mo-
icavdes, <romlebsac> SeuZliaT enis [>langue<] asparezze yvelaferi
Secvalon. Tu romeliRac xalxi sadRac miyruebul adgilze mSvido-
bianad cxovrobda, miwaTmoqmedebas misdevda, an meomrebi Tu momTaba-
reni iyvnen da moulodnelad religia, warmodgenebi, sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis formebi an kultura [>civilisation<], samSoblo, klimaturi pi-
robebi da Tavad enac [>langue<] Seicvales, mxolod amis Semdeg mox-
deba maTgan sxva xalxis Camoyalibeba da es sxvebi gaagrZeleben cxov-
rebas. enis uwyveti gza arsad da arasdros icnobs istoriul wyvetas.
SeiZleba logikurad da a priori gavigoT, rom aseTi ram arasdros ar-
sad ar SeiZleba moxdes. davakvirdeT romelime mocemuli enis mdgoma-
reobas [>état de langue<]. vTqvaT, iseTisas, rogoric me-19 saukunis fran-
gulia, xolo gardasul enaTagan – avgustusis drois laTinuris
mdgomareobas. pirvel rigSi, TvalSi gvecema drois didi monakveTi,
romelic maT Soris arsebobs da ufro metic, TvalSi gvxvdeba <vCqa-
rob, davamato> gansxvavebuli dasaxelebebi, romlis Taobazec SeTanx-
mebulebi arian, rom im laTinurs franguli uwodon. amis Semdeg didi
siamovnebiT warmovidgenT, rom arsebula ori sagani, romelTaganac
meorem pirvelis memkvidreoba miiRo. maSasadame, memkvidreobiToba rom
arsebobs, ueWvelia, magram is, rom ori sagani arsebobs <am mecniere-
baSi>, aris <tyuili, radikalurad> tyuili da <saSineli tyuili yve-
la im Tvalsazrisis gamo, romelic amas mohyveba>. sakmarisia, mcire
xniT mainc dafiqrde amaze, <radgan> es martivi dakvirveba yvela as-
peqts moicavs, kerZod: yoveli individi meore dRes igive <idioms>
iyenebs, romliTac wina dRes laparakobda, <es procesi sul erTnai-
rad mimdinareobs>. Sesabamisad, ar yofila arc erTi momdevno dRe,
roca es gardasuli laTinuri ena [>langue<] SeZlebda aRdgomas da ase-
ve arasodes dadgeba is dRe, roca SesaZlebeli iqneba franguli enis
[>langue<] dabadebis dRis aRniSvna. arasodes moxdeba, rom frangma
xalxma gaiRviZos da bonjour frangulad Tqvas imis Semdeg, Tu wina sa-
Ramos, daZinebisas serō aqvs naTqvami.
ar arsebobs sagani, romlis srulad Sedareba SeiZlebodes enasTan
[>langue<], igi metad rTuli ram aris. swored es aris is, rac gvimtki-
cebs, rom yovel Sedarebas da yovel suraTs, rasac Cven Cveulebriv
vaxdenT xolme, iqeT mivyavarT, rom raRac warmodgena SeviqmnaT, ro-
melic raime azriT mainc mcdaria. arsebobs SemTxvevebi, romlebic ra-
ime cvlilebis ukan arian Casafrebuli da romlebic yvelaze metad
SemorCnen [ ]. _ <Zalian mixaria>, rom ager ukve oci welia, mTel fi-
lologiur moZraobas uZRveba Cveni drois romanuli enis pirveli

160
specialisti da maswavlebeli [>maître<] gaston parisi. man SemTxveviT
ar miaqcia yuradReba <ulmobeli> omiT gamowveuli yvelaze ufro
gavrcelebuli da, rogorc Cans, uwyinari ori cvlilebis garkvevas:
franguli laTinuri warmomavlobisaa, an <romelime sityva, magali-
Tad, > chanter modis laTinuri cantare-dan. franguli laTinuridan ki ar
momdinareobs, aramed igi laTinuria. laTinuri, romelic garkveul
drosa da garkveul geografiul sazRvrebSi ixmareba. Chanter laTinu-
ri cantare-dan ki ar modis, aramed igi aris laTinuri cantare. aseve nam-
dvilad SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom franguli ena, romelzec Cven vlapa-
rakobT, momdinareobs monteskies an kornelis, montenis an `rolandze
simRerisagan~. <es aris [ ]>, magram <raki> yvela ambobs, rom frangu-
li monteskies an `rolandze simReridan~ modis, aranairi safuZveli
ar arsebobs, <Sesabamisad> ar iTqvas, rom es avgustusis laTinuria
an platonis laTinuri da _ <rogorc amboben> _ preistoriuli la-
Tinuria, romelsac win laTinuris saxis laparaki uswrebda.
sxva cvlileba, 10 romelsac gaston parisTan erTad movagvarebT, aris
frangulis, rogorc laTinuris dobili-enis [>langue fille<] da laTinu-
ris, rogorc romanulis deda-enis [>langue mère<] sakiTxi. ar arsebobs
arc dobili-ena da arc deda-ena. aseTi ram arsad da arc arasodes
yofila. dedamiwis yvela regioni aris enis garkveuli mdgomareoba,
[>état de langue<], romelic TandaTanobiT icvlis formas, kviridan kvi-
ramde, Tvidan Tvemde, wlidan wlamde, saukunidan saukunemde, rasac
Cven axlave TvalsaCinod warmovadgenT, magram arasodes momxdara en-
is dabadeba <an winamavali idiomisagan> <axali> idiomis Seqmna. es
yvelaferi scildeba Cvens xedvebs iseve, rogorc yvelafers, risi
warmodgenac ki SegviZlia manam, sanam arsebobs pirobebi, romlis
farglebSic yoveli Cvengani Tavis deda-enaze [>langue materialle<]
laparakobs.
ris Tqma SeiZleba imasTan dakavSirebiT, rac Cvenc ukve gadavwyviteT
sakiTxi enebis [>langues<] dabadebisa da kvdomis Sesaxeb da, rac ase
did rols asrulebs imaSi, rasac maT Sesaxeb amboben?
daviwyoT kvdomiT.
ena [>langue<] bunebrivad an bunebrivi sikvdiliT ver mokvdeba. igi SeiZ-
leba mxolod <Zaladobrivi sikvdiliT> mokvdes. erTaderTi saSuale-
ba, romelic mas gaaqrobs, aris misi ZaliT Seviwroeba; anu im mize-
ziT, romelic enis faqtorisaTvis [>faits du langue<] sruliad garegnu-
lia. magaliTad, im xalxis sruli gaqrobiT, romelic am enaze lapa-
rakobs da rac ukve daemarTa wiTelkanianTa idioms Crdilo amerika-
Si, an kidev im mizeziT, roca axali idiomi Zlieri rasis mier iZule-
bis wesiT inergeba. amas ki sWirdeba ara marto politikuri batonoba,
aramed kulturuli upiratesobis qonac. <xSirad damwerlobis [>langue
éscrite<] qona gvevlineba saWiro upiratesobad, rasac skolebis, eklesi-
is, saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis meSveobiT amkvidreben, Sedegad ki sa-
zogadoebrivi da pirovnuli cxovrebis Tanamdevi movlenebi mohyveba>.
es is SemTxvevaa, romelic istoriulad araerTxel ganmeorebula. ga-
vixsenoT galiaSi galuri enis SemTxveva, roca igi laTinurma Secva-

10
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 6, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

161
la; haitis Savkanianebis ambavi, sadac ukve frangulad laparakoben;
egvipteli felahebisa, romlebic ukve arabulad laparakoben da Jene-
velTa ambavic, romlebic amJamad Ile de France-is dialeqtze laparakoben
da ara TavianTi avtoqtonur enaze [>langue<], romelzec saukuneebis wi-
naT laparakobdnen. magram yvela es SemTxveva ar atarebs enobriv-
lingvisturi mizezis xasiaTs. arasodes momxdara, rom ena Sinagani
dauZlurebis mizeziT momkvdariyo mas Semdeg, rac viTom Tavisi arse-
bobis manZili ukan moitova da arsebobaze uari ganacxada. ena Tavis
TavSi maradiulia, rac imas niSnavs, rom aranairi safuZveli ar arse-
bobs imisaTvis, rom misi Semdgomi arseboba SeCerdes im mizeziT
[>cause<], romelic am enis Sinagan organizacias exeba.
aqve SeiZleba wavikiTxoT enacmecnierebis 11 Sesaxeb hovelaskes Sromis
<pirveli gverdi>: `ena [>langue<] qveynierebas evlineba, viTardeba, daR-
ma eSveba da kvdeba, rogorc yvela organizebuli arseba~. <es winada-
deba, <Tavad lingvistTa Soris ase gavrcelebuli TvalTaxedvisa>,
sruliad tipuri> magaliTia, romlis daZlevac sulac ar aris Zneli
da romelic imisaTvis aris gamoTqmuli, rom <lingvistikisagan> sabu-
nebismetyvelo mecniereba Seqmnan. ara, ena [>langue<] ar aris organizmi,
mas ar axasiaTebs vegetacia, romelic adamianebisagan damoukideblad
iarsebebda, mas ara aqvs TavisTavadi arsebobis unari, romelic Tavis
TavSi atarebs dabadebisa da sikvdilis unars. winadadebaSi, romelic
axla wavikiTxe, yvelaferi mcdaria: ena [>langue<] ar aris organizebu-
li cocxali arseba. igi TavisTavad ar kvdeba, is ar kvdeba, is ar
izrdeba im gagebiT, rom mas <bavSvis>, simwifis an moxucebulobis Ja-
mi gaaCndes da bolos, igi sulac ar modis amqveynad ise, rogorc
amas axla davinaxavT.
marTlac, dedamiwaze aravis aRmouCenia axali enis [>langue<] dabadeba.
is ki unaxavT, rogor uecrad Cndebian zecis cnobil konstelaciaTa
Soris axali varskvlavebi. imasac naxaven, zRvis zedapirze rogor
wamotivtivdebian axali miwebi, magram ar arsebobs aranairi cnoba
axali enis [>langue<] Sesaxeb, romelzec wina dRes igive formiT ar
emetyvelaT. volapukis SemoReba surT. swored amaze mindoda saubari,
radgan swored volapuki <da sxva xelovnuri enebi [>langues artificielles<]
arian> imis magaliTebi, raTa gaigo, Tu ra uSlis xels enis [>langue<]
dabadebas, <an ra garantias aZlevT maT arsebobas transmisia>: arse-
bobs ori faqtori: pirveli – aranairi iniciativis arseboba, radgan
yvela xalxi Zalianac kmayofilia Tavisi mSobliuri eniT [>idiome ma-
ternel<]; meore ki is aris, rom iniciativac rom arsebobdes, rac mTel
rig sruliad gansakuTrebul garemoebebsa da gansakuTrebuli Srif-
tis xmarebas gulisxmobs, es inciativa waawydeba xalxis dauZlevel
winaaRmdegobas, radgan <igi TavisTvis Cveul idiomze uars ar ity-
vis>. volapukma, romelic arcerTi arsebuli enisaTvis [>langue<] gvir-
gvinis warTmevas ar apirebda da Tanac, miuxedavad xelsayreli pi-
robebisa, romelic mis Semotanas Seuqmnes, amqveynad warmatebas mainc
ver miaRwia.

11
a. ovelaki: La linguistique, meoTxe gamocema, parizi, 1888.

162
roca <im azrs> uaryof, rom romelime ena [>langue<] daibada, pasuxo-
ben, es ubralod sityviT TamaSia, <es ki imis definiciisaTvis ikma-
rebda, Tu ra> unda vigulisxmoT dabadebaSi, <dabadeba Tu> enis [>lan-
gue<] progresuli ganviTareba, rogorc, vTqvaT, germanulis an frangu-
lis, romlis <uaryofa aRar SeiZleba>. amaze ase vpasuxob, rom am
SemTxvevaSi TamaSs iwyeben sxva sityviT, kerZod, sityva `eniT~ [>lan-
gue<]; sinamdvileSi ena [>langue<] ar aris droiT gansazRvruli da Se-
mofargluli ram; ganasxvaveben frangul da laTinur enebs [>langues<],
Tanamedrove germanulsa da arminiusis germanuls, rogorc [ ] ganasx-
vaveben, <Semdeg ki miaweren, rom erTi sadRac iwyeba, meore sadRac
wydeba, rac TviTneburi qmedebaa>. _ am sakiTxis erTi aspeqti enebis
[>langues<] geografiul diferencirebas exeba, rasac am SemTxvevaSi
ganvixilav.
raki enis [>langue<] qveynad mosvlis ambavi dauSvebelia, ikiTxaven: kac-
ma rom Tqvas, romelia ufro Zveli, romelsac yvela enas miaweren.
aqac naTlad unda warmovidginoT, Tu ra igulisxmeba amaSi. roca
enis [>langue<] Sesaxeb msjeloben, Cndeba Taviseburi gaugebroba sityva
alt-Tan (Zvelsac niSnavs da asaksac, v.k) [>vieux<] dakavSirebiT. adamian-
Tan mimarTebiT sityva `alt~ sami saxiT gamoiyeneba. pirveli, romelic
yovelTvis ar aris sasiamovno, Seexeba mis win dabadebuls; meore, ro-
melic nakleb sasiamovnoa, aris is, romelic mis win gardaicvala: sa-
ubari Seexeba Zvel amxanagebs, romlebic amqveynad aRar arian; mesame,
romelic yvelaze ufro cud grZnobas iwvevs, aris, roca ityvian, nak-
lebad kargad aris Senaxuli (naklebad kargad gamoiyureba), vidre
sxvebio. am sami saxeobidan pirveli enebis [>langues<] mimarT ar gamo-
iyeneba. yvela ena [>langue<], romliTac erTi da igive epoqaSi lapara-
koben, erTnairad Zvelia (alt). im azriT, rom SedarebisaTvis maT war-
sulSi abruneben, ar aris aucileblad am warsulis xangrZlivobis
gansazRvra. rac unda moidomon misi gawelva Taur enamde [>langue<], ma-
inc miuwvdomel periodamde ver miaRweven. xolo Tu misawvdom peri-
ods ar scildebian, naTelia, rom yovel indoevropul enas [>langue<],
romliTac Tanamedroveni metyveleben, drosTan mimarTebiT zustad
igive asaki aqvT, romelic maSin hqondaT, uZvelesi indoevropelebi
rom laparakobdnen.
ar SevCerdebi meore mniSvnlobaze, romlis mixedviTac, erTi ena
[>langue<] TiTqos ufro Zvelia, vidre meore. es nakleb mniSvnelovania.
arsebobs mkvdari enebi, romlebsac, Sesabamisad, SeiZleba, ufro
Zveli enebi [>langues<] ewodos, magaliTd, galuri, finikiuri da sxva,
romlebic ganadgurdnen.
dabolos, aRsaniSnavia 12 is, rac mesame mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT
SeiZleba iTqvas. kerZod, is mosazeba, rom erTi ena [>langue<] ufro Zve-
lia, vidre meore. magram sakmaod ucnauria is, rom enebTan [>langues<]
dakavSirebiT sapirispiro ram xdeba. <marTlac>, es imas niSnavs, rom
arseboben kargad Senaxuli enebi [>langue<], romlebsac Zvels (alt) uwo-
deben. am azriT, Tu erTi da igive periodis mixedviT ganvixilavT,

12
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 7, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

163
berZnuli ufro Zvelia, vidre laTinuri. igi ufro naklebad dacile-
bulia indoevropuli enebis Taurtips. sanskriti ufro Zvelia,
ukeTesad Senaxuli, vidre romelime sxva ena.
rodesac momdevno leqciaze moZraobis princips davupirispirebT
inerciisas, romelic [ ], daviwyebT [ ]. 13

# 1.2 `meore leqcia~

roca aRvniSneT, rom araviTari wyveta, araviTari gaTiSva, araviTari


hiatusi ar aris mosalodneli enebis [>langues<] sxvadasxva periodebi-
saTvis da Tu marTalia, rom ena [>langue<] meore dRes igive formiT
iseve kargad grZnobs Tavs, rogorc wina dRes, maSin bunebrivad giCn-
deba kiTxva, maS rogor xdeba, rom dRes iulius keisrisdroindeli
eniT aRar vlaparakobT, an ratom xdeba, rom iulius keisari indoev-
ropeli winaprebis enaze ar laparakobda. RmerTo Cemo, es xom isto-
riaa, rac Cvens irgvliv da CvenSi Cvens Tvalwin xdeba. am cota xnis
winaT ruseTis erT qalaqSi ityobinebodnen, rom boguslavskis origi-
nalebis axali araCveulebrivi gamofena ixsnebao. es iyo, ubralod,
840 fotografiuli portreti, romelzec erTi da igive pirovneba,
TviTon boguslavski erTsa da imave pozaSi iyo gadaRebuli. es kaci
oci wlis manZilze regularulad iRebda sakuTari Tavis fotos yo-
veli Tvis pirvel da TxuTmet ricxvebSi. amiT sazogadoebis winaSe im
azriT wardga, rom am gaweul SromaSi raRac sasargeblo dainaxa.
albaT ar damWirdeba imis Tqma, rom Tu <kedelze> gamofenili am fo-
toebis <masaSi> or suraTs aiRebdi, romlebic erTmaneTTan uSualo
siaxloves iyo gamofenili, erTnairi boguslavski gamoiyureboda, mag-
ram, Tu 480-e da pirvel fotos Seadarebdi, ukve ori sxvadasxva bogu-
slavski SegrCeboda xelT. Tu am gamofenis msgavsad, yvelaferi, rac
ki dedamiwaze an mis garkveul nawilze sityvebiT gamoixateboda da
ara <fotoebiT> da <dReebis miyolebiT> moxdeboda maTi fonografi-
reba, erTi dRidan meoremde, yovelTvis msgavs enobriv suraTs [>images
langue<] miviRebdiT, magram sakmao da <zogjer uamrav> gansxvavebas _
500 wlis an Tavad aTasi wlis SualedSi.
ukve mivadeqiT meore princips, romelic erTi iseTive universaluri
Zalis mqoneTagania, rogorc pirveli, romelic saSualebas iZleva, ga-
vigoT, Tu ras warmoadgens enebis [>langues<] istoria: es aris <enis
[>langue<]> droSi moZraobis <Tvalsazrisi>, magram moZraobisa, rome-
lic arasodes ar Sedis enis erTobasTan konfliqtSi da swored es
gansazRvravs yvelafers. arsebobs transformacia da mudmivi trans-
formacia, magram arsad ar gvaqvs <enobriv-lingvisturi> arsebobis
kvlavwarmoeba an warmoeba, romelsac imisagan <gansxvavebuli> arse-
boba eqneba, rac mas win uswrebda da rac mas Semdeg mohyveba. aravi-
Tari deda-enebi [>langues mères<], araviTari dobili-enebi [>langues filles<],
aramed erTxel mocemuli ena [>langue<], romelic <droSi SeuzRudavad>
miedineba misi arsebobis yovelgvari winaswari gansazRvris gareSe.

13
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 8, N 1.1, Nr. 3283.

164
diax, ise, rom igi aranair Sinagan SesaZleblobas ar iZleva, romli-
Tac raime katastrofisa da Zaladobis gareSe SesaZlebeli iqneboda
misi arsebobis Sewyvetis daSveba, Tu Zalian Zlieri da gareSe Zalebi
ar amoqmeddeboda da ar gaanadgurebda mas. enis [>langue<] uwyvetobisa
da cvalebadobis es orive principi <dapirispirebulobisagan Zalian
Sors dgas> iseT mWidro da aSkara urTierTobaSia erTmaneTTan, rom,
rogorc ki SevecdebiT erTis arcnobas, imave gziT da aucileblad
ise, rom amaze arc vfiqrobT, meoris mimarT CavidenT ukanonobas. vinc
gamudmebiT <pirvel iluzias eZleva da> franguls< Tanamedrove an
drois romelime monakveTisaTvis> umoZrao ramed warmoidgens, iZule-
biT iqamde miva, rom veRarafers gaugebs imas, rac 500 da 900 <wlebis
monakveTebSi> gaTamaSda. aseT SemTxvevaSi is xedavs naxtoms [>saut<].
naxtoms drois erTi monkveTidan meoreSi, erTi dartymiT, jadosnuri
joxis msgavsad, an <gaugonari> Seqmna-dabadebiT [>enfantement inouï<]
erTi idiomi meores dartymis saxiT Cuqnis sicocxles. asevea, roca
saubars imiT iwyeben, rom uwyvetobis principi daZiron. warmoidgenen,
rom franguli, – rogorc minerva iupiteris Tavidan – yvela nawiliT
dazRveuli, laTinuri enis [>langue<] ferdebidan iSva, kanonzmierad ac-
lis Zalas uZraobis sakiTxisadmi sofistur midgomas da bunebrivad
Tanxmdeba, rom am or moCvenebiT naxtoms Soris ena [>langue<] wonas-
worobisa da simSvidis mdgomareobaSi xvdeba an, sul mcire, iseTi wo-
nasworobis mdgomareobaSi, romelic SeiZleba naxtomebis sapirispi-
rod iqces, radgan, sinamdvileSi, arcerT enaSi [>langue, sic<] <mudmivi>,
stabiluri wonasworoba arasdros arsebula. Cven vayenebT enis [>lan-
gue<] ganuwyveteli cvalebadobis princips, rogorc upirobos. ar ar-
sebobs SemTxveva, romelSic idiomi umoZrao da mSvid mdgomareobaSi
iqneboda. impulsebi, romlebic am mdgomareobas qmnian, ise Zaldauta-
neblad da SeuzRudavad Cndebian, rom iseTi enebi [>langues<], rogoric
Cvenia da, romelTa sicocxle ukve lamis mTlianad xelovnurad iqca,
iZulebuli arian, am impulsebs damorCildnen. damwerlobis mqone
enis [>langue écrite<] tiranias, <damamSvidebeli perangis am saxeobas, ro-
gorc oficialuri frangulia>, ra Tqma unda, surs, rom misi svla
SeaCeros, magram mis sruliad SesaCereblad Zala ar hyofnis, Cven ki
xSirad ver vxvdebiT Tu ra distancias miaRwia idumali muSaobiT
namdvilma enam [>langue vraie<], (Tavad kultivirebuli saubrebis, salo-
nebisa da akademiebis enam [>langue<],) romelic <cocxal enebSi> [>lan-
gue vivante<] ar wyvets qmnadobas klasikuri frangulis <ase vTqvaT>
gayinuli zedapiris miRma.
ise gamodis, rom, magaliTad, <TiTqmis azrze ver movdivarT>, quattre,
lettre, chambre, <double, table> da yvela sityva, romlis fuZe Tanxmovaze
mTavrdeba da fuZes + re da le emateba, male gaqreba; <mxolod garkve-
ul SemTxvevebSiRa ixmareba oTxis aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxeli katre
an katr: ukve TiTqmis yvelgan warmoiTqmis, rogorc kat – k+a+t. aseve xde-
ba let, chamb>–Tan mimarTebiT. dRes lingvisti safrangeTSi im mizniT
rom Camosuliyo, <realuri da auTenturi franguli iseTi meTodo-
logiiT> Caewera, rogori meTodologiis gamoyenebiTac romelime ma-
laizieli an afrikeli xalxis enis [>langue<] calkeul gamoTqmebs Se-

165
adgenda, an Tundac ise, frangul patuaze rom adgenen cxrilebs, _ es
Camosuli lingvisti yovelgvari yoymanis gareSe dawerda, rom 1891
wels k-a-t, kat <meoTxe 14 ricxviTi saxelis zust an umTavres formas>,
l-e-t, let ki sityvas, romelic `azris grafikul gamoxatulebas~ an `an-
banis niSans~ gamoxatavs. es imitom, rom JenevaSi iseve, rogorc <bor-
doSi an parizSi> lilSi, quCaSi Tu salonSi sxvagvarad aravin ity-
vis, Tu ara kat places, kat jours, an la let que j'ai reçue da a.S. (garkveuli piro-
bebisaTvis arsebobs meore forma _ letr. kerZod, xmovnebis win: letr
ouverte. magram TviT xmovnebis winac xSirad iyeneben – let ouverte-s, <mettre
cette let à la poste> da metad saTuoa, rom letr ucnobi forma yofiliyo
ormocdaaTian-samocian wlebSi). ise, rom es aris erTi magaliTi
mravalTagan, rac salaparako enis [>forme de langue<] mzardi gavrcele-
bis sapirispirod xdeba. es imas adasturebs, rom transformaciis fe-
nomenebs, romlebic sakuTar Tavs mindobil idiomeba mogvagonebs da
enaSi [>langue<], sadac yvela piroba, Sriftis moCvenebiTi yovlisSemZ-
leobis gamo, normidan gamosulia, sinamdvileSi Tavisi Camoyalibeba
ar Seuwyvetia. magram dadga dro, Cvens Tavs izolirebuli magaliTe-
biT ki ar vumtkicoT, aramed sxvagvarad vkiTxoT, Tu raSi gamoixate-
ba es cvlilebebi, romlebic yvela enaSi [>langue<] mudam saWiroa; ra
saxis modificirebas, gamudmebul <gardaqmnebs> ganicdian, ra mize-
zebze arian damokidebuli da erTi da igive xasiaTi Tu aqvT yvela
enaSi [>langue<]?
enaTmecniereba [>étude de langue<] imedovnebs, rom dRes ukve SeiZleba
imis dadgena, rom am fenomenis <1.> arsi yvelgan erTi da igivea da,
rom 2. yovelTvis igiveobrivi iyo imgvarad, rom mcdari iqneba imaze
fiqri, enis [>langue<] warmomavlobis problema sxva ram iyos, garda
misi transformaciisa. sxva saqme iqneboda, Tu davuSvebdiT, rom adre
sxva Zalebi moqmedebdnen, romlis Sesaxebac, im pirobebis Sesabamisad,
romelSic Cven gvixdeba cxovreba, aranairi warmodgenis Seqmna ar
SegviZlia. Tumca, es varaudic iseTive TviTneburia, rogoradac war-
moudgeneli. igi <iqamdec mivida>, rom primitiul kacobriobas niWie-
reba da goniereba mivaweroT, romlebic arsebiTad gansxvavdebian imi-
sagan, rasac dRes Cven warmovadgenT. 3. rom es fenomenebi yvelgan
ori gansxvavebuli saxiT arseboben, ori bunebrivad sxvadasxva mize-
ziT an mizezTa jgufiT ukan daxevis gziT da [ ]. erTi mxriv, arse-
bobs bgeriTi cvlileba [>changement phonétique<] da meore mxriv, sxva-
dasxvagvarad saxeldebuli cvlileba, <romelTaganac arc erTi ar
aris gamorCeuli>, magram, romelTaganac analogiuri cvlileba yve-
laze ufro Cveulebrivi ambavia. uSualod vnaxoT, Tu ratom SeiZleba
enobrivi ganaxlebis am ori didi faqtoris erTmaneTTan sxvadasxva
TvalsazrisiT dapirispireba, romlis drosac magaliTisaTvis ityvian,
rom pirveli warmoadgens metyvelebis fiziologiur da fizikur mxa-
res, maSin, rodesac meore igive aqtis fsiqologiur da mentalur mxa-
res <Seesatyviseba>, da, rom pirveli aracnobieria, maSin, rodesac
meore – cnobieri. Tanac yovelTvis gaxsovs, rom SegnebiTobis cneba
garegnulad imgvarad relatiuria, rom saqme mxolod Semecnebis or

14
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 8, N 1.2, Nr. 3284.

166
xarisxs exeba, romelTaganac ufro maRali xarisxi kvlavac <sruli-
ad> gaucnobierebelia mosazrebulobis xarisxTan SedarebiT, rome-
lic Cvens mier ganxorcielebuli aqtebis umravlesobas Tan sdevs.
xSirad am orive faqtoris wyobas erTmaneTs upirispireben, romlis
drosac amboben, rom erTi bgerebs exeba, meore ki <gramatikul for-
mebs>, rac naTel warmodgenas ver iZleva, radgan enis [>langue<] for-
mebi sxva araferia, Tu ara bgerebi, magram imis Tqma ki SeiZleba, rom
erTi bgerebis formas exeba, meore ki _ warmodgenas. amasTan SeiZleba
damatebiT davZinoT, rom pirveli wmindad meqanikuri operaciaa, rom-
lis drosac <arc> miznis da <arc> intenciis aRmoCena ar aris SesaZ-
lebeli, xolo meore – gonivruli operaciaa, romlis drosac SesaZ-
lebelia miznisa da azris aRmoCena.
fenomenebis am or wesze dakvirveba da analizi Seadgens lingvistikis
lamis erTaderT saqmianobas. kerZod, romeli ena [>langue<] riT iqcevs
mis yuradRebas da es amocana dausrulebelia maSinac ki, roca igi
drois garkveuli monakveTiT ar aris SezRuduli. amitomac ar SemiZ-
lia imaze fiqri, yvelaferi imis aRwera <an klasifikaciis> moxdena,
rogori zogadi da miaxloebiTic ar unda iyos igi, rasac fonetikuri
da misi analogiuri cvlileba gulisxmobs.
warmovadgen zogierT magaliTs, romlis drosac pirvel rigSi analo-
giis fenomens viRebT, <gonivruli transformaciis fenomens>. imis ga-
sagebad, Tu <ra aris igi>, yvelaze kargi saSualebaa ramdenime wuTiT
sami an oTxi wlis bavSvs mousmino. misi ena [>langage<] analogiaTa war-
monaqmnebis namdvili qselia, romelic Rimils gvgvris, magram prin-
cipi, romelic enebis [>langues<] istoriaSi ar wydeba, Tavisi sruli
siwmindiTa da <gulubryvilobiT> warmodgeba. venirai. <rogor> es veni-
rai? amisaTvis saWiroa: 1. is, rom bavSvma icis, ra aris venir da, rom igi
Tavis gonebaSi warmoadgens ideas, romelsac venir Seicavs da akavSi-
rebs iseTebTan, romlebsac amis gamoxatva <surT>. magram es sakmari-
si ar aris. aucilebelia: 2. mosmenili gqondeT punir da is punirai an
choisir da is choisirai. maSin gaxdeba fenomeni punir: punirai = venir: venirai. ara-
feria ufro Tanmimdevruli, ufro logikuri da ufro swori, vidre
sazrianoba, romelic venir-amde migiyvans. axla ufro Rrmad davakvir-
deT am fenomenis niSan-Tvisebas. erTi mxriv vfiqrobT, rom igi trans-
formacia ki ar aris, aramed qmnileba, magram saboloo angariSiT, igi
mxolod transformaciaa, Tanac venirai-s yvela elementi arsebuli da
mexsierebaSi gadasrolili formiTaa Semonaxuli da mocemuli. punirai,
punir, an, Tu gnebavT, sufiqsi ir da irai-sa da maTi mniSvnelobis urTi-
erTkavSiri. <am elementebis arsebobis gareSe venirai-s miReba ubralod
SeuZlebelia>. maSasadame, arasodes ar mogvecema qmnileba ex nihilo, ara-
med yoveli ganaxleba iqneba mxolod axleburi gamoyeneba elementebi-
sa, romlebic enis [>langue<] wina mdgomareobidan [>état de langage<] iqne-
bian gadmocemuli. ise gamodis, rom analogiuri ganaxleba, romelic
garkveuli saxiT Zalian destruqciulia, mainc arasodes arafers ake-
Tebs, garda imisa, rom enebis [>langue<] uZvelesi droidan gadmocemul
elementebs agrZelebs ise, <rom ver SeZlon sadme gawyveta>. axlave
davadgenT im safuZvelsac, romelic gamogvadgeba imisaTvis, rom yve-

167
la es fsiqologiuri operacia _ analogiaTa <operaciebi> _ analogi-
aTa faqtebad iwodon. berZnebis gramatikam <antikisagan> isesxa Terma,
romelSic maSin sxva warmodgenebi iyo Cadebuli da, romelic Cvengan
gansxvavebul Tvalsazriss warmoadgenda, magram iseTebic moiZebnebo-
da, romelic Cveni xedvisTvisac gamodgeboda. es operacebi gamiznu-
lia imisaTvis, rom am formebs Soris analogiebi da simetriebi kvla-
vac awarmoos. magaliTad, viendrai punirai-s simetriuli ar aris. imaze
dafiqreba, rasac fenomeni exeba, mosdevs analogias. ufro zogadad,
gonebaSi fenomeni warmoadgens formebis asociacias, romelic war-
modgenili warmosaxvebis asociaciebiT iqnebian nakarnaxebi.
analogiuri operacia bavSvebSi ufro cxadia da 15 <nayofieri>, radgan
maT mexsierebas imisi dro ar rCeba, yoveli warmodgenisTvis niSani
aiRos, amitomac iZulebuli xdeba, rom es niSnebi momavalSi Tavad
<awarmoos>. <da es niSani yovelTvis analogiis ganxorcielebis Sem-
deg warmoiqmneba>. SesaZlebelia, rom Tu Cveni mexsierebis SesaZleb-
loba da <sizuste> usasrulod ufro maRali iqneboda, vidre igi si-
namdvileSia, analogiis Sedegad axali warmonaqmnebi enis [>langage<] si-
cocxleSi TiTqmis arafriT SezRuduliyo, magram sinamdvileSi es
ase ar aris da romelime ena [>langue<] romelime droisaTvis sxva ara-
feria, Tu ara analogiebis qmnadobaTa Sors mimavali wnuli, romel-
Tagan erTni sruliad axali, meoreni ki ukusvliT ise Sors mavalni
arian, rom maTi mxolod gamocnoba Tu SeiZleba. <lingvistisaTvis
analogiuri warmonaqmnebis dasaxelabis moTxovna igive iqneboda, mi-
neralogebisagan mineralebis an astronomebisagan ramdenime varskvla-
vis dasaxeleba rom mogveTxova. barem aqve davZen, rom amiT Rirebule-
bebTan dakavSirebiT araviTari gaugebroba ar iqmneba, radgan am faq-
tebis Sesaxeb vityviT, rom ar arsebobs araCveulebrivi <an anegdotu-
ri> faqtebi, ar arsebobs ucnaurobebi [>curiositès<] an <anomaliebi>,
aramed arsebobs enis [>langage<] mkveTri arseba yvelgan da yvela epoqa-
Si. swored es aris yvela droisaTvis misi (enis) yoveldRiuri isto-
ria – Je trouve, nous trouvons, rogorc je meurs, nous mourons. ratom? arsebobs
SesaniSnavi safuZveli, magram [ ]. iTqmis: je lève, nous lavons. germanulSi
Zlieri zmnis preteritumis formebi TiTqmis yovelTvis aseTia: zog
(ezideboda, miaTrevda) – wir zogen; lieb, lieben; band, banden; half, halfen; ward,
wurden. <preteritumis am istoriisaTvis kidev erTi magaliTi: is, rom
Tavad gonebisaTvis yvelaze ufro sando formebi, rac saocaria, ana-
logiebs emorCilebian>. <maSin, roca> gvaqvs [ ] grand <mdedr.> grand
naTqvami sapirispirod bon-isa, mdedr. bone, radgan [], ukve XI sauku-
nidan <gvxvdeba> grande.
Tanamedrove saxiT, magaliTad, j'achète nous acherons. qali ar ityvis: je me
décollette, je me décolte! SesaniSnavi analogiuri warmonaqmni! cxadia, ar
unda Tqva (radgan araferi ar unda Tqva, yvelafers, rasac ambob, Ta-
visi safuZveli aqvs), – magram gasagebia, rom cota xnis win iTqmoda: je
décollette, nous décolletons, rogorc j'achète, nous achetons. sruliad SesaZle-
belia, rom erT dRes j'achète iTqvas (je cachte ukve movismine kidec) _

15
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 9, N 1.2, Nr. 3284.

168
<récolter>. zmnis istoria [ ] germanulSi sesxulobs. <saukuneebis man-
Zilze> _ me-16 saukunis Sua xanebamde germanulad ambobdnen: ich was> j'
étais, er was >il était<; Cven viyaviT >nous étions<; inglisurSi aRniSnuli
forma ucvlelad SemorCa: I was, he was, we were. ratom? was-Si iyo erTi
`s~ da `waren~-Si – erTi `r~. amasTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs ori Sesa-
niSnavi mizezi, magram axla maT ar gamovedevnebi, radgan, rogoric ar
unda iyos es retrospeqtuli safuZvlebi, isini arafers cvlian im
viTarebaSi, romelic am momentSia Seqmnili. <aseve uZluri arian>, ra-
ime Secvalon imaSi, rac am viTarebidan gamosasvlelad moxdeba. arse-
biTad <waren-Si> `r~ aris `s~-s modifikacia, magram, vimeoreb, amas Cvens
sakiTxTan araferi esaqmeba.
imave dros <da yovelTvis> imave safuZvliT, romelSic was – waren ar-
is, agreTve <isev da imave safuZvliT, romlis gamokvleva ara gvWir-
deba> aris ich fuhr, wir fuhren (me mivemgzavrebodi, Cven mivemgzavrebo-
diT)> >j'allais en voiture, nous allions en voiture< an kidev, ich gebar, wir gebaren (me
vibadebodi, Cven vibadebodiT) >j' enfantais, nous enfantions<. warsuli drois
am formaSi Sedis `r~, <saidanac gamosvlac SeuZlia> fleqsiis erTi
bolodan meorisaken, warsulis am formebs ki upiratesobac aqvT,
radgan ufro martivebi da logikurni Canan;] ukve aRar arian iseTebi,
rogoric was – waren. maS, ra xdeba? sayuradRebo fenomeni, romelic
yovelTvis igiveobrivia da romlis Sesaxebac lui have winadadebas
iZleva, gadmovceT igi formuliT, romelic maTematikisagan nasesxebi
me-4 proporcionalebis suraTi iqneba: wir gebaren: ich gebar=wir waren: x; sa-
idanac gamogvyavs x:ich war.
me Zalauneburad fenomenis mxolod metad arasruli suraTi warmo-
gidgineT da misi mxolod erTi an ori yvelaze ufro misawvdomi da
advilad aRsaqmeli formiT ganvixile. amJamad Cvens yuradRebas enob-
rivi transformaciis meore _ fonetikuri _ mizezi moiTxovs. imis
gamo, rom misi axsna aq SeuZlebelia, es mizezi Cveni mxedvelobisa da
Semecnebis aredan qreba. aseTi fonetikuri moZraoba yvela enaSi
[>langue<] arsebobs: cantare>chanter, campus>champ, catedra>chaire, calamus>chaume,
vacca>vache, <capillus>. <cantare k'antar-ad daiSleba. sxva fenomenia civitas>cité
[ ]. >-Mouilliertes-ll-.
umTavresi niSani: brmad urtyams enis [>langue<] yvela formas, romel-
Sic saeWvo bgera aRmoCndeba da, Sesabamisad, moiTxovs maTematikuri
kanonzomierebis niSans.
kanonzomierebis niSani.
kanoni SemTxveva.
es kanonzomierebis niSani iseTia, rom mocemuli ragindara laTinuri
sityvis mixedviT winaswar SeiZleba imisi Tqma, Tu ras gamoxatavs igi
frangulad; ra mniSvneloba eqneba mocemul indoevropul sityvas
berZnulad; [ ] sityvidan (Tu analogiisaTvis ar arsebobs xelSemSle-
li garemoebebi).
kanoni – SemTxveva.
erT-erT SedegTagania formaTa diferencireba (analogia simetrias
aRadgens an iqeT aris mimarTuli, rom kvlav aRadginos igi) 16 .

16
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 10, N 1.2, Nr. 3284.

169
# 1.3 `mesame leqcia~

Cvens mier wina or leqciaze ganxiluli Temebi, Tu Cvens gonebaSi maT


sistematizacias SevZlebT, ukve sakmao warmodgenas Segviqmnian imaze,
Tu ra aris enis [>langue<] dniSuleba droSi [>Temps<]. drois faqtor-
Tan [>devant le facteur Temps<] es Temebi warmodgenas gviqmnian univer-
salur pirobebze, roca mxedvelobaSi viRebT faqts, rom >drois gar-
kveuli monakveTi gadis<, romelTa gavlenis qveSac aRmoCndeba rome-
lime idiomi, _ da aqamde ar gavrjilvarT imisaTvis, rom garda xang-
rZlivobis faqtoris da qronologiuri distanciisa, romelime sxva
ZiriTad faqtors vziarebodiT.
Tu kidev erTxel dagvWirdeboda ZiriTadi Tvalsazrisis ganzogadeba,
romelic <pirvel leqciaze> gaviareT, namdvilad <radikaluri> Seu-
povrobiT davicavdi ara marto rRvevis, aramed naxtomis SeuZleblo-
bas enis [>langue<] [>tradiciebis<] TandaTanobiT gadacemaSi misi pirve-
li dRidan, roca adamianTa <sazogadoebam> laparaki daiwyo, im gans-
xvavebuli, uSualod cxadi punqtebis sasageblod, rom enis [>langue<]
sikvdili ar SeiZleba, Tu Zaladoba ar iqneba masze ganxorcielebu-
li; da rom arc erT enas ar aqvs siberisa da bavSvobis asaki da
bolos, mzisqveSeTSi arc erTi 17 axali enis [>langue<] dabadeba ar Se-
iZleba moxdes; rom, roca ama Tu im xalxis ena [>langue<] zewolas g-
anicdis, roca mas meore aviwrovebs, es meore ena [>langue<] <iseTive
bunebriobiT swored> igive asaks uCvenebs, rasac is, romelic iTrgu-
neba. ise, rom <dedamiwaze> sxva ram verasodes ver Seiqmneba, garda
idiomis gagrZelebisa, rac <pirveli dRidanve arsebobs> da rac yo-
velTvis arsebobda, vidre maZieblebi <namdvil> preistoriuli drois
miuwvdomel Rames ar <miadgebian>.
pirvel rigSi, isic Sesaxsenebelia, rom arasodes moxdeba, erTi ena
[>langue<] meore enis memkvidred mogvevlinos; rom, magaliTad, frangu-
li laTinuris memkvidrea, aramed ori sagnidan erTis moCvenebiTi
Tanmimdevruloba imitom xdeba, rom <mogvwons>, roca igive idioms
erTmaneTis miyolebul axal saxelebs <varqmevT>, ris Sedegadac er-
Tisagan TviTneburad or sagans SevqmniT, <romelic, eWvgareSea, droe-
biT arian gayofili>. zegavlenas, romelsac Cvens sulsa da gonebaze
es ori Tanmimdevruli saxeli axdens, iseTi gadamwyvetia da <ise ur-
yevi>, aRmoufxvreli, rom ar vfiqrob, da <amas gulwrfelad vaRia-
reb>, rom Cemi mxridan or an sam dReSi ori an sami SeniSvniT davar-
Rvev mas. mxolod imas ki vityvi, rom yvela lingvists, metad xang-
rZlivi dakvirvebis DSedegad, kargad moexseneba, rom rasac ena [>lan-
gue<] teqstidan teqstamde TxuTmeti an oci wlis manZilze ganicdis,
am drois monakveTSi sruliad umniSvnelod gamoCndeba saxeldebaTa
is gansxvavebuloba, rogorSic laTinuri da franguli saxelebi gvar-
wmuneben. ra moxdeba, <gamonaklisis gareSe>, Tu lingvisti ganizra-
xavs im <mcdari> mosazrebis damtkicebisaTvis brZolas, TiTqos erT
mSvenier dRes laTinurma franguli ena [>langue<] dabada? <RmerTo Ce-

17
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 10, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.

170
mo!> misi siswore aRiarebuli iqneba im saxiT, Tu SeTanxmdebian, rom
es absurduli koncefciaa. cnobilia, rom natura yvelgan da yovelTvis
non facit saltus-iT fasdeba. sruliad darwmunebuli arian, rom am orive
enas [>langues<] Soris neli gadasvla unda Semdgariyo _ <yuradReba
mivaqcioT am Termas!> _ da Sesabamisad, ufro Sorsac wavida, <vidre
misi winamorbedi?> araviTar SemTxvevaSi, radgan darwmunebiT gaaqvT
Tavisi, rom ori urTierTSekavSirebuli Terma arsebobs, Tanac winas-
war dakavSirebuli, Tumca SeumCneveli gadasvliT Sekruli, magram
romlebic mainc or Termas, or enas [>langues<], or arsebas, <or yofi-
erebas>, or organizms, or princips, or cnebas, <or kanons> qmnian,
romlebic gansxvavebuli arian. <ase ganagrZoben> laTinuri da fran-
guli ise warmoadginon, rogorc erTsa da igive xeze Tanmimdevru-
lad, Semodgomis foTolcvenidan gazafxulze kvirtebis gaSlamde,
orjer gamosuli foTlebi; Cqaroben dauSvan, rom es gadasvla SeumC-
neveli iqneba <saidumlo> ZarRvebSi, romlebSic sicocxle miedineba,
magram imaze ki <mtkiced dganan, rom> ori mkveTrad gansxvavebuli pe-
riodi arsebobs. <es aris namdvilad gavrcelebuli warmodgena>. mag-
ram realurad riT SeiZleba frangulsa da laTinurs Soris egreT-
wodebuli Tanmimdevrulobis Sedareba? <warmovidginoT> qalaqis Za-
lian grZeli quCa, saamSeneblo ofisSi SeTanxmdnen imaze, rom am qu-
Cas Tavidan bolomde erTi saxeli _ `nacionaluri bulvari~ uwodon;
an es quCa or nawilad gayon da erTs `taZris quCa~, meores ki `sko-
lis bulvari~ uwodon; an sam nawilad dayon da x, y, z saxelebi uwo-
don, an Tundac aT, TxuTmet monakveTad daanawilon. bunebrivia, cal-
keul am monakveTTa gansxvavebuli arseboba wmindad nominaluri da
fiqtiuri iqneba. marTebuli iqneboda, gvekiTxa: rogor iqceva x quCa y-
ad, an <Tu SeiZleba, rom y quCa ucabedad an SeumCnevlad x bulvarad
iqces> Tuki, garda Cveni gonebisa, aseTi arc quCa da arc bulvari ar-
sad ar arsebobs. aseve, Cveni `gonebis garda, arsad ar arsebobs gan-
sazRvruli ram frangulis saxiT, aseve gansazRvruli ram – laTinu-
ris sapirispirod <da, Sesabamisad, ver vxedav imis Tqmis saWiroebas,
rom erTi progresirebiT gamomdinareobdes meorisagan, nacvlad imisa,
rom vTqvaT, rom erTi dartymiT warmodga win. <mniSvnelovania imis
Segneba, rom mTeli 21 saukunis periodisaTvis SegveZlo erTaderTi
saxeli migveca da laTinuri gvewodebina, an ori saxeli migveca da
laTinuri da franguli gvewodebina, an sami saxeli da es iqneboda:
Cvens welTaRricxvamde II saukunis laTinuri, Cvens welTaRricxvamde
I saukunisa da Cveni wlTaRricxviT I saukunis laTinuri da me-2, me-3...
me-15... me-19 saukunis laTinuri. da <rom> winsvlis sxva aranairi
zusti forma ar arsebobs imisaTvis, rom misi dayofa ganaxorcielo,
<garda> am <sruliad> Tavisufali da Cveulebrivi dayofisa. amgva-
rad, uarvyofT Cven ara marto enis [>langues<] dabadebis SesaZleblobas
ise, rom mas win sxva ar uswrebda; ara marto uarvyofT <meorec> enis
[>langues<] ucabedad dabadebis SesaZleblobas, aramed mesamec, <aseve
uarvyofT> imis SesaaZleblobas, rom gansazRvruli ena [>langues<]
<TandaTanobiT> meore enidan daibados, radgan ar arsebobs <momen-
ti>, roca ena [>langues<] metad Tu naklebad zusti iqneba, vidre sxva

171
romelime momentSi. arasodes ar arsebobs mdgradi, aramed arsebobs
mxolod warmavali da droiT SezRuduli niSnebi. arsebobs mxolod
enis mdgomareoba [>état du langues<], romelic gamudmebiT wina dRis
<mdgomareobidan> meore dRis mdgomareobaze gardamaval pirobebSia.
am mdgomareobis gansazRvruli ricxvis erTi saxelis qveS gaerTia-
neba rom <movisurvoT>, vTqvaT iseTisa, rogoric laTinuri an fran-
gulia, iseTsave <operacias warmoadgenda>, da moiTxovda zustad igi-
ve mniSvnelobas, rogorsac me-19 saukune me-18 saukunisaTvis <an me-12-
saTvis> rom dagvepirispirebina. es aris gaurkveveli amosavali wer-
tili, yovelgvari moTxovnebis gareSe, sagnebis <saboloo> wesrigi-
saTvis xelis Sesawyobad, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT winmswrebi, odnav
gansxvavebuli wesrigis gzidan Camocilebaze, agreTve im wesrigze,
amas rom mohyveba. SeuZlebelia <aq> ar SevniSnoT, rom enaTmecniers,
romelic Tanamedrove berZnuls flobs, <rogoricaa Jan psiqarisi>
da romelic didi pativis privilegiiT tkbeba, arasodes Seuwuxebia
Tavi iseTi nominaluri gansxvavebebis komentirebisTvisac ki, rogo-
ric laTinursa da franguls Soris movaxdineT. misi pirveli leq-
ciis mixedviT, vigebT, rom, roca man berZnulTan dakavSirebiT Cvens
welTaRricxvamde me-7 saukuneze imsjela, raTa `Tanamedrove~ berZnu-
lamde mosuliyo, <2600 wlis monakveTzea saubari>, es, ubralod, imis
dasamtkiceblad gaakeTa, rom es orive ena berZnulia, miuxedavad imi-
sa, rom isini iseTive daSorebuli arian erTmaneTisagan, <zogierT>
punqtSi mainc Tu ufro metadac ara, rogorc – franguli laTinuri-
sagan. Tavad am momentSic, roca pativi maqvs, Tqven gesaubrebodeT,
darwmunebuli var, <patiosnad geubnebiT, rom sruliad darwmunebuli
var>, rom yvelaferi, miuxedavad imisa, rasac me vambobdi, `franguli~
Tu `laTinuri~ dasaxelebebis Sesaxeb, <Tqveni gonebisaTvis> <usasru-
lod> gacilebiT STambeWdavia da yovelTvis <an didxans> aTasjer
ufro <STambeWdavad> darCeba, vidre yvela instancia, romelsac <me,
rogorc lingvists>, SemiZlia am pappis mier danergili dualizmis
dasangrevad movuwodo, romliTac atanilebi varT frangulisa da la-
Tinuris saxelebis gamo. erT mSvenier dRes sityvaTa mecnierebaSi da-
iwereba Zalian specifikuri da metad saintereso wigni saxelis, ro-
gorc simSvidis <mTavari> 18 damrRvevis Sesaxeb.
CvenTvis am saxis dakvirvebaTa erToblioba droSi enis [>langues<] ab-
soluturi uwyvetobis universaluri principiT aris Semonaxuli. am
pirvel princips kombinaciaSi emateba meore, droSi enis [>langues<] uwy-
veti transformaciis principi, romelic Tavis mxriv, ori sxvadasxva-
gvari moqmedebis Zalaze aris damokidebuli. erTi – es aris fsiqo-
logiuri, romelic analogiis operaciazea koncentrirebuli da meo-
re – meqanikuri, fiziologiuri, romelic Tavis gamoxatulebas fone-
tikur cvlilebaSi poulobs. Tanac erTi meorisagan sruliad damou-
kideblad moqmedebs, ramdenime metad gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevis gar-
da, romelic Tumca metismet yuradRebas iqcevs, magram, marTlac,
araCveulebrivia.

18
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 11, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.

172
faqtori, romelsac Cven aqamde sistematurad gamovtovebdiT xolme,
geografiuli distanciebis is sivrcea, romelic qronologiur dis-
tanciasTan aris kombinirebuli.
Cven davamtkiceT, rom, Tu romelime garkveuli enis saxe [>état de lan-
gues<] mocemulia erT romelme adgilze, <magaliTad, alpebis miyru-
ebul sofelSi> da, Tu asi an orasi wlis Semdeg kvlav am sofels
movinaxulebT, aucileblad am enis saxe [>état de langues<], miuxedavad
garkveuli cvlilebis xelis Semwyobi gansakuTrebuli <mizezis> ar-
arsebobisa, garkveuli zomiT Secvlili dagvxvdeba. <Tumca warmateb-
uli cvlileba zusti fenomenebis garkveul raodenobamde> ukan dab-
runebadi iqneba, magram dasamtkicebeli rCeba is, rom, Tu erTi da igi-
ve ena [>langue<] mocemuli momentisaTvis garkveul teritoriaze aris
gavrcelebuli, gardauvali cvlilebis Sedegad, <asi an orasi wlis
Semdeg,> igive teritoriis sxvadasxva <punqtSi> iseTi aRar iqneba da,
Tu am teritorias gadavkveTT diagonalze xuTasi an eqvsasi milis
manZilze an, gnebavT, xuTi an eqvsi milis monakveTebSi es cvlileba
sxvadasxva xarisxisa iqneba. fenomenebi, <romlebic garkveul droSi
iCenen Tavs> yovelTvis zusti da gasagebia. magaliTad, Tu davakvir-
debiT cvlilebas S punqtidan Z-saken, magram geografiulad sxvada-
sxva mxaris monakveTebSi, romlebzec dakvirvebas vaxorcielebT, vna-
xavT, rom es cvlilebebi igiveobrivi ar iqnebian da Sesabamisad, enac
[>langue<] aRar aris sxvadasxva monakveTebSi <identuri>. rodesac ge-
ografiul mocemulobas qronologiurTan vakavSirebT, vxedavT, rom
lingvistikaSi TiTqmis arasdros ara gvaqvs saqme pirvel A TermasTan,
romelic ramdenime saukunis Semdeg B TermaSi aisaxeba, aramed aq saqme
gvaqvs isev A TermasTan, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi BIBIIBIIIBIIII-Si
daileqeba... Tu magaliTad, mocemul momentSi JenevaSi A idiomze lapa-
rakoben da igive A idioms iyeneben lionSi, bordoSi da parizSi, ora-
si an samasi wlis Semdeg vnaxavT, rom arcerT am qalaqSi ar aRmoCn-
deba idiomi, romlisTvisac SegveZleboda B dagverqmia A-sTan mimarTe-
biT, aramed es iqneboda JenevisTvis BI, lionisaTvis BII, bordosTvis
BIII, parizisaTvis BIIII, rogorc kontr nawili identuris amosavali A
Termisa. gansxvaveba A-sa da B-s Soris <idealurad> warmoaCens dro-
Si gansxvavebas, magram, faqtiurad, gansxvaveba aris mxolod> A: BIBII
BIII, <romelic> <erTdroulad> <marTlac erTaderT> gansxvavebas war-
moadgens drosa da sivrceSi. marTlac, mxolod erTdroulad drosa
da sivrceSi ganxiluli gansxvaveba, [Cans, rom Cven, SeiZleba iTqvas,
versad vxvdebiT enas [>langue<], romelic geografiulad gansazRvrul
da identurad mogveCveneboda. yoveli idiomi, romlis dasaxelebac ki
SegviZlia, <sayovelTaoa mxolod mravalmxrivi geografiuli forme-
bidan erTi>, romlis safarqveSac salaparako ena [>le parler<] aseve
<mxolod teritoriis mcire sivrceSi> iqneba warmodgenili. yvelgan
mtkicdeba dialeqtebis daqucmacebuloba. xSirad es CvenTvis Semku-
lia im <garemoebiT>, rom gansxvavebuli dialeqtebidan erTs mowinave
pozicia ukavia. iqneba es qveynis sxvadasxva nawilebs Soris litera-
turuli ena [>langue litéraire<], oficialuri samsaxurebrivi, sagzao-kav-
Sirgabmulobis Tu sawarmoo enebi [>langue de traffic et d'intercourse<], rasac

173
iqamde mivyavarT, rom es dialeqti mimoweriT formas Rebulobs, sxva
dialeqtebi ki ganixilebian, rogorc uformo da saSiSi Jargonebi,
romlebic oficialuri enis [>langue<] rRvevis movlenad warmodgebian.
bolos isec xdeba, rom <xSirad literaturul enad miRebuli ena
[>langue<] iqamdec midis, [ ] kvdeba>. <magaliTad: SeiZleboda, mogvCve-
neboda, rom> laTinuri <romelsac Tqven Zalian kargad flobT>,
<romelic Tqven iciT>, warsulSi SeiZleboda, zerele damkvirvebels
mosCveneboda, rom igi italielTa an, sul mcire, laTiumTa ena
[>langue<] yofiliyo. sinamdvileSi, Tu Tvals gadavavlebT pelazgur,
oskur, sabinur warwerebs an sityvebs, romlebic gramatikosTa mier
aris gadmocemuli [>transmis<], SeamCnevs, rom istoriaSi ase saxelganT-
qmul romaelTa laTinuri <mcire moculobis lokaluri dialeqti
iyo>, romelic, am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, TiTqmis romis ka-
ribWesTan mTavrdeboda. italiaSi ireoda italiuri enis [>langues<]
sxvadasxva formebi, romelTa Soris sakmaod cnobilia umbriuli da
oskuri, sxvaTagan mxolod sabinurze gvaqvs bundovani warmodgena.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is faqti, rom romauli dialeqti, politikuri
da literaturuli mizezebis gamo, ise ganviTarda, rom italiuri ena
[>langage, sic<] yvela danarCeni, aranaklebad legitimuri formebisagan
gawminda.
es procesi didxans gagrZelda (pompei), magram mainc bolos saerTod
da mTlianad aqamde moaRwia. aseve, roca adamians surs, jansaRi war-
modgena Seiqmnas imaze, rasac, magaliTad, Tanamedrove germanuli war-
moadgens am Termis <realuri> moculobiT, imiT ki ar unda daiwyos,
rom oficialuri germanuli, rasac Cven vswavlobT, nulis Rirebule-
bamde daiyvanos, aramed aqcios asobiT erTobebs Soris mTlianobis
erTaderT faseulobad, miT umetes Tu Sveicariul germanulsac gaiT-
valiswinebs, romelTa Soris gansxvavebis danaxvis SesaZlebloba mie-
cema. aseTivea frangulis pozicia franguli patos sapirispirod. es
imas niSnavs, rom oficialuri franguli ena erTaderTi regionis di-
aleqtia. kerZod, – safrangeTis kunZulad wodebuli parizis da misi
Semogarenisa. bunebrivia, SemeZlo Zalian bevri magaliTis motana.
erTs ki davasaxelebdi, romelic Cvengan teritoriulad Zalian daSo-
rebulia. SeiZleboda saukunis dasawyisSi gvgoneboda, rom zendurad
wodebuli ena [>langue zende<], romelic parTielTa wminda wignebSia Se-
monaxuli, iranuli _ aqameniduri _ enaa [>langue<], magram am ori dia-
leqtis garda, cxadia, aq bevri sxva dialeqtic arsebobs.
formaTa aseT ganusazRvrel mravalferovnebas Soris mcdari iqnebo-
da, <am SeniSvnas vakeTeb imisaTvis, rom mcdari warmodgena ar Seiqm-
nas>, gvefiqra, rom didi jafa dagvadgeboda masSi orientirebisaTvis
da, rom warmoudgeneli qaosis (uwesrigobis) winaSe aRmovCndebodiT.
rodesac Cven yvelasaTvis bolo punqts viRebT BI BII BIII, TiToeulisaT-
vis vpoulobT zustad erT amosaval wertils – A-s, romelic sxvada-
sxva mimarTulebiT aris modificirebuli, magram sruliad zusti sa-
xiT. ase, magaliTad, tsav – vaté – château. yvela eseni maTematikurad ukan
brundebian castellum-Tan: tsavi – tsāvaté - vā, château, champ: - st > v: tîva -.
exla ikveTeba, Tu ra Sors iyo sinamdvilisagan enaTmecnieruli Stu-
diebis pirvel periodSi gabatonebuli warmodgena, TiTqos erTi enis

174
[>langue<] an laparakis [>parler<] meorisagan gasarCevad maTi geografi-
uli dayofa 19 iyos saWiro. magaliTad, azri imis Sesaxeb, TiTqos ing-
lisuri da germanuli erTmaneTisagan mxolod imitom ganirCevian, rom
[ ]. geografiuli dayofis SemTxveva, me vgulisxmob <absolutur> ge-
ografiul wyvetilobas (Diskontinuität), warmoadgens Zalian dacilebuls
imisgan, rac kanonzomieri piroba iqneba imisaTvis, rom amiT SemogvTa-
vazos SeuTanxmebeli, gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva, romelic kvlevas mo-
iTxovs (da, romelsac me srulyofilad gamovkref am Studiebidan).
romelime erTobis enobrivi izolaciis efeqti, albaT, ormagia: erTis
mxriv swrafad icvlebian da meore mxriv gansxvavebuli mimarTulebiT
dgebian, magram ise, TiTqos es erToba masasTan kontaqtSi iyos darCe-
nili. magram vimeoreb, es is SemTxvevaa, roca, Tu igi gansakuTrebuli
ar aris, sul mcire, specialur kvlevas moiTxovs da Tu misi wamow-
yeba ver xerxdeba <winaswar> diferencirebasTan zusti mimarTebis ga-
reSe, romelic mis win uwyvet enobriv_lingvistur korpusSi mimdina-
reobs, maSin asxna-ganmarteba unda iqnas micemuli. exla sakiTxavia,
ra mosazrebamde mividodiT <fenomenebis Sesaxeb>, Tu SevecdebodiT,
droSi diferencirebis faqtis sivrceSi diferencirebis faqtTan da-
kavSirebas. Tundac es aTas kvadturl kilometrze gadaSlili garkve-
uli teritoria iyos, sadac mocemul droSi erTi da igive dialeqtze
laparakobdnen, 500 wlis Semdeg imave teritoriaze aRmocenebuli iq-
neba mTeli rigi dialeqtebisa. <BI BII BIII>, magram, rodesac sasinj mona-
kveTs gavanaxevrebT, Sesabamisad dialeqturi gansxvavebebis sruliad
sxva aspeqtebs miviRebT. es imas niSnavs, rom 250 wlis Semdeg es dia-
leqtebi jer kidev ara marto ar arian sxvadasxva dialeqtebi _ BI BII,
is, rac Semdeg iqnebian, aramed isini jer kidev ar arian individua-
lur dialeqtebad Camoyalibebuli. magaliTad, 250 wlis Semdeg jer
ori didi fraqcia iqneba nacvlad ocdaaTis an ormocisa. garda amisa,
es orive didi fraqcia `jer~ kidev ar iqneba sxvaTgan Seviwrovebuli.
ise, rom erTi dasaxelebis ukiduresi samxreTi nawilis mosaxleobis
ena SeiZleba, jer kidev gasagebi iyos ukiduresi CrdiloeTis
mosaxleobisaTvis.
es Teoria, batonebo, arc Zalian mcdaria da arc marTali. enaTmecnie-
rebaSi yvelaze sayuradRebo uaxlesi miRwevebi, romlebsac umTavre-
sad pol meieris Ecole des Chartes-s unda vumadlodeT, gviCveneben, rom
sinamdvileSi dialeqtebi gansazRvruli erTobebi ar arian da rom
<geografiulad> aranairi dialeqti ar arsebobs, aramed arseboben
ufro metad geografiuli dialeqturi niSnebi. Tu es principi erTi
SexedviT SeiZleba bnel raRacad gveCvenos, maSin umal naTeli moefi-
neba [ ], da amaSi darwmunebuli var. Tu vcdiT, rukaze sruliad nac-
nobi dialeqtis sazRvrebSi mogzaurobas, namdvilad iZulebuli viqne-
biT vTqvaT, romelia is niSnebi, romelsac damaxasiaTeblad miviCnevT
mis irgvliv arsebul dialeqtebTan mimarTebiT. magaliTad, roca me
vacxadeb, rom es savoiuri dialeqtia, Cems upirveles movaleobas Se-
adgens vTqva, Tu riTi <da ramdenad> gansxvavdeba es dialeqti danar-
Ceni franguli dialqtebisagan. amgvarad, me Sevudgebi am <urTierT-
ganmasxvavebeli> niSnebis Ziebas. pirveli gadaxedviT SemiZlia SevamC-

19
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 12, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.

175
nio sityvis boloSi laTinuri <yru> bgerebis SemorCena. magaliTad,
laTinuri a sityva fena-Si >la femme<, Genva >Genève<, es savoiuri dialeq-
tis aucilebeli niSania, <aseve gansxvavebuli dialeqturi niSanic>,
magram Tu kidev ufro kargad davukvirdebi, davamtkiceb, rom savoi-
uri dialeqti da mTeli samxreT safrangeTis dialeqti saerToa. maSa-
sadame, es ar yofila ganmasxvavebeli niSani. amis Semdeg vadgen, rom
samxreT safrangeTis laTinuri jgufs ca ar gardauqmnia tsa, ša-d an
sxva saxiT, <canto> maSin, rodesac savoiur dialeqtSi cvlilebas vxe-
davT: vătå, magram iqneba ki es niSani ukeTesi? arasgziT! radgan am ni-
Sans atarebs teritoriis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi nawilic, romelic sa-
voiurs akavSirebs <Jeqsis, franS-kontes, parizis> regionebTan. amitom
Sevecdebi, ufro lokaluri niSnebi moviZio. magaliTisaTvis aviReb
savoiurSi patos aqcentebis gadaadgilebis faqtebs la lná, la spá, magram
male imasac davinaxav, rom es fenomeni savoielTa mxolod nawils Se-
exeba. <maSasadame>, es ar yofila saerTo niSani da rom igi valisa
da dofes mimarTulebiTac gvxvdeba. ise, rom arc es aris damaxasi-
aTebeli niSani. da ase Semdeg. da arc arasodes mogvecema raime ni-
Sani, romlis geografiuli ganfeniloba meorisas emTxveodes, savoies
erTi nawili vudis mxaresTan aris dakavSirebuli, meore nawili va-
lisTan poulobs siaxloves, mesame nawili [ ]. bolos da bolos im
daskvnamde mivdivarT, rom fenomenTa moniSvna geografiuli ganfeni-
lobis rukaze sruliad SesaZlebelia, magram es rom dialeqturi
erTobebis gansxvavebis safuZvlad miviCnioT, sruliad uqmi da usar-
geblo saqme iqneba.
yoveli <regioni> mdebareobs raime raodenobis enobriv-lingvisturi
fenomenebis winaRobaTa sivrceSi. yvelas <Tavisi> gansazRvruli bi-
liki aqvs da niSanTa raodenoba, romelic yoveli regionisaTvis ama
Tu im fenomenis SemTxveviTi danaSrevebisagan gamomdinareobs. es aris
is, rac, <Tu amis survili arsebobs>, am regionis dialeqts qmnis. mag-
ram SeuZlebelia iseTi niSnis povna, romelic nebas mogvcemda, erTi
dialeqtisaTvis meoresTan sazRvari dagvedo. es iqneboda is, rom mxo-
lod TiTo sofeli agveRo cal-calke. dialeqtebis kvleva dResdRe-
obiT miznad isaxavs enobriv-lingvisturi faqtebis gavrcelebis area-
lis gansazRvras da ara dialeqtebis moCvenebiT erTobaTa monaxaze-
bis keTebas.
SeiZleba sazRvrebi kilometrobiT iWimebodes, vidre laTinuri a-s e-
d gardaqmna moxdebodes _ donar Tu doner; magram amis Tu sxva niSnis
safuZvelze safrangeTis langue d'oc da langue d'oil-is gayofa rom moindo-
mo, sruli siyalbe iqneba. amis magaliTad movuxmob meore niSans: Tu
safrangeTSi versalis gadaRma mxares sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT or
nawilad gayofen da es iqneba aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi mxareebi. me-
same magaliTi ki _ Tu igive safrangeTi diagonaliT alpebidan okea-
nemde gadaisereba da a.S. am TvalsazrisiT, kaizeruli germaniis enis
atlasia yvelaze ufro metad saintereso.
ufro saintereso iqneba am didi fenomenisaTvis drosa da sivrceSi
erTdrouli Tvalis midevneba. am fenomenebis Tanmimdevruli moqmede-
ba, romlebic geografiuli uwyvetobis kanons emorCilebian, imaSi
vlindeba, rom SeiZleba dialeqtis SeumCneveli gardaqmna daafiqsiro,
roca romlime adgilidan romelime mimarTulebiT waxval. magaliTad

176
savoies macxovrebeli, romelic averJes mimarTulebiT midis, raRaca
drois Semdeg miadgeba sazRvars, sadac laTinuri ca-s nacvlad va Sex-
vdeba, aseve tsa-s tsã Seanacvlebs. es mas xels ar SeuSlis maTi lapara-
kis gagebaSi. raRac droSi kvlav gadalaxavs sxva enobriv sazRvars,
rac aseve 20 ar SeuSlis xels maTi metyvelebis gagebaSi, magram, rac
ufro Sordeba Tavis mSobliur adgils, miT ufro izrdeba misi dia-
leqtisgan gansxvaveba, bolos ki iseT zRvars miaRwevs es sxvaoba,
rom gasagebic aRar iqneba misTvis. am dakvirvebas im daskvnamde miv-
yavarT, rom wesiT, aranairi sazRvari ar arsebobs maT Soris, rasac
ori dialeqtis nacvlad or enas [>langues<] uwodeben, <maSin, roca am
orive enas [>langue<] erTi da igive warmomavloba aqvs da momijnaved
binadari mosaxleoba laparakobs>. magaliTad, ar arsebobs sazRvari
italiursa da franguls Soris, im dialeqtebs Soris, romlebic amaT
undaT, rom frangulad miiCnion, imaT ki [ ]. iseve, rogorc ar arse-
bobs zRvardadebuli dialeqti, normalur pirobebSi arc zRvardade-
buli enebi [>langues<] arseboben. amgvarad, ena [>langue<], rogorc vnaxeT,
aranairad ar aris arc droSi da arc sivrceSi gansazRvruli sidide.
imis dasadgenad, Tu risi Tqma undaT, roca ama Tu im zust enaze
laparakoben, arsebobs erTaderTi saSualeba. kerZod, unda vTqvaT:
romelia ena >langage< ama da am wels; es imas niSnavs, rom erTaderTi,
rac unda gaakeTon aris is, rom unda aiRon naklebad vrceli geogra-
fiuli adgili da drois garkveuli monakveTi.
<yvelaferi> amis Semdeg ikiTxaven: erTi da igive warmomavlobis erT-
maneTTan axlo mdgomi enebi, rogorebic slavuri da germanulia,
frangulisa da italiuris msgavsad Tu arian erTmaneTsSorisi dia-
leqtebiT [>dialectes intermediaires<] dakavSirebuli, romlebic arc erT
tipTan iCenen met siaxloves da arc meoresTan. ara, es met-naklebad
saerTo movlenaa indoevropul ojaxSi. Cven veRar davadgenT Suale-
dur nawilebs, magram unda gvaxsovdes, rom Cveni codna sruliad myi-
fea. Cven ar vicnobT iluris enis [>langue<] korpuss, arc frigiuli
enisas [>langue<] da arc makedoniurisas, romlebmac, albaT, berZnuli
slavurTan daakavSires. magram iyo xalxTa gadasaxlebebi, romlis
talRamac enaTa Sorisi tipebi daipyro da gadafara. yovelgvari sa-
fuZveli arsebobs virwmunoT, rom didi indoevropuli sxeulis wiaR-
Si [>au sain du grand corps indoeuropeen<] momxdari diferencireba iseTive
saxiT warimarTa, rogoriTac laTinuri enisa. axlandeli drois mo-
nakveTSi uwyvetoba ar SeCerebula... heratidan moskovisaken gzaze. Tu
sxvadasxva indoevropul enas aviRebT, yoveli maTgani Tavisi aRmosav-
leli da dasavleli mezoblis Sua nawils warmoadgens. SegviZlia,
fenomenebis sruli analogiis raRac sididis dadgena. uwyvetoba, mag-
ram Taviseburi. fonetika. 21

20
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 13, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.
21
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 14, N 1.3, Nr. 3285.

177
#1.4 22 `SedarebiTi gramatika~

saTaurs _ `SedarebiTi gramatika~, romelic Cemi moxsenebisaTvis iqna


SerCeuli da romeliTac, pativi maqvs, Tqvens winaSe warmovdge da
romlis xmareba, saerTod, miRebulia, _ namdvilad erTi upiratesoba
aqvs: igi Cvens gonebas Tavidanve aTavisuflebs im azrisagan, rom sa-
kiTxi SeiZleba Seexebodes <sakamaTo> idiomebis kvlevas, romelic
<raRac TvalsazrisiT> yovelTvis literaturulic aris da amgvarad
winaswar amzadebs msmenels, scados, aseT leqciaze daswreba da mona-
wileoba diskusiaSic, romelic mxolod enasTan [>langue<] iqneba dakav-
Sirebuli. ukve sityva gramatika, SedarebiTi iqneba igi Tu ara, naT-
lad gansazRvravs, ris Sesaxeb iqneba msjeloba da TvalsaCinos xdis,
rom literaturuli nawarmoebi, diadi iqneba is Tu uRimRamo, <maga-
liTad, berZnuli idiomi>, rogorc mxatvruli nawarmoebi, Cveni
dakvirvebis miRma rCeba da igi CvenTvis sxva araferia, garda Tavad am
<berZnuli> idiomis an gansazRvruli periodis berZnuli idiomis do-
kumenti. yvela danarCen TvalsazrisTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom SedarebiTi gramatikis Terma, romelic im epoqaSi Seiqmna, roca
kvlevis es saxe Canasaxis mdgomareobaSi iyo, damSvidebis saSualebas
ar iZleva. <es Terma> sul mcire, <bevr> komentarsa da SeniSvna-Ses-
worebas moiTxovs. misi definiciis mixedviT, rogoria enebis [>langues<]
istoriaSi Sedarebis roli? im daskvnamde mividnen <ise, rom Tavad
arc ki icodnen>, ekiTxaT, risTvis gaxda saWiro, lingvistebisagan
komparativistebis Seqmna. imaSi ki erTsulovani arian, rom astronomi
akvirdeba da angariSobs, kritikosi akritikebs, istorikosi yveba da
lingvisti Sedarebas axdens. ris gamo unda awarmoos lingvistma Se-
dareba, an ra valdebulia, <Tavisi profesiidan> gamomdinare, Tavi ga-
dados da SedarebebiT dakavdes? sacqerad advilia [ ], rom Sedareba,
romelic Zalian Sors dgas imisagan, rom lingvistisaTvis mTavari me-
Todi iyos, ufro swori iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom igi ukiduresi saSua-
lebaa da misi gamoyeneba raRac SemTxvevaSi iZulebiTi xasiaTis mata-
rebelia. <winaswar gauTvaliswinebelia> iseTi SemTxvevebis sixSire,
romlebic Sedarebas amgvar <SemTxveviT> mniSvnelobas aZleven. Tu
enebis [>langues<] istoriaSi, im xalxSic, romelSic ar SemorCenila Za-
lian didi TeTri laqebi, igi mainc ar iZleva nakleb safuZvels imi-
saTvis, rom Sedareba gamoviyenoT. romanuli enebis ganviTareba amis
sruliad naTel magaliTs warmoadgens.
1. patre (m) – père, <tēctum – toit>.
2. fuente – Lücke (carieli adgili, xvreli, xarvezi).
3. tuttus – sxva Lücke. <ufro gviandeli>.
me mxolod im magaliTebze gavamaxvile yuradReba, romlis drosac
<arsebuli> tradiciis gasworeba an srulyofa xdeba produqtTan Se-
darebis safuZvelze. magram darCenilia Zalian didi periodi, romlis
Sesaxebac Cven araviTari saxis werilobiTi dokumenti ar mogvepoveba.
mravali saukunis manZilze cxovrobdnen laTinebi, romelzec pirda-
piri warmodgena ar gagvaCnia, radgan Cvens xelT arsebuli uZvelesi

22
savaraudod, oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisi. Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 83.

178
laTinuri dokumentebi Cvens welTaRricxvamde 200 wlidan iwyeba; ber-
Znuls Cvens welTaRricxvamde 700 wlidan vicnobT da masac xom <Ta-
vis zurgs ukan Tavisi warsuli aqvs>. magram ra xdeba slavebTan da-
kavSirebiT, romlebic <iseTive Zveli arian, rogorc berZnebi>. maT
Sesaxeb xom mxolod Cveni welaRricxvis 900 an 1000 wlidan gagvaCnia
cnobebi, <anu berZnebTan SedarebiT, 1700 wlis Semdegi periodidan>,
xolo litvuris Sesaxeb masalebi mxolod 350 wlisaa? 23

# 2 24 `SedarebiTi gramatika~

saTauris Sesaxeb akademiur leqciaze <visaubre>, romelsac ufro


swori iqneboda, Tu erqmeoda `indoevropuli enebis [>langues<] isto-
ria~. es is saxelwodebaa, <romlis gamoyenebazec dRes lingvistebma
uari Tqves>, saxeli, romelic yvelaze ufro Sesatyvisi da swori
mgonia imisaTvis, rom saswavli sagani zustad ganisazRvros, romelic
<indoevropuli enebis [>langues<]> SedarebiTi gramatikis saerTo sa-
xelwodebas atarebs. 25
saxelwodeba SedarebiTi gramatika araerT mcdar warmodgenas aRZ-
ravs, romelTagan yvelaze ufro <gamaRizianebelia> is, rom es saxe-
li imaSi darwmunebis mizezsac iZleva, TiTqos igi <sxva> raRac mec-
nieruli gramatika iyos da ara is, enebis [>langues<] Sedarebisas rom
viyenebT.
raki gramatika, Tuki misi arsi sworad gvesmis, sxva araferia, garda
idiomis istoriisa <da raki yvela istorias bevri gasaZromi aqvs>,
cxadia, garkveul momentSi enebis [>langues<] Sedareba CvenTvis <infor-
maciis erTaderTi wyaro> iqneba (imdenad Rirebuli, rom mas uSualo
dokumentis Secvla SeuZlia), magram es SedarebiTi gramatika xom sxva
araferia, Tu ara ukiduresi saSualeba. maSasadame, gramatika yofila
<gamouvali> SedarebiTi saSualeba im momentSi, roca auTenturi da
<zusti> dokumenti ar arsebobs. igi am saSualebis Sesaxeb mxolod
imas gadmogvcems, riTac SeiZleba tendenciis, skolis an gansakuTre-
buli meTodis gansazRvra. es aris <ubralod> gramatikaSi jaxiris
erTaderTi saxeoba. amitom uars vambob yovelgvar <gansakuTrebul>
epiTetze, <rogoricaa> komparativistika, <iseve, rogorc> <bunebri-
via>, sakamaTod miviCnevT gramatikis yvela im <saxeobis> arsebobas,
romelmac Sedarebis, rogorc Tavisi legitimuri kvlevis saSualebis,
<gamoyeneba ar icis>.
SedarebiTi gramatikis Termis Secvlas istoriis TermiT sxva upira-
tesoba aqvs, <es Terma gamoricxavs Cveulebrivi gamoyenebis, Sesabami-
sad, indoevropulis Tanamedrove gantotebebs>, rogorcaa Tavisi uad-
resi ganviTarebis dros romanuli enebis [>langues<] ojaxi an Tavad
germanuli enebisa [>langues<], radgan am teritoriaze Sedareba, ro-

23
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 14, N 1.4, Nr. 3286.
24
savaraudod, oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisi; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.
25
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 14, N 2, Nr. 3287.

179
gorc metad saWiro iaraRi istoriuli tradiciis [>tradition historique<]
gadmocemis uwyvetobis wyalobiT, wyvets Tavis arsebobas. es arasa-
marTliani <gaxleCa> []. 26

# 3 27 `literatura, filologia, enaTmecniereba

literaturis kvleva, Cveulebrivi literaturuli TvalsazrisiT, Ti-


Toeuli mkvlevarisaTvis sakmaod gansxvavebulia da es gansxvaveba
vlindeba ufro teqnikuri xasiaTis damxmare kvlevebSi, romlebic mas
sWirdeba da romelic filologebis <gansakuTrebuli samuSao sfe-
roa>. sxvaTa Soris, aseTia teqstis kritika, xelnawerTa da gamocema-
Ta kritika. paleografia da epigrafika, avtorTa (hermenevtikuli) in-
terpretaciebi, leqsikografia, gramatika, saleqso formis nawarmoeb-
Ta metrika da a.S... filologoebi <saWiro SemTxvevaSi, droebiT>
arqeologis, iuristis, geografis, istorikosis, miTologis da a.S.
funqciasac asruleben. maTi amocana xom isic aris, rom <zogadad>
moicavdnen yvelafers, rac, viwro Tu farTo gagebiT, maT saqmeSi gar-
kveul wvlils Seitans da avtoris ideisa da Sinaarsis ufro Rrmad
<wvdomis saqmeSi> daexmareba. amdenad, did siZneles ar unda warmoad-
gendes imis mixvedra, Tu wminda literaturuli ganaTlebis garda, ki-
dev raa saWiro filologiuri ganaTlebisa <Tu mecnierebisaTvis>,
miT umetes, rom klasikuri <ganaTleba> am orive sagans yovelTvis
erTad <ganixilavda> (sul mcire, mkvdar enebTan [>langues<] mimarTebiT
mainc).
xSirad naklebad momzadebulebic arian xolme imis <gasagebad>, rom
filologia, Tavis mxriv, gansxvavdeba lingvistikisagan – literatu-
ra da filologia. literaturuli kvleva im azriT, <rogoradac es
sayovelTaod esmiT>, moicavs mxolod im sagnebs, romlebic wminda
literaturuli interesis sagans warmoadgens. igi yoveli mkvlevari-
saTvis gansxvavebulia mxolod damxmare sferoebis codnis Tvalsaz-
risiT, rac umetesad teqnikuri xasiaTisaa da amas misi udidebuleso-
ba (par excellence) filologiis sfero uZRveba. esaa: <teqstis kritika>,
xelnawerTa da gamocemaTa kritika, paleografia, epigrafika, gramati-
ka, leqsikografia, <prosodia>, metrika, hermenevtika <an> avtorTa
ganmartebebi da a.S. yvela xedavs <ase vTqvaT> asparezs, vinc ki legi-
timuri saxiT udgeba filologiur kvlevas, <es aris is, rac> mas
wminda literaturuli kvlevisagan ganasxvavebs, <da es miT ufro ad-
vilia, roca klasikuri ganaTleba (sul mcire, mkvdar enebTan [>langu-
es<] mimarTebiT) <kvlevis> am orive <wess erTdroulad> moicavs da
<Tavisi Tanamedrove> SinaarsiT> sruliad maxloebls xdis. <sinamd-
vileSi> imdenad naklebad scades erTmaneTSi maTi aRreva, rom saWi-
ro gaxda kidec, gavixsenoT, rom yoveli filologiuri kvleva, Ziri-
Tadad, Tumca arapirdapir, literaturul kvlevaze rCeba damokidebu-
li da bolos da bolos, erTi da igivea, radgan filologia sxva

26
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 15, N 2, Nr. 3287.
27
dauTariRebelia. Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.

180
araferia, Tu ara gawelili komentari, romelsac literaturul na-
warmoebs daurTaven xolme. <saboloo angariSiT>, es aris <misi
literaturuli mizani>, rac imavdroulad filologiuri mecnierebis
arsebobis safuZvelsa da maT erTianobas qmnis, sxvagvarad igi sru-
liad gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis kvlevas warmarTavda. igi moicavs yve-
lafers, rac, viwro da farTo gagebiT, avtoris Canafiqrisa da nawe-
ris ukeTesad gagebaze imoqmedebda. amis aRsasruleblad filologia
zeviT dasaxelebul sagnebsa da arqeologias, iurisprudencias, geog-
rafias, istorias, miTologias da a.S. unda moicavdes. mwerali nawar-
moebze filologiis da [ ] gaormagebuli aqtiurobis koncentracias
axdens. filologia da lingvistika: maSin, rodesac aravin urevs erT-
maneTSi literatorebs [>le litérateure<] da filologebs, romelTac erT-
maneTTan Zalian bevri saerTo aqvT, piriqiT, Zalian aris [ ]. 28

#4 29 `fonetikuri faqti~

Cven im azrisadmi Tanxmobisken vixrebiT, rom es erTi epoqidan aRebu-


li faqtebia, romlebTan erTadac igi fonetikasac moicavs, an, rom
araferia, rac xels SeuSlida, erTi epoqis kuTvnileba yofiliyo igi.
da, rom mxolod misi axsna-ganmarteba saWiros xdis winamavali epoqis
TamaSSi CarTvas.
es aris Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis tipuri dabneulobebi, razec uf-
lebas vitovebT, sxva adgilas sistematuri Tvalsazrisis meSveobiT
davamarcxoT igi. axla ki SemovifargloT imis aRniSvniT, rom fone-
tikuri faqtebis gasarkvevad es ara marto or epoqas sWirdeba, rac
maTi erTi saerTo wesis qveS moqcevasac niSnavs, aramed <yovelTvis>
ori epoqaa saWiro, raTa misi formireba moxdes <da []>, raTa arsebo-
bis saSualeba mieces da iyos sagani, romelsac kanonisaken
SemovabrunebT. 30

#5 31 `fonologia~

CvenTvis Terma fonologia moicavs imas, rasac germaniaSi zogadad


bgeraTa fiziologiis (Lautphisiologie) saxelSi gulisxmoben. Cven ar mov-
yvebiT axla ama Tu im enaSi [>langue<] am saxelwodebis sisworeze la-
paraks, mxolod arsebiTad migvaCnia imis aRniSvna, rom yvela fono-
logiuri <sakiTxi> sulac ar warmoadgens CvenTvis enaTmecnierebis
sagans, miT umetes – fonetikisas, romelic enaTmecnierebis <gansazRv-
ruli> nawilia da amitom fonologiisa da fonetikis Termebi erTma-
neTSi ara Tu ar unda avrioT, aramed erTmaneTis sapirispiraodac ki
arasdros ar unda davayenoT isini. 32

28
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 15, N 3, Nr. 3288.
29
savaraudod, oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisi; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.
30
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 15, N 4, Nr. 3289.
31
savaraudod, 1897; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.
32
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 91, N 5, Nr. 640.

181
#5a 33 `fonologia~

amas me ganvixilav ara rogorc a priori keTilgonivrul <WeSmaritebas>,


rogorc raRacas, romelic sxvanair gadmocemas ar saWiroebs da rom
<movaleni arian>, roca sakiTxi enas [>langue<] Seexeba, raRac saxiT mo-
icvan igi, kerZod, rogor formirdebian bgerebi Cvens yelsa da sasa-
Si, <piriqiT, vfiqrob, yvelasaTvis SeiZleboda saintereso yofiliyo,
sakuTari TavisTvis ekiTxa, maincdamainc Cven ratom vTanxmdebiT ima-
ze, rom es saWiro unda iyos. raSi unda gamoixatebodes enis [>langue<]
codnis saqmeSi bgeraTa warmoebis codnis didi Tu mcire wvlili>.
Teoriebi, romlebic iqeT iqnebodnen mimarTuli, rom eTqvaT: ukve im
faqtis gamoa misi codna saWiro, rom, raki bgerebs enaSi [>langue<] vi-
yenebT, ipso facto maTi warmoebis swavlasac unda mivyoT xeli, es
sruliad TviTneburi da sarisko saqmea Tundac im momentamde mainc,
sanam SesaZlebeli iqneba imis danaxva, rom misi warmoeba mniSvnelo-
vania iseTi sruliad gansakuTrebuli materiisaTvis, rogoric enaa
[>langage<].
Cven miCveulebi varT, imis gareSec virwmunoT, rom im gansxvavebulo-
bebis [>diversités<] kvlevas, romelsac saxmo <aparati> awarmoebs, enaT-
mecnierebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs, Tu ar agvixsnian, _ ris gamo,
riT an ra TvalsazrisiT. es aris am mecnierebis susti mxare, rome-
lic ufro sagrZnobia, vidre is, rom igi, rogorc mecniereba, mxolod
lingvistikis saxeliT fasdeba. marTlac, fiziologiurad _ <ufro
metic, fiziologebisaTvis> _ igi aris ara mecniereba (arc akustiku-
rad), aramed, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, is aris gamoyeneba. fiziologi yura-
dRebas ar aqcevs im poziciebs da aqciebs, romlebis Tanaxmadac p b-s
(Seesatyviseba), an maT ganixilavs mxolod gansazRvruli kunTis ne-
bismier funqciad 34 , romelic organizmis mdgomareobisaTvis ar aris
damaxasiaTebeli da arc gansakuTrebuli yurdRebis Rirsi.
grafikuli afaziis ∗ udidesi mniSvneloba, romelic lalafazias ∗∗
[>aphasie lalétique<] erwymis, isaa, rom igi gvaziarebs im azrs, rom fone-
mebis erTianoba tvinSia.

#6 35 `enis niSnebi~

enis [>langage<] niSnebi. ena [>langage<] mudam adamianur individSi igu-


lisxmeba, rac mcdari Tvalsazrisia. buneba qmnis artikulirebuli
enisaTvis [>langage<] formirebul [>organisé pour<] adamians, magram enas
[>langage<] – artikulirebis gareSe. ena [>langage<] socialuri faqtoria.
individi, romelic laparakisaTvis aris formirebuli [>organisé pour
parler<] SeuZlia mxolod mis irgvliv myofi erTobis meSveobiT miaRwi-

33
savaraudod, 1897; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.
34
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 16, N 5a, Nr. 3291.

afazia – aphasie – metyvelebis unaris arqona.
∗∗
lallaphasie – burdRunTan, simunjesTan dakavSirebuli.
35
savaraudod, 1891-1894 wlebi; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.

182
os <Tavisi aparatis> moxmarebas, – rom aRaraferi vTqvaT misi moxma-
rebis moTxovnilebaze, romelsac mxolod erTobasTan Tavis urTier-
TobaSi grZnobs. ise, rom es mTlianad damokidebulia am erTobaze.
misi rasobrivi mniSvneloba meorexarisxovania (albaT, imis gamokle-
biT, rac gamoTqmaTa zogierT niSans Seexeba). maSasadame, adamiani
mTlianad mxolod imis Sedegia, rasac igi Tavis garemomcvel samya-
rodan sesxulobs.
enis [>langue<] socialuri faqtori SeiZleboda wes-CveulebebTan Segve-
darebina (konstitucia, samarTali, Cveulebebi da sxva). amisgan Sors
dgas xelovneba da religia, romlebic sulieri movlenebis rigs mi-
ekuTvneba da raSic mniSvnelovan rols pirovnuli iniciativa asru-
lebs da romelic or individs Soris azrTa gacvlas ar gulisxmobs.
magram wes-CveulebebTan Tavad analogiebi metad pirobiTia. aq mniSvne-
lovani gansxvavebebia:
1. ena [>langage<] erTobis sakuTrebaa, rogorc es miRebulia da Seesaty-
viseba individisaTvis bunebisagan boZebul specialur xmas. am Tval-
sazrisiT, es faqti analogiis gareSea.
2. ena [>langue<] aris misi udidebulesoba (par excellence) saSualeba, iara-
Ri, romelmac mudam da uSualod <Tavisi mizani da Tavisi qmedeba>
unda Seasrulos: gasagebi rom iyos, xalxTa Cveulebebi (rogoricaa,
magaliTad, dResaswaulebi) xSirad arapirdapir mizans warmoadgenen
da es imitom, rom enis mizani, romlis mizanic sicxadis Setanaa, erTi
upirobo saWiroebaTagania yoveli sazogadoebisaTvis, yovel SemTxve-
vaSi im viTarebaSi, romelSic mas dRes vicnobT. aqedan daskvna, rom
enis [>langage<] arseboba yoveli sazogadoebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa.
migneba:
1. enis [>langage<] arseboba saWiroa yoveli adamianuri urTierTobisaTvis.
2. enis [>langue<] sruli uwyvetoba.
a) enis Sewyveta warmoudgenelia. arc erT xalxs ar SeuZlia imis
warmodgena, rom erT an or dReSi laparaks Sewyvets, TviT did gada-
trialebaTa dros, roca yvelaferi danarCeni nadgurdeba.
b) erTeulis an erTaderTis iniciativa. mravlis SeuZlebelia, pirvel
rigSi, gaucnobiereblobis [>inconscience<] gamo. gacnobierebis SemTxveva-
Si SeiZleboda mravalis iniciativis miReba, magram igi maSinve Sewy-
deba im faqtis gamo, rom is TavisTavad gaugebrobad iqceva. xandaxan
SeiZleba Segvxvdes kidec igi. es dakavSirebulia leqsikografiul ga-
naxlebebTan. maSin ki xSirad saWiro xdeba masalebis saerTo enidan
[>langue<] gamoyeneba. <arsebobs danaklisi, magram araferi iqmneba. yve-
laferi gardaiqmneba.
g. kurciusi me-5 gamocemis meTodologiur nawilSi, meore nawilis
komentari 36 >.
<g) yvelafris gacnobierebuli iniciativa aris usargeblo, warmoud-
geneli, umagaliTo>.
ase qmnis ena [>langue<] tradicias, romelic gamudmebiT icvleba, magram
romlis gatexvasac ver SeZlebs verc dro da verc molaparake su-
bieqti, Tu igi ama Tu im mizeziT ar gaqra. im SemTxvevaSic, Tu xalxi

36
g. kurciusi: berZnuli etmiologiis ZiriTadi niSnebi, me-5 gamocema, laipcigi, 1879.

183
ucxo enas gadaiRebs, uwyvetobis principi mainc uvnebeli rCeba. erTi
ena [>langue<] gaqra; magram is, romelic ganagrZos arsebobas <gaimarj-
vebs>, aseve uwyvetia. Tu ena [>langue<] arsebobs, ar SeiZleba imisi
Tqma, Tu ramden xans iarsebebs igi, magram darwmunebuli ki unda vi-
yoT, rom mas drois im siRrmeebisaken SeuZlia ukusvla, ramdenzec
mas amis SesaZlebloba eqneba da rom igi Tavis masalas dausabamo
droidan wamoiRebs, rogorc yinulis morenebs.

<aratipiuri myinvari marTlac kargi Sedarebaa msgavsi saxis [>congénè-


res<] idiomisaTvis, romelic saerTod warmomavlobis, axali elemente-
bis, droiT gapirobebuli gansxvavebebis da organuli sicocxlis da-
viwyebuli elementebis aTvisebis saSualebas iZleva>. 37

#7 38 `morfologia~

1. morfologia, rogorc amboben, aris enis [>langage<] formebis kvleva


maSin, rodesac fonetika enis [>langage<] bgerebis kvlevas warmoadgens.
magram amgvari definiciiT ver davkmayofildebiT ara marto Teori-
uli, aramed praqtikuli TvalsazrisiTac, radgan xSirad isec xdeba,
rom aRar viciT, morfologiasTana gvaqvs saqme Tu fonetikasTan da
amaSi Cven aqve davrwmundebiT:
jerjerobiT aSkaraa, rom fonetika, romelic bgerebs Seiswavlis, imi-
saTvis, rom amis saSualeba mieces, upirveles yovlisa, iZulebulia,
formebSi gaerkves. bgerebi erTi Taobidan meores izolirebuli sa-
xiT ki ar gadaecemian, aramed arseboben, cocxloben da icvlebian
mxolod sityvaTa wiaRSi. aso-bgera s jer calke ki ar gamoiTqmoda,
jer gamoiTqmeboda serpō, sedos da Semdeg _ herpō, hedos. xolo, Tuki me
vambob, rom herpō warmoiSva serpō-sagan, am dros mxolod da mxolod
fonetikis sferoSi vimyofebi. iseve, rogorc, Tu vityvi, rom w-ze dam-
Tavrebuli zmnis pirveli piri adrindel omi-ze damTavrebuli pirve-
li pirisagan ver warmoiqmneboda.
meore mxriv ki, morfologia, romelic mxolod formebs Seiswavlis,
xandaxan bgeraTa sferoSic iWreba. magaliTad, Tu vityvi, rom berZ-
nul o-s e-sTan da a-sTan Senacvleba SeuZlia: λογοσ, λεον, magram —(T da

37
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 16, N 6, Nr. 3292.
38
Sesavali leqciisaTvis morfologiis Sesaxeb. savaraudod "Etude de la declinaison greque"
1894-1895 wlebisa; Sead. engleri 1975 a, gv. 838.

184
ara Ð(-, <maSin morfologiasTana maqvs saqme>. isic marTalia, rom
zemoxsenebuli magaliTi, cudi definiciis gamo, zogierTTaTvis fone-
tikis sferoa. magram Semdeg magaliTSi gamoCndeba, rom araferia ima-
ze ufro mcdari da saSiSi, vidre is, rom amgvari faqti fonetikur
movlenad miviCnioT.
amgvarad, sulac ar aris advili, rogorc Cven es xandaxan warmogvid-
genia, rom es ori sfero erTmaneTisagan davacalkevoT da vTqvaT: er-
Tia bgeraTa kvlevis sfero da meore – formaTa (kvlevis sfero). am
gziT ver mivaRwevT damakmayofilebeli demarkaciis zRvars, magram es
gamyofi xazi (Demarkationslinie) Zalze saWiroa imisaTvis, rom dasanani
gaugebrobebi Tavidan aviciloT. _ mimarTulebis maCvenebeli principi:
yovelTvis, roca erTsa da imve formas didi drois monakveTSi ganvi-
xilavT, saqme gvaqvs fonetikasTan da yovelTvis, roca sxvadasxva
formas drois erT mcire monakveTSi ganvixilavT, saqme gvaqvs
morfologiasTan.
Zveli hox doiCi zug zugi _ (Zveli saliteraturo germanuli)
axali hox doiCi zug züge _ (axali saliteraturo germanuli)
zugi da züge erTmaneTs rom SevadaroT, niSnavs ori formis Sedarebas
da mainc gamodis, rom saqme gvaqvs ara morfologiasTan, aramed fo-
netikasTan. u da ü zug-sa da zügi-s SemTxvevaSi rom SevadaroT erT-
maneTs, niSnavs ori bgeris Sedarebas da, miuxedavad amisa, es mainc
fonetika ar aris.

fonetikuri ekwos ekwon


sfero
ËBB@H ËBB@L
morfologiuri sfero

gavrcelebul gamoTqmebSi es ori sfero erTmaneTSi ireva:


chanter etimologiurad ganekuTvneba chanter-s,
“ “ cantor
φεk@l momdinareobs φεkT-dan
" bhoros-idan
<SeniSvna: etmiologia, romelsac xandaxan enaTmecnierebis erT ganS-
toebad miiCneven, kvlevaTa aranairi jgufs ar ganekuTvneba da kidev
ufro naklebad – faqtebis jgufs. etmiologiuri kvlevisas saWiro
iqneba, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, fonetikuri da morfologiuri cod-
nis CarTvac.

coucher
coulchier
collocare colligo, locare
fonetikis meSveobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba, sityvas dakvirvebiT mivadev-
noT Tvali im epoqamde, romelSic SesaZlebeli iqneba misi morfolo-

185
giuri analizi. xandaxan morfologia mxolod Cveni warmosaxvis sfe-
roSi iwvevs cvlilebas: le barreau – "Ü4TH.>
2. es jer kidev ar hfens naTels imas, Tu, saxeldobr, ras warmoad-
gens morfologia:
definicia: morfologia aris mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis bgeraTa
erTobas, romelic warmosaxvis erT nawils Seesabameba da axdens am
erTobis dajgufebas.
fonetika aris mecniereba, romelic, fiziologiuri da akustikuri ni-
San-Tvisebebidan gamomdinare, bgeraTa jgufebs (erTeulebs) Seiswavlis.
morfologiis namdvili saxeli iqneboda niSanTa da ara formaTa
Teoria.
a) rogor moxda, rom am definiciis mixedviT, morfologia, rogorc
bunebrivi dargi, mxolod imas gulisxmobs, rac erTdroulad xdeba,
xolo fonetika imas, rac erTmaneTis miyolebiT. imisaTvis, rom mor-
fologiam moaxdinos yoveli niSnis definicia da gansazRvra igive
sistemis sxva niSnebSi, sWirdeba sayrdeni wertili. *@4`H, rogorc ase-
Ti, morfologiurad auxsnelia. rogorc ki *@4`H-s *@4Zk-ic mohyveba,
misi analizi SesaZlebeli gaxdeba. ase, amgvarad, rasakvirvelia, *@4`H,
*@4Zk erTi da igive sistemas unda ganekuTvnebodes. anda: ena [>langue<]
mxolod bgerebis, rogorc niSnebis, mixedviTaa gasagebi. kidev ukeTe-
si: *@4`H Tavis TanamedroveTaTvis aris garkveuli warmodgenis (Si-
naarsis) matarebeli, romelic arc *@4Zk-isagan, arc *fFT-idan da aseve
arc *@4`L-is nawilisagan ar momdinareobs. am SemTxvevaSi igi warmo-
gvidgeba, rogorc niSani da morfologias ganekuTvneba. fonetikurad
Semdegi sityvebis – *@4`H, *@4Zk, *fFT anu erTi da igive drois forme-
bis Tanafardoba SeuZlebelia, ukeT iqnas gagebuli. erTi romelime
epoqis fonetika ormxrivi debulebebiT ifargleboda. franguli fone-
tikis upirvelesi amocanaa, Zvel frangulsa an laTinurze Segviqmnas
warmodgena. β) <ratom xdeba, rom morfologia xandaxan bgerebs Seis-
wavlis? SesaZlebelia, bgera raime azris matarebeli iyos>. foneti-
kuri cvlileba da bgeraTa gardasaxva.
3. yoveli formis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas, romelTac raime saerTo
gaaCniaT, mivyavarT analizTan. 39
*@ / 4`H *@4Zk
ismeba kiTxva, ra Seesatyviseba am analizs, ris meSveobiTac SeiZleba
misi damtkiceba. adrindeli SedarebiTi gramatika am sakiTxiT Tavs
ar iwuxebda. igi sityvebs Slida fesvebis, fuZeebis [>thèmes<] – su-
fiqsebis da a.S. mixedviT da am gansxvavebebs absolutur Rirebulebas
aZlevda. am saqmeSi igi imdenad keTili da dauzareli iyo, rom Tuki
kacs `bopi da misi skola~ (Bopp und seine schule) wakiTxuli hqonda, 40
namdvilad daijerebda, rom berZnebi uxsovari droidan fesvebiT, fu-
ZeebiTa da sufiqsebiT savse Cemodans Tan daaTrevdnen da nacvlad
imisa, rom salaparakod sityvebi gamoeyenebinaT, maTi gamogonebiT iyv-
nen dakavebuli, [ ] <kerZod>, berZnebs iseTi sityva, rogoricaa patr –
`mama~ da laTinebs ki Sesabamisad `pater~, <ubralod ise ki ar gamou-

39
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 17, N7, Nr. 3293.
40
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 417, N 7, Nr. 2772-2773.

186
gonebiaT>, aramed aiRes fesvi pa <mfarveli> da daumates sufiqri ter;
<aseve sityva *fF@:"4 ki ara, aramed aiRes fesvi *f, sufiqsi F@ da pi-
ris niSnis daboloeba daumates>.
aseT simcdares udidesi da useriozulesi reaqcia unda mohyoloda,
reaqcia, romlis lozungi marTebulad iqneboda Semdegi: Tvalyuris
midevneba, Tu ra xdeba Tanamedrove enebSi [>langues<], rogoria salapa-
rako enebi [>le langage de tous les jours<], radgan antikuri periodis enebSic
sxva ara xdeboda ra, Tu ara is, rac dRevandel cocxal enebSi
[>langage vivant<] xdeba.
dResdReobiT ki yoveli morfologia iwyeba im gancxadebiT, romelic,
rogorc wesi, miznad isaxavs imis Tqmas, rom fesvi, fuZe, sufiqsi da
a.S. wminda abstraqciaa da rom ise ar unda warmovidginoT, TiTqos
Cveni sulis es qmnilebebi realurad arseboben; 2. rom igi mainc gamo-
yenebuli iqneba, <radgan>, gamoxatvis praqtikuli mizezis gamo, <maT-
ze uars ver vityviT>, magram <am gamoTqmebs>, TavisTavad cxadia, mxo-
lod is fardobiTi mniSvneloba unda mivaniWoT, romelic maT aqvT.
Sedegi: mkiTxveli sruliad dabneulia, radgan, Tu am kategoriebis
SeqmnisaTvis aranairi mizezi ar arsebobs, risTvisRa wamovwioT isini,
anda ratomaa, rom .L(`<-is .L(-`-<-ad daSla <naklebad mcdari> iqne-
boda, vidre .L-(`<-ad rom dagveSala?
axali skola namdvilad imsaxurebs sayvedurs, radgan man fenomenebis
buneba ki Seicno [], magram garkveulwilad Tavisi winamorbedebis sa-
mecniero aparatiT SeboWili darCa, romlis meSveobiTac naklis war-
moCena ufro advili iyo, vidre dadebiTi mniSvnelobis dadgena. 41
<aqve msurs Cemi azri gamovTqva, romelic, cota ar iyos, mwvaleblu-
rad JRers:> mcdari iqneboda, gveTqva, rom iseTi aspeqtebi, rogoricaa
fesvi, fuZe da sufiqsi wminda abstraqtuli ram aris.
uwinares yovlisa, vidre abstraqtulze <daviwyebdeT> laparaks, saWi-
ro iqneba, myari kriteriumis gansazRvra, romelic daeyrdnoba imas,
rasac morfologiaSi realurs uwodeben.
<kriteriumi:> realuri aris is, rac molaparake subieqtebs garkveul
doneze Segnebuli aqvT; yvelaferi, rac Segnebuli aqvT da sxva ara-
feri, garda imisa, rac SeiZleba, Segnebuli hqondeT. ase rom, molapa-
rake subieqtebi enis fondSi [>état de langue<] arsebul erTeulebSi gar-
kveuli arian. <igulisxmeba mniSvnelobis matarebeli erTeulebi>,
romlebic sityvaze ufro mokleni [>inférieures<] arian.
magaliTad, frangulSi cnobilia elementi -eur, romelic, Tu gansazR-
vruli formiT gamoviyenebT, imaSi dagvexmareba, rom moqmedebis dam-
wyebi (iniciatori) aRvniSnoT: graveur, penseur, porteur.
<kiTxva:> ra adasturebas enis [>langue<] arsebiTi analizis dros am
elementis izolirebas?
<pasuxi:> iseve, rogorc yvela msgavs SemTxvevaSi, axlac eseni neolo-
gizmebi, anu formebia, romlebSic enis [>langue<] aqtiuroba erTi unak-
lo faqtoridanac Cans: men – eur, os – eur, recommenz – eur. <meore mxriv,
igive warmonaqmnebi gviCveneben, rom iseTi elementebi, rogoricaa men-,

41
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 418, N 7, Nr. 2772-2773.

187
os-, reco-mmens, aseve mniSvnelobis matarebel elementebad gvevlinebi-
an>. sityva penseur-s Seesabameba pensif. amdenad, Tu ueWvelia, rom ena -eur-
is izolirebas axdens, maSin saeWvoa, rom igi (ena) -if-s ukeTebdes
izolirebas. <rogor SegviZlia es ganvsajoT?> imgvarad, rom maSin
mentif, -ai, osif-is da a.S. warmoeba SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
daskvna: <zomierebis farglebSi> gramatikosis morfologiuri anali-
zi ver CaiTvelaba abstraqciad, vidre igi enis [>langue<] analizTan
harmoniaSia, romelic neologizmebsa da msgavs warmonaqmnebSi dadas-
turebulia. 42
amjerad namdvilad isea, rom molaparake subieqtebi <yovelTvis ise
moqmedeben, rom> Seqmnili (gemachten) sityvidan gamovidnen, 43 rac imas
niSnavs, rom oseur-is sawarmoeblad ar iTqmis: os-isa da eur-is kombini-
rebas vaxden. aramed moqmedeben Semdegnairad: graveur, graver, je grave = x:
osér, j'ose – x=oseur. magram, modi, vikiTxoT, gramatikosi Tavisi analizis
dros sxvagvarad Tu moiqceoda. isic Zalauneburad Seqmnili sityvebi-
dan gamomdinare moqmedebs: sityva *@F4H-idan F4H-i rom warmoiqmnas, Se-
adarebs *@4`H>-sTan da <F4F4H>. *ÏF4H: *@4`H = *ÏF4H: F4"4`H. amgvarad, me
izolirebas vaxden an <-F4H-isa, an -4@H-s an *@-sas>. ise, rom SesaZleb-
lobis SemTxvevaSi, SemeZlo 8ÛF4H <(8Û4`H)> mewarmoebina. kacma rom
Tqvas, vis SeuZlia gviTxras, rom enis SegrZneba [>sentiment de la langue<]
<zustad amgvarad> xdeba. Graveur: graver=penseur: penser. ese igi (oser) oseur.
mniSvnelovani SeniSvna: aucilebelia, SevniSnoT, rom enis [>langue<]
analizi SeiZleba, formebs Soris moCvenebiT urTierTobaze iyos da-
fuZnebuli, <urTieTobaze>, romelic etimologiis an am formaTa Tav-
dapirveli urTierTobiT ver iqneba dasabuTebuli <danamdvilebiT>.
germanulad kalbiz mravlobiTi kalbizō
kalb kalbir
Zvel germanikul enebSi o mravlobiTis niSania, dRevandel germanul-
Si ki – ir. fonetikurma aucileblobam SemTxveviT gaaqro mravlobiTSi
iz daboloeba. es im dros, rodesac igi mravlobiTSi momdevno asos
waylobiT SemorCa: <radgan ena [>langue<] mxolod formebis mixedviT
moqmedebs, gardauvalia, rom igi kalb-Si ir-s yofs da mas (ir-s) mravlo-
biTis niSnis funqcias aZlevs im dros, rodesac mas Tavdapirvelad
mravlobiTobis aranairi specifikuri niSani ar hqonda>.
☛istoriulad es mcdaria, xolo morfologiurad ki xsenebuli epo-
qisaTvis marTebuli. <aseTi Secdomebisagan Sedgeba enis [>langue<] si-
cocxle>. gavixsenoT, rom yvelafer imas, rasac molaparake subieqtis
grZnoba moicavs, realuri fenomenia. <Cveni SeSfoTeba ar unda gamo-
iwvios iman, Tu ra SeeZlo gamoewvia am grZnobas>. morfologma Tavad
unda gamoyos kalb-i ir-isagan, radgan esaa enis analizi da <swored es
analizia misi erTaderTi sayrdeni wertili> da igi (es analizi) amas
axali warmonaqmnebis meSveobiT adasturebs. magaliTad: kind-er.

42
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 419, N 7, Nr. [2779-2780].
43
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 17, N 7, Nr. 3293.

188
morali: kidev erTxel davinaxeT, rom morfologia gansxvavebul epo-
qebs <verasdros> ver daakavSirebs da verc maT erTmaneTSi Serevas
moaxerxebs, radgan misi moqmedebis are mxolod epoqis SigniT aris
moqceuli, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi fonetikuri da morfologiuri faq-
tebi erTmaneTSi aireodnen. ver vityodi, rom es gavrcelebuli aqti
ar iyos, imas ki vityvi, rom es aqti ugulvebelsayofia. 44
[...]
<6. enis [>langue<] morfologiuri cvalebadoba an morfologiuri moZ-
raoba iTxovs Semdeg SeniSvnas:>
rogorc ukve davinaxeT, <axali formebis gamoCenisas> xdeba ukve ar-
sebuli formebis dekompozicia, xolo arsebuli masalis meSveobiT,
romelic adreuli formebisagan momdinareobs, xdeba sxva formebis
rekompozicia. sityva $X8gFF4-s instinqturad vyofT $X8-gFF4-d da am
Sedegs viyenebT imisaTvis, rom sityva hºkgFF4 SevqmnaT. magram ena ve-
rasdros SeZlebs arafrisagan <da namdvili SemoqmedebiTi aqtis sa-
SualebiT> raime formis Seqmnas. axali formis elementebi yovelTvis
ukve arsebuli fondidan warmoiqmnebian, radgan es fondi <Sedgeba>
sityvebisagan da ara sufiqsebis, fesvebisa da a.S. axali sityvebis
Seqmnas yovelTvis sWirdeba <qmediTi> da faruli dekompoziciuri sa-
muSao. rogor Soreul warsulSic ar unda moviZioT, ver aRmovaCenT
sxva naRd da Teoriulad misaReb xerxs. yvelaze Soreul warsulSi
arsebul indoevropul enasac igive saxis ganviTareba eqneboda, ro-
goric berZnuls an franguls. imdenad, rom is formebi, romlebic
axali warmonaqmnebis safuZvels warmoadgendnen, Tavis mxriv, sxvanai-
rad ver iwarmoebodnen, Tu ara sxva formebis <meSveobiT>, romlebic
enis [>langue<] analizs axdendnen.
amgvarad, naTeli xdeba, Tu ra <marTebuli> mniSvneloba eniWeba Cvens
mier gakeTebul daskvnebs. swored amis miRweva mindoda. magaliTad,
Tu vityviT, rom fuZe bher–s sufiqs tor-s da mravlobiTi ricxvis no-
minativis daboloeba -es-s davumatebT, raTa bhetores – `die träger~ _ `mzi-
davi~ miviRoT, rogorc ityvian, arc Tu ise daSorebuli viqnebiT
lingvistur-enobrivi WeSmaritebisagan. <aqac skolis dabneuloba
iCens Tavs> [ ].>
<Cemi SefasebiT, aqac umjobesi iqneboda, Zveli skolis cnobil abs-
traqciebze gvefiqra da gagverkvia, ramdenad sworsa da realurs war-
moadgenen isini, vidre mTel am Teoriaze imitom gveTqva uari, raTa
mogvianebiT praqtikaSi isev am gzas davgdomodiT. aq sakmarisi iqne-
boda am gramatikul xelovnurobaSi erTi ubralo koreqtivi Segveta-
na, raTa mas legitimuri da zusti azri miscemoda.
Cveneuli sinTezi arsebiTad ar gansxvavdeba enis sinTezisagan, mxo-
lod enam [>langue<] analiziT daiwyo (kacma rom Tqvas, iseve, rogorc
Cven). man ukve Tavis xelT arsebuli maragidan daiwyo ganviTareba.
ase, magaliTad, Cvens SemecnebaSi arsebul bler-s daemata aseve Cvens
SemecnebaSi arsebuli elementebi tor-i da es-i da maTi zogadi mode-
lis mixedviT ganlagda (agencement) da daiwyo Semdgom funqcionireba.
SesaZloa, Tavidan iyo mentores – `moazrovne~ an wektores _ `molapara-

44
Cf. CLG/E(II), gv. 18, N 7, Nr. 3293.

189
ke~, meore mxriv ki blerō, blernos da a.S.... im elementebs, romlebsac Cven
gamovyofT da romelTac <fiqtiurad> damoukidebel arsebobas vani-
WebT, cocxloben mxolod warsuli formebis wiaRSi da mxolod iq
SeiZleboda, warmoqniliyo enis Semdgomi ganviTarebis safuZveli.45
ver gaviziareb im azrs, rom erT mSvenier dRes sityva can-i fesvebis
garkveuli repertuaridan amoiRes da gadawyvites, misTvis -ere daer-
ToT. ueWvelia, rom can-i yovelTvis, rogorc canare-s, cano-s, canto-s ele-
menti, arsebobda. maSasadame, kidev erTxel vikiTxoT: ra aris am ana-
lizis pasuxi? SesaZlebelia Tu ara am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema, imis
mixedviT gamoCndeba, CavuRrmavdiT Tu ara zogad faqtebs. Tanamedro-
ve skolam enis fenomenis namdvili buneba <srulad Seafasa>, magram
Zalze uunaro aRmoCnda is urTierToba daedgina, romelic enis kate-
goriebsa da realur faqtebs Soris arsebobs. Zalze advilia imis
Tqma, rom fesvis an fuZis mniSvneloba moZvelebulia: cxadia, es abs-
traqciebia. ena [>langage<] ar icnobs araviTar fuZeebs, <prefiqsebsa>
Tu fesvebs. magram es xels ar uSlis imas, rom am Termebs raime Se-
satyvisobebi gaaCndeT. <adamiani dezorientirebulia, rodesac kavSi-
rebs ver xedavs> da sul aviwydeba, gviTxras, Tu ra TvalsazrisiT
arian isini (Termebi) mcdari an swori, an ramdenadaa Cveni analizi
pozitiuri faqti, romelic enasTan [>langage<] TanaxmierobaSi iqneboda.
<mniSvnelovani principi:> is, rac mocemuli enis [>état donné du langage<]
pirobebSi realuria, isaa, raSic molaparake subieqtebi darwmunebuli
arian. <esaa is, raSic darwmunebuli arian da ara is, raSic isini Se-
iZleba darwmunebuli iyvnen.> maSasadame, 1. yoveli enis SesaZleblo-
bebidan [>état de langue<] molaparake subieqtebs gacnobierebuli aqvT
mcire erTeulebis, rogorc sityvis erTeulebis, arseboba.
magaliTad: viciT, rom frangul enaSi nawilak -eur-s, romlis warmo-
mavlobas mniSvneloba ara aqvs, SeuZlia, Semdegi moqmedebiTi saxele-
bi Seadginos: grav – eur, <chant – eur>, sav – eur. am codnis safuZvelze ki
SegviZlia neologizmebis Sedgena: os – eur, sabr – eur, men – eur. amave dros
vxedavT, rom elementi os- da elementi [ ] ukve gacnobierebuli gvaqvs.
2. is gza, romelsac vadgavarT, roca -eur-s an os-s viyenebT, danamdvi-
lebiT <sakmaod> gansxvavdeba imisagan, rac zogadad analizis safuZ-
velzea miRebuli. ar vambobT, rom nawilak os-s vukavSirebT nawilak -
eur-s, aramed vmoqmedebT proporciebis meSveobiT: <je grave, an> graver:
graveur = <j'ose Tu oser>: x; x=<oseur>. Sesabamisad, es yovelTvis iqneba
Sedgenili sityva, romelic ZiriTadi erTeulia. magram es xels ar
gviSlis, Sedgenili sityva gaucnobiereblad igive analizs davuqvem-
debaroT, romelsac lingvistebi iyeneben. Cven gamovyofT erT rome-
lime bgeras, romelic ama Tu im warmodgenasTan aris dakavSirebuli,
vTqvaT, rogoricaa: oser, penser da kidev erT romelime sxva bgeras, rom-
lis daniSnulebacaa gamoyos sityvis <gansazRvruli> kavSiri am war-
modgenasTan. esaa morfologiuri analizis daniSnuleba. Tuki vambob,
rom <chanteur> me-19 saukuneSi chant+eur-ad daiyo, maSin veTanxmebi enis
SegrZnebas [>sentiment de la langue<], <rac axal warmonaqmnebSi Tavis

45
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 419, N 7, Nr. 2779-2780.

190
kvals tovebs da, Tuki vityodi, rom es chant+eur-ad iyofa, Cems analizs
aranairi Sesabamisoba ar eqneboda.>
3. axla ki Tavad udidesi faqti: is, rom, kerZod, analizebi, romlebic
Tavad enis [>langue<] erT garkveul moments asaxaven, maincdamainc ar
Seesabamebian im analizebs, romlebic mas (enas) uwindel mdgomareoba-
Si ganixilavdnen. sxva mizezebis gverdiT (SeiZleba davasaxeloT) Sem-
degi fonetikuri cvlilebebi: ase, magaliTad: chant/eur, magram aseve can /
tor (an can / torem). ratom? imitom, rom – atorem fonetikurad – orem-s Se-
eria imdenad, rom <labour, labourer-is magaliTis mixedviT>, chanteur-sa da
chanter-s Sorisac im urTierTobas vamkvidrebT, rasac laTinebi can –
tor-sa 46 da can-tare-s Soris ver amkvidrebdnen. aqedan gamomdinare, yve-
laferi damokidebulia erT mocemul epoqaze. naTesauri formebis or-
mxriv situaciebze. zogadad, analizi SesaZlebelia mxolod drois
erT garkveul monakveTSi. 47

# 8 48 "mecnierul gramatikaTa dayofa"

XIII. uaRresad saxaliso sayurebelia, Tu rogor iyofa erTi romeli-


me enis [>langue<] (mecnieruli) gramatika. pirvelad modis <fonetika>
(germanulad bgeraTmcodneoba), mere – morfologia (germanulad for-
maTmcodneoba). sruliad bunebrivi procesia, ara? jer bgerebi, mere
bgeraTkavSirebi; jer martivi, mere Sedgenili; yvelaze saocari ki is
aris, <rom viRacas> es sjera!
rogor iqneba fonetika romelime enis [>langue<] gramatikis nawili, Tu-
ki igi ikvebeba mxolod imiT, rac gramatikamde iyo? Tuki movindomeb
vulfilasis, an "rolandis simReris" enaTa [>langue<] fonetikis Seqm-
nas da Cems Tavs avukrZalav am epoqebidan gamosvlas (rasac morfo-
logiis Sedgenisas vakeTeb xolme), maSin ubralod erTi sityvis Tqma-
sac ki ver movaxerxeb maTi fonetikis Sesaxeb. imas, rasac maTi fone-
tika hqvia, Tavisi sivrce aqvs mxolod warsulSi da TviT am enaTa
gareT, mxolod im garkveul produqtTan mimarTebaSi, rasac me <war-
sulSi> vixelTeb, <Tumca igi ar exeba am enis organizms>. 49

46
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 19, N 7, Nr. 3293.
47
Cf. CLG/E(I), gv. 20, N 7, Nr. 3293.
48 savaraudod 1894-95; Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 838.
49
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 8, Nr. 3294.

191
N 9.1. 9.2. 9. 3 50 "Canawerebi wignisaTvis
zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb"

# 9.1. sawyisi wertili

saWiroeba imisa, rom enis [>langue<] Teoriis mTavari Zalisxmeva mivmarToT


pirveli gansxvavebulobebis dasafiqsireblad, dgindeba Semdegnairad:
rogorc ityvian, ar iwereba arc erTi striqoni, romelSic enis faq-
tebi [>faits de langage<] ar iqneboda warmodgenili materiis saxiT.
radgan ena [>langage<] <Tavisi TviTgamovlenis arc erT formaSi> ar
gvTavazobs <raime> <materias substancias>, aramed mxolod fizio-
logiuri, fizikuri Tu mentaluri Zalebis kombinirebuli an izoli-
rebuli aqciebis saxiT warmogvidgeba da radganac, amis miuxedavad,
mTeli Cveni terminologia, laparakis manera mainc misadagebulia
enis, rogorc materiis warmosaxvaze [>L'idèe du langage-matiére<] mainc iq-
mneba amgvari <substanciis> <winaswarganuzraxveli> varaudis safuZ-
velze, SeuZlebelia imis uaryofa, rom enis [>langue<] Teoriis mniSvne-
lovani amocana mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ramenairad gamoasworos is
areuloba, rasac Cvens mier Catarebuli pirveli dayofa Tavis TavSi
moicavs. Cven ver vaRiarebT, rom yvelas aqvs iseTi Teoriis Seqmnis
ufleba, romelSic Sevidoda es sadefinicio samuSao, Tumca aseTi
komfortuli qceva, <rogorc Cans, aqamde sruliad akmayofilebda
enaTmecnierul publikas>. 51
roca enidan [>langage<] iReben imas, rac masSi <erTdroulad> yvelaze
materialuric, martivic da droisgan damoukidebelicaa, magaliTad,
"aka jgufs", an "a xmovans", da romelic maT gamoyenebasa da mniSvne-
lobaze yovelgvari warmodgenis gareSe ukve Tavidan moSorebulia, es
sxva araferia, Tu ara <fiziologiur-akustikur> aqciaTa rigi, ro-
melsac Cven vafasebT, rogorc Tanmxvedrs. rogorc ki maT Tanmxved-
rad vafasebT, zustad im momentSi aka-sa da a-sgan Cven vqmniT subs-
tancias. Tumca <Cven ver SevZlebT imis gansazRvras, Tu ra Rirebule-
ba gaaCnia am substancias, Tu ar gavacnobierebT im Tvalsazriss,
romlis saxeliTac Cven is SevqmeniT>. <arasdros> aravis ara aqvs
imis ufleba, enis [>langage<] romelime mxare miiCnios <winamorbedad>
da sxva mxareebze ufro mniSvnelovnad, TviT amosaval wertiladac
ki. saamiso ufleba iarsebebda, rom arsebuliyo romelime iseTi mxare,
romelic iqneboda sxva mxareTa gareT, anu Cveni mxridan warmoebuli
yvelanairi ganzogadoebisa Tu abstragirebis operaciis gareT; magram
mcireodeni dafiqrebac ki kmara imis dasanaxad, rom ar arsebobs ise-
Ti mxare, romelsac es piroba miesadageboda. 52
magaliTad, SeiZleba gvegonos, <rom yvelas aqvs ufleba> <amovides>
bgeriTi figurebidan, magaliTad bgeriTi figuridan [ ]. bgeriTi fi-
gura cantare-s <identuroba> <magaliTad, iseT sityvasTan, rogoricaa
kantare hotentoturad> warmoadgens faqtebis klasifikaciis ufro
sxvagvar meTods, vidre cantare/chantare-s identuroba, an identuroba

50
savaraudod 1894; Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 838 f.
51
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 276, N 9.1, Nr. 1976-1977.
52
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 26, N 9.1, Nr. 132.

192
Tavad sityvisa cantare, romelic raRac gansazRvruls aRniSnavs; mag-
ram es mainc aris am gzaze siarulis sxvadasxva meTodi.
_ Cven imdenad sxvadasxvagvari gziT mivediT nebismier im sagnamde,
romelsac WeSmaritebad aRviqvamT, rom iZulebuli varT vaRiaroT,
rom arc ki viciT, Tu romeli gzaa yvelaze ukeTesi. imisaTvis, raTa
yvela Cveni SemoTavazebis Sesabamisi prezentacia SevZloT, aucilebe-
lia erTi iseTi amosavali wertilis povna, romelic iqneboda myari
da gansazRvruli. magram yvelaferi, ris gamorkvevasac Cven vcdi-
lobT, sabolood mainc midis iqamde, rom lingvistikaSi ar SeiZleba
erTaderTi, rogorc Tavis TavSi gansazRvruli faqtis miReba. <maSa-
sadame,> marTalia yovelgvari amosavali wertilis <gardauvali> ar-
arseboba da Tuki romelime mkiTxvels marTlac unda, rom Cvens naaz-
revs Tavidan bolomde miadevnos Tvali, unda mixvdes, rom Cven
gvwams, rom SeuZlebelia mudmivad mtkice wesrigis dacva. Cven Tavs
nebas vaZlevT, daaxloebiT sam-oTxjer da sxvadasxva formiT, mkiTx-
velsac SevuqmnaT igive warmodgena, radgan marTlac ar arsebobs sxva
iseTi amosavali punqti, romelic argumentaciis procesSi sxvebze
ukeT gamogvadgeboda. 53
<(patara asoebiT dawerili)> _ im momentSi, roca Cven bgeriTi faq-
tebis sferoSi Sebijebis gadawyvetilebas viRebT, gvainteresebs, arse-
bobs ki sxva romelime sferoSi raime iseTi, rac manamade ukve <gan-
sazRvruli> iyo? absoluturad araferi. sadme rame gapirobebuli
<romc> arsebuliyo, iqneboda ki es gapirobebuloba <gadamwyveti an>
vargisi bgeriTi sferosaTvis? arc erTi wuTiT. SegviZlia ki Cven, ma-
galiTad, imaze vifiqroT, rom, roca vlaparakobT bgeriT figuraze
hippos, winaswar SevicnobT iseT rames, rac aris berZnuli sityva ϊππος
da romelsac Cven mogvianebiT Tavis im aspeqtSi ganvixilavT, rogori-
caa bgeraTTanmimdevroba h–i-p-p-o-s? araviTar SemTxvevaSi. amis daSveba
niSnavs imas, rom avyveT enaSi mocemul formaciaTa sabediswero ilu-
ziebs. Cven mivmarTavT ara marto imis srul ignoracias, Tu ra SeiZ-
leba iyos berZnuli sityva ϊππος, aramed xeirianad imasac ver vasabu-
TebT, Tu ras SeiZleba niSnavdes bgeriTi erTeuli hippos. magaliTad,
roca Cven vvaraudobT, rom viciT, Tu <romeli formula> <unda mie-
sadagos> <L-s mniSvnelobas berZnuli sistemis farglebSi, aseve nu-s
mniSvnelobas frangulSi, CvenTvis cxadia, rom bgeriTi figura nü
<iarsebebda> yovelgvari mniSvnelobis, idiomis, adgilis, droisa Tu
pirobis gareSe, imis codnis gareSec ki, berZnul sityvas Seesabameba
igi Tu franguls. igi arsebobs, radgan Cven igi Tavisi Tavis identu-
rad gamovacxadeT. 54
magram Cven ver gamovacxadebT mas Tavisi Tavis identurad imis gare-
Se, Tu <usityvod> ar daveyrdnobiT erT Tvalsazriss: sxva SemTxveva-
Si Cven SegveZlo aseTive warmatebiT gamogvecxadebina cantǎre : chanter
Tavisi Tavis identurad. maSasadame, imisaTvis rom nü-s arseboba yvi-
riliT gamovxatoT, Cven usityvod veyrdnobiT yuris mier gamotanil
identurobis msjavrs, zustad iseve, roca chantǎre-chanter-is <marTebu-
li arsebobis> dasamtkiceblad veyrdnobiT identurobis im saxeobas,
rac gamomdinareobs msjavrTa sul sxva saxeobidan; magram araviTar

53
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 25, N 9.1, Nr. 128.
54
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 24, N 9.1, Nr. 126.

193
SemTxvevaSi ar vwyvetT sulis <uaRresad pozitiuri> operaciiT sar-
geblobas: saganTa am iluzias, rom TiTqos isini enaSi [>langage<] bu-
nebrivad arsebobdnen, amas xom Zalian Rrmad aqvs fesvebi gadgmuli. 55
msjelobis pirveli saxeoba: "arsebobs cantǎre laTinurSi". mere ki <iw-
yeba sxva> sxva «TvalTaxedvidan..."; magaliTad, es cantǎre, im bgeriTi
figuris "TvalTaxedvidan", romelic mas warmoadgens, identuria ama
Tu im kafruli Tu samo-jediSuri sityvisa: am figuris sistematuri
gagrZelebis "TvalTaxedvidan" ki igi aris franguli sityva chanter-is
identuri; misi laTinuri mniSvnelobis "TvalTaxedvidan" [ ]; yovelive
amis Semdeg amCnev, <imisaTvis>, rom cantǎre amdeni erTmaneTs miyolebu-
li TvalTaxedvidan <ganixilo>, <romlebic Tavis mxriv qmnian sru-
liad gansxvavebul sagnebs>, pirveli winapiroba iqneboda imis codna,
Tu raSi mdgomareobs namdvili cantǎre-, raSia misi arsebobis garantia,
<an ubralod> misi arsebobis <safuZvliseuli> forma. amgvarad ga-
davdivarT msjelobis meore saxeobaze: Cven faqtiurad vaRiarebT, rom
ar SeiZleba, iTqvas: "arsebobs laTinuri cantǎre", radgan absoluturad
SeuZlebelia imis codna, Tu rasTan gvaqvs aq saqme, garda im
Tvalsazrisisa, romelic unda amovirCioT. maSasadame, Cven virCevT
erT TvaTaxedvas, romelic gviqmnis mtkice baziss. Cven <kategoriu-
lad> vacxadebT, rom cantǎre CvenTvis aris bgeriTi figura kantǎ-re: xo-
lo yvelaferi is, rac amas SemdgomSi daerTvis, iqneba mxolod atributi.
msjelobis mesame da CvenTvis erTaderTi misaRebi saxeoba: ar arse-
bobs araferi, anu ara marto is ar arsebobs, rac TvalTaxedvis ares
miRma iqneboda windawin gansazRvruli, aramed iseTi TvalTaxedvac,
romelic sxvebze ufro mizanSewonili iqneboda. jer mxolod Tval-
TaxedvaTa SedarebiTi kritika arsebobs. Tqma imisa, rom aravis aqvs
ufleba ilaparakos laTinur cantǎre-sa Tu [ ], SeiZleba iseTi sasaci-
lo iyos, visac rogor endomeba, an piriqiT warmoadgendes sasacilo
sicxades.
identuroba cantǎre cantǎre
identuroba cantǎre cantǎre
azri da azri da
gamoyeneba gamoyeneba
identuroba cantǎre cantǎre

Cven vamtkicebT, rom swor Tu mcdar operaciaTa yoveli saxeoba (ama-


ve dros gamosaricxia nasesxobis istoriac, romelsac Cven gamovto-
vebT) Tavis formulas enasTan [>langage<] mimarTebaSi poulobs im
principTa daxmarebiT, romlebic Cven wamovayeneT. arsebobs identuro-
bis sxvadasxva saxeoba. es aris is, rac iqmneba lingvistur/enobriv
faqtTa <sxvadasxva wesrigis mier>. ar arsebobs iseTi <lingvistur/
enobrivi faqti>, romelic iqneboda <raimenair> identurobaTa kav-
Sirs miRma. magram identurobaTa kavSiri damokidebulia <cvlad>
TvalTaxedvaze, romlis miRebis gadawyvetilebac unda iqnas miRebu-
li; Sesabamisad, ar arsebobs lingvistur/enobrivi faqtis iseTi rudi-
mentic, romelic iqneboda TvalTaxedvis miRma da win gauswrebda
gansxvavebulobebs. 56

55
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 25, N 9.1, Nr. 129.
56
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 26, N 9.1, Nr. 129.

194
N 9.2. "TvalTaxedva"

aviRoT erTi iseTi xmovani figura [>figure vocale<], rogoricaa <alka>,


romelic adamianebs Soris gavrcelebisas xdeba ôk. am SemTxvevaSi ra
akavSirebs am or sityvas alka / ôk - erTmaneTs? sad aris aq realobas-
Tan dakavSirebuli rame TvalTaxedva, an kavSiri amosaval da sabo-
loo faqtebs Soris? im dros, roca me viReb finalur termin ôk-sa da
amosaval termin <alka-s, arsebobs ki am or sagans Soris <pozitiuri>
kavSiri da ra SeiZleba iTqvas am kavSiris bunebaze? advili SesamCne-
via, rom es orive sagani winaswarve iyo dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan
[>préexiste<] [ ].
<rac ufro> metad vuRrmavdebiT am materias da veZleviT lingvistur
-enobriv kvleviT samuSaoebs, miT <metad> vrwmundebiT im WeSmariteba-
Si, romlis <dafarvac amao iqneboda> da romelic gvafiqrebinebs,
rom is kavSiri, romelsac Cven saganTa Soris vamyarebT, imaze adre
arsebobda <am sferoSi>, vidre Tavad es sagnebi da igi emsaxureba
maT gansazRvrebas. 57
sadRac arseboben sagnebi, <mocemuli obieqtebi> da yvelas SeuZlia
<mogvianebiT> maTi ganxilva sxvadasxva TvalTaxedvidan. 58 Tavidan aq
arseboben sxvadasxvanairi TvalTaxedvebi, swori Tu mcdari, <magram
mxolod is TvalTaxedvebi>, romelTa daxmarebiTac vqmniT <meorad>
sagnebs. es qmnilebebi an pasuxoben realobas, Tuki amosavali werti-
li sworadaa SerCeuli, an ara da es xdeba sapirispiro SemTxvevaSi:
magram orive SemTxvevaSi ar moipoveba iseTi sagani Tu obieqti, rome-
lic <Tundac erTi wamis manZilze iarsebebda TavisTavad>. arc maSin,
roca saqme exeba iseT materialur faqtsac ki, romelic erTi Sexed-
viT, yvelaze cxadad unda iyos mocemuli TavisTavad; magaliTad, xmo-
vani bgerebis Tanmimdevroba.
magaliTad, ganvixiloT xmovani bgerebis Tanmimdevroba alka, romelic
garkveuli drois Semdeg, erTi piris aparatidan meoreSi gadasvlis
procesSi xdeba ôk da davadgenT, rom <saqmis gamartivebis mizniT> ab-
soluturad viridebT Tavidan alka-sa Tu ôk-is mniSvnelobaTa gaTva-
liswinebas da es imis miuxedavad, rom maT gareSe, ubralod, warmo-
udgenelia lingvistur/enobrivi faqtTa dasawyisic ki.
maSasadame, drois faqtoris saSualebiT, alka xdeba ôk. Tuki safuZvli-
anad davakvirdebiT, sad aris kavSiri alka-sa da ôk-s Soris? Tuki Cven
am relsebze gadavalT da amis gardauvali aucilebloba dadgeba, ma-
le davinaxavT, rom mogviwevs sakuTari TavisTvis imis kiTxva, Tu sad
aris kavSiri <Tavad> alka-sa da ôk-s Soris da am momentSi albaT mivx-
vdebiT, arc iseTi sagani arsebobs <pirveladi faqtis saxiT> sadme,
romelic iqneboda alka, <arc sxva romelime sagani>: aramed Tavidan
arsebobs garkveuli saxis damokidebulebebi, romelTac vamyarebT
Cven, magaliTad damokidebuleba alka-sa da ôk-s Soris, romelic gvaax-
loebs garkveuli <saxeobis> erTeulis warmodgenasTan, romelic
jerjerobiT Znelad gansasazRvria [].

57
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 26, N 9.2, Nr. 130.
58
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 24, N 9.2, Nr. 125.

195
aseTia lingvistur/enobriv saganTa [>en matière<] Cveneuli gageba: sxva
sferoebSi SesaZlebelia "ama Tu im TvalTaxedvidan" laparaki sagneb-
ze im rwmenis safuZvelze, rom <Tavad im saganSi> moiZebneba ufro
myari niadagi. principSi, Cven lingvistikaSi uarvyofT, rom arseboben
mocemuli sagnebi, rom arseboben iseTi nivTebi, <romlebic agrZele-
ben arsebobas im dros, roca Sen erTi warmodgenidan miiswrafi meo-
risken>, da SegiZlia sakuTar Tavs misce imis ufleba, ganixilo "sag-
nebi" sxvadasxva wesrigSi ise, TiTqos isini <TavisTavad arsebuliyvnen>.
yvelaze ganzogadoebuli daskvna: es aris yvelaze ganzogadebuli az-
ri imis Sesaxeb, risi dadgenac Cven gvindoda: _ Cven xom lingvisti-
kaSi akrZaluli gvaqvs, <Tumca ganuwyvetliv varRvevT,> vilaparakoT
"romelime saganze" sxvadasxva TvalTaxedvidan, <an zogadad saganze,>
radgan swored TvalTaxedva aris is, rac sagans qmnis.
rogorc ki amgvari gamonaTqvami Cndeba (magaliTad, equos xmovani ama
Tu im TvalTaxedvidan, etimologiuri TvalTaxedvidan, misgan nawar-
moebi sityvis TvalTaxedvidan, ...-is TvalTaxedvidan), haerSi igrZnoba
warmodgenaTa aRreva _ <Tanac aSkara aRreva>, radgan iwyeba equos-
sgan iseTi ramis keTeba, <romelsac SegiZlia miudge uamravi TvalTa-
xedviT da amitomac damoukidebelia yvelasgan. magram midi, aba da
scade equos-is gansazRvra garkveuli TvalTaxedvisgan damoukideb-
lad!> me ar meSinia imis Tqma, rom yovelTvis, rogorc ki TvalTaxed-
vaTa <egreT wodebuli> gansxvavebuloba SemoaqvT, WeSmariti kiTxva
mdgomareobs imaSi, namdvilad erTsa da imave "sagnebzea" laparaki da
<Tu> namdvilad asea, maSin es iseTi srulyofili da iSviaTi SemTxve-
viTobis wyalobaa, <ocnebaSic rom ver warmoidgen>.
_ imdenad xSirad daupirispires materialur bgeras yvelaferi, risi
dapirispirebac SeeZloT, rom ukve vSiSobT, rom Cveni axali dayofa
sxvebSi aerevaT. Cveni pozicia <yvela SemTxvevaSi Zalian> cxadia. im
saganTa Soris, romlebic SeiZleba materialur xmovans daupirispi-
ron, Cven sakamaTod vxdiT ZiriTadad da <detalebSi mosalodneli
sisustis gareSe> misdami warmodgenis dapirispirebis SesaZleblobas.
erTaderTi, rac SeiZleba materialur bgeras daupirispirdes, aris
bgera-warmodgena, magram araviTar SemTxvevaSi warmodgena. 59

N9. 3 "Sedareba enasTan"

gana cnobil saganTa erTobliobaSi arsebobs iseTi ram, rac SeiZleba


zustad edrebodes enas [>langage<]?
Tavdapirvelad saWiroa imis dadgena, rom es <yvela TvalsazrisiT
rTuli kiTxva> CvenTvis xom <ar> SeiZens im gaurkvevel azrs, rac
mas hqonda yvela imisTvis, vinc ki odesme misi gadawyveta moindoma,
oRond winaswar arc erT maTgans <erTi sityviTac ki> ar ganumar-
tavs, Tu ras fiqrobda Tavad enis [>langue<] Sesaxeb. Cveni azriT, am
kiTxvas mivyavarT iqamde, rom davayenoT sul sxva sakiTxi da ara is,
rac amasTan dakavSirebiT aqamde nebismiers maTgans mosvlia azrad.
igi gvibiZgebs iqiTken, rom vikiTxoT, arsebobs Tu ara iseTi nivTi, an

59
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 26, N 9.2, Nr. 131.

196
adamianuri Tu socialuri faqti, romelic aris tradiciuli; formu-
lamde dayvanadi. socialuri cxovrebis iseTi faqti, romelic rome-
liRac gansazRvrul momentSi, anu misi aTvlis wertilad aRebis mo-
mentSi iqneba 1. Cveulebrivi, maSasadame nebismieri nivTis mimarT sru-
liad bunebrivi mimarTebidan aRebuli, absoluturad Tavisufali da
ar cnobdes masTan mimarTebaSi araviTar kanons; 2. Tavis TavSi arane-
bismieri da araTavisufali produqti, rac win uZRoda mas am saxeoba-
Si; _ <a. cxovreba sazogadoebis meSveobiT // b. Sinagani cxovreba.>
aucilebelia, Semdegis damatebac, kerZod is,... 3. rom am sagans ar Se-
uZlia Sewydoma, TviT 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSic ki, Tanac misi yoveli
elementi am droSi aTasjer redaqtirdeba Tavidan [>réédité<].> <CvenT-
vis> umniSvneloa is sakiTxi, aris Tu ara ena [>langue<] socialuri
faqti: Cven es <kiTxva ki ar unda dagvisvan>, aramed is, aris Tu ara
romelime sferoSi iseTi ram, rac gamoaaSkaravebda enis [>langue<] si-
metriulobas <am sferos arsebobisa da> cvlis <Sedarebad> piro-
bebSi. – I. <mocemul momentSi:> 1. ena [>langue<] warmogvidgeba, rogorc
yvela Tavis nawilSi Sinaganad mowesrigebuli sistema, 2. <damokide-
bulia romeliRac garemoebaze, magram> Tavisufali da nebismieria am
garemoebasTan mimarTebaSi; _ II. igive ena [>langue<] warmoadgens nebis-
mier pirobiTobas aris <araTavisufali> produqti im faqtebisa, rom-
lebic ar [ ]. 60

N.10 61 "Canawerebi uiTnisadmi miZRvnili statiisaTvis"

garemoeba, romelic niSnis saxiT gvemsaxureba, ar SeiZleba orjer


iyos <erTi da igive>. saWiroa pirvelive wuTidan moxdes gamokvleva
<an sawyisi SeTanxmeba>, raTa vicodeT, Tu visi saxeliT da <romel
sazRvrebSi> viqnebiT uflebamosilni saimisod, rom mas erTi da igive
saxeli vuwodoT; aq saqme exeba safuZvlian gansxvavebas sxva romeli-
me garemoebisgan, agreTve martiv pirvelwyaros.
magaliTad, magida, romelic axla Cem win dgas, materialurad erTi
da igivea dResac da ase iqneba xvalac; aso b, romelsac me vwer,
iseTive materialuria, rogorc magida, magram igi ar aris [ ]. uiTnis
kvlevebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli <amaRlebuli Tvalsazrisebi, Tu ab-
soluturi miumxrobloba> ver CaiTvleba mis <yvelaze naklebad> sim-
paTiur <niSan-Tvisebad>. <sakuTari Tavis reformatorad warmoCena,
Tundac es marTlac ase yofiliyo, mainc iwvevda uaryofiT ganwyobas
mis mimarT; yvelaferi, rasac igi aswavlida, misi auditoriisaTvis 62
sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara is, rasac isedac yovelTvis aswavlidnen.>
Tuki saWiroa ama Tu im mcdar azrTan mibruneba, an romelime absur-
duli konstruqciis <ngreva>, amisaTvis yovelTvis arsebobs lingvis-
tTa romeliRac izolirebuli jgufi. Tumca <ar SevuSindebi imis
Tqmas, rom> umravles SemTxvevaSi ufro samarTliani iqneboda, Tuki

60
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 9.3, Nr. 3296.
61
1894 wlis noemberi; Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 839. Zlier gadamuSavebuli xelnaweri, savse
wyvetili winadadebebiT, gameorebebiT da erTmaneTTan daukavSirebeli Tematuri
naxtomebiT.
62
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 21, N 10, Nr. 3297.

197
es mcdari mosazreba mainc ufro evropel lingvistebs dabraldebo-
da. ra Tqma unda, <zogierT maTgans> bevrjer hqonia SesaZlebloba,
SeemCnia, rom <uiTnis bunebrivi temperamentisaTvis araviTar SemTxve-
vaSi ar iyo ucxo> <polemikuri instinqti, Tanac uaRresad agresiu-
li>. me <imasac ki vSiSob, am ielis kolejis swavlulsa da sankris-
tis mkvlevars ar wavarTva misi erT-erTi> yvelaze sagulisxmo niSan-
Tviseba, <Tuki daviviwyeb sibrazis im amofrqvevebs, rac mas axasiaTeb-
da xolme da risi eWvic gvaqvs [ ].> nebismieri dagveTanxmeba, rom mis
SemTxvevaSi [ ] Cven verc ki vivaraudebdiT esoden mebrZol Jinsa da
mouTmenel xasiaTs. albaT Znelia amis Tqma, magram yvela ymawvili,
romelmac ki uiTnis <mecnieruli> leqciebiT rame sargebloba naxa,
<rogorc Cans> zustad amgvaradve <moixiblnen> misi <moraluri ni-
San-TvisebebiT da am kuTxiTac> misabaZ nimuSad daisaxes igi.
uaRresad warmatebuli meCveneba is azri, romelic ewvia American Philo-
logical Association-s da romelmac TxovniT mimarTa amerikel da [ ] mec-
nierTa sakmaod did raodenobas, sakuTari Tvalsazrisi gamoeTqvaT im
rolze, romelic <maTi azriT> iTamaSa uiTnim mecnierebis im <sxva-
dasxva> dargSi, romelsac TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgenda.
SefasebaTa Sedarebis <safuZvelze>, romelic SeuzRudavad Semova
absoluturad sxvadasxva mxridan, <Seiqmneba> rogorc mTeli
swavleba, <aseve vrceli saiubileo krebuli>, miZRvnili imisadmi,
visac Cven TqvenTan er-Tad <marTlac> rom mivtiriT, <imis
xsovnisadmi, vis dakargvasac am cota xnis win ase erTad
vglovobdiT.> asociaciis mxridan ar yofila moTxovna im mecnieris
mimarT, vinc <siamovnebiT gamoTqva mzadyofna, maTTan erTad
gaeziarebina es sapatio davaleba>, rom mas aRewera uiTnis Rvawli
mecnierebis Sesabamis dargSi, rasac dasWirdeboda bevrad meti dro
da upirveles yovlisa ki <sruliad> sxva avtoriteti, gansxvavebuli
imisgan, rasac korespondentTa <erTi nawili> sakuTar Tavze miiwers
xolme. amgvar pirobebSi bevrad ufro iolia kalmis sakuTar nebaze
miSveba, raTa man ukeT gadmosces roli da bediswera imisa, vinc [ ].
me Cemi saTqmeli ase warmomidgenia: man moaxdina gavlena yvela
kvlevaze, rac ki SedarebiT gramatikaSi ganxorcielebula da es ar
momxdara arc erTi sxva mkvlevaris SemTxvevaSi; Tanac es miuxedavad
imisa, rom mas ar gamouqveynebia Tundac erTi iseTi naSromi, sadac
ganxiluli iqneboda SedarebiTi gramatika. <man droSi pirvelma
warmoaCina yvela is principebi, romelic mere safuZvlad daedo
momaval praqtikul meTods.> 2. Sewyda, <an aRar gavrcelda> yvela is
mcdeloba, romelic man pirvelma wamoiwyo 1860-70 wlebSi da romelic
dakavSirebuli iyo SedarebiTi gramatikis kvlevaSi dagrovili
Sedegebis <saerToO raodenobidan> raRac <enasTan [>langage<] mi-
marTebaSi> zogadis amorCevasTan, Tu ar CavTvliT uiTnis mcdelo-
bebs, romelmac maSinve airCia is swori mimarTuleba, rasac dResac ki
moTminebiT unda gavyveT. drois mixedviT igi aris pirveli, vinc SeZ-
lo da ganazogada, vinc <SeZlo> da gramatikis naSromidan ar gamoi-
tana absurduli daskvnebi enis [>langage<] Sesaxeb. upirveles yovlisa,
ganvixiloT es meore roli, radgan cxadia, rom man am rolis meSveo-
biT Seaswavla enaTmecnierebs imaze dakvirvebis axali, ufro jansaRi
meTodi, rac zogadad warmoadgens imis sagans, rasac saxelad ena
[>langage<] hqvia da aiZula isini <amis sapasuxod> laboratoriebSi Ta-

198
vianTi yoveldRiuri SedarebebiT sargeblobisas gamoeyenebinaT iseTi
meTodebi, romlebic cota ar iyos da gansxvavebuli iqnebodnen <wina
meTodebisagan>. sinamdvileSi ki orive es meTodi _ iqneba es kargi
ganzogadoeba enasTan [>langage<] mimarTebaSi, romelic sainteresoa
yvelasaTvis, Tu SedarebiTi gramatikaSi yoveldRiuri zusti operaci-
ebis Catarebisas gamoyenebuli jansaRi meTodi – erTi da igivea
sabolood. 63
albaT <yvela drois> filosofiuri azrovnebis sagnad iqceva is faq-
ti, rom ormocdaaTwliani periodis ganmavlobaSi azradac aravis
mosvlia, rom enaTmecniereba, romelic germaniaSi warmoiSva, germania-
Sive ganviTarda da germaniaSive SenarCunda uamrav individTa [>une
innombrable catégorie d'individus<] meSveobiT, aeyvana abstraqciis im xarisx-
Si, romelic aucilebelia saimisod, raTa erTi mxriv, daeuflo imas,
rasac akeTeb, meores mxriv ki warmodgena gqondes imaze, Tu mecniere-
baTa erTobliobaSi ra legitimuroba da arsebobis gamarTleba aqvs
imas, rasac akeTeb. <magram> gaocebis meore sababad <iqceva danaxva
imisa>, rom es mecniereba, im dros, roca am gaxevebuli mdgomareobi-
dan gamosvlas unda <zeimobdes>, Tavis apogeas aRwevs iseTi gaqnili
aramzadis sasacilo mcdelobebSi, romelmac gamanadgurebeli marcxi
iwvnia swored am sasaciloobis gamo. raoden didi wona unda hqonoda
am aramzadas, rom mxolod imis gamo, rom man enis [>langue<] Sesaxeb
ubralod raRac zogadis Tqma scada, igi <dResac> ki iTvlebodes
Seudarebel figurad <enaTmecnierebis istoriaSi [>études linguistiques<],
lingvistebs ki am ucnauri figuris xsenebazec ki maSinve ucnauri mo-
wiweba efinebodeT saxeze... (TiTqos imis Tqma undodeT [ ])>. 64 yvelafer
imaze dayrdnobiT, risi gadaTvalierebac movaxerxeT, cxadia, rom saq-
me gvaqvs srul simdaresTan, <rac ar gamoricxavs Tavxedobas>. am
TvalsazrisiT, araferia imaze ufro mravlismetyveli, Tu rogor iq-
ceva <igi> litvur maxvilTan dakavSirebiT, radgan am aramzadam moin-
doma, Careuliyo litvuri maxvilis sakiTxSi. am sferoSi misi roli
mdgomareobda SemdegSi: a) (erT sqolioSi!) [ ] mdareobis sababiT da-
wunebul unda yofiliyo kurSatiseuli 65 dayofa, b) amisaTvis unda
momxdariyo am monacemTa didi raodenobiT kopireba, <Tanac imgvarad,
rom ar momxdariyo mis damsaxurebaTa aRiareba, rac [ ] sruliad
gaugebars gaxdida mis Rvawls...> 66
ramdenadac <fonologia> _ es gansakuTrebuli mecniereba, romelsac
saxelic ki <ver> gamounaxes, <me vgulisxmob> "Cveni organoebis (I)
meSveobiT <gansxvavebul> bgeraTa producirebis <bunebriv> piro-
bebs", _ ramdenadac, <me vambob>, rom fonologia SexebaSi modis enaT-
mecnierebasTan, am werilSi igrZnoba uiTnis mxridan wamosuli <ram-
denime pozitiuri> daxmareba amasTan dakavSirebiT; sxvaTa Soris, igi
Tavidanve yuradRebiT ekideboda yvela im detals, romelsac SeeZlo
meti garkveuloba Seetana gamoTqmis sakiTxSi da romelic ukavSirde-
ba mis gamokvlevebs Prāticākhyas-s Sesaxeb <sxvadasxva veda>. 67

63
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 22, N 10, Nr. 3297.
64
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 8, N 10, Nr. 52.
65
F. Kurschat: litvuri enis gramatiaka, hale 1876.
66
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 9, N 10, Nr. 52.
67
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 91, N 10, Nr. 642.

199
<(I) fiziologiisaTvis fonologia ar aris mecniereba, radgan am
dros saqme exeba gansazRvruli efeqtis misaRwevad piris Rrus orga-
noTa gansakuTrebulad momarTvis xerxs; arc akustikisaTvis; da bo-
los, enaTmecnierebisaTvis igi aris mecniereba, radgan Tavis TavSi
moicavs Teoriuli xasiaTis, Tanac ucilobel winapirobebs, oRond
mxolod damxmare mecniereba da mxolod formalurad. am Tvalsazri-
siT igi ganlagebulia ... Soris [ ].>
me ar vaxsene aq [ ] iseve rogorc Remarks on utterance of novels, [ ] radgan
me ar vfiqrob, rom mas pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba gaaCnia lin-
gvistikisaTvis, kerZod [ ] 68
magram cnobilia uiTnis erTi mcdeloba, roca igi Seecada im sakiT-
xis gadawyvetas, romelsac gaaCnia sruliad gansxvavebuli mniSvnelo-
ba enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiT. da es sakiTxi mas romc ver gadaew-
yvita (es SeiZleboda Zalian martivad momxdariyo, radgan mas daaviwy-
da erTi elementi da es aris simarTle, yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani),
<romelze laparakis saSualebac me aq ar momecema,> sxvebTan Sedare-
biT mainc bevrad ufro gonivruli ram Tqva am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.
mTlianobaSi Cven iluziebs ar viqmniT. dadgeba is dRec, <da Cven
srulad vacnobierebT mis [ ] mniSvnelobas,> rodesac Seicnoben, rom
enis [langage] Rirebuleba da raodenoba <reguralurad> SeiZleba
gamoisaxos maTematikur formulaTa meSveobiT <Tavis ZiriTad bune-
baSi>. es araTu SesaZlebelia, aramed SeuZlebeli romc iyos, mainc
movityuebdiT, rom enis faqtebi [>faits de langage<], rogorc wesi, mudmi-
vad gasagebi arian. <amaze uari unda vTqvaT, [ ].> es aris is, rac <ise,
rom Cven Tavadac ar vuwyiT> sagrZnoblad cvlis am yvelaferis Rire-
bulebis Cveneul Sefasebas, <romelic gamoiTqva TviT uaRresad gamo-
Cenil adamianTa mier>. Cveni mosazrebis Tanaxmad, [ ] interpretaciis
am erTmaneTs adevnebuli mcdelobebis meSveobiT xdeba winwasuli
etapebis markireba, <ueWvelad; Tumca> daaxloebiT imgvarad, <roca
sakuTar gamocdilebaTa grZeli rigis gavliT im donemde mixval, rom
bolos da bolos SeamCnev, daijereb, rom hipotenuzis kvadrati <ud-
ris> gverdebis kvadratebis jams [ ]. amwuTas sxva aRaraferia saTqme-
li, garda imisa, rom radikalurad unda Seicvalos bazisi da unda
amovideT wrfivis gansazRvrebidan, <Tanac ise, rom ar vidardoT
gamocdilebebze. es ukve ganvlili etapia,> gaverToT gamokvlevebiT
da zerele gamoTvlebiT imisaTvis, raTa faqtze gavideT. radgan ro-
desac <romelime momentSi> sulsa da niSans Soris dadebuli xelSek-
rulebidan amodixar, es iseTi istoriuli SemTxveviTobaa, romelic
Tavad aris konstanta, <romelic odesRac> cnobili cvladi <romc
ar yofiliyo>, mainc Tavidanve SeZlebda ama Tu im nawinaswarmetyve-
lebi manevris ganxorcielebas, <romelic Tavidanve klasificireba-
dia, Tuki niSanTa Teoria srulyofilia>. Cven a priori mTlianad varT
<mecnierebaSi, romelic ver itans [ ],> es niSnavs imas, rom enobriv/
lingvistur kombinaciaTa (e.w. enobriv mdgomareobaTa [>états de langue<]
erTmaneTs adevnebuli sxvadasxvaoba, romelsac safuZvlad SemTxveva
udevs, mSvenier paralels qmnis saWadrako partiis situaciaTa sxava-
dasxvaobasTan. Tumca yoveli aseTi situacia Tavis TavSi moicavs <an
arafers, an> raime maTematikur aRwerilobas da Sefasebas, magram ar

68
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 92, N 10, Nr. 642.

200
moicavs im <haerSi gamokidebul kvlevebs>, romlebic garedan im saba-
biT Semodian, TiTqos es (moTamaSeTa) garegani Zalaufleba, <an imgva-
ri istoriuli movlena> (boloswina svla) 69 <iyos>, romelmac gamoiw-
via figurebis poziciaTa Secvala, an TiTqos mefis <mdebareoba> an
sityva x-is <mdebareoba> <adre> <mTlianad> iseTive <ar yofiliyos>,
rogoric axlaa. 70
rogorc enis [>langage<] Teoretikosebi mis dafuZnebamde, aseve <bopis
Semdgomi enaTmecnierebis> praqtikosebi <ar eSvebodnen> enis [>lan-
gue<] ganxilvas saWadrako poziciad (romelsac arc gzamkvlevi hyavs
da arc mimdevari); Tan sakuTar Tavs ekiTxebodnen, Tu ra iyo am pozi-
ciaSi ama Tu im figuris Sesabamisi <Rirebuleba>. istoriuli grama-
tika ki, romelmac saWadrako svlebis arseboba aRmoaCina, ironias ar
malavs <Tavisi winamorbedebis> mimarT. magram man mxolod svlaTa
Tanmimdevroba icis da amtkicebs, an aseT STabeWdilebas mainc to-
vebs, rom amis safuZvelze swored mas gaaCnia partiis saukeTeso xed-
va; poziciebi sul ar anaRvlebs, ukve didi xania am sakiTxs imis Rir-
sadac ki ar Tvlis, rom <Tavisi yuradRebis obieqtivSi moaqcios>.
ase rom, arc erTi am or <SecdomaTagani>, <romlebzedac erTnairad
rTulia imis Tqma, Sedegebidan gamomdinare romeli ufro mZime, an
didia>, <ver Segvakavebs Tundac erTi wuTiT>, piriqiT, Cvenive Tavi-
dan gamomdinare, darwmunebulic ki varT, rom enis [>langue<] Sedareba
mxolod saWadrako partiis im srulyofil warmodgenasTan SeiZleba,
romelic mTlianad moicavs rogorc <> poziciebs, <aseve svlebs>,
rogorc cvlilebebs, aseve poziciebs <TanmimdevrobaSi>; vercerTi am
SecdomaTagani ver SegviSlis xels imaSi, rom <Sedarebis procesSi
CavrToT erTi sakmaod mniSvnelovani svla,> kerZod ki SemoviyvanoT
iseTi absurduli da arainteligenturi moTamaSe, rogoricaa foneti-
kur Tu sxva msgavs movlenaTa SemTxveviToba [ ].
sakuTar Tavs vekiTxebiT amis <Semdeg, aris Tu ara am sagnis buneba,
rac yvela SemTxvevaSi ormagia, misi arsis mixedviT ufro safuZvlia-
nad [>plus foncièrement<] istoriuli – Tu ufro safuZvlianad [>plus fon-
cièrement<] abstraqtuli da xom ar usxlteba igi istoriul Zalebs
swored am safuZvlian, mouxelTebel [>incorëcible<] monacemTa wyalo-
biT, romlebic Wadrakis sawyis mocemulobas warmoadgenen da yovel
axal svlaze Tavidan Cndebian xolme, enaSi [>langue<] ki gvevlinebian
niSnebis sulze totaluri, gardauvali zemoqmedebis gamoxatulebad,
rac yoveli movlenis, yoveli svlis Semdeg TavisTavad iCens xolme
Tavs. 71
ubralo magaliTi: fōt: fōti; mravlobiTis niSania i. saWadrako svla, anu
fot: foet terminebis axali pozicia 72 ; mravlobiTis niSania ukve
opozicia ō:oe (ginda-ar ginda) 73 . magram poziciaTa es orive saxeoba
arc sakuTriv da arc principulad, arc erT SemTxvevaSi <ar
ukavSirdeba im movlenas, ramac isini warmoSva>, yovel SemTxvevaSi
ara imaze metad, me rom SemTxveviT kamCadalur enaze [ ], an or

69
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 22, N 10, Nr. 3297.
70
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 23, N 10, Nr. 3297.
71
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 198, N 10, Nr. 1489.
72
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 186, N 10, Nr. 1392.
73
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 187, N 10, Nr. 1392.

201
sruliad gansxvavebul saWadrako partiaSi mocemul momentSi miviRo
figuraTa erTi da igive pozicia.
<Casamatebelia:> Cven vyoymanobT <imis winaSe, rac enis [>langue<] bune-
bas exeba: an gviWirs imis dajereba, rom vinme> SeZlebs misi bunebis
gaTqmas, radgan igi Tavis safuZvelSi aris ormagi: amaSi mdgomareobs
centraluri WeSmariteba.
sulisaTvis marTlac ar arsebobs analogia imaT Soris, <rac erTi
mxriv <aris> saWadrako pozicia da meore mxriv, _ saWadrako svla,
<romelic sulelurad aRiqmeba, maSinac ki Tu igi sxvisgan aris na-
warmoebi [ ];> aqedan gamomdinare, SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, Tu am or,
erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebul saganTagan romeli ufro ga-
damwyveti mxarea mTlianobis Seqmnis dros, Tanac imdenad, rom SesaZ-
lebeli gaxdes am mTlianobis ramenairi klasificireba. radganac eni-
saTvis [>langue<] namdvilad ar arsebobs Sedareba, TviT uxeSad swo-
ric ki (swored es warmoadgens mravali diskusiis wyaros), amitomac
cxadia, rom swored masSi sxvebTan erTad SeiZleba dadgindes is
TvalsaCino manki, rom saWadrako figuraTa Rirebuleba erTaderTi
eyrdnoba maT sargeblianobas da maT SesaZlo bedisweras ganviTareba-
Si, da ara [ ]74
daviwyoT sul Tavidan da ganvixiloT sapirispiro azri: aseTive war-
matebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ar arsebobs araviTari analogia pisis-
tratusis monarqiul reJimsa da im putCs Soris, ramac es reJimi da-
amyara, amis miuxedavad arasdros eWvic ki aravis Separvia imaSi, rom
es orive sagani Tanabrad aris istoriis sakuTreba. iseve rogorc
xalxTa istoria Tu institutTa istoria, enis [>langue<] istoriac
Sedgeba <nawilobrivi Tu sruli> krizisebisagan da im mdgomareobe-
bisagan, romlebic Seicvalnen am krizisebis Sedegad; es aris yvelaf-
ris anabana.
sayovelTao istoriul sagnebSi ar arsebobs raime absoluturi anti-
Teza imaT Soris, rac aris erTi mxriv mdgomareoba da meore mxriv –
krizisi, maT Soris [ ]. magaliTad, aviRoT is momenti, roca bolo
eReba romelime demokratiul reJims [ ]. ratom? radgan zustad igive
faqtorebi, igive vnebebi, igive interesebi, igive [ ], romlebic <kanone-
bad gvevlinebian>, sul erTia. iqneba krizisis, Tu iqneba es mdgomare-
obis axsna. lingvistikaSi mdgomareobebs gaaCniaT organuli (Sinagani)
safuZveli.
istoriul winamorbedTa codna ar kmara niSanTa da warmodgenas So-
ris arsebuli Sinagani urTierTdamokidebulebis gasagebad <an rome-
lime momentSi dasafiqsireblad>; anu roca aso-niSans cvlian [ ], es
namdvilad sainteresoa, Tumca [ ]. <roca viRebT sityvas istoria yve-
laze sayovelTao gagebiT, rCeba> arasworia imis rwmena, rom ena
[>langue<] istoriuli <sagani> iyos sxva romelime kuTxiT, garda er-
Tisa> da misi axsna [>résolu<] SeiZlebodes istoriuli dakvirvebebis
Sedegad, an romelime momentSi gvTavazobdes sicxades, Tuki dakmayo-
fildebi istoriuli dakvirvebebiT.
safuZveli? igi marTlac rom martivia. filosofosebs, logikosebs,
fsiqologebs, albaT, SeeZloT CvenTvis imis swavleba, Tu romelia is

74
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 188, N 10, Nr. 1398.

202
ZiriTadi xelSekruleba, romelic arsebobs tradiciul simbolosa
da suls Soris, <warmodgenasa da simbolos Soris, gansakuTrebiT ki
im damoukidebel simbolos Soris, romelsac es warmodgena warmoad-
gens>. tradiciul, damoukidebel simboloSi Cven vgulisxmobT ubra-
lod simboloTa im kategoriebs, romelTac ar gaaCniaT Sinagani da-
mokidebuleba aRniSnul obieqtis mimarT gaaCniaT is mTavari damaxa-
siaTebeli niSani, rom maT ar gaaCniaT araviTari <xiluli> kavSiri
aRniSnuli obieqtis mimarT da amdenad ar SeiZleba, rom iyvnen damo-
kidebuli maTze, <arc arapirdapir>, gamomdinare TavianTi samomavlo
daniSnulebidan. magaliTad, Tuki me adamians gamovsaxav pirdapir,
uxeSi figuriT, <magram Tuki mas gamovsaxav grafikuli niSniT x, an
bgeriTi figuriT ǎνοπος [ ]. meore mxriv> istorikosebsa da ligvistebs
SeeZloT eswavlebinaT CvenTvis, rom es gansakuTrebuli seria <ena
[>langage<], damoukidebel simboloTa es gansakuTrebuli sistema>, rac
aris ena [>langage<], ar warmoadgens arafers movlenaTa [>vicissitudes<]
codnis gareSe.
rac <aq> filosofosebsa da logikosebs gamoeparaT, aris is, rom im
momentidan, <rac simboloTa sistema> damoukidebeli xdeba moniSnu-
li obieqtebisgan, <romlebsac igi Tavis mxriv eqvemdebareboda,> dro-
is faqtisgan logikosisaTvis Znelad gasaTvleli gadanacvlebisTvis,
rasac, sxvaTa Soris, Tavisi nebiT verasdros aRwevda [ ] Tavs. xolo
lingvistebs gamoeparaT is, rom is masala, romelmac ganicada isto-
riuli zemoqmedeba, martiv istoriul axsnas aranairad ar eqvemdeba-
reba, gansxvavebiT, magaliTad, politikuri faqtebTan dakavSirebuli
SemTxvevisa. am samyaroSi yoveli sagani exeba erTi mxriv istorias,
da <Tavad mzis sistemac ki ar aris [ ]. aqedan sulac ar gamomdina-
reobs, rom astronomia aris istoriuli mecniereba.> imis Tqmac ki
sakmarisia, rom niSanTa Zala Tavisi bunebiT aris tradiciuli, Tavisi
bunebiT aris nebismieri, Tavisi bunebiT aris damoukidebeli im rea-
lobaTagan, romlebic maT moniSnaven imis dasanaxad, rom adamianTa
tvirTSi ar moinaxeba erTi iseTi saganic ki, romlis sxvasTan Seda-
rebac ki SesaZlebeli iqneboda. enis [>langage<] zusti situacia <adami-
anur saganTa Soris iseTia,> rom uaRresad saeWvo da <uxerxulia>
imis Tqma, igi ufro metad istoriuli sagania Tu sxva rame, Tumca
dRevandel mimdinareobaTa fonze ar arsebobs amis safrTxe, Tuki
yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT pirvel rigSi swored mis arastoriul mxa-
reze. sruliad aSkaraa is, rom ena [>langage<] Tavisi arsebobis yovel
momentSi warmoadgens istoriul produqts. magram ar yofila enis
[>langage<] arsebobis Tundac erTi iseTi momenti, roca es istoriuli
produqti warmoadgenda sxva rames, Tu ara <im kompromiss, saboloo
kompromiss>, romelsac aRiarebs suli garkveul simboloebTan mimar-
TebaSi; es kidev ufro absoluturi WeSmaritebaa, <rameTu> <am ukanas-
kneli faqtis gareSe> xom enac [>langage<] ar iarsebebda. xolo is, Tu
rogor SeuZlia suls simbolos moxmareba _ <winaswar igulisxmeba>,
rom simbolo <ar> icvleba _, es mTeli mecnierebaa, romelsac ara-
feri aqvs saerTo istoriul dakvirvebebTan. miT umetes, rom <roca
simbolo icvleba>, uSualod amis Semdeg myardeba axali mdgomareoba,
romelic moiTxovs universalur kanonTa axal gamoyenebas.
xangrZlivi drois manZilze, Cven vasazrdoebdiT rwmenas, rom lin-
gvistika aris ormagi mecniereba, kerZod ki imdenad <safuZvlianad da

203
uSualod> ormagi, rom SegviZlia <simarTle rom iTqvas> sakuTar
Tavsac ki davekiTxoT, arsebobs ki sakmarisi safuZveli saimisod, rom
lingvistikis saxelSive davicvaT es moCvenebiTi, <xelovnuri> erTe-
uli, romlis damsaxurebacaa <zustad> yvela is mcdari azri, yvela
is auxsneli SemTxveva, romelTa winaaRmdegac Cven yoveldRiurad
gvixdeba brZola, vgrZnobT ra [ ].
vidre es ZiriTadi dualizmi ar aris <aRiarebuli, an ganxiluli ma-
inc>, vaRiaroT, <SeiZleba arsebobdes erTi mxriv> ubralod qimeru-
li, an Tundac sxvanairi mosazrebebi, romelTac gaaCniaT <is> damsa-
xureba, rom winaaRmdegobas ar uweven faqtebis realobas; rom daub-
rundnen TavianT dakvirvebebs; magram CvenTvis warmoudgenelia imis
aRiareba, rom isini <ufro Wkuis saswavlebeli> arian, vidre isini,
romlebic bunebriv baziss efuZnebian da SeuZliaT CvenTvis poziti-
uri codnis mocema. es daaxloebiT igivea ([>toutes proportions gardées<]-Tan
dakavSirebiT), garegani dakvirvebebis Sedegad erTma rom Tqvas, hipo-
tenuzis kvadrati udris ori danarCeni gverdis gaormagebul kvad-
ratso, meorem ki upasuxos, maT Soris araviTari kavSiri ar arsebob-
so, mesamem ki Tqvas, danarCeni ori gverdis kvadratebis toliao. <me-
sames ver waarTmev verc rezultatsa da verc gamoxedvaSi im orze
upiratesobis gamoxatvis uflebas; magram es Secdoma iqneboda [ ]: im
gamonaTqvamebs, romelic sworia (da kontrolirebadic, amaze unda
SevTanxmdeT) da im gamonaTqvamTa Soris, romlis uzustobac aSkaraa,
ar arsebobs <sakuTriv> progresi meTodSi; da is mxolod maSin iar-
sebebs, Tuki piriqiT [ ]> arc erTi gamonaTqvami ar aris sxvaze ufro
Rirebuli, radgan mas aklia WeSmaritebis imave xarisxis amosavali
wertilis cneba.
es saxli aris sagani; is STabeWdileba, rasac Cemi Tvalis badura
misgan iRebs (rac unda miiRos) 75 , maTematikis absoluturi kanonebis
mixedviT, asi metris moSorebiT sul sxvanairia da <imdenad gansxvav-
deba pirvelisagan, ramdenadac ki es saerTod SesaZlebelia> da es
iseTi ramea, rasac mxolod ena [>langage<] aRwers [>figure<]. es saxli
iSleba, erT mxareze iqceva. Tuki me axla saxlis <orTave mdgomare-
obas> erTmaneTs Sevadareb, vityvi, rom isini erTmaneTze ar arian da-
mokidebuli, es sruli simarTle iqneba; saerTod, orive maTgani miRe-
buli perspeqtivaa da absoluturi sicrue iqneboda, Tuki davijereb-
di, rom erTi gamomdinareobs meorisgan, <an saxlis wina mdgomareoba,
an wina perspeqtiva rom mcodnoda, maSin es damexmareboda imaSi, rom
ukeT gavrkveuliyavi perspeqtivaTa amJamindel mdgomareobaSi>. ar ar-
sebobs iseTi saSualeba, romelic erTisgan gamogayvaninebs meores,
Tumca es iseTi ramea, rasac sul vvaraudobT. 76
ramdenime <zeSTagonebuls> uTqvams: "ena [>langage<] aris raRac sru-
liad araadamianuri da Tavis TavSi organizebuli, TiTqosda igi
<iyos> romelime parazituli vegetacia, romelic <moedo Cveni saxeo-
bis zedapirs>".
sxvebs ki aRuniSnavT, rom "ena [>langage<] aris raRac adamianuri, Tum-
ca ufro bunebrivi funqciebis msgavsi."

75
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 23, N 10, Nr. 3297.
76
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 24, N 10, Nr. 3297.

204
uiTnim Tqva: "ena [>langage<] aris adamianuri institucia." amiT Seicva-
la lingvistikis RerZi. <Semdegi> albaT, <Cveni azriT,> ityvis: es
aris adamianuri institucia, magram imgvari bunebis, rom yvela sxva
adamianur institucias, garda werilobiTisa, <SeuZlia> mxolod Cveni
SecdomaSi Seyvana mis <WeSmarit> bunebasTan dakavSirebiT im SemTxve-
vaSi, Tuki maT analogias virwmunebT. 77
yvela sxva institucia, <TiToeuli sxvadasxva xarisxiT>, marTlac
<aris> dafuZnebuli bunebriv damokidebulebebsa Tu saganTa Soris
<SeTanxmebulobaze>, rogorc finalur principze. magaliTisTvis avi-
RoT erTi romelime eris kanonmdebloba, an politikuri sistema, an
Cacmulobis moda, <TviT is Wirveuli modac ki, romelic Cvens Cacmu-
lobas gansazRvravs da romelsac erTi wuTiTac ki ver CamovaSorebT
adamianuri sxeulis proporciaTa monacemebs>. aqedan gamomdinareobs,
rom yvela cvlileba, yvela ganaxleba... gzas agrZelebs im pirvel
principze damokidebulebis viTarebaSi, <romelic imave sferoSi moq-
medebs, romelic sxvagan arsad> ar aris ganTavsebuli, Tu ara adami-
anuri samSvinvelis safuZvelSi. 78 magram ena [>langage<] da weriloba
ar efuZneba <saganTa bunebriv damokidebulebas>. drois arc erT mo-
mentSi ar arsebobs raime damokidebuleba romelime SiSina bgerasa da
asoniSan S-s formas Soris, sityva cow-s ki zustad iseve ar gauWirde-
ba Zroxis [>vache<] aRniSvna, rogorc sityva vacca-s. es aris is, risi
<gameorebiTac> uiTni arasdros iRleba, raTa <ukeT gvagrZnobinos>,
rom ena [>langage<] <aris> wminda institucia. Tumca es bevrad ufro
metis damamtkicebelia, kerZod ki imis, rom ena [>langage<] aris insti-
tucia analogiebis gareSe (Tuki werilobasac mivumatebT) da rom
<marTlac Tavxedoba> iqneboda imis dajereba, rom enis [>langage<] is-
toria amis Sedegad Tundac Soreulad waagavs sxva romelime insti-
tuciis istorias, <da rom mas ar Semohyavs TamaSSi (nebismier moment-
Si) Sedarebadi fsiqologiuri Zalebi>. Cven did usamarTlobas Cavi-
dendiT, Tuki am viTarebaSi, Tundac gakvriT, ar gaviTvaliswinebdiT
iseT cnobil, ormag faqts, rom laparakis unari [>faculté du langage<]
mTlianadaa lokalizebuli tvinSi da kidev is, rom im dazianebebs,
rac SeiZleba <am monakveTSi> moxdes, umeteswilad Tan sdevs xolme
werilobis unaris arqona. <Tanac> es is monakveTia, <romliTac Cven>
Cveulebriv damokidebulebebs <aRviqvamT>. 79
ormagi faqti Cven gvaiZulebs istoriidan gamovyoT Tundac erTi,
mTlianad rezervirebuli ganyofileba, magram is kiTxva, romelic
realurad daismis, ufro mdgomareobs SemdegSi: SeiZleba Tu ara
aiZulo ena [>langage<], rom gaxdes sakuTriv istoriuli masala? an
piriqiT, SesaZlebelia Tu ara Tundac erTi wamiTac ki istoriuli
mxaris daviwyeba? Sansi iseTia, rom mas Semdeg, rac [ ].
sxva instituciebi ubralod rCebian TavianTi sirTuleebis amara; amis
sapirispirod safuZvelSive SeuZlebelia, rom erTaderTi <enobrivi
realoba [>entité de langage <] (niSani)> 80 martivi iyos, radgan igi winapi-
robad ayenebs im ori sagnis kombinacias, romlebisTvisac aucilebe-

77
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1265-1266.
78
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 168, N 10, Nr. 1261.
79
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1264.
80
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 168, N 10, Nr. 1263.

205
lia raime damokidebulebis arseboba, kerZod ki warmodgenasa da iseT
<simbolur> obieqts Soris, romelic moklebulia yovelgvar Sinagan
kavSirs am warmodgenasTan. – meore mxriv ki, gadasvlebi [>transitions<]
motivirebulia imave faqtorebiT, romlebic Tavs avlenen [ ]. 81
Cven SegviZlia movixmoT mxolod "yvelaze gamomxatvelobiTi Seswore-
ba", Cven veTanxmebiT yvela im sxvadasxvagvar daskvnas, romelic miker-
Zoebulad iqna gamotanili iqedan, rom ena [>langue<] iZulebuli gaxda
mieRo iseTi sityva, rogoricaa telegrafi. am daskvnebs Tavidan mxo-
lod imitom hqondaT sayovelTao mniSvneloba, rom viRacam udrtvin-
velad dauSva, rom gulubryvilobaa imis ardanaxva, rom realurad
yovel epoqaSi, maT Soris CvenSic, xalxi iZulebuli iyo cnobad mi-
eRo is sagnebi, romlebic maTTvis siaxles warmoadgenda da <saxelic
daerqmia maTTvis. magram amis Semdeg?> ra iseTi xiluli cvlilebebi
moaqvs amas romelime enis [>langage<] xasiaTisaTvis, rom me SemiZlia
mis leqsikur marags (misi leqsikuri maragis yvelaze materialur na-
wils) telegrafis msgavsi <asi an Tormeti> arsebiTi saxeli davu-
mato? – sxvaTa Soris, <mxolod> amaSi ar aris sinamdvileSi saqme.
magram Tuki Cven gamovalT iqedan, rom yoveli [ ], ufro zustad ki
Cndeba aseTi kiTxva: aris ki es is sistematuri elementi, romlis ga-
reSec Cven ar SegviZlia enobriv/lingvistur faqtTa msvlelobis aR-
qma? 82 moqceulia Tu ara romelime erTi miyruebuli xeobis ena
[>langue<] kilokavi, sadac xelovnur terminTa SeRwevis albaToba, faq-
tobrivad, <eqstremalurad> nulis tolia, enis [>langue<] benebrivi pi-
robebis miRma? piriqiT, igi es leqsikuri maragi warmoadgens pirobas
[ ].
Tuki imis mtkicebas mohyvebian, rom es kolokavi moqceulia enis
[>langue<] regularuli pirobebis miRma da mas ar Seswevs mis Sesaxeb
warmodgenis Seqmnis unari, rom mas sWirdeba teratologiuri gamokv-
leva, radgan mas ar ganucdia Sereva [ ], anu e.w. un[ ] elementi [>cet ele-
ment soi-disant in [ ]<]. marto es [ ] ara, aramed Tuki Cven amasobaSi iqidan
amovidodiT, rom ar arsebobs sxva rame, garda im dialeqtebisa, rom-
lebmac ganuwyvetliv unda Seisisxlxorcon garedan Semosuli [ ],
maSin es ukve marTlac namdvili problema iqneboda: nuTu es Semosu-
li marTlac imdenad sasicocxlo elementia, romlis gareSec Cven ar
warmogvidgenia enis [>langue<] Semdgomi ganviTareba? sulac ara. Sesa-
bamisad, es elementebi warmoadgenen SemTxveviT faqtebs yvelasTvis,
visac amis Sesaxeb sakuTari TavisTvis angariSis Cabareba surs, [ ] da
aseTebad darCebian im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki es iqneboda mxolod ga-
regnuli garTuleba [ ]. ena [>langue<] <iqmneba> garegan saganTa im gar-
kveuli raodenobiT, romelsac suli niSnis saxiT xmarobs. oRond
zustad im im zomiT, ra zomiTac garegani sagani aris niSani <(aRiqme-
ba, rogorc niSani), gulisxmobs [ ]>, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, warmo-
adgens enis [>langage<] nawils. sityva s [ ] aris <niSani>, sityva, zus-
tad iseTive sruluflebiani, rogorc salto, [ ]. magram gadasvla salto-sa
[ ] Soris, romelic agreTve garegani faqtia, veranairad ver gaxdeba
niSani. am kriteriumis Tanaxmad, me vxedav [ ] 83

81
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1263.
82
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 62, N 10, Nr. 404-405.
83
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 63, N 10, Nr. 407.

206
sanam es WeSmariteba nawarmoebis sul pirvel gverdze [ ] ar moxvdeba
[ ]. zustad aseve naklebad SesaZlebelia [ ], [ ] gareSe, roca SesaZle-
belia geometriuli figurebis TvisebaTa <Zieba> ise, rom mxedvelo-
baSi ar iqnas miRebuli, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba aqvs donis [ ]
gamoyofas.
roca me es sapatio werili miviRe Tqvengan, romelic dasaTaurebulia
ase: braian mori, 29 oqtomberi, <miRebulia 10 noembers da maSinve un-
da> gameca Semdegi pasuxi: CemTvis didi pativia, roca mTxovT sakad-
risi mivago uiTnis, rogorc as a comparative philologiste [sic]. magram uiTnis
arasdros undoda yofiliyo comparative philologiste-i. mas ar dautovebia
Tundac erTi xelnaweri furcelic ki, romelic saSualebas mogvcem-
da, igi comparative philologiste-ad Segveracxa. man mxolod iseTi namuSev-
rebi dagvitova, romlebSic SeiZleba misi ZiriTadi, zogadi Tvalsaz-
risis dadgena enasTan [>langage<] dakavSirebiT, isic SedarebiTi grama-
tikis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT: zustad es Seadgens mis diad origina-
lurobas, moyolebuli 1867 wlidan; <meore originaluroba ki aris
is, rom igi yvelgan, sadac ki xeli miuwvdeboda, ganmartavda, rom igi
ar urevda lingvistikas [ ] kvlevaSi>. <maSasadame, eWvgareSea> es [ ].
– 2. im momentidan, rogorc ki saqme exeba enasTan [>langage<] dakavSire-
bul universalur sagnebs, me ar vgrZnob zogad Tanxmobas romelime
skolasTan, iqneba es uiTnis gonivruli Teoria Tu is <ugunuri Teo-
riebi, romelTac igi warmatebiT ebrZoda>. swored es aris is, ris
TqvenTvis Tqmasac me erTi wuTiTac ar davayovnebdi, Tuki Tqvengan
miviRebdi [ ]. da aq saqme gvaqvs imgvar SeuTanxmeblobasTan, romelic
ar cnobs raime Serbilebas an niuanss, radgan maSin iZulebuli viq-
nebi, davwero iseTi rame, rasac Cems TvalSi araviTari azri ar
gaaCnia.
aqedan gamomdinare, iZulebuli var gTxovoT, rom Tavidan amaciloT
uiTnis enaTmecnieruli naRvawis Sesaxeb saubari da es miuxedavad
imisa, rom aseTi SesaZlebloba SemdgomSi [ ]. sxvaTa Soris, es mizan-
Seuwonelia CemTvis drois faqtoris gamoc [ ].
es aris [ ].
1. institucia ena [>langage<].
2. enaTmecniereba aris ormagi. 84
arasdros ar arsebobs wyveta.
Tundac saqme exebodes kabebs an [ ], yovelTvis aris < saganTa> buneb-
rivi damokidebuleba, <romelic upiratesobas moipovebs eqstravagan-
tulobiT da romelic wlebis manZilze wamyvan pozicias inarCunebs>,
romelic yvela cvlilebis miuxedavad, rCeba wesad. amis sapirispi-
rod, ena [>langage<] aris imisTvis, rom Seasrulos is <davaleba>, ro-
melic adamianur instituciebs <Soris> gamorCeulad mas ergo, yvela-
nairi sazRvrisgan gaTavisuflebuli Tavis meTodSi (Tundac im sazR-
vrisgan, vinme mainc rom dagvanaxebda). iqedan gamomdinare, rom <ar-
sobrivi naTesaobis> principuli ararseboba [ ] Soris warmoadgens
raRac radikalurobas da ara imas, rac Seicavs Tundac umcires niu-
anss, gamodis, rom ena [>langage<] ar eqvemdebareba arcerT mudmivad
Sesworebad, an marTul adamianur Tu adamianuri gonebis mier Seswo-
rebad, an marTul wess.

84
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 24, N 10, Nr. 3297.

207
es aris swored is safuZveli, romelic sxvebs karnaxobs [ ]. 85
col-qmrobis instituti <albaT> ufro gonivrulia Tavis monogamiur
formaSi, vidre poligamiurSi. amaze SeiZleba kamaTi filosofiuri
kuTxiT. magram romelime niSnis instituti, magaliTisTvis, σ Tu s
asoebisa Tu cow an vacca sityvebisgan Seqmnili niSnebi imisaTvis, raTa
moniSnul iqnas warmodgena Zroxis Kuh [>vache>] Sesaxeb, Tavad efuZne-
ba ugunurebas; es niSnavs, rom ar arsebobs saganTa bunebasa <da
msgavsebaze [>convenane<]> dafuZnebuli iseTi goneba/mizezi [>reason>],
romelic romeliRac momentSi aqtiurad Caereoda, <iqneboda es> ra-
Rac [ ] miReba, <iqneboda es> raRacis likvidacia [>supprimer<]. 86 raxan
<enaSi [>langue<] niSanwyalic ki ar arsebobs> imisa, rom aq erTmaneTs
emTxveva bgeriT niSansa da warmodgenas Soris arsebuli Sinagani
korelacia, swored amis gamo rCeba niSani Tavisi materialuri sicoc-
xlis amara, Tanac iseTnairad, rac sruliad ucxoa im sferosTvis,
romelSic garegnul formas warmodgenasTan <bunebrivi kavSiris>
mxolod minimaluri xarisxis damowmeba SeuZlia. radgan arseboben es
<sxva> sferoebi da isini cnobilia CvenTvis <sazogadoebaTa istori-
idan>. aqedan gamomdinare, Cven Zalze mcdarad ganvsjiT imas, Tu ro-
gori unda iyos enis [>langage<] is pirobebi, romlis drosac Cven sa-
gangebod veWvobT, rom maT ar SeuZliaT safuZvlianad gansxvavdebod-
nen sxva adamianuri instituciaTa pirobebisgan. 87
a) SedarebiTi gramatika.
b) SedarebiTi gramatika da enaTmecniereba.
c) ena [>langage<], rogorc adamianuri institucia.
d) enaTmecniereba, rogorc ormagi mecniereba.
e) uiTni da axalgazrda gramatikosTa skola.
f) uiTni, rogorc fonologi. 88
mTeli Tavisi moRvaweobis manZilze uiTnis <ar> Seuwyvetia am dargSi
moRvaweoba, magram arsebobs ori iseTi pasaJi, romlebic pirvelive
wuTebidan sxvebze ufro ukeTesad SegvagrZnobinebs mis azrovnebas [ ].
Tavis Life and Growth of language 89 -is erT-erT bolo TavSi uiTni ambobs,
rom Turme adaminebma xma gamoiyenes imisaTvis, rom TavianTi warmod-
genebisaTvis niSnebi mieniWebinaT, maT zustad aseTive warmatebiT Se-
eZloT am miznisaTvis Jestebisa Tu sxva saSualebebis gamoyenebac,
Tumca maT am miznisaTvis yvelaze moxerxebulad mainc ufro xma CaT-
vales. 90 Cven vTvliT, rom aq am or striqonSi, romelic <didi> para-
doqsis tolfasia, daunjebulia yvelaze swori filosofiuri war-
modgena, rac ki odesme arsebula enasTan [>langage<] dakavSirebiT; da
Semdeg isic, rom Cveni yoveldRiuri urTierToba im sagnebTan, romel-
Tac Cven vaanalizebT, am realobidan gamomdinare, mxolod moigebs.
radgan igi adgens, rom ena [>langage<] sxva araferia, Tu ara niSnis

85
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 168, N 10, Nr. 1262.
86
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 162, N 10, Nr. 1210.
87
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1268.
88
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 24, N 10, Nr. 3297.
89
New York/London 1875.
90
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 33, N 10, Nr. 166, 168.

208
gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva, romelsac ar Seswevs saimiso unari, rom
sakuTari Tavis safuZvelze Sefasdes. 91
meTodis warmoSobas SeiZleba safuZvlad nebismier SemTxveva daedos.
magaliTad, "piligrimTa TavSesafari" Hôtel-Dieu (rac zustad igivea,
rac Sua saukuneebis Hôtel-Dieu) gvTavazobs meTods, romelic absolu-
turad emTxveva ebrauli "RvTis samarTlianobis" meTods. "ebrauli"
meTodi SeuzRudavad gamoiyeneba agreTve asobiT frangul <kompozit-
Sic>. amasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zveli franguli, as-
cda ra indoevropul saukuneobriv biliks, gadavarda [ ].
sinamdvileSi simarTle aris is, rom ubralo SemTxveviTobas [ ]; da
isic cxadia, rom amgvar SemTxveviTobas SeuZlia protosemituri iseT
rameSi gadaCexos, rac TiTqos misi erT-erTi <yvelaze waruxoceli
niSania>: aq ar arsebobs sulis Tavdapirveli gansxvavebulobis, maT
Soris arc SemTxveviTis umciresi niSanic ki; yvelaferi TamaSdeba
sulis gareT, bgeris iseT mutaciaTa sferoSi, romelic <male> suls
absoluturad imorCilebs da aiZulebs im <gansakuTrebuli gziT>
siaruls, <romelic mas> niSanTa materialurma mdgomareobam miuCina.
<zustad aseve SeeZloT iseT kompozitebs, rogoricaa Bet-haus, Springb-
runnen (romlebSic pirveli termini zmnur warmodgenas Seicavs), qceu-
liyvnen imis Tqmis sababad, rom germanuli ar aris indoevropuli ena
[>langue<].>
am yvelafers ara aqvs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba. meTodi aris is, rac
unda iyos, gamomdinare bgeraTa mdgomareobidan; umeteswilad igi war-
moiSoba im raRacisgan, rac ara marto SemTxveviTi <da> materialu-
ria, aramed negatiuric, rogorc <es> aris aso a-s amovardna sityvi-
dan "beta-hûs", rac mas nayofier kvirtad aqcevs. albaT, saWiroc ar
aris imis aRniSvna, rom Sewyvetis Sedegad meTodi [ ]. 92
magram maSin ra fasi aqvs enaTa [>langues<] imgvar klasifikacias, rome-
lic efuZneba iseT meTodebs, romelTac isini <naazrevis gamosaxata-
vad> iyeneben; amas raRa Seesatyviseba? absoluturad araferi, garda
am klasifikaciis imJamindeli Tu mudmivad modificirebadi mdgomare-
obisa. 93 Harc mis winare safexurebs, arc monaTesaveebs da miT ufro
arc rasis suls ar gaaCnia saTanado damokidebuleba im meTodTan,
romelic mindobilia im sasacilo bgeriT SemTxvevaze, romeliRac mo-
mentSi romelime gansazRvrul enas [>langue<] rom daatydeba. 94 im
dros, roca vaRiarebT, rom farisevelTa is ganzraxva, rom enisagan
[>langue<] SeeqmnaT raRac <iseTi ram, rac sruliad ar iqneboda damo-
kidebuli adamianur sulze da iqneboda> organuli, iyo namdvili
absurdi, mere ki vagrZelebT gzas da azradac ar mogvdis, rom misgan
sxva gagebiT organuli ramis Seqmnas vcdilobT, Tanac ggvgonia, rom
indoevropuli, an semituri genialuroba dRedaRam <gamecadinebuli
arian imisaTvis>, rom ena [>langue<] imave fatalur relsebze daabru-
non. ar arsebobs erTi iseTi dakvirvebac ki, romelsac iqamde ar miv-
yavdeT, rom <Cven dagvarwmunos sawinaaRmdegoSi da> [ ]. "enis [>lan-
gue<] geniis" wona nulis tolia iseT erTaderT faqtTan SedarebiT,

91
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 34, N 10, Nr. 173-174.
92
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 505, N 10, Nr. 3240-3246.
93
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 506, N 10, Nr. 3248.
94
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 505 f, N 10, Nr. 3247.

209
rogoricaa o daboloebis amovardna, romelsac yvela momentSi gaaCnia
imis unari, rom romeliRac winaswar mocemul enobriv formaSi [>for-
me de langage<] Zirfesvianad daamxos niSansa da warmodgenas Soris ar-
sebuli kavSiri; da Tanac imgvarad, rom axali meTodi [ ]. 95
<enis [>langue<] antiistoriulobis Sesaxeb>
[ ] dakavebulia ormagi sagniT, rac gaugebari SeiZleba mogveCvenos,
Tuki Sedarebas ar mivmarTavT.
saWadrako partiaSi yovel mocemul pozicias gaaCnia is <TavisTava-
di> niSani, rom igi Tavisufalia wina svlisgan. es niSnavs imas, rom
ara "met-naklebad", aramed totalurad sulerTia, Tu romeli gziT
moxvedi <am> poziciamde, <imdenad>, rom im adamians, <romelic parti-
as dasawyisidanve adevnebda Tvals >, ar gaaCnia araviTari upirate-
soba imasTan SedarebiT, vinc kritikul momentSi <movida> <am> parti-
is Sesafaseblad; an sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, aravis ar mouva azrad
aRweros raime pozicia ise, rom erTmaneTSi aurios is, rac aris,
imasTan, rac Tundac aTi wamis win iyo. zustad igivea enis [>langue<]
amosavali wertilic. roca mas amosaval wertilad aiReb, gaurkveve-
li rCeba sakiTxi, Tu romeli mxridan SeiZleba iyos istoriuli ase-
Ti sagani. erTi SexedviT, igi marTlac arsobrivad ewinaaRmdegeba yve-
lanair istoriul dakvirvebas da ufro gankuTvnilia iseTi abstraq-
tuli <spekulaciisaTvis>, romelic Tan sdevs xolme im saWadrako
pozicias, zemoT rom vaxseneT. magram Cven SevinarCunebT gansxvavebas,
radgan darwmunebuli varT imaSi, rom ar arsebobs bevri iseTi ram,
rac Cven mogvcemda gansakuTrebuli semiologiis kompleqsuri bunebis
Secnobis iseT saSualebas, rogoradac saxeldeba ena [>langage<]. – es
imisaTvis, raTa erTxel da samudamod ganvsazRvroT es gansakuTrebu-
li semiologia, rasac warmoadgens ena [>langage<], Tan ara misi erT-
erTi kuTxidan, aramed gamomdinare im damabneveli damTxvevidan, rom-
lis damsaxurebacaa swored, rom arasdros xerxdeba enis [>langage<]
Secnoba. 96
arsebobs >ena< [>langue<] da enis mecniereba [>science de la langue<] mxo-
lod im amosavali pirobiT, saidanac abstragirdeba is, rac moxda ad-
re da isic, rac epoqebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs. arsebobs lingvis-
tika [>linguistique<], oRond <zustad> sapirispiro pirobiT. [ ] yoveli
sxva istoria [ ]; yovel SemTxvevaSi igi ar moiTxovs, rom moxdes mis-
gan abstragireba [ ].
es absoluturi winapirobaa imis gasagebad, Tu ra xdeba erT mdgoma-
reobaSi, an Tundac ra aris erT mdgomareobaSi, rom SesaZlebeli
iyos imis abstraqcia, rac am mdgomareobaSi ar aris, magaliTad, abs-
traqcia imisa, rac amas uZRoda win. magram ra gamodis aqedan ganzo-
gadebis TvalsazrisiT? ganzogadeba SeuZlebelia [ ]. 97
zustad aseve SeiZleba romelime mineraluri produqtis im kuTxiT
ganxilva, Tu ras warmoadgens igi mineralogiis, <an> im istoriuli
movlenebis kuTxiT, romelTa wyalobiTac es minerali gaCnda dedami-
wis am konkretul fenaSi, am konkretul nawilSi, an am konkretul

95
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 514, N 10, Nr. 3280.
96
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 197, N 10, Nr. 1485-1486.
97
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 24, N 10, Nr. 3297.

210
droSi. <SesaZlebelia> ki mxolod erTi, konkretuli da lokalize-
buli produqtis ganxilva? sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom miece iluzi-
as, rom ar arsebobs seriozuli daintereseba maT dasayofad, <rom es
aris sakmaod gamWvirvale sofizmi, roca maTi dayofa ginda. nuTu ver
vgrZnobT, rom saqme exeba imave materias? es aris Cveulebriv element-
Ta fizikuri buneba [ ], da Rirebuleba [ ]>. de iyos ase. magram Cven
SevecadoT, rom ganvazogadoT. <maSin yvela SeamCnevs, rom ar arse-
bobs SesaZlo ganzogadebis iseTi saxeoba, roca yoveli produqti
ganixileba rogorc Tavisi genezisis, aseve arsis farglebSi. da Sem-
dgomad amisa dainaxaven, rom roca erT-erTi mecniereba (geologia)
istoriulia <arsebiTad>, am dros meore, miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavis
sagans isic <imave> istoriuli movlenebidan moipovebs, mainc <anti-
istoriulia arsebiTad> da ar SeuZlia <aRiaros>, _ albaT mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki arsebobas Sewyvets, _ <rom> kldis <ori natexi>
ori sxvadasxva sagania, im adgilis mixedviT gansxvavebuli, sadac ma-
Ti formireba moxda, agreTve epoqis, gareSe pirobebisa Tu kombinaci-
is bunebis mixedviT, mokled, gansxvavebuli im SesaZlo istoriulo-
bis mixedviT, roca isini erTsa da imave formulas kvlav da kvlav
axorcielebdnen warmodgenaTa sferoSi. ganzogadeba SeuZlebelia,
<ganzogadebas saerTod ara aqvs azri> tetraromboidul kristalTan
(?) dakavSirebiT, <iqamde, vidre> ar gvecodineba da formalurad ar
avxsniT, ramdenad gvinda im garemo pirobebze saubari, romlebmac <am
kristals> – raRac istoriuli saxiT – formirebis saSualeba mis-
ces, iqneboda es aq, iq Tu sadme sxvagan, an <ramdenad gvinda> imaze
<saubari>, Tu ra aris igi, magaliTad, yvela saxis triromboidTan mi-
marTebaSi, rac araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar Seexeba imas, Tu rogor <ro-
mel drosa da sivrceSi> moxda am produqtTa formireba. iseTi gan-
zogadebis SemuSavebis moTxovna, romelic am orive sagans Tanabrad
moicavda, igivea, rac absurdis moTxovna. es aris absurdis imgvari
saxeoba, rasac lingvistika, <imis mixedviT, Tu> rogor <aRiqmeba igi>
dRidan misi gaCenisa, sul Tavze axvevs gonebas. <laparaki ar aris
enobriv/lingvistur sferoSi arsebuli dapirispirebis Sesustebaze,
piriqiT. Secdoma iqneboda, Tuki virwmunebdiT, rom SegviZlia Tundac
erTi wuTiT Tavi aviridoT mis Seubralebel gardauvalobas. misgan
dasxltoma erTi wuTiTac ki SeuZlebelia, TviT []>. momavalSi SeuZ-
lebeli <iqneboda> praqtikul lingvistikis yoveldRiur terminTa
xsenebac ki, Tuki axlave ab ovo ar ganvaaxlebdiT saubars enis tota-
lur sakiTxze [>la question totale du langage<], kidev ufro SeuZlebeli iq-
neboda im swavlebis Sefaseba da formulireba, romelic racionalu-
robis SemTxvevaSic ki ar iTvaliswinebs [ ]. gamoxatvis yvela saxeoba,
romelic ki TiTqos – garkveuli daSorebebiT – cdilobs vertika-
lur faqtebsa da horizontalur faqtebs Soris kavSiris damyarebas,
warmoadgens suraTebs. sxva safuZvels <am sazizRari ganwyobisaTvis
qmnis is, rom ver bedav am suraTebis verc Tavidan moSorebas da verc
aRiarebas.> 98

98
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 24, N 10, Nr. 3297.

211
a
an an a:b
a'
(a':b')
enis sul bolo kanoni [>la loi tout á fait finale<] <ramdenadac Cven amaze
saubars vbedavT> aris is, rom ar arsebobs iseTi ram, rac mudmivad
erTi terminiT gamoixateba (es aris im garemoebis pirdapiri Sedegi,
rom enobriv/lingvistur simboloebs ar gaaCniaT araviTari kavSiri
imasTan, rasac, wesiT, unda aRniSnavdnen), amis Sedegad a-s ar gaaCnia
imis unari, rom rame aRniSnos; b-s daxmarebis gareSe (da amis garda
mxolod im zomiT SeuZlia, ra zomiTac b uqmnis mas Rirebulebas, da
piriqiT, imgvarad, rom sxva araferi rCeba, garda gansxvavebulobebi-
sa), esec a-s iseTive daxmarebis gareSe; <an> orTaves gaaCnia TavianTi
Rirebuleba mxolod <urTierTdiferenciaciaSi, an> arc erT maTgans,
TviT sul umcires nawilakSic ki (aq me vfiqrob maT Soris "fesvzec"
sxva msgavs [ ] Soris) ar gaaCnia Tavisi mniSvneloba romelime sxva
adgilze, garda mudmivad negatiur diferenciaciaTa am wnulisa [>ple-
xus<]. 99 <marTlac sakvirvelia. magram> sad SeiZleba iyos <sinamdvile-
Si sapirispiro SesaZlebloba?> <sad> aris pozitiuri gamosxivebis
erTaderTi wertilis erTaderTi momenti <mTel enaSi [>langage<]>,
radgan marTlac ar arsebobs Tundac erTi bgeris imgvari suraTi,
romelic sxvebze ukeT Seesabameboda imas, risi aRniSvnac mas evaleba?
es cxadia absoluturad, aprioruladac ki, rom arasdros ar iqneba
romelime erTi/erTaderTi enis iseTi fragmenti [>fragment de langue<],
romelic sxva rameze iqneboda dafuZnebuli (ukanaskneli principis
Tnaxmad), garda erTmaneTis ardamTxvevaze, an sxva danarCenTan ardam-
Txvevis xarisxze; pozitiuri forma gulgrilia im xarisxiT, romlis
Sesaxebac Cven warmodgenac ar gvaqvs TviT imis Semdegac ki, rac xuT
Tu eqvs enas [>langue<] SeviswavliT, rac [ ]; radgan es xarisxi namdvi-
lad udris nuls.

a b a b
_______ ____

a’ a b a’ x

<sqolio: an [ ]>
a
a’| b’

<es mniSvnelovania mxolod retrospeqtruli, an prospeqtruli Tval-


sazrisiT, roca [ ]> 100
yoveli wesi, yoveli winadadeba, yoveli sityva, romelic ukavSirdeba
enis [>langage<] sagnebs, Zalauneburad iwvevs xan a/b damokidebulebas,

99
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 264, N 10, Nr. 1903.
100
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 265, N 10, Nr. 1906.

212
xan kidev a/b damokidebulebas da yovelTvis arsebobs safrTxe, rom
SeiZleba arc arafers niSnavdes, Tuki mas kargad gaaanalizeb.
sinamdvileSi zustad asea, radgan a da b terminebi <radikalurad
uunaroebi arian im cnobierebis sferoebSi SesaRwevad>, romelsac
mudmivad mxolod a/b diferenciacia aRiqvams da rom TiToeul am
terminzea damokidebuli (an Tavisufalia imaSi, <rac mas Seexeba>)
cvlileba, Tanac sul sxva da ara im kanonebis mixedviT, romlebsac
ganapirobebs sulis gacnobierebuli SemoWra. ase vubrundebiT im
ZiriTad gamonaTqvams, <romlis meSveobiTac zemoT> enis [>langage<] in-
stituciasa da sxva adamianur instituciebs Soris arsebuli gansxva-
vebis <garkvevas vcdilobdiT>, kerZod ki imis, rom igi sulis mudmiv
koreqtirebas ar emorCileba, radgan saTaves ar iRebs warmodgenasa
da gamoxatvis saSualebebs Soris arsebuli moCvenebiTi harmoniidan;
es aris safuZvliseuli gansxvaveba yvela im garegnuli iluziisa Tu
imgvari situaciis sawinaaRmdegod, rogoricaa magaliTad, religiuri
ritualebi, politikur formaTa, tradiciaTa [ ] SemTxvevebi, rom aRa-
raferi vTqvaT instrumentebze [ ] 101
Sesworeba. zogadi STabeWdileba, romelic gamomdinareobs uiTnis
enaTmecnieruli moRvaweobidan, sakmarisia jansaRi adamianuri gonebi-
saTvis – erTi iseTi adamianis jansaRi gonebisaTvis, romelic kargad
icnobs [ ], iqneba es yvela moCvenebis dafrTxoba Tu [ ] Tavis arsSi
aRqma. es mosazreba Cven ar gvekuTvnis. piriqiT, Cven Rrmad <varT>
darwmunebuli imaSi, rom yvelas, vinc ki enis [>langage<] teritoriaze
fexs daadgams, SeuZlia sakuTar Tavs uTxras, rom igi mitovebulia
cisa da <dedamiwis> yvela analogiisagan. zustad es aris mizezi imi-
sa, ris gamoc gaxda SesaZlebeli enasTan [>langage<] dakavSirebiT amg-
vari fantastikuri konstruqciebis Seqmna, imaT msgavsad, uiTnim rac
daangria, Tumca Tuki sxva kuTxidan SevxedavT, agreTve imisac, Tu ra-
tom darCa mas amdeni ram uTqmeli.
1. <ena [>langage<] ukve aRar aris> niSanTa Teoriis gansakuTrebuli
SemTxveva. <magram zustad am> faqtis gamo absoluturad SeuZlebe-
lia, rom igi iyos rame martivi (Tavis saxeobaSi Cveni sulisaTvis
pirdapir aRqmadi), yovel SemTxvevaSi, igi niSanTa zogad TeoriaSi
xom mainc <iqneboda> bgeriTi niSnis gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva, Tanac
<ratom aTasjer ara> ufro kompleqsuri yvela im cnobil SemTxvevas-
Tan SedarebiT, rogoricaa damwerloba, daSifvra da sxv.
2. es iqneba enis [>langage<] gamokvlevis <safuZvliseuli> zemoqmedeba
niSanTa Teoriaze, <es iqneba> sul <axal-axali> horizonti, rasac is
gaxsnis; rom amiT man mas uCvena da <warmoaCina> niSnis sruliad axa-
li mxare, kerZod ki niSani mxolod mas Semdeg Seicnoba, rac yvela
dainaxavs, rom es aris iseTi sagani, romelic ara marto transporti-
rebadia [>transmissible<], aramed Tavisi bunebiT aris mowodebuli saimi-
sod, rom moxdes misi ganvrcoba/gadatana [>transmis<],
2. modifikacia [ ]. oRond mas, vinc enis [>langage<] Teoriis Seqmnas mo-
indomebs, Seuqmnis asmag sirTules [ ] 102

101
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 266, N 10, Nr. 1910.
102
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 169, N 10, Nr. 1267.

213
raRacis diversifikaciis ZiriTadi zoma [ ]. momenti, rodesac raRaca
aSkarad gadadis [ ], dakavSirebulia garkveul pirobebTan.
sruli iluzia iqneboda imis dajereba, rom momenti, rodesac [ ].
vidre kvlav arsebobs saxelis, ubralod saxelis erTianoba im sagans
(romelic grZnobismierad aRqmadia) da [ ] Soris, arsebobs im miTolo-
giur arsebaTa pirveli kategoriac, romlebic Zireulad emijnebian
sxva arsebebs miTologiur arsebaTa pirveladi klasifikaciis for-
miT. maSasadame, saxeli <marTlac> aris <gadamwyveti, erTaderTi>
principi da ara miTologiur arsebebTan dakavSirebuli (radgan maSin
vin daiwyebda mis safuZvlian gamokvlevas?), aramed im momentis gamo-
nagoni, romelSic es arsebebi sufTad miTologiuri xdebian da deda-
miwasTan damakavSirebel ukanasknel Zafs wyveten olimpze dasasax-
leblad <misasvlelad> Semdgomad sxva [ ].
vidre sityva agni amave dros _ <maSasadame, Sereva> _ aRniSnavs yo-
veldRiur cecxlsac <da RmerTsac, romlis saxelia Agni, vidre Djeus
amave dros aris [ ]-is saxelic>, yovelgvari mcdelobis miuxedavad
SeuZlebelia, rom Agni, an Djeus iyos imave rigis figura, rogorebic
arian Varuna an Aπνó, romelTa saxelebi <amave dros> sxvas arafers
niSnavs.
Tuki dadgeba momenti, rodesac Agni Sewyvets [ ] Tanamonawileobas, es
wami warmodgenili iqneba <zustad ase da ara sxvagvari> realobis
saxiT, rac migviyvans imgvari aRqmadi sagnis <saxelis> wyvetamde,
<rogoricaa cecxli>: realobis, romelic damokidebulia pirvelive
saukeTeso enobriv faqtze [>fait de langue<] da romelsac ar gaaCnia
gardauvali kavSiri miTologiuri warmodgenebis sferosTan. Tuki
erTmaneTis miyolebiT [ ] asaxeleb <qvabs>, es SeiZleba mivides iqam-
de, rom cecxls erTmaneTis miyolebiT uwodo agni-c da sxva ramec. da
am momentSi RmerTi Agni, iseve rogorc RmerTi Zeúç aucileblad ava
imgvari xelSeuxebel RvTaebaTa rangSi, rogoricaa Varuna, nacvlad
imisa, rom imoZraos Ushas-is msgavs RvTaebaTa <sasrul> sferoSi.
<maS>, raze yofila damokidebuli <miTologiaSi> esoden <safuZ-
vliseuli da pozitiuri cvlileba?> mxolod erT iseT faqtze, rome-
lic ara marto wminda enobriv-lingvisturia, aramed ar gaaCnia raime
aSkara daniSnuleba yoveldRiur enobriv-lingvistur movlenebSi. am-
gvarad, sabolood mtkicdeba ara is, rom saxelganTqmuli formulis
Sesabamisad nūmina igivea, rac nōmina, aramed is, rom nōmen-is bedi sru-
liad garkveviT da, rogorc ityvian, wuTi wuTze damokidebulia
nūmen-isaze. <amdenad> isic simarTlea, rom im arsebaTa yvelaze far-
To kategoria, romlebic yvela <antikuri xalxis> panTeonSi saxlo-
ben, momdinareobs ara romelime realuri sagnis STabeWdilebidan,
aramed im epiTetTa [>épithètes<] <usasrulo> TamaSidan, romlebic Tan
axlavs yovel saxels da romelTa wyalobiTac (<[ ]>-sgan) SegiZlia
imdeni sanacvlo Seqmna, ramdenic ginda. Tumca es mainc ver gadaitans
Cvens yuradRebas saxelebisa da enis [>langue<] ZiriTadi zegavlenisgan
figuraTa Seqmnaze. Tuki Cven SevTanxmdebiT imaze, rom sityvaSi [ ]
aris, maSin sityva aq iqneba ganmsazRvreli; es aris pirveli stimula-
tori [>suggesteur<] da erTaderTi sasruli safuZveli im pirveli RvTa-
ebisa, <romelic erT dRes> <Seiqmna> winamorbedis gverdiT.
dRemokle uiTni

214
uiTni ar wers SedarebiT gramatikas – germanul leqsikons dRes.
SedarebiTi gramatika ar aris saWiro imisaTvis, rom [ ] misdio.
Tumca sanskritis gramatika xandaxan iZleva [ ].
<uiTni da marcvali>
uiTnis miuZRvis didi damsaxureba, radgan man Tavi gaiTavisufla Se-
darebiTi gramatikisgan, yvelaferi [ ], radgan man pirvelma SesZina am
sakiTxs filosofiuri datvirTva.
Seuferebeli roli
uiTni da institucia
uiTni da axali gramatika
uiTni da axali gramatikosebi
saboloo Rirebuleba.
uiTni da marcvali
uiTnis saxeli ise universaluradaa cnobili, rom lingvistikaSi nak-
lebad Caxedul adamians SeiZleba gaukvirdes kidec, rom amgvarad da-
fasebul avtors ara aqvs gamoqveynebuli [ ] arc erTi iseTi striqoni,
romelic pirdapir [ ] exeba.
ocdaaTi wlis winandeli ramdeni iseTi specialuri da zogadi namu-
Sevris dsaxeleba SeiZleba lingvistikidan, romelic uimedod daZve-
lebuli ar iqneboda ukve? sinamdvileSi me mxolod erTaderTs [ ]
vxedav. me Sors var im azrisgan, vamtkico, rom bevri punqti [ ]; magram
bolos da bolos Sinaarsi dRes amisgan [ ] ufro metad aRar zaral-
deba, vidre maSin.
vfiqrob, <es aris> saukeTeso <da yvelaze martivi pativiscema>, rac
ki SeiZleba miegos uiTnis Semoqmedebas, Tuki movaxdenT imis konsta-
tacias, Tu ra naklebad Seexo mas drois msaxvrali xeli. magram
amgvar Seqebas, <rac albaT ar> iqneboda banaluri <nebismier sxva
sferoSi>, gansakuTrebuli elferi gaaCnia <ligvistikaSi>. mTeli mi-
si Semoqmedebidan romel wigns (iqneba es zogadi Tu specialuri
xasiaTis da romelic ocdaaTi wlis win daiwera) aqvs imis umciresi
Sansic ki, rom ar moZveldes? me bevri veZebe da veraferi vipove, gar-
da [ ]. amiT imis Tqmas ki ar vcdilob, rom uiTnis wigni bolomdea
miyvanili da misi Sinaarsi ukeTesis survils ar aRZravs; <amas xom
TviT avtoric ar moiwonebda.> magram is, rac masSia gadmocemuli da
rac uiTnim 1867 wels Tqva, 1894-Sic ki ar aris saTanadod gaazrebu-
li, aseTia sayovelTao azri. es iseTi faqtia, romelic bevr komen-
tarze ufro Wkuis saswavlebelia da sasinj qvadac ki gamodgeba <am
pirovnebisaTvis> pativis misagebad. 103

103
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 25, N 10, Nr. 3297.

215
N 11, N 12 104
"Status et motus. Canawerebi wignisaTvis
zogadi enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb"

N 11 "Status et motus"

<yovelTvis>, roca ki enaSi [>langue<] raime movlena xdeba, ara aqvs


mniSvneloba, didi Tu mcire, amas Sedegad aucileblad moyveba is,
rom am movlenis Semdgomi urTierTdamokidebuleba da mdgomareoba
gansxvavebulia imisgan, rac iyo iqamde. Tuki berZnulSi t daboloeba
drois gansazRvruli momentisaTvis amovardeba, magaliTad *egnōt-Si,
maSin es iqneba iseTi movlena, romelic TiTqos aranairad ar exeba
*egnōn-s, rac asea sinamdvileSic, sanam laparakia am movlenaze, an sa-
erTod movlenaze. magram Tuki laparakia mdgomareobaze, maSin vxe-
davT, rom *egnōn-*egnōt-is urTierTdamokidebuleba icvleba *egnōn-
*egnō-Ti. rac aq aseve mniSvnelovania (ufro metad mniSvnelovanic ki)
aris is, rac am movlenaSi igulisxmeba. zustad aseve, roca (Tumca aq,
albaT, saWiro ar <aris>, rom gansxvavebebi ikvlio) Zveli zemogerma-
nuli faris xdeba feris. es iseTi faqtia, romelic faru-s saerTod ar Se-
exeba, magram amis miuxedavad, mainc swori da Zalian mniSvnelovania
imis dadgena, rom am faqtis gamo faru:faris-is urTierTdamokidebulma
mdgomareobam Tavisi adgili <dauTmo> iseT axal urTierTdamokide-
bul mdgomareobas, rogoric aris faru: faris-i. aseTi dasawyisi, misi wi-
namorbedis msgavsad, kargad gamodgeba saimisod, rom Semoitanos is
gansxvaveba, sadamdec aucileblad unda mivideT da daujerebelia,
rom didi xnidan <moyolebuli> yoveli zogadi warmodgena, iseve ro-
gorc [ ] amaze ar aris damokidebuli:

I. egnōn ↔ 2. egnōt I. faru ↔ 2. faris


↓ ↓
3. egnōn ↔ 4. egnō 3. faru ↔ 4. feris
1. azris nakleboba <lingvistikaSi> enis [>langue<] erT-erTi sasicocx-
lo formasTan: statusTan dakavSirebiT.
sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad SeiZleba erTmaneTSi aerioT ori
ZiriTadi forma – statusi da motusi, _ SeiZleba erT dRes sain-
tereso retrospeqtuli kvlevis sagnad iqces. ZiriTadad, saqme gvaqvs
ori saxis SecdomasTan, <Tanac> orives <mivyavarT> statusis
daunaxavobasTan.
pirveli Secdoma mdgomareobs (istoriuli kvleviTi meTodis hipert-
rofiis Sedegad) statusis cnebis ubralod daTrgunvasa da imis war-
modgenaSi, rom ena [>langue<] cocxlobs imgvari faqtebiT, rogoricaa
t-s amovardna, anu movlenebiT. imis momizezebiT, rom es movlenebi
warmoadgenen yoveli statusis sistematur gamomwvev mizezebs, Tval-
sazrisis momxreebi amtkiceben, rom saerTod ar gaaCniaT [ ] grZnoba.
meore Secdoma (istoriuli kvleviTi meTodis perversiis Sedegad)
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom cdiloben formulis saxiT gamoxaton is mov-

104
1897 wlamde; Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 839.

216
lenebi, romlebic miesadageboda statuss; Tanac, rac yvelaze uare-
sia, yvelafris gayalbebisa da arev-darevis fasad. magaliTisaTvis
rom aviRoT >Zvel zemogermanulSi i-s wina a gadadis e-Si: faru – feris<.
nacvlad imisa, rom vTqvaT >arsebobs a) erTi faqti, romelic moiT-
xovs dros, romelSic faris <da ara faru> xdeba feris, b) erTi faqti, ro-
melsac ar sWirdeba dro saimisod, rom <mere> faru daupirispirdes
feris-s.
Status et motus.
<enobriv-lingvistur fenomenTa ramdeni saxeoba arsebobs.> Tuki <vi-
xelmZRvanelebT> imiT, rac iswavleba amJamad (agreTve adrec), iseTi
STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos <arsebobs> enobriv-lingvistur feno-
menTa mxolod erTi saxeoba, an kidev uamravi saxeoba, gaaCnia klasi-
fikacias, <vis ra moewoneba>. Cven vambobT, rom arsebobs <ara erTi,
an sami>, aramed <zustad> ori saxeoba, romlebic damokidebuli ari-
an ara <arCeviTobis> principze, aramed Tavad saganze, Tanac Sinagani
da aSkara aucileblobiT.
• enobriv-lingvisturi fenomenTa ramdeni saxeoba arsebobs?
• rogor xdeba, rom SeiZleba faqtebis erTi mTliani <rigi> mTlia-
nad ugulvebelyofil iqnas meoris sasargeblod?
Status et motus.
sruliad bunebrivia warmodgena, rom enobriv-lingvisturi fenomenebi
qmnian erTaderT xazs [>trame<] da am xazis dasanaxad saWiroa mxolod
enobriv-lingvistur fenomenTa istoriul damTxvevebze Tvalis midevneba.
1. enobriv-lingvistur fenomenTa ramdeni saxeoba arsebobs?
am kiTxvaze [ ]
Status et motus.
yovel gansakuTrebul Tu zogad fenomens, romelic ki SeiZleba enaSi
[>langue<] gaTamaSdes, aqvs wili romelime mdgomareobaSi, romelsac is
aRniSnavs, <TiToeuls drois Tavisi monakveTis Sesabamisad>, an kidev
warmogvidgeba movlenis saxiT. erTi SexedviT, es gasakviri arc aris.
lingvistikis uamrav principTa Soris ratom unda mivaniWoT gansakuT-
rebuli mniSvneloba maincdamainc imas, romelic gamoyofs mdgomareo-
bas movlenisgan, an piriqiT? ufro metic, ratom ar unda iyos cxadi,
rom yvelaferi, rac aris mdgomareobaSi, jer iyo movlenaSi; nuTu
Tuki vinmes sadme gero:gestus (mdgomareoba) aqvs, es imis gamoa, rom man
* gesō gerō-sgan movlena Seqmna? am punqts eyrdnoba lingvistika. mdgo-
mareoba da movlena misTvis erTi da igivea; yovel SemTxvevaSi, igi
maT sxvadasxvad ar aRiqvams, arsad maT iseT ramed ar moixseniebs, ra-
sac Tavisi damoukidebeli Rirebuleba gaaCnia. 105

N 12 mdgomareoba da movlena

im inerciis Sesabamisad, romelic <Cveni> sulisaTvis savsebiT buneb-


rivi <moCans>, [ ]. yovel saganSi, romelic ki ganviTarebas Seicavs, is-
toriuli Tanmimdevroba, <droSi saganTa rigiToba>, interesi Tavis-
Tavad gadadis movlenebze da iRebs mdgomareobidan Semobrunebis ten-

105
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 26, N 11, Nr. 3298.

217
dencias. Tundac is rad Rirs, rom garkveul swavlulebTan es tenden-
cia midis iqamde, rom maT mdgomareobis SegrZnebis unari savsebiT uq-
rebaT, an kmayofildebian imiT, rom ar aniWeben mdgomareobas raime
gansakuTrebul rols im movlenebTan SedarebiT, <romlebidanac isini
arian amosuli,>. Tu ramdenad mZime Sedegis momtania sulis es ara-
swori qceva lingvistikis miRma arsebuli im uamravi mecnierebisaT-
vis, <romlebsac> gasaTvaliswinebeli aqvT istoriuli faqtori, amis
gadawyveta Cveni saqme ar aris; Tumca amis Tqma Tavisi gadasaxedidan,
albaT, SeeZlo istorikoss, iurists, paleografs, geologs, biologs,
meteorologs da sxv., radgan Cveni cnobierebisaTvis Zalian cota ise-
Ti sagani Tu arsebobs, romlebic gadaurCnen istoriuli rigiTobis
faqts da amiT movlenaTa da mdgomareobaTa gansxvavebulobas, amis
garkveva Cveni mowodeba ar aris. magram lingvistikaSi es ra areulo-
basac gamoiwvevs, amis moxazva namdvilad unda <vcadoT>, Tumca sabo-
loo da amomwuravi analizis gakeTeba, albaT, mainc SeuZlebeli iqne-
ba, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom [ ].
advilia imis danaxva, Tu saidan modis es tendencia. movlena aris
mdgomareobis mizezi da is, rac mas (garkveuli saxiT) xsnis [1.] ter-
minTa gawonasworebuli, urTierTsapirispiro pozicia arasdros arse-
bula. romc arsebuliyo, movlenaTa katalogis daxmarebis Sedegad, es
pozicia mainc mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebuli iqneboda imisgan, rasac es
movlenebi warmoadgenen da, albaT, damsaxurebuladac [ ]. – saWadrako
partiasTan Sedareba. II. statusi da misi TviTganxilva. bgerasa da
warmodgenas, formasa da azrs, niSansa da mniSvnelobas Soris
antagonizmis Sesaxeb warmodgenis <bundovaneba da> unayofoba. (ro-
gorc gamonaTqvamebidan irkveva, vidre forma upirispirdeba azrs,
vidre forma upirispirdeba bgeras, Tanac ise, rom ar arsebobs for-
mis definiciac ki).
magaliTi goTuris wesad qceuli formulidan.
1. u <xmovnis> win xdeba w,
2. w Tanxmovnis win xdeba u: Secdomaa, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki gamo-
naTqvams gavasworebT da vityviT: u <xmovnis> win xdeba [ ].
3. w [ ].
)†verafers izam imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom movlena, Tuki igi mdgoma-
reobas xsnis, aris kidec mdgomareoba. mecnierebaTa umetesobisaTvis
sakmarisia romelime mdgomareobis warmomavlobis axsnac ki, radgan
sakuTriv mdgomareoba uinteresoa, an igi ar asrulebs iseT gansakuT-
rebul <rols>, rac mas daaxasiaTebda, rogorc mdgomareobas. <ise>
xdeba, rom enaSi [>langue<] mdgomareobebs da mxolod maT eniWebaT
imis Zala, rom raRacas niSnavdnen; <meore mxriv> am Zalis gareSe ena
[>langue<] aRaraferi ar iqneboda; amgvarad aSkarad Cans, rom am sfero-
Si, TviT [ ] Semdegac ki, arafriT ar xerxdeba im sagnis moxelTeba,
<romelzec aris laparaki>, romlis axsnis imediTac Tavs vimSvidebT
xolme.
<ukeTesi iqneba, Tu axlave davazustebT>: † Cven lingvistikas iseT
mecnierebad ki ar vTvliT, romelSic dayofis kargi principi <moiZeb-
neba>, aramed – oriode sapirispiro azrs Tu ar CavTvliT, _ iseT
mecnierebad, romelic cdilobs ori erTmaneTisagan principulad gan-
sxvavebuli sagnis erT mTlianobad gaerTianebas, romlis procesSic
igi sakuTar Tavs arwmunebs, rom isini <erTaderT> sagans <qmnian>.

218
yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki aq aris is, rom <Cveni mecniereba> am kavSi-
riT kmayofili <gamoiyureba>, <rogorc Cans, odnavadac ar aSfoTebs
is bundovaneba>, rom safuZveli mTlad myari ver aris; igi ar amJRav-
nebs ukmayofilebas <jer kidev esoden saeWvo> mosazrebebTan dakavSi-
rebiT, <romelTac igi yoveldRiurad eTanxmeba. igi isea darwmunebu-
li Tavis saganSi, rom Tavsac ki aRar iwuxebs saimisod, rom am sayo-
velTao uwesrigobidan drodadro gamoiyvanos xolme enis [>langue<] is
warmodgenebi, Teoriebi, romlebsac igi ase gulubryvilod waradgens
xolme.
<pirvelive sagani, romelic ki SeiZleba TvalSi mogxvdes:> 1. moce-
mulia <maSasadame> romelime SemTxveviTi forma: §γνw. formaze
manamde verafers ityvi, sanam arafers daupirispireb, sanam <im> meore
termins ar daupirispireb, raTa maTi urTierTdamokidebulebis
gamokvleva SeZlo. ueWvelia, rom es ZiriTadi WeSmariteba
mxedvelobidan epareba tradiciuli lingvistikis [ ] skolas.
SeiZleba misi Cabma urTierTobaSi? ra Tqma unda da es imis miuxeda-
vad, Tu rogoria am <pirveli> urTierTobis buneba, im egnōt-is meSveo-
biT, romelic sxva epoqaSi arsebobda. magram aseve aucilebelia egnōn-
c, <romelic> imave droSi gvxvdeba.
modiT, ganvixiloT am urTierTobaTa buneba! <bundovnad igrZnoba,
rom isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian.> Cven nu movTxovT lingvis-
tikas, raTa man daiwyos imiT, rom <gansazRvros, daafiqsiros> meore,
raTa mere <aqedan> moxdes im pirvelTan arsebuli gansxvavebebis mar-
kireba, _ es xom sufTa qaosi iqneboda, _ aramed saqme gavumartivoT
da sakiTxi iseT <teritoriaze> movaqcioT, romelic yvelaze ufro
mSobliuria lingvistikisaTvis da vkiTxoT, Tu ras aRniSnavda <Tavi-
dan pirveli>: egnōt : egnō. igi gvetyvis, rom es faqtis saqmea da SeiZ-
leba fonetikuri iyos an SeuZlia bgerebs daukavSirdeba; Tanac es im
dros, roca meore urTierToba (egnō:egnōn) arc fonetikuria da arc
bgerebTan aqvs raime Sexeba, Tumca dakavSirebulia iseT ramesTan, ris
definiciasac igi <sxvaTa Soris> <maincdamainc> kargad ver axerxebs
da ver ambobs, Tu ras warmoadgens igi gramatikulad Tu morfologi-
urad (imis mciredi definiciis gareSe, rac mis gramatikasa Tu mor-
fologias qmnis) da iseT ramesTan, romlis drosac, albaT, unda Seiq-
mnas iseTi STabeWdileba, rom igulisxmeba azri, Tanac ise, rom bgera
saerTod gamoTiSulia, ise rogorc, magaliTad [ ], semantikurad,
<survilis Sesabamisad>, <magram, albaT, yvelafridan gamomdinare>
mainc fonetikurad, (sadac yvela es gansxvaveba, RmerTo maRalo, arc
Tu ise mniSvnelovania, Tuki davfiqrdebiT imaze, rom aq saqme exeba
ufro bgerebs da ara fonetikas). aq aris swored ormagi Secdoma. maS:
<Secdomaa, rom am ori urTierTobidan [ ] erT-erTs aqvs> pirvel rig-
Si, absoluturad mcdaria, rom pirveli urTierToba SeiZleba daxasi-
aTdes im kuTxiT, rom bgerebTan aqvs damokidebuleba, aramed igi aris
[ ]. es imaze arnaklebi Secdomaa, rom warmoidgino, TiTqos meore ur-
TierToba Tundac erTi wuTis manZilze bgerebiT ar aixsnebodes. ax-
la ki nuRar SeviwuxebT Tavs [ ] gadaxvevebze.
2. zemoTqmulis safuZvelze, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom is, rac Tavi-
dan SesaZlo sagnad gvesaxeboda, iyo forma. Tumca isic unda davuS-
vaT, rom pirvel SesaZlo sagnad SeiZleba jer erTi movlena iqnes
aRebuli, SemdgomSi ki – sxva, radgan absoluturad SeuZlebelia

219
<gansazRvra> imisa, Tu sad aris axla cnobierebisaTvis uSualod Se-
Tavazebuli sagani (rac ganapirobebs kidec mecnierebis fataluro-
bas). nebismier sxva mecnierebaSi sagnebis grZnobismierad aRqma, sul
cota, axlandel droSi maincaa SesaZlebeli; maTi gaanalizebac amaze
dayrdnobiT xdeba, Tanac isini mudmivad mxedvelobis areSi arian. am
Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, ramdenad ekuTvnis [ ] pirdapir fsiqo-
logias da elodeba Tu ara misgan STagonebas? fsiqologia flobs
Tu ara semiologias? usargeblo kiTxvaa, radgan rom flobdes, maSin
enis [>langue<] is fenomenebi, romlebic <fsiqologiis ignorirebas ax-
denen>, TavisTavad imdenad <gaZlierdebodnen> semiologiuri faqtis
bazisis saxiT, rom rasac ki fsiqologebi maTze dayrdnobiT Tqmas
SeZlebdnen, Zalauneburad araferi an <TiTqmis araferi> ar iqneboda.
† Tuki romelime lingvisti, visac am sakiTxis arsi esmis, moaxerxebda
imis damtkicebas, rom enaSi [>langue<] arsebobs romeliRac pirveladi,
xelSesaxebi sagani, Cven ara marto SevwyvetdiT weras, aramed am [ ].
(1. Cvens winaSea ara raime urTierToba, aramed forma, anu erTaderTi
termini).
2. Cvens winaSea ara >forma<, aramed iseTi urTierToba, romelic aer-
Tianebs or termins, sxva mxriv absoluturad survilis mixedviT.
3. Cvens winaSea or termins Soris urTierTobis ganzogadeba, magali-
Tad: sanskritSi m xdeba (an gaxda) n t-s win.
indeqsi – diaqronulad – upirispirdeba sinqronulad an idiosinqro-
nulad. ooo. ratomaa Sesatyvisoba metismetad fonetikuri. 106
(faqti) ix. fonema.
tradiciuli (niSani). – ix. mTeli Tavi semiologia. ra gagebiT aris
yvela enobriv/lingvisturi niSani, lingvistis garkveul warmodgena-
Ta sapirispirod, tradiciuli. ra gagebiT ar aris niSani tradici-
uli im garkveul mosazrebaTa sapirispirod, rac filosofosebTan
iZebneba.
kanoni. definicias ar eqvemdebareba, <Tu ar CavTvliT imas, rom gamoi-
yofa ori sagani, romelic am saxels warmoadgens> ooo. aris sityva,
termini>, romlis sworad gamoyenebac mxolod maSin, anu im SemTxve-
vaSia SesaZlebeli, roca amis aucilebloba ar arsebobs (idiosinqro-
nuli kanonebi), gv. ooo. aucilebloba da <TiTqmis aseTive absurdu-
loba>, _ ase SeiZleba erTi movlenis formulis aRniSvna (diaqronu-
li kanonebi). 107
enis [>LANGAGE<] warmoSoba: _ uazro sakiTxia misTvis, vinc iqamde
Rebulobs swor warmodgenas imis Taobaze, Tu ra aris semiologiuri
sistema da misi sasicocxlo pirobebi, sanam gamoikvlevs misi warmo-
Sobis pirobebs, gv. ooo. <ar arsebobs iseTi momenti, romelSic warmo-
Soba Tvisobrivad gansxvavebulia enis [>langage<] sicocxlisgan da
mniSvnelovania is, rom moxdes sicocxlis Secnoba.> 108
fenomeni. – aseve, misi gageba, agreTve, unda moxdes, rogorc mdgo-
mareobis, aseve im movlenis mxridan, romelic misi mizezia (rogorc
erTi, aseve meore fenomenis, TavianTi rigiTobis mixedviT). ooo. misi
gageba mudmivad mxolod movlenis mier xdeba, an igi iqceva xolme

106
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 27, N 12, Nr. 3299.
107
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299
108
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 30, N 12, Nr. 147.

220
<hibridul> miuRebel cnebad. ooo. sityva faqti rCeba imis <erTad-
erT> saSualebad, visac unda ara marto statikuri, aramed diaqronu-
li faqtebis aRniSvna, Tanac <rogori> sityva fenomenis meSveobiT
vinmes imaSi darwmunebis gareSe, rom igi <ufro> sagangebod am
ukanasknelze fiqrobs. ooo.
idiosinqronuli.
idiosinqronuli ar aris is, rac fonetikuria <(=diaqronulia)>. ooo.
gramatikuli=idiosinqronuli, arsebobs naTeli warmodgena, oRond
mxolod maSin, roca idiosinqronulze arsebul warmodgenas
ubrundeba.
lingvisturi/enobrivi kvadrati
enobriv/lingvistur faqtTan dakvaSirebuli yvela <SesaZlo> kvleva
uSualod gamoisaxeba erTi martivi da erTgvarovani figuriT, rome-
lic oTx termins moicavs
a b

a' b'
vertikaluri <mimarTulebiT> markirdeba droiTi Rirebuleba, hori-
zontaluriT ki – distancia [ ]. <yvela SesaZlo urTierToba markire-
bulia xazebiT. ar arsebobs, magaliTad, raime SesaZlo urTierToba a-
sa da b'-s Soris, an b-sa da a'-s Soris. es diagonaluri xazis Tanax-
mad.> mxolod erTi pirobiT, kerZod imiT, rom faqtebi ar unda dae-
dos safuZvlad istoriul kvlevas, figuras ara marto SeuZlia, val-
debulic ki aris rom [ ] Semcirdes. Cven gvaqvs <mxolod> oTxi prin-
cipi: pirveli, rom movlena unda gansxvavdebodes mdgomareobisgan. me-
ore, rom pirveli unda upirispirdebodes meores, an eqvemdebarebodes
mainc. mesame, rom saWiroa maTi dayofa. <sxvaTa Soris, es> imdenad
absoluturi saxiT, rom erTaderTi kiTxva, rac SeiZleba pasuxgauce-
meli darCes, <iqneba is, Tu>. da bolos meoTxe, rom yoveli sxva da-
yofa, romelic amiT ar iwyeba, aris nulis toli da swori, absolu-
turi, rac ar unda didi survili unda gvqondes, rom ar gamoviyenoT
amgvari absoluturi apofTegmebi, romlebic Zalian ar mogvwons, unda
[ ]. da bolos meoTxe, rom klasifikaciis yoveli sxva xerxi amaoa im
xarisxamde, romelzec SeuZlebelia warmodgenis qona. winaswar yove-
li [ ] aris absoluturi nuli da swori.
warmodgena imis Sesaxeb, rom enis [>langue<] sagnebis gamoxatva SeiZle-
ba erTaderTi da uwyveti gziT, aris iseTive mcdari da msgavsi im
warmodgenisa, romelic uSvebs, rom ena [>langue<] Tavad aris raRac
erTiani [>une chose une<]. Cven uarvyofT imas, rom ena [>langue<] Tavad
aris raRac erTiani [>une chose une<] da amiT movipovebT uflebas, rom
Cveni survilisamebr warmovadginoT is orive elementi, romlebsac
Cven masSi aRmovaCenT.
sakmarisia, warmoiTqvas sityva tradiciuli, rom erTmaneTs daupiris-
pirdes enis [>langue<] Sesaxeb arsebuli mcdari da marTebuli warmod-
genebi, [ ]. tradiciuli niSnis gansakuTrebulobas qmnis is, rom aqam-
de am niSniT dakavebul disciplinebs arasdros <ar> mosvliaT az-
rad, rom es niSani (2.) gadatanadi [>transmissible<] da amdenad meore si-

221
cocxliT dajilldoebuli iyo; SeiZleba, Tavisuflad iTqvas, rom am
disciplinebs (iseve rogorc mTel sazogadoebas zogadad) dRemde ar
eqnebodaT raime cneba am niSnis aRsaniSnavad, rom ar SeemCniaT [ ], <[
]>rom niSanTa gamijvna< icvleba>; amitomacaa niSnis filosofiuri
warmodgena absoluturad arasrulyofili, dawyebuli [ ].
da piriqiT, lingvistis SemTxvevaSi Secdomad iTvleba is, rom radgan
igi <yvelgan> mxolod iseT gadatanasa da gadacemas [>transmission et tra-
dition<] xedavs, sadac dominanti meqanikuri Zalebia, amitom igi enobriv
-lingvistur niSans veRar aRiqvams arsobrivad tradiciul niSnad.
igi mas miawers iseT misteriul da gansakuTrebul Tvisebebs, rac
ekuTvnis ufro >enas< [>langue<], an istorias. <[ ] arc bunebiT da arc
survilebiT igi ar aris mowodebuli aoristis aRsaniSnad [ ]>. tra-
diciuli niSani kvlav da kvlav gvxvdeba iq, sadac xvdebian, rom yo-
veli niSani aucileblad eyrdnoba mxolod negatiur Co-statuss. 109
TavSi semiologia:
<im koncefciaTa umravlesoba, romelTac> filosofosebi <qmnian, an
yovel SemTxvevaSi gvTavazoben mainc>, mogvagonebs Cveni didi winap-
ris, adamis saqciels, romelic <sxvadasxva> cxovels TavisTan ixmob-
da da saxelebs arqmevda xolme. 110 gamudmebiT sami ram aklia xolme
imas, rasac filosofosi enis [>langue<] realobad miiCnevs:
1. <Tavdapirvelad aviRoT WeSmariteba, romelsac Cven daJinebiT su-
lac ar vamtkicebT,> rom enis [>langue<] safuZvels <ar> qmnis saxele-
bi. SemTxveviTobaa, roca niSani Seesabameba im obieqts, romlis az-
robrivi definiciac xdeba, mag.: cxeni, cecxli, mze, <nacvlad iseTi
warmodgenisa, rogoricaa ηx "man Casva">. es SemTxveva rogori mniSvne-
lovanic ar unda iyos, mainc ar arsebobs "aSkara" safuZveli saimi-
sod, rom igi miviRoT enis [>langue<] tipad; piriqiT, eWvgareSea, <SeiZ-
leba CaiTvalos,> rom es mcdari magaliTia. magram aq farulad arse-
bobs erTi tendencia, romelsac Cven verc <Tvals avaridebT> da verc
gverds avuvliT. rasTan dakavSirebiTac ena [>langue<] <saboloodaa
Camoyalibebuli>: kerZod, rom es obieqtebis nomenklaturaa. <winaswar
arsebul obieqtTa.>
jer obieqti, mere niSani; niSnis gareT da niSnis rogorc pirveladi
aucilebeli bazisis, azris gavliT mocemuli obieqti, romelic ufro
sxva kavSirs qmnis, vidre isini, rac Cven aqamde gvixilavs maSasadame,
(rasac Cven yovelTvis gavaprotestebT) niSnis gareT mocemuli bazisi
da enis [>langue<] figuracia am urTierTobis mixedviT:

obieqtebi
{ *___________ a
*___________ b
*___________ c } saxelebi

109
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299
110
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 147, N 12, Nr. 1086.

222
am dros swori figuraciaa a – b – c, <iseTi faqtobrivi damokide-
bulebis Sesaxeb yvelanairi codnis gareSe, rogoricaa * – a, romelic
dafuZnebulia erT obieqtze>. Tuki romelime obieqti, miuxedavad misi
adgilmdebareobisa, warmoadgens im saboloo punqts, romelzec fiq-
sirdeba raime niSani, maSin lingvistika aRar unda iyos is, rac aris
<dawyebuli sul Tavidan> damTavrebuli <bazisiT>; ufro metic, aR-
ar iyos adamianuri suliT daRdasmuli imave momentidan, <rogorc am
diskusiidan aSkarad gamodis>.
magram es yvelaferi, rogorc ukve vTqviT, mxolod ubralo preten-
ziaa [>reproche incident<], romelsac Cven enis [>langue<] aRqmis tradici-
ul meTods vuyenebT, roca mis filosofiurad aRqmas vcdilobT. –
swori ar aris <albaT>, roca iwyeben imiT, rom amkvidreben aRniSnul
obieqtTa <am realobas>, romel obieqtebsac aq saerTod araferi
esaqmebaT. Tumca es xom sxva araferia, Tu ara cudad SerCeuli maga-
liTi da im dros, rodesac ηx-s adgilze svamen ignis-s, cxens an kidev
iseT rames, rogoricaa [ ], amiT maRldebian cdunebaze 111 , rasac enis
[>langage<] garegnul faqtebze mibma hqvia. bevrad ufro mZimea meore
Secdoma, rac filosofosebs zogadad mosdiT da romelic mdgomare-
obs imaSi, rom maT hgoniaT:
2. rom Tuki romelime obieqti erTxel aRiniSneba raime saxeliT, ma-
Sin es iqneba iseTi mTlianoba, romelic Tavadve gadaicema [>se trans-
mettre<] Tanac ise, TiTqos sxva fenomeni saerTod arc arsebobdes! ro-
ca raime cvlileba xdeba, mas, sul cota, saxelis mxriv xom mainc
<unda> <mofrTxileba>, mas miaweren, rom xdeba fraxinus fréne. Tumca
warmodgenis mxrivac: [ ].
es sakmarisia ukve saimisod, rom warmodgenisa da saxelis daqorwine-
baze vifiqroT, Tuki amaSi Caereva iseTi gauTvaliswinebeli faqtori,
rogoricaa dro da romlis absoluturi ignorirebac xdeba am filo-
sofiur kombinaciaSi. magram aq mainc araferi gasaocari, tipiuri Tu
specialurad marto enisaTvis [>langue<] damaxasiaTebeli ar iqneboda,
marto es ori cvlileba rom arsebuliyo likvidaciis [>dissociation<] im
pirvel saxeobasTan erTad, romlis wyalobiTac warmodgena tovebs
niSans, Tanac spontanurad da es imis miuxedavad, icvleba Tu ara es
niSani. dRemde <es> orive <sagani> rCeba or, erTmaneTisgan gayofil
realobad, yovel SemTxvevaSi [ ] mainc. 112
aq saqme gvaqvs uamrav saxasiaTo SemTxvevasTan, roca niSnis cvlileba
<aris> swored <is>, rac cvlis Tavad warmodgenas da romelTa sa-
fuZvelze uecrad aSkara xdeba, rom ar arsebobs araviTari gansxva-
veba, erTi momentia Tu meore, gansxvavebul warmodgenaTa jamia Tu
ganmasxvavebel warmodgenaTa jami. ori niSani ereva erTmaneTs fone-
tikuri cvlilebis Sedegad: warmodgena ifanteba [>se confondra<] gan-
sazRvrul masaSi (isazRvreba sxva elementebis kavSiriT). niSani ax-
dens TviTdiferenciacias imave brma procesis Sedegad. azri aucileb-
lad miemagreba amgvarad warmoSobil sxvaobas.
aqve movixmobT ramdenime magaliTs, Tumca amave dros kvlav xazs vus-
vamT im Tvalsazrisis srul uazrobas, romelic eyrdnoba warmodge-

111
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 148, N 12, Nr. 1088-1091.
112
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 149, N 12, Nr. 1091.

223
nis drois gareSe, kvlavgdacemis [>transmission<] gareSe kavSirs niSan-
Tan da romelic eqskluziurad, eqsperimentis saxiT gvaswavlis niS-
nis fass. magaliTebi.
<Semdegi:>
tradiciuli. 113
† yovel statikur faqts, diaqronulisagan gansxvavebiT, axlavs mniSv-
neloba (da Sesabamisad sxva ZiriTadi niSanic).
† yvelaferi, rac Tundac raime saxiT exmareba mniSvnelobas, ormxri-
vad statikuria.
† pirvel nawilSi vsaubrobT im fenomenebze, romlebic TamaSdebian
garkveul terminebTan mimarTebaSi ise, TiTqos terminebi ukve aRar
definirdebodnen xilul obieqtebad, ukve aRar warmoadgendnen imas,
risi definaciac iyo saWiro dasawyisSi. es aris fiqcia. lingvistikis
yvelaze did uxerxulobas warmoadgens swored imis gaTviTcnobi-
ereba, Tu ras niSnavs romelime terminis arseboba, radgan arc erTi
maTgani ar gveZleva sruliad cxadi realobis saxiT: es xdeba ufro
im iluziis meSveobiT, romelsac Cveva gviqmnis.
enobriv-lingvistur fenomenTa ramdeni saxeoba arsebobs? erTi an uam-
ravi, _ ityvis lingvisti da mwaredac Secdeba. erTi saxeoba, radgan
isini yvelani enobriv/lingvisturia da Sesabamisad, rogorc mas hgo-
nia, yvelani miekuTvnebian erTaderT <sayovelTaod> aSkara erTiano-
bas. an uamravi, Tanaxmad im >Tvalsazrisebisa<, rac faqtebTan dakav-
SirebiT aqvT xolme da romlebic maT klasifikaciaSi SeiZleba gamo-
adgeT. lingvisti ityvis, rom enaSi [>langage<], magaliTad, arsebobs
bgera da mniSvneloba, <(warmodgena)> faqtebi, romlebic miekuTvnebian
fonetikur procesebs, agreTve faqtebi, romlebic momdinareoben ana-
logiuri procesebisgan. an fonetikuri faqtebi, morfologiuri faq-
tebi, sintaqsuri faqtebi, albaT leqsikologiuric.
† formis ganvrcoba drois saSualebiT [ ].
† formis im formebSi arseboba, romlebic periodulad gars akravs
mas, (am formis gareT mdebare sagnebSi>) da masze ar arian damokide-
buli; masSi mxolod 114 maTi droSi uwyvetobaa.
† warmodgena, rom < imis> dasanaxad, Tu ra udevs <safuZvlad> for-
mebs, saWiroa mxolod >am formebze analizis Catareba< ise, qimiur
substanciaze rom atareben analizs Tu kveTas, <aaSkaravebs> gulubr-
yvilo da gasaocar koncefciaTa mTel samyaros. igi aCvenebs, rom (1.)
arsebobs analizis oci saxeoba, romelTac araferi aqvT erTmaneTTan
saerTo da maTi klasifikaciis Sedegad aRmoCndeba, rom gaaCniaT mxo-
lod erTi da igive Rirebuleba; rom (2.) sagani iqamde ar eqvemdebare-
ba analizs, sanam mas ar gaaCnia iseTi arseboba, romlis definiciac
SesaZlebelia. amgvarad, saWiroa im pirobaTa gaTviTcnobiereba, rom-
lis drosac sagani arsebobs [ ] formis saxiT.
mdgomareobisa da movlenis erTmaneTSi areva.
yvela mecnierebaSi arsebobs kvlevasTan [>l' étude<] dakavSirebuli met-
naklebad mniSvnelovani, met-naklebad arsebiTi gansxvavebebi, <romle-
bic qmnian met-nakleb sicxades,> romelTa gareSec faqtebi cudad da-
lagdeba an cudad iqneba gagebuli. albaT mxolod lingvistikaSi ar-

113
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 273, N 12, Nr. 1950.
114
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 28, N 12, Nr. 3299.

224
sebobs iseTi gansxvaveba, romlis gareSec faqtebis gageba saerTod
SeuZlebelia, Tu ara SecdomaSi SeyvaniT, romlis gareSec ar moxdeba
maTi fiqsireba da aRqmac ki, romlis gareSec SeuZlebelia sicxadis
miRweva, [ ]
amitomac arsebobs lingvistikaSi gansxvaveba mdgomareobasa da mov-
lenas Soris; amitomac davekiTxoT sakuTar Tavs, nuTu misi erTxelve
amocnobisa da <gagebis Semdeg, es gansxvaveba mainc darTavs lingvis-
tikas erTianobis nebas da> amis Sedegi xom ar aris, rom <enaSi
[>langue<]> Cven <vxedavT> erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebul or
iseT sagans, romlebic moiTxoven or mecnierebas, romelTac me dava-
xasiaTebdi ara rogorc paralelur, aramed [ ].
imisaTvis, rom vinmes mdgomareoba da movlena erTmaneTSi aerios,
lingvistikas gaaCnia dauSreteli SesaZleblobebi. konfuzia <aris>
warmodgenebSi, magram is rom ar yofiliyo sityvebSic, faqtebis gamo-
xatvis am saxeobaSi, romlis gamoyenebac Zalauneburad gviwevs da [ ].
enobriv-lingvistur faqtTa <(damokidebulebaTa)> pirveli saxeoba.
maT adgili aqvT xolme or, erTmaneTs adevnebul termins Soris.
isini unt [>sup<] 115

N 13. N 13 a 116
N 13 '"sxva aRaraviTari figura!"

sxva aRaraviTari figura! Sesabamisad sxva aRaraferi, garda im gamo-


naTqvamebisa, romlebic enis [>langue<] absolutur realobebs gansazR-
vraven? mSvenieri azria, [ ]. sxva aRaraviTari figura! es iseTi mSveni-
eri azria, rom saswrafod moiTxovs qaRaldze gadatanas. neta ra
aris saWiro saimisod, rom es wamowyeba prqtikaSi dainergos? sul
cota ram: ubralod, im gamoTqmebis moxmoba, romlebic enis [>langue<]
absolutur realobebs Seesabameba da romlis uSecdomo klasifikaci-
ac araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs.
magaliTad, roca vxedav, rom [ ] miniWebuli aqvs saxeli ablauti [>ab-
laut<], vin SemiSlis xels imis TqmaSi, rom es aris enis figura [>figure
de langage<] da sxva araferi, Tumca droTa ganmavlobaSi, ablauti–sad-
mi miZRvnili yoveli diskusia [ ]. am azrs gaaprotesteben, ipovian
gansxvavebebs, sasacilod aigdeben mas; <da me saerTod ar vityvi, rom
marTali var;> magram diskusiis erTaderTi <sasargeblo> mizani Cem-
Tvis imis Cvenebaa, <Tu ra aris ablauti, Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare>,
raTa Semdeg mqondes SesaZlebloba imis gansasjelad, imsaxurebs Tu
ara Cemeuli aRniSvna aseT dasaxelebas – "figura". da ase gagrZelde-
ba SemdgomSic, yoveli terminisaTvis cal-calke. 117 figuraze uaris
Tqma niSnavs yvela WeSmariteba icode da ambobde kidec, sxva SemTxve-
vaSi isini radikalurad dakargaven imis Tqmis unars, Tu sad iwyeba
da sad wydeba metafora.
aq saubaria iseT martiv WeSmaritebaze, rom darwmunebuli var [ ].

115
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 29, N 12, Nr. 3299.
116
1894-1897, Seadr. engler 1975 a, gv. 839.
117
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 18, N 13, Nr. 96.

225
Zalian kargi iqneboda, Tundac erTi wuTiT merwmuna, rom am aRqmis
damdebT daaxloebiT mainc warmoudgeniaT is, risTvisac Tavs deben.
sxva aRaraviTari figura amieridan? sxva aRaraferi, garda im gamo-
naTqvamebisa, romlebic enis [>langue<] absolutur realobebs Seesaba-
mebian? es yvelaferi Tavs iyris im erT gamonaTqvamSi, rom enis [>lan-
gue<] absoluturi realobebi ar warmoadgenen saidumlos im axalgaz-
rda gramatikosebisaTvis, romlebmac isini CvenTvis gaamxiles. 118
programaSi [ ]. is recepti, romelic mdgomareobs imis TqmaSi, rom sa-
Wiroa enis [>langue<] uaxlesi da Tanamedrove periodiT daintereseba,
<raTa ukeT CavwvdeT wina periodebis azrs,> yvelaze ufro xelsayre-
li iyo uiTnis msgavsi adamianis gasaogneblad, romelic Tavisi mec-
nieruli saqmianobis pirvelive wuTidan da imaze adrec, romeliRac
mecnieruli skolis kvaldakval, sul imaze fiqrobda, rogorme am
gzas dasdgomoda da ara erTxel uocnebia imaze, rom enis kvleva
[>étude du langage<] realur faqtebze dakvirvebis bazisisgan gansxvave-
bul sxva scenazec SeiZleba gaTamaSdes. albaT, Life and Growth of Langua-
ge-is avtors, <sxvaze metad> sasacilod ar unda unda hyofnoda rome-
liRac skolis <es> pretenzia, romelmac uecrad cocxali enis
[>langue<] samyaro aRmoaCina da mTel qveynierebas amcno amis Sesaxeb.
gasagebia, rom axali skolis aRiarebasTan dakavSirebul sakuTar dam-
saxurebas, romlis aRiarebis <mzadyofnasac uiTni gamoTqvams>, es
pretenzia ar Seexeba, araviTar SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlebelia, rom mas sa-
kuTari TavisTvis mieweros yvela fenomenis Tanamedrove verifikaciis
mniSvnelobis gageba. <iqneboda> ki aseve gamarTlebuli ara uiTnis,
aramed sxvisi mxridan gramatikis axali mimarTulebisaTvis <Tu>
mTlianad mTeli pativis ara, masTan dakavSirebuli tendenciebis <si-
axlis mainc> CamorTmevis mcdeloba? es kiTxva namdvilad Cndeba. arc
am axal mimdinareobas daumalavs, Tu ras umadlis igi uiTnis, erTi
mxriv, meore mxriv ki igi [ ] SeiZleba mxolod [ ].
aqac da maSinac, Tuki Cven am uiTnisa da [ ] Soris <Sualedur> po-
zicias davikavebT, gavbedavT da gavimeorebT, rom ar Rirs amaze dis-
kusiis gamarTva. yvelaze uwinaresad swored enaSi [>langue<] arsebobs
sruliad gansxvavebul saganTa iseTi ori saxeoba, romlebic kanonze
warmodgenas gviqmnian.
fenomenTa am orive saxeobisaTvis <Tanabrad> ar arsebobs raime sa-
fuZveli saimisod, rom mivejaWvoT am saxels – kanoni, piriqiT, am
saxelisgan <radikaluri> gaTavisufleba sworedac rom didi Sveba
iqneboda enaTmecnieruli kvlevebisaTvis, igi xom Seuferebeli iqnebo-
da ara <marto> am erTxel, roca fonetikuri kanonis aRniSvnas moin-
domebda, aramed samjer [ ]: a) radgan igi erTmaneTSi urevs am or sa-
gans: fenomens, romlis meSveobiTac [ ], _ b) radgan roca axden dayo-
fas – <didi progresia!> _ da kanons iyeneb [ ] urTierTobisaTvis, es
aris mxolod arsebuli wesrigis gamoxatuleba, Tanac yovelgvari im-
peratiuli Zalis gareSe; kanonis azri igivea, rac wesrigis formu-
lisa, es igivea, me rom vTqva, rom romelime sxeulis nawilakebi spi-
ralis formiT arian ganlagebuli. es ar gulisxmobs arc imas, <rom
es nawilakebi> aseTebi arian TavianTi bunebiT, imitom, rom odesRac

118
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 18, N 13, Nr. 101.

226
ase <yvelgan> gadanawildnen romeliRac im <adrindeli> Zalis mier,
Cven rom ar gvexeba; arc imas, rom isini aseTive spiralurebi unda
darCnen, Tuki axali Zala mova da maT aurevs; aq, ubralod, igulisx-
meba, rom mocemul momentSi sruliad SesaZlebelia imis danaxva, rom
isini spiraliseburni arian da es aris maTi amJamindeli wesrigi, maTi
amJamindeli kanoni. amitomac kanoni aq niSnavs igives, rasac arsebul
saganTa regulireba, wesrigi, Tanaarsebul saganTa wesrigi [ ]; _ g) im
imperatiuli ZaliT, romelic garegnulad ukeT amarTlebs am saxels
– kanoni [ ]. – SeiZleba aRmoCndes, rom im SemTxvevaSi, roca morfo-
logiur kanonTa opozicia TavisTavad gamarTlebulia, azri aRar
aqvs fonetikur kanonTan dakavSirebiT igives mtkicebas. Cven ar veTan-
xmebiT amas. sanam ar gairkveva, Tu kanonis ramdeni saxeobaa <saer-
Tod> enaTmecnierebaSi, erTi, ori, <Tu sulac> sami, ara aqvs amas
mniSvneloba, <ramdeni saxeobac ar unda iyos>, azri ara aqvs saerTod
sakuTari Tavisadmi imis kiTxvas, aris Tu ara es >kanonebi< [ ]. 119

N 13a '"martivi gamonaTqvami"

radgan yoveli cnebis, iqneba es marcvali Tu eu difTongi, markireba


mxolod svetis saxiT aris SesaZlebeli _ Tanac ivaraudeba erTmane-
Tis momdevno ramdenime mdgomareoba (cnebis gagebis Sesabamisad), ag-
reTve ramdenime epoqa _ amdenad absoluturad usargebloa termino-
logiebiT bravireba [ ] da didi xnis manZilze imis <gulubryvilod>
warmodgena, rom Turme martiv gamonaTqvamebs imitom ver pouloben,
rom amis unari ar SeswevT, an leqsikuri maragi arasrulyofili aqvT.
ar arsebobs araviTari martivi gamonaTqvami im sagnebTan mimarTebaSi,
romlebic jer unda gamoiyos lingvistikaSi erTmaneTisgan. martivi
gamonaTqvami an iqneba algebruli, an ar iqneba. 120

N 14 121 . "artikulaciis Sesaxeb"'

"artikulaciis Sesaxeb". yovel mecnierebaSi arsebobs iseTi terminebi,


romlebic sul Tavidan SemoiRes, anu im periodSi, sibneleSi xelis
cecebiT rom dadiodnen. am terminebiT maSin moxerxda aucilebel
gansxvavebaTa gadmocema da amiT maT <xeli Seuwyves istoriuli>
kvlevis progress. arsebobs kidev sxvanairi, radikalurad mcdari, an
(rac <namdvilad> uaresia) naxevradmcdari terminebic, romlebmac imi-
saTvis moaxdines TavianTi adgilis uzurpacia bunebriv gansxvavebaTa
gverdiT, rom SeeqmnaT orazrovnebisa da gaugebrobaTa samyaro. mag-
ram am ori cnobili kategoriis garda, romelTagan disciplinis
progresi xan naxulobs garkveul sargebels, 122 xan ki vera, zogjer
gvxvdeba terminTa kidev mesame da Zalzed ucnauri kategoria, kerZod
is terminebi, romlebic TavisTavad sworia an aseTad aRiqmeba, magram

119
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 29, N 13, Nr. 3300.
120
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 29, N 13, Nr. 3301.
121
dauTariRebelia; DSeadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 839.
122
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 34, N 14, Nr. 177.

227
veravin ityvis zustad, Tu raSi mdgomareobs maTi mniSvneloba Tu
Sinaarsi, an kidev romel warmodgenas moicaven isini. maTi sisworis
gancda modis iqidan, rom isini arasdros qmnian sirTuleebs: ase, ma-
galiTad, sityva artikulacia arc erT cnobil <SemTxvevaSi> ar
qmnis raime sirTules, maSinac ki, rodesac Cven cxadad ver vacnobi-
erebT, Tu ras gulisxmobs igi, am dros, magaliTad, sityva Tanxmovani
[ ].
"zoologebi, anTropologebi, eTnologebi da lingvistebi rogorc
undaT, ise saubroben artikulirebul enaze [>langage articulé<], rogorc
iseT <saqmeze>, romelic yvelasTvis gasagebia. amiT isini amtkiceben,
rom maT "artikulacia" erevaT iseT sidideSi, romelic moTavsebulia
tvinSi [>quelque fait célébral<], TiTqos igi iyos enisaTvis [>langage<] winas-
war dadgenil "warmodgenaTa Sedegi". imas ki aravin aCvenebs, Tu ra
kavSirSia artikulaciis mniSvneloba piris aparatTan [>signification
buccale<]. 123

N 14 124 "implozia + implozia"

"implozia + implozia"
ori, erTmaneTis momdevno implozia SeiZleba gamovlindes <a)> ori,
erTmaneTs daSorebuli imploziis, an <b)> erTi, zogadi imploziis
saxiT. Tavis mxriv, pirvel SemTxvevaSi, romlis realizebac, survili-
samebr, yovelTvis SesaZlebelia, ar arsebobs SemzRudveli mijnebi;
am dros ki meore SemTxvevaSi, romlis realizebac, Cveni survilis
SemTxvevaSic ki mxolod garkveul pirobebSia SesaZlebeli, namdvi-
lad arsebobs aseTi mijna. <da> kvlav es pirobebi <isev> mniSvnelov-
nad damokidebulia fonemaTa Riaobis xarisxze [>aperture<], Tanac img-
varad, rom ŕť-sgan SeiZleba ganxorcieldes imploziuri damTxveva
[>chaînon<] (radgan am dros Riaoba [>aperture<] mcirdeba), magram ara ťŕ-
sgan, romelsac samudamod ergo wilad (ubralo impolziur rigad) ťŕ-
d darCena, TviT imploziuri damTxvevis udidesi survilis SemTxve-
vaSic ki, <radgan am dros Riaoba [>aperture<] izrdeba>.
aqve unda davumatoT, rom – Tuki eqsploziuri damTxveva uSvebs ro-
gorc ramdenime, aseve mxolod or fonemas, Tanac iqamde, vidre Ria-
oba <, rogorc vambobdiT, > imatebs – zustad aseve imploziuri dam-
Txvevac uSvebs ramdenime fonemas da isic iqamde, vidre Riaoba ik-
lebs. agreTve, Tuki eqsploziuri damTxvevis gavrcelebis sazRvari
gamomdinareobs iqedan, rom <4 Tu 5> fonemis Semdeg SeuZlebelia me-
eqvse, kidev ufro Ria fonemis povna, imploziuri damTxvevis gavrce-
lebis sazRvari gamomdinareobs iqedan, rom SeuZlebelia Zalian swra-
fad ipovo winaze ufro daxuruli fonema: magaliTad, áíŕf’ť-s ar SeuZ-
lia daxurul bgeraTa kibeze ufro maRla asvla. is, rac <amis mere>
modis, rogorc ukve eqsploziasTan dakavSirebiT vTqviT, absolutu-
rad ukavSirdeba ara imploziuri damTxvevis sakiTxs, aramed mxolod

123
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 35, N 14, Nr. 177.
124
savaraudod, 1897 wels Catarebuli leqciis "Théorie de la syllable" mosamzadebeli
Canawerebi, Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 39.

228
im sakiTxs, Tu ra SeiZleba mohyves imploziur damTxvevas, ramdeni
rame SeiZleba mohyves da romlis drosac pirvel rigSi <aucilebeli
elementis saxiT> igulisxmeba <raRacis gamoTqmis> ganzraxva. 125
[ ] SeiZleboda aq cdunebas avyolodiT da gagvecina, <pirvel rigSi>
ki gvekiTxa, Tu rodis unda daiwyos fonologiis gansxvavebaTa mtki-
ce niadagze dayeneba, Tu saerTod <saWiroa amaze laparakis dawyeba>.
warmoidgina ki vinmem Tundac is umciresi [ ].
fonologiis SemTxvevaSi zustad isevea, rogorc lingvistikis, <da>
ase iqneba im nebismieri sxva disciplinis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac wi-
lad xvda es ubedureba, imoZraos faqtebis or, erTmaneTisagan gamo-
yofil rigs Soris, <romlebSic> erTaderTi mxolod <korelacia>
qmnis damkvirvebel faqts. iseve <rogorc Cven sadme sxvagan movyvebiT
imis mtkicebas, rom ukiduresad> iluzoruli <aris> imis varaudi,
rom enaTmecnierebaSi <SesaZlebelia> pirveli rigis: bgerebi da me-
ore rigis: mniSvnelobebi <gamocnoba> da es im martivi mizeziT, rom
enobriv-lingvisturi faqti <arsebiTad> uunaroa saimisod, rom Sed-
gebodes mxolod erTaderTi am sagnisgan, ufro metic, saarsebod mas
sWirdeba erTi <Sesatyvisoba>, magram arc erTi wuTiTac ki – subs-
tancia, miT ufro ori substancia; aseve <Cven vadgenT, rom arc akus-
tikuri faqti da arc meqanikuri faqti, TiToeuli Tav-Tavis sferoeb-
Si, ar warmoadgens iseT fonologiur faqts, romlidanac Cven iZule-
buli varT, rom amovdiodeT kidec da isev mas vubrundebodeT; aramed
is, rom es aris misi korelaciis ganuwyveteli forma, rasac Cven fo-
nologiur faqts veZaxiT>. 126

N 14b 127 "damarcvlis Teoria"

rac axlaxans i-i Tu sxv. notaciis Sesaxeb vTqviT, SegviZlia gavimeo-


roT im "TeoriasTan" mimarTebaSic, <romlisganac> es notacia <gamom-
dinareobs>. es "Teoria" arafers ar xsnis, igi Semoifargleba zustad
imiT, rom daadginos is raRac (kerZod ki akustikuri efeqti<, romlis
mizezebic CvenTvis miuwvdomelia>), rac unda aixsnas. Teoriis im er-
TaderT punqts, romelic aris ganmartebiTi da ara dadgeniTi xasi-
aTis, warmoadgens is, rom bgerebs mxolod maSin gaaCniaT semantikuri
funqcia, roca marcvalze maxvils [>accent syllabique<] imateben. es SeiZ-
leba Cven amosaval punqtad gamogvadges, Tumca im pirobiT, rom igive
Teoria srulad agvixsnis, Tu ra aris marcvali, ra aris is <mesame>
akustikuri efeqti, romlis axsnac saWiroa. magram es mainc, albaT, is
ukanaskneli Temaa, romlis garSemoc [ ] raime sicxade, garda im faq-
tisa, rom yovel marcvalSi unda iyos erTi xmovani, Tanac imgvarad,
rom marcvali damokidebulia xmovanze, xmovani ki marcvalze da ar
arsebobs iseTi ram, rac am mojadoebul wres Tundac romelime adgi-
las gaarRvevda. 128

125
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 136, N 14a, Nr 983.
126
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 30, N 13, Nr. 3303.
127
savaraudod, 1897 wels Catarebuli leqciis "Théorie de la syllable" mosamzadebeli
Canawerebi, Seadr. Engler 1975 a, gv. 39.
128
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 140, Nr 1015.

229
2. sapasuxod ityvian, rom marTalia, es Teoria arafers xsnis, samagie-
rod, sul cota, araagresiuli xom mainc ariso; rom i-i notacia SeiZ-
leba efuZnebodes imas, rom igi ar warmoadgens progress imasTan Se-
darebiT, rac Cven mxolod yuris meSveobiT vicodiT da iqve [ ] dar-
Ces marTebulad, rogorc debuleba WeSmariti akustikuri faqtis
Sesaxeb. 129
3. Tu gindaT icodeT [ ], uwinares yovlisa, ganvixilavT ara I u r l m n-
is rols, an Tanxmovnisa Tu xmovnis Tu Tundac damarcvlis specia-
lur sakiTxebs ki ar ganvixilavT, aramed mxolod da mxolod imas,
Tu rogor SeiZleba gavigoT, Tu romeli SesaZleblobebis mixedviT
xdeba zogadad metyvelebaSi [>parole<] elementTa nebismieri rigis win
Tu ukan dasma: rasac Cven bgeraTa jaWvis Teorias vuwodebT. am damT-
xvevis yvela piroba ori garemoebiTaa nakarnaxevi 130 :
1. gansxvavebul fonologiur sidideTa Riaoba [>aperture<], anu daxurvi-
sa Tu gaxsnis is xarisxi, rasac gamoxatavs b-sa Tu r-s artikulacia
piris aparatSi da sxv.
Riaoba nuli: p t k; b d g
" 1 mn
" 1 s f Þ, etc.; z v đ etc.
" 2 rl
" 3 iuü
" 4 eoö
" 5 a 131
2. imploziuri an eqsploziuri forma, romelTac SeiZleba igive fo-
nologiuri sidideebi gaaCndeT mudmivad 132 , rac agreTve maTi Riaobis
xarisxia, saidanac erTaderTi a unda iqnes amoRebuli, radgan misi
Riaoba imdenad didia, rom ar [ ] 133
aqedan moyolebuli, Cven ukve viwyebT dawerilobis mixedviT yoveli
fonemis imploziuri Tu eqsploziur formebis gansxvavebas imis meSve-
obiT, rom imploziurs vwerT asomTavruliT, magaliTad T da t, N da n.
erTaderTi i da u miiReben amieridan [ ] 134
Tuki amovalT am orive garemoebidan, davinaxavT, rom maTgan erT-erTi
uazrobaa; magaliTad, azri ara aqvs imis kvlevas, Tu ra Rirebuleba
gaaCnia g+t Tu p+t Tu m+r jgufebs; eseni arian, rogorc cnobilia,
sruliad aradeterminirebuli <jaWvis fragmentebi [>fragment de chaî-
ne<]>, jgufis rogorc erTi, aseve meore elementisTvis da es imis mi-
xedviT, imploziurad iqnebian gagebulni Tu eqsploziurad. (ase maga-
liTad, p+I SeiZleba gagebul iqnas rogorc Pj, aseve pj, aseve pl an
TviT PI, sxvagan momxdari gansxvavebis Sesabamisad; aseve m+r SeiZleba
gagebuli iqnes, rogorc Mr, aseve mr, aseve mR; da a. S.) 135

129
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 140, Nr 1061. winadadebis kavSiri ar eqvemdebareba rekonstruqcias.
130
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 127, Nr 908.
131
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 113, Nr 803.
132
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 127, Nr 909.
133
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 128, Nr 916 f. winadadebis kavSiri ar eqvemdebareba rekonstruqcias.
134
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 130, Nr 934.
135
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 131, Nr 941.

230
SeniSvna. mxolod I da u arian iseTi sidideebi, romlebsac anbanSi no-
tacia gaaCniaT, Tanac es damokidebulia imaze, imploziuri formiT
(I,u) gamoCndebian Tu eqsploziuri (j,w). Cven Sors varT im azrisgan,
rom am notaciaze uari vTqvaT. piriqiT, vapirebT mis gavrcobas yvela
sxva sidideze, Tanac imploziisaTvis gamoviyenebT asomTavrul asoebs
T, N, R da sxv.; eqsploziisaTvis ki – sxva danarCen asoebs t, n, r da sxv.;
erTaderTi, rac aq saWiro iqneba, esaa I,U asoebis asomTavruliT, xo-
lo j,w asoebis nusxuriT sistematuri markireba, raTa ar gavwyvitoT
sxva imploziebsa da eqsploziebTan Sesatyvisoba. 136
kanonebi. yovelTvis SeiZleba iqamde waxvide, rom bgeraTa jaWvSi ne-
bismieri ori fonetikuri sidide <materialurad mainc> erTmaneTs mi-
ayolo, TviT maSinac ki, Tuki dadgindeba, <rom orive maTgani eqsplo-
ziuri unda iyos>. am dros windawinve deklarirebulia, rom aqedan
miRebuli akustikuri efeqti umniSvnelo iqneba. Tumca erTi romelime
akustikuri efeqtisaTvis SeuZlebelia 2., nebismieri saxiT kombinireba. 137
eqsploziuri damTxvevis pirobebi. pirvel akustikur efeqts (eqsplo-
ziuri damTxveva) iReb maSin, roca ramdenime erTmaneTs miyolebuli
eqsplozia miekuTvneba fonetikur sidideebs, romlebic sul ufro da
ufro Ria xdeba, magaliTad, ksrj-AUN, sadac oTx eqsplozias ksrj oTxi
mzardi Riaobis xarisxi 0.1.2.0. Seesabameba. (im dros, roca ksrtaun Tan-
mimdevroba, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki am oTxi elementis ksrt gaeqsplo-
ziurebas Seecdebi, mainc verasdros Seqmni aseT STabeWdilebas, rad-
gan Riaobis xarisxi aris 0.1.2.0.). eqsploziuri damTxvevis STabeWdile-
ba (romelic amave dros gulisxmobs mzard Riaobas da yvela elemen-
tis konstantur eqsplozias), rac <sxva yvelaferTan erTad> igivea,
rac xanmokle damTxvevis dros. 138
imploziuri damTxvevis pirobebi. meore akustikuri efeqtis (implozi-
uri damTxveva) miReba SeiZleba, Tuki [ ] 139
3. xmovnis pirobebi. vxedavT, rom xmovani (anu sonanti) <TavisTavad>
ar aris damokidebuli bgeris bunebasTan dakavSirebul ama Tu im
mosazrebaze da, ubralod, Seesabameba bgeraTa jaWvis yovel pirvel
implozias; es swored is garemoebaa, romelic iwvevs xmovnis STabeW-
dilebas imdenad, rom rogorc kPtO-s, aseve kRtO-sa Tu kItO-s erTnai-
rad SeuZliaT am STabeWdilebis gamowveva. 140 erTaderTi mizezi imisa,
Tu ratom arseboben zogadad naklebi Riaobis bgerebi, romelTac ise-
ve iReben, rogorc pirvel implozias, anu xmovans, mdgomareobs imaSi,
rom [ ] [ ] Tumca Cveni ganzraxvis <mixedviT, upirveles yovlisa, saWi-
roa imaze xazgasma, rom xmovnisa da Tanxmovnis monacvleoba iseTi
fenomenia, romelic warmoiSoba piris aparatSi mimdinare artikulaci-
isa da ara bgeraTa xarisxis Sedegad, ase aRmoCndeba sruliad [ ]
daskvna: rac ufro didia piris Riaoba, miT ufro [ ]. es aris safuZ-
veli imisa, Tu ratom iqmneba bgeraTa rigSi gZdA – sul sxva, ara
sayovelTao principis Sesabamisi – STabeWdileba, rom xmovani aris
mxolod A. es axali garemoeba, zustad iseve uSlis xels aq arsebiT

136
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 131, Nr 940.
137
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 133, Nr 960.
138
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 134, Nr 968.
139
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 136, Nr 984.
140
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 137, Nr 995-996.

231
dayofas, rogorc es iyo xorxismieri bgeris Zalis SemTxvevaSi, <ro-
ca mas ar xvdeboda winaaRmdegoba> aq xelisSemSlelia arsebiTi gans-
xvaveba [ ]. 141
bgeraTa jaWvis mTeli Teoria – da es aris is, rac qmnis aqedan kvle-
vis erT-erT sferos [ ], [ ] sityvaTa SesaZlo da SeuZlebeli faseule-
ba. Tuki dadgenilia gansazRvruli, Sesrulebadi pirobebi, maSin Se-
uZlebeli xdeba garkveuli "kombinaciebi". Tuki es yvelaferi winas-
war ar dgindeba, Tuki keTdeba mxolod bundovani miniSneba, an ro-
gorc Cveulebriv xdeba xolme imaTTan, vinc [ ], roca winadadebis Su-
aSi uecrad raRac <malulad> icvleba, maSin yvelaferi "SesaZlebe-
lia", Tumca gaurkvevlobac aris xolme am [ ]. me ar vlaparakob aq im
uamrav SemTxvevaze, roca Tavs gvaxveven garkveul jgufebSi momxdar
istoriul <transformaciebs>, TiTqos gamodgebodes es maTi namdvi-
lobis sabuTad. 142
davuSvaT, viRacam gadawyvita <ori Tu> ramdenime erTmaneTis momdev-
no eqsploziis artikulireba, Tanac winaswar gansazRvra, rom isini
moaxdendnen unificirebul <da uwyvet> efeqts yurze. magram dainaxa,
rom es SeuZlebelia, <Zalian didi Zalisxmevaa saWiro imisaTvis>,
rom nebismieri eqsplozia Seesabamebodes winamorbedze ufro nakleb
Riaobas. k r sj, t, l-is warmoTqma <albaT> ki aris "SesaZlebeli",
magram ara ise, rom Tan es elementebic warmoTqva da unificirebuli
efeqti moaxdino yurze. es imitom, romRiaoba aris 0.2.1.3.
2. rom es yovelTvis SesaZlebeli (1) - <(1) im sazRvarTa farglebSi
mainc, romelTa ufro dawvrilebiTi ganxilva aq SeuZlebelia, radgan
Cven aq [ ] mxolod yvelaze arsebiTs> roca am eqsploziuri elemnte-
bisganarc erTs ara aqvs ufro naklebi Riaoba [ ]: 0.1.2.3. 143
is eqsploziuri rigi, romelic am uwyvet akustikur efeqts hqmnis,
romlis pirob[ ] Cven vnaxeT [ ] 144
roca vinme eqsploziis da imploziis erTmaneTis miyolebiT warmoTq-
mas cdilobs, Tanac imgvarad, rom uwyveti akustikuri efeqti qondes
[ ], dainaxavs, rom – gansxvavebiT imisagan, rac [ ] xdeboda – SeiZleba
miRweuli iqnes sasurveli efeqti, romlis drosac erTi nebismieri
implozia uerTdeba erT nebismier eqsplozias, <Riaobis xarisxi aRar
moqmedebs>; magaliTad, rogorc wm, an wp (Riaobis xarisxi 3.1 an 3.0)>,
aseve, wa an ka (Riaobis xarisxi 3.5 an 0.5). amisgan <aseve, magram> damo-
ukideblad aucileblad SeamCneven, rom am kavSirs uwyvetobis efeqtis
garda gaaCnia agreTve [ ] 145 radgan es araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar aris
fonema, anu imave fonetikuri sididiT amovsebuli droiTi monakveTi,
romlebic qmnian bgeraTa jaWvs, radgan [ ]. bgeraTa jaWvis gamosaxu-
lebaSi asoebs gaaCniaT sul sxva azri, vidre fonetikur kvlevaSi. ra
aris sidideTa es sxva saxeoba? es aris [ ]-iT Sevsebuli droiTi mo-
nakveTi. fonetikur kvlevaSi mxolod erTi aso ar axdens droiTi siv-
rcis markirebas da am mizeziT [ ]. bgeraTa jaWvSi, sadac asoebi axde-
nen <[ ]-iT dakavebul > droiTi monakveTebis markirebas [ ] 146

141
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 122, Nr 862.
142
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 133, Nr 959.
143
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 133, Nr 969
144
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 135, Nr 976.
145
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 133, Nr 961.
146
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 131, Nr 942.

232
vinc moyveba imis axsnas [ ] _ <1. kapitaluri Secdoma>, rom ar arse-
bobs dapirispireba seuo–is u–sa da seumen–is u–s Soris, bbero-is r-sa)
da bbermen-is r-s Soris; _ <2., ufro mZime Secdoma, [ ]-is gamo> - da
rom amis nacvlad arsebobs dapirispireba seumen–is u–sa sutos–is u–s,
an bbermen-is r-sa bbrtos-is r-s Soris [ ]
akustikurad
sutos – seumen seuo
bbrtos- bbermen bhero
meqanikurad
sUtos seUmen – sewo
bbRtos hbeRmen - bhero
sonantebis Rirebuleba bgeraTa jaWvSi Seesabameba ara upirvelesad [ ] 147
SeniSvna. Tavdapirvel sasicocxlo aucileblobas warmoadgenda, rom
gakeTebuliyo marcvlis, an sonantis definicia, raTa <ramenairi>
gziT mogvexerxebina tavtologiaze gasvla, romelic mdgomareobs ima-
Si, rom erTi ramis definicia xdeba meoris meSveobiT.
sinamdvileSi ki Cven vxedavT, rom am ori sidididan mxolod erT-er-
Tis definicia jer kidev <ar> aris sakmarisi, radgan is faqti, rom
imdeni marcvali arsebobs, ramdeni xmovanicaa <an piriqiT>, aranairad
ar aris am ori terminis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sedegi. igi aris
Sedegi orive maTganis saerTo damokidebulebisa im mesameze, romelic
Cven zemoT ukve avxseniT, anu imploziaTa da eqsploziaTa Tanmimdev-
robaze: Tuki yovel marcvalSi arsebobs erTi sonanti, es xdeba imi-
tom, rom yoveli imploziuri damTxvevis dasawyisi iwvevs sonantis
STabeWdilebas, yoveli dasasruli ki [ ] 148
1. "artikulirebuli" damarcvlis Teoria: es niSnavs im sidideebs <Tu
kontrastebs>, romlebic piris organoTa gaRebisa Tu daxurvis Sede-
gad warmoiSvebian, xmisa da sunTqvis miuxedavad. 149
2. "xmovanizirebuli" damarcvlis Teoria, es niSnavs im sidideebsa Tu
kontrastebs, romlebic xorxismieri bgerebis Sedegad aRweven yuram-
de (rac Tavisi meqanizmis mixedviT ki aris damokidebeli artikulia-
ciaze, magram damoukidebelia Tavis efeqtSi).
3. "eqspiratoruli" damarcvlis Teoria: es niSnavs imis [ ], romelic
aris sunTqvis dayofis Sedegi [ ] 150
es [ ] aq gakeTda ara TavisTavad, aramed imisaTvis, rom ufro gasagebi
gamxdariyo, Tu saidan momdinareobs esa Tu is nakli [ ].
umravlesobas warmoadgenen is sonantebi da marcvlebi, romlebic
imavdroulad Seesabamebian artikulaciisaTvis damkvidrebul dayofa-
sac, (aRqmuli) xmis bgerisaTvis damkvidrebul dayofasac da sunTqvi-
saTvis damkvidrebul dayofasac. amitomac zogadad sakmarisia ganxi-
lul iqnas marto artikulacia, romelic yurisaTvis mainc <rCeba>
<ara marto> umniSvnelovanes faqtad, <aramed> Tavis meqanizmSi ar
aris damokidebuli arc erT sxva faqtze.

147
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 144, Nr 1063.
148
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 139, Nr 1007-1008.
149
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 140, Nr 1017.
150
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 139, Nr 1009-1013.

233
amis miuxedavad, SeiZleba isec moxdes, rom aRmoCndes wminda artiku-
latoruli, an wminda eqspiratoruli da sxv. marcvali, an xmovnebi,
<es niSnavs>, romlebic sxva marcvlebisgan gansxvavebiT, sammagad san-
qcirebulni arian xmis, sunTqvisa da artikulaciis wyalobiT; am
SemTxvevaSi ukve SeuZlebelia sruli suraTis Seqmna mxolod da mxo-
lod akustikur erTeulTa artikulaciis meSveobiT 151 : [. . .]

N 15 152
»Item«

Item. winadadebaSi yvelaferi subieqtiTa da predikatiT aixsneba da


mesame, rogorc vfiqrob, es koniunqciaa (saxeldebiTi brunva SenarCu-
nebulia). magram subieqtsa da predikats araferi aqvT saerTo ›sxva
principis Tanaxmad diferencirebul metyvelebis nawilebTan‹:
a) subieqti SesaZloa iyos arsebiTi saxeli an nacvalsaxeli, aseve
zedsarTavi an ricxviTi saxeli, rogorc es aSkaraa. magram asevea
zmna (infinitiv), radgan rogorc qvemoT davinaxavT, amis gamoa, rom infi-
nitivi zmnis bunebas ar cvlis.
b) predikatic aseve SeiZleba iyos yvela es metyvelebis nawili.
g) koniunqcia ki SeiZleba iyos ›kavSiri‹ an zmnizeda.
) SeiZleba warmovidginoT ena [›langue‹], romelic Tu zedsarTavi saxe-
li subieqti iqneboda, mas gansakuTrebuli formiT aRiarebda. es lo-
gikur sagnebs ar Secvlida da swored amitom aris es faqti gansakuT-
rebuli, rom λέγoμεν ar SeiZleba iyos subieqti. sakmarisi iqneba, rom
is iyos λέγείν. gaugebar enaze [›parlant nègre‹] λέγoμεν-is aRsaniSnavad
gvaqvs nous dire, λέγείν χαχóν-is aRsaniSnavad ki – dire mauvais. 153
Item. winadadebaSi yvelaze metad aRniSvnis Rirsia is faqti, rom is
ori logikuri terminisgan Sedgeba, SeiZleba daviyvanoT erTaderT
enobriv/lingvistur terminamde da es ise SegviZlia gavakeToT, rom
sityva ar danawevrdes, rom daskvnas gverdi auaros. ase, magaliTad
fiat! an sunt. an, savaraudod, agreTve SesaZloa Qui dit cela? – Dieu. elifsis
(cnobili elifsis) sazRvrebi pirvelad im momentSi wydeba, roca is
arc erT artikulaciul bgeras aRar gamoscems da sadac enac [›langue‹]
Sewyvetda arsebobas, raTa wminda azrovnebisTvis daeTmo adgili. _
mravalgzisi daskvnebi. Zieba [ ]. ... sxvaTa Soris, yuradsaRebia sityvis
unari, iseve rogorc TviT niSnisa, romelic miiswrafvis imisken, rom
damoukidebel winadadebad iqces, rogoricaa λέγoμεν (araelifsuri). 154
Item. sityva elifss aqvs calke iseTi mniSvneloba, romelic bevr sa-
fiqrals aCens. amgvari terminebi, rogorc Cans, winaswar unda gaviTva-
liswinoT, Cven Tavidanve viciT, Tu ramdeni aseTi terminisgan unda
Sedgebodes winadadeba da misi meSveobiT Cven erTmaneTs vadarebT, Tu
sinamdvileSi ramdeni terminisgan Sedgeba igi, rom davadginoT defi-
citi. magram rodesac termini Tavisi arsiT ganusazRvrelad SeiZleba

151
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 140, Nr 1019-1021.
152
1897-1900; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 839 f.
153
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3306.
154
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3307.

234
gafarTovdes, am TvalsazrisiT cxadia, rom gaTvla, romelsac n war-
modgenasa da n termins Soris vawarmoebT, absoluturad usafuZvloa
da aseve absolutur SemTxveviTobas efuZneba. da Tu Cven calkeuli
winadadebebis mixedviT ki ara, aramed zogadad ganvixilavT, savarau-
dod, Zalian male mivxvdebiT, rom elifsi saerTod arafers warmoad-
gens im martivi mizezis gamo, rom enaSi [›langue‹] Semavali niSnebi
zustad imis adekvaturi arian, rasac isini gamoxataven, _ amasTan,
mzad varT vaRiaroT, rom calkeul sityvas Tu calkeul gamoTqmas
imaze metis gamoxatva SeuZlia, vidre Cven es warmogvedgina. <da, pi-
riqiT, elifsis gareSe ar gveqneboda mniSvnelobis matarebeli sityva,
magram radgan vsaubrobT elifsis Sesaxeb (rogorc m. breali), Tu
iarsebebda raime norma, romlis mixedviTac sityvebi elifsurebi iqne-
bodnen. isini ganuwyvetliv da SesaZlo zusti Sefasebebis gareSe [ ]-
dan gamomdinareobs.> elifsi sxva araferia, Tu ara damatebiTi mniSv-
neloba [›surplus de valeur‹] [ ]. 155
Item. yovel <arc erT> Tanamedrove Tu gamocdil fsiqologs, rome-
lic enis [›langue‹] Sesaxeb miniSnebebs akeTebda an roca mas azrovne-
bis umniSvnelovanes saSualebad miiCnevda, aranairi warmodgena ar
hqonda misi kanonebis Sesaxeb. gamonaklisis gareSe yvela maTganis-
Tvis ena [›langue‹] warmoadgenda myar formas, aseve gamonaklisis gare-
Se yvela maTgans ena konvenciur formad miaCnda. isini moZraoben Za-
lian bunebrivad, rasac me enis [›langue‹] horizontalur tranSs vuwo-
deb, magram socio<istoriuli> fenomenis Sesaxeb warmodgenis gareSe,
rac uSualod iwvevs niSanTa talRis mozRvavebas vertikalur svetSi
da rac Semdgom krZalavs, rom misgan warmoiqmnas myari ena [›langue‹] an
konvenciuri ena [›langage‹], radgan is uwyveti socialuri zemoqmedebis
Sedegia, romelic arCevanisgan damoukideblad iCens Tavs. _ yovel
SemTxvevaSi, fsiqologebis mxridan Cawvdomis dasawyisi bgeraTa gada-
adgilebebis [›transformations phonétiques‹] Seswavlidan momdinareobs. 156
Item. xelSekruleba [ ]-s Soris konvenciuria, magram es aris xelSekru-
leba, romelic aRar unda dairRves, anu miviRebT, rom niSnebis arse-
boba Sewydeba [›supprimer‹], radgan niSanTa arseboba am xelSekrulebas
efuZneba. 157
158
Item.

Item. ra aris axali sityva _ da, upirveles yovlisa, sirTule,


CavwvdeT am sityvas _, Tu ar gveqneba enis [›langue‹] yovel nawils So-
ris sistematuri kavSiris dadastureba? uRlebis Tu sxva gramatiku-
li momentis milionobiT forma iqmneba, magram ar arsebobs erTi, ro-

155
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3308.
156
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3309.
157
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.1.
158
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.2.

235
melic originalur monaxazs warmoadgens, romelic SemTxveviTobis
waylobiT ucnobi wyarodan SeiZleba gaCndes. elementebi unda iqmne-
bodes ara mxolod ukve nacnobi kombinaciebis meSveobiT, aramed, ase
rom vTqvaT, momzadebuli unda iyos yvelaferi imisaTvis, rom axali
kombinacia gamoCndes. 159
Item. im Sinaarsobrivi Zafebis arsebobis realoba, romlebic enis [›lan-
gue‹] elementebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs, _ miuxedavad imisa, rom es
Cauwvdomeli fsiqologiuri faqtia _, ase rom vTqvaT, damowmebas ar
saWiroebs. is zustad is aris, rasac Seadgens ena [›langue‹]. 160
Item. mas sWirdeba simbolo da ara, an . 161
Item. roca mocemulia a priori simarTle, romelic jansaRad moazrovne
adamianis gonebis garda arafers saWiroebs, roca arsebobs fsiqolo-
giuri realoba da aseve fonologiuri realobac, am realobaTa erT-
maneTisgan gamijnul ori Sedegidan verc erTi ver SeZlebs umciresi
enobriv/lingvisturi faqtis erTi momentis warmoqmnasac ki. _ am enob-
riv/lingvisturi faqtis arseboba aucilebels xdis am ori Sedegis
Sejamebas, magram erT-erTi maTganisas gansakuTrebiT _, romlis gare-
Sec absoluturad amao iqneboda misi niSan-Tvisebebis gamokvleva ro-
melime momentSi mainc an winaswar imis Tqma, Tu ra iqneba is
Semdgom. 162
Item. am simbolom mxolod gansxvavebis Sesaxeb ki ar unda Seg-
vaxsenos, ikvleven Tu ara sityvas misi Sinaarsis gaTvaliswinebiT Tu
misi Sinaarsisgan damoukideblad, aramed unda Segvaxsenos isic, rom
SeuZlebelia am Sinaarsis sxvagvarad aRwera da sxvagvari dafiqsire-
ba, vidre rogorc amboben: Sinaarsi aris is, romelic Seesatyviseba
magaliTad νέoς-s an magaliTad [ ]-s. Sinaarsisa da sinonimiis aRwera
zusti <da srulyofili> Sinaarsis doneze ar gvaqvs: ar moipoveba
sxva definicia, garda <› mniSvneloba ‹>, romelic warmoadgens am
formis _ <nacnob> mniSvnelobas. 163
Item. kanonebi:
1. enis [›langue‹] universaluri kanonebi, <romlebic imperatiulia>
(Teorematuli).
2. fonetikuri ›kanonebi‹! am saxelis tarebis ufleba ar aqvT.
3. idiosinqronuli kanonebi, brZanebiTi bunebis gareSe.
Cven termin kanonSi <aramc da aramc> ar vdebT did filosofias, Cven
mas iseTad viRebT, rogoric is aris sayovelTao enobriv xmarebaSi,
jansaRad moazrovne adamianebisTvis. 164

159
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.3.
160
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.4.
161
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.5.
162
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.6.
163
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.7.
164
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.8.

236
Item. imdenad xSirad erevaT me-3 da me-2, aseve 1-li kanonic
erTmaneTSi, rom srulad amomwuravi magaliTebis seria ar gvaqvs, rom
gaugebrobebi Tavidan aviciloT. 165
)Item. brunebis paradigmis Sesaxeb miniSnebebi [›sous-entendus‹]. miniSneba
ar aris abstraqcia. ufro metic, is abstraqciis sruliad sapirispi-
roa. Tu vityvi, rom lingisturi/enobrivi mTlianobidan [›l’integral lingu
istique‹] νοήσομεν – hoc cst νοήσομεν mxolod (νοήσομεν) formas aviReb,
SezRuduli ar var, Tu saqme exeba imas, rom <dakvirveba vawarmoo>
<bgeriT> gardaqmnebze [›transformatiques phonetiques‹], romlebTanac SeiZle-
ba maT kavSiri hqondeT. magram pirveli SexedviT Cans, rom isini, rom-
lebic νοήσομεν – hoc cst νοήσομεν sityvaTa paradigmaSi figurireben
<νοήσω, νοήσετε-s mxriv>, imave saxis operacias asruleben, kerZod im
TvalsazrisiT, rom sagani [›dans l’affaire‹] Sinaarss [ ] iZens. 166

Item. termin sème 167 -is gansxvaveba Tu upiratesoba niSanTan


mimarTebaSi. I. umniSvnelo. niSani SeiZleba iyos ara xmovani, magram
aseve sème. _ magram niSani SeiZleba iyos = pirdapiri Jesti, anu
sistemis an konvenciis miRma. _ Sème = niSani, romelic sistemis
nawilia. _ Sème =
• konvenciuri niSani,
• niSani, romelic sistemis nawilia (aseve konvenciuri),
• [ ].
SegviZlia asec vTqvaT: Sème = niSani, romelic iziarebs gansxvavebul
Tvisebebs, romlebic, rogorc aseTi, <niSans> ekuTvnis, <romlebic>
<xmovan an sxvagvar> enas [›langue‹] <qmnian>. _ Tvisebebi, romlebic Ta-
vidanve SesamCnevia, esenia: [ ]. 168
Item. sxvaTa Soris, niSnis xmovan da ideologiur mxareebs Soris yo-
veli upiratesoba an sawyis etapze gayofa cdilobs Camoicilos sit-
yva sème. is warmoadgens niSnis mTlianobas, anu aerTianebs niSansa da
mniSvnelobas erTgvar pirovnebaSi. 169 / 170
Item. sxva SemTxvevaSi ki mcdari iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom sème niSnis
magivrad Zalian arsebiTi sakiTxia. _ simarTle is aris, rom parasème
da aposème mniSvnelovani cnebebia. swored rom asea [ ]. 171
Item. Aposème-s aqvs upiratesoba, rom misi gamoyeneba isea SesaZlebeli,
rogorc visurvebT: niSnisgan nawarmoebi da misgan abstragirebuli

165
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.9.
166
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.10.
167
iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa – engleris mier (1975 a, gv. 839 f.) amasTan dakavSirebiT dasa-
xelebuli »ezoTeruli terminologia« _ seme, paraseme, aposeme, inertome, some, contre-some,
anti-some, parasome – ar iTargmneba da daxrili SriftiT iniSneba. cneba »Sem«-ze dayr-
dnobiT aq isini saSualo sqesiT aris gadmocemuli.
168
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.11.
169
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.12.
170
winadadebis anakoluTuri konstruqcia.
171
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.13.

237
sagani an sagani, romelic Tavisi <mniSvnelobisgan> gamoyofilia,
sicxadisTvis mainc misgan gamomdinareobs. 172
Item. Aposème niSnis safarvelia. <da> ara mniSvnelobis safarveli. _
sème arsebobs ara mxolod fonizmisa da mniSvnelobis wyalobiT, ara-
med sxva sème-ebTan mis urTierTdamokidebulebasTan kavSirSi. 173
Item. vfiqrob, rom diskursiulobaSi SesaZloa visaubroT aposème-s Se-
saxeb (xmovani figurebis Sesaxeb [›figures vocales‹]). erTi ram faqtia, rom
Cven TviTon empiriul enaSi [›langage‹] ar vambobT: ›am zmnis me-2 forma‹
(maSinac ki, roca saubaria ara logikur terminebze, aramed sityvebze
bgeriTi TvalsazrisiT). 174
Item. forma gamoiyeneba aposème, sème-is da bolos sinqronuli sème-is
materialuri nawilisTvis. ›ama Tu im saxelis gansxvavebuli dialeq-
turi formebi... ‹: aposème. _ ›X dialeqtis formebi gansakuTrebul Tvi-
sebas avlenen‹. savaraudod morfologiurs. 175
† Item. sanam sadme mainc iqneba saubari enis [›langue‹] Sesaxeb, sityvasa
da mniSvnelobas ise aRviqvamT (an niSansa da mis mniSvnelobas), TiT-
qos es is iyos, rac yvelafers ajamebs, magram iqedan gamomdinare
kvlavac sityvebis magaliTebs gvawvdis, rogoricaa xe, qva, Zroxa,
<rogor gascems adami raRacas [ ]>, anu yvelaze rTuli, rac semio-
logiaSi gvxvdeba: SemTxveva, roca is (aRniSvnisTvis <amorCeuli>
obieqtebis damTxveviT) martiv onomias qmnis, e.i. radgan aq vxvdebiT
semiologiis mTlianobaSi onomiis gansakuTrebulobas, SemTxvevas,
romelSic eWvgareSe 176 sème-is fsiqiuri asociaciebis mesame elementia
cnobiereba, romelic garegnul arss exeba, romelic TviTon sakmari-
sad gansazRvrulia, raTa niSnis zogad kanons gverdi auaros. 177
† Item. miuxedavad imisa, rom sul mcire ise, rogorc SegviZlia,
gvsurs SevexoT niSnis ideologiur mxares, sakmaod TvalsaCinoa, rom
Tu ama Tu im saxis warmodgenebi [›idées‹] jaWvs [›fixité‹] SemogvTavazeben
[ ]. _ es jaWvi mxolod geografiul saxels miiRebs. 178
† Tu ucvlel da mudmiv warmodgenas [idée‹] SevafasebdiT rogorc ra-
Rac qimeruls, maSin geografiiuli sèmes da <sakuTari saxelebi> ga-
monakliss warmoadgenen, vidre... ufro zustad: [ ] erTaderT Sanss [ ]-
isTvis.
(ismis kiTxva, SeiZleboda Tu ara sadme inteleqtualuri aposème dag-
vefiqsirebina, iseve rogorc - aposème, sème-s gareSe. ra Tqma unda,
›Rhone‹-Si, ase vTqvaT, ori aposème gvaqvs, romlebic paralelurad mim-
dinareobs. magram safuZvelSi msgavsi ram ar arsebobs, radgan im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu Rhone-is saxels Secvlidnen, igive sème aRar iarsebeb-
da da, Sedegad, amaoa aposème-is Sesaxeb kamaTi, amisTvis saukeTeso

172
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3310.14.
173
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3311.1.
174
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3311.2.
175
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 35, N 15, Nr. 3311.3.
176
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 36, N 15, Nr. 3312.1.
177
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3312.1.
178
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3312.2.

238
mtkicebuleba ki is aris, rom sème-s aqvs Tavisi safuZvliani baza aR-
niSnul materialur niSanSi.) 179
Item. gadamwyveti Secdomebis katalogi. _ gadamwyveti Secdomebis
saxeli TavianTi usasrulo Sedegebis gamo daimsaxures:
1. individualuri niSnis Secdoma, romelic TavisTvis daitoves. an
rom davijeroT is Secdoma, TiTqos 500 sityvisgan Sedgenili ena
[›langue‹] 500 niSnisa da 500 mniSvnelobisagan Sedgeba.
an rom davijeroT is Secdoma, rom enis [›langue‹] fenomeni SegviZlia
sul mciredad warmovadginoT, roca ›sityvas an mis mniSvnelobas‹
warmoTqvams da aviwydeba, <rom> sityvas gars akravs [ ]. 180
Item. parasèmes.
ama Tu im sityvisTvis, romelic enis [›langue‹] <nawilia>, <sxva> sityva,
romelsac pirvelTan aranairi ›kavSiri‹ ar aqvs, aris parasème. parasème-
s erTaderTi da martivi Tvisebaa, miekuTvnebodes niSnis erTsa da
imave fsiqologiur sistemas imgvarad, rom roca _ dakvirvebis Semdeg
_ aRmovaCenT, <rom mocemuli niSani sistemis sxva danarCeni niSnebis-
gan damoukideblad arsebobs>, rom mocemuli niSnisTvis aranairi
mniSvneloba ar aqvs, am niSans sxva garSemomyof niSnebTan kavSirSi
davakvirdeT, SegviZlia sityva parasèmes gamovtovoT da, piriqiT, <man>
kvlavac unda <iarsebos>, Tu davadgenT, rom sityva <aramc da aramc
ar aris sruliad> avtonomiuri im sistemaSi, romelsac is ekuTvnis. 181
† sityva gamoTqma (›es forma gamoTqvams...‹) da misi gamokvleva. 182
† vaCvenoT, rom termini iseve uZluri iyo, rogorc niSani, SeenarCune-
bina materialuri mniSvneloba an piriqiT. ›Dans ces termes‹
teqstualuria. 183
† termini <sxva SemTxvevaSi>, zustad rom vTqvaT, iqneboda is, risi
Tqmac sème-is Sesaxeb SegviZlia; raRac unda aRvniSnoT, rac mas Se-
exeba. sinqronizmi terminebis (termini) gansazRvruli raodenobisagan
Sedgeba, romlebic aRniSnul mniSvnelovan masalas inawileben. 184
† yoveli aposème ganixileba konkretul mocemul momentTan mimarTeba-
Si. faqtia, rom enaSi [›langue‹] gansaxilvelad is unda Seadgendes ara
mxolod ubralod bgerebis Tanmimdevrobas, aramed imas, rasac aposè-
me-s vuwodebT. upirvelesad is win da ukan SezRudulia. 185
† (piriqiT, nebismier bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobas, rogoricaa, magaliTad _
bd _ aposème-s ver vuwodebT, aramed isini mxolod bgeriTi formule-
bia, romlebic mocemul materialur momentSi sème-s warmoadgendnen.) 186

179
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3312.3.
180
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3313.1.
181
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3313.2.
182
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.1.
183
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.2.
184
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.3.
185
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.4.
186
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.5.

239
† Aposème = sème-is karkasi. savaraudod, es Sedareba dasaSvebia, anu
saxifaTo ar aris. magram mainc arsebobs safrTxe, rom es karkasi Ta-
vis avtonomiaSi organizebul sagnad rCeba, maSin roca sityvaSi ana-
tomia da fiziologia konvenciurobis principis gamo erTmaneTSi
ireva. 187
† sityvis miRebis am rTul sakiTxSi, romelic... Zalauflebas iyenebs,
im sagnebs Soris, romlebsac sème uwesebs sanqciebs, sul mcire σήματα
λυγςά: ar unda dagvaviwydes grafikuli sème, ufro metad ki unda
davinaxoT maT Soris warmomavlobiTi kavSiri. (...Cven sul mcire Zvel
sityvasTan movdivarT SesabamisobaSi, romelic poetma gamoiyena
imisTvis, raTa...). 188
† diaqronul WrilSi es sakiTxi amgvarad JRers: ›es igive sityvaa?‹ er-
TaderTi: ›es igive aposème-ia?‹, magram sinqroniis TvalsazrisiT, sru-
liad sxvagvaradaa saqme. ar arsebobs winaaRmdegoba (<ramdenadac> Se-
saZlebelia imis Tqma, rom isini Tavdapirvelad gansxvavebulad miaCn-
daT da Semdgom Seityves, rom identuri arian), radgan vambobT, rom
diaqronul WrilSi is zustad igive aposème-a. swored es aris gansxva-
veba (gvaqvs sityva = aposème da sityva = sème.) 189
† (Sedegi). savaraudod, ar gvaqvs imisi sababi, rom warmovidginoT,
erTi da igive sème epoqidan epoqamde rogor icvleba. amasTanave, isini
erTmaneTs unda SevadaroT [›commensuration‹], radgan sème <Tavisi
arsiT> damokidebulia momentis parasematur garemoze. 190
† vambobT, rom mniSvnelobis gareSe aranairi morfologia ar arse-
bobs, miuxedavad imisa, rom elementi materialuri formaa, romelic
advili Sesaswavlia. Sedegad, Cveni TvalsazrisiT, formis gareSe uf-
ro naklebad gvaqvs saqme semantikasTan! 191
Item. didi yuradReba unda mivaqcioT imas, rom analogiuri cvlilebi-
sas adgili ar hqondes aposème-s cvlilebas. es paradoqsi TavisTavad
amoixsneba, Tu ›aposème-s cvlilebis‹ nacvlad vityviT ›sityvis aposè-
me-s cvlilebas‹ an ›sème-s aposème-s cvlilebas‹. iqmneba sxva axali
sème, <parasème> (romelsac, cxadia, aposème ekuTvnis). pirveli sème-s na-
wilma cvlileba ar ganicada. cvlilebas adgili hqonda sème-s sfe-
roSi. is mTlianad mniSvnelobiT ganisazRvreba.
arsebobs parasematuri qmnileba, iseve rogorc arsebobs parasematuri
zegavlena da parasematuri Sinaarsi [›conversation‹].
magram sirTule SeiZleba iman warmoqmnas, rom parasematuri qmnileba
parasematuri zegavlenisgan gavmijnoT 192 , romelsac SeuZlia sème-s
Sinaarsis sruliad Secvla ise, rom verc SevicnobdiT, is sxva sème

187
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.6.
188
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.7.
189
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.8.
190
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.9.
191
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3314.10.
192
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 37, N 15, Nr. 3315.1.

240
Tu aris; xolo Tu ›forma‹ icvleba, calsaxad vambobT, rom is sxva
sème-a. gamarTlebulia Tu ara es gansxvaveba? 193
Item. metyvel subieqtebs aposème-ebze aranaklebi cnobiereba aqvT, ra-
sac gamoTqvamen, ganasxvaveben konkretuli warmodgenisagan. isini mxo-
lod sème-s acnobiereben. es aris swored is, rac saukuneebis ganmav-
lobaSi aposème-s srul cvlilebas uzrunvelyofs. 194
Item. gaazrebulad rom ganvixiloT lingvistika, gare faqtorebsac
unda SevexoT, magram ise, rom unda gagvaCndes gamocdileba mis Sig-
niT arsebuli mimzidveli [›prestigieux‹] fenomenebis Sesaxeb. lingvisti,
romelic mxolod lingvistia, vfiqrob, ver SeZlebs faqtebis klasi-
fikacias. TandaTan, praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT, sul ufro metad iT-
visebs fsiqologia Cvens mecnierebas, radgan mas surs aRniSnos, rom
ena [›langue‹] ara mxolod misi erT-erTi sferoa, aramed sakuTari moR-
vaweobis anbanuri safexuric. 195
magram Item ar aris is, risi Tqmac msurda. msurs vTqva, rom Tuki
winaswar gvecodineboda, rom lingvistika calkeul erTeulebs
Seicavda [ ]. 196
Item. enis [›langue‹] umniSvnelovanesi faqti aris is, rom mas Tan sdevs
ierarqiuli dayofa, zustad SezRudvadi erTeulebi. 197
Item. ra SeiZleba iyos enobriv/lingvisturi erTeuli? 198
Item. mis mniSvnelobas gavigebT, Tuki niSans aRvWurvavT warmodgeniT
da warmodgenas niSniT. daaxloebiT ase: gansazRvrul gansxvavebas
aqvs mxolod gramatikuli mniSvneloba, ramdenadac aRniSvna=niSniT
aRWurvas. sityvasityviT ›signifier à quelqu’un son congé‹. 199
Item. ori mizezis gamo gvaqvs enasa [›langue‹] da nebismier sxva ada-
mianur sagans Soris analogiis nakleboba: 1. niSnis Sinagani araraoba
[›nullitè‹]. 2. Cveni gonebis unari, damokidebuli iyos terminebze, romle-
bic TavianTi arsiT araraobas warmoadgens da romelTa mniSvneloba
nuls utoldeba (magram es is ar aris, rac upirvelesad mindoda meT-
qva. Temidan gadavuxvie.) 200
Item. bgeriTi niSnebis fsiqologizaciis Sesaxeb.
A) davuSvaT, rom laterna magikas erT wreze erTmaneTis miyolebiT
gvaqvs

mwvane wre
yviTeli “
Savi “
lurji “

193
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.1.
194
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.2.
195
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.3.
196
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.4.
197
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.5.
198
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.6.
199
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3315.7.
200
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3316.1.

241
(isev) lurji “
wiTeli “
iasamnisferi “
am niSnebis erTobliobidan SeiZleboda migveRo fsevdo-uunaroba,
warmogvedgina isini TavianTi TanmimdevrobiT, an ›rogorc xelaxla
SekavSirebadi [›recolligible‹] 201 Sedegi, romelic mTlianobas qmnis‹. <Sem-
dgom: sityvis mTeli gansakuTrebuloba imaSi mdgomareobs, warmoad-
gendes SekavSirebad [›colligible‹] sème-s, Tan ise, rom efuZnebodes marc-
vlebis Tanmimdevrobas.>
B) meore mxriv, davuSvaT, rom es konturebi erTmaneTs ar mosdeven,
aramed Tu maT wreze Tanmimdevrulad ganvalagebT. (<aq, cxadia /mwva-
ne/yviTeli/Savi/ iqneba davaleba>, marcxniv mwvane, Semdeg yviTeli da
a.S... marjvniv). am SemTxvevaSi unda gvqondes figura, Tu is yvelasTvis
xelaxla SekavSirebadi ar aris, elementarulad SekavSirebadi [›colli-
gible‹] figura mainc unda iyos. C. amgvarad miviReT vizualuri figura,
rogorc figura, amrigad temporaluri Tanmimdevrobis principi xan-
daxan unda davrRvioT da mivubrundeT [ ]-s. 202
203
Item. œ
Item. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom sityva arasakmarisad grZe-
lia; SeuZlebeli iqneboda, rom is mxolod erTaderT obieqtTan xel-
axla SegvekavSirebina [›recolliger‹]. es aris swored is, rac misgan tempo-
raluri danawevrebiT aseT iluziebiT mdidar fsevdo-organizms
qmnis. 204
Item. universaluri sivrcobriobis principi, roca sôme-s ganixilaven,
rogorc imas, rac sème-s mosdevs Sedegad: tranSebad ganawileba (yo-
velTvis erTi mimarTulebiT da Tanabari monakveTebiT), mravalformi-
ani ganawilebis magivrad, roca magaliTad ›pirdapir vizualur‹ sis-
temaSi (=ideografiuli xelnaweri)

Tu eqneboda, nebismieri mniSvnelobiT


daupirispirdeboda

~ ~ radgan amasTan dakavSirebiT ukanasknel imedad, savaraudod, or


sème-s Soris kontrastis SenarCuneba rCeba _ da ara sème-is mniSvne-
loba. _ or iseT sème-s Soris kontrasts, rogoricaa λέγομευ / λέγετε,
aregulirebs tranSebi, romlebic imave mimarTulebiT xorcieldeba
da erTimeores mosdevs. warmovidginoT aTasi sistema, romlebSic

201
sosiuris mier gamoyenebuli zedsarTavi saxeli recolligible frangul enaSic iseTive
neologizmia, rogorc misi nimuSiT warmoqmnili zedsarTavi saxeli rekolligibel germanul
enaSi. lingvistur terminologiaSi ki mis sawinaaRmdegod iyeneben arsebiT saxels Kolli-
gation, romelic aRniSnavs »enobrivi gamonaTqvamebis SekavSirebisTvis saWiro morfolo-
giur-sintaqsur pirobebs« (Sdr. H. Bussmann: Lexikon der Sprachwissenschft, Stuttgart 1990, gv. 390f.).
202
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3316.2.
203
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.0.
204
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.1.

242
verc erTi es piroba ver Sesruldeboda. (rTulia mxolod imitom,
rom isev metyvelebas [›parole‹] unda davubrundeT, ise, rom ver mivxvde-
biT, Tu rodis gveqneba kidev sxva semizmi [›sémisme‹]. 205
Item. <temporaluroba. > rac mets vswavlobT..., miT metad vxedavT, rom
is sonoruli jaWvis danawevrebulobaa (ipso facto – martivi, erTenovani
danawevrebuloba), romelic qmnis ara marto niSan-Tvisebebs, aramed
iluziebsac, maT msgavsad, visac sjera, rom enis [›langue‹] erTeulebi
organizebuli mTlianobaa, sadac isini droSi martivad gadana-
wilebul mTlianobas warmoadgenen da im funqciebis paraleluria,
romelic drois calkeul monakveTebs SegviZlia mivaniWoT. 206
Item. sanam specialuri semiologiis bunebas ar CavwvdebiT, sruliad
uSedegoa fiqri imis gasarkvevad, Tu ras warmoadgens enobriv/ling-
visturi semiologia. 207
Item. davinaxoT, Tu ramdenad SeuZlia sityvas Stück [›pièce‹] (Stück [›mor-
ceau‹]-isagan gansxvavebiT) samsaxuri gauwios lingvistur/enobriv ana-
lizs da anatomiasTan, <meqanikasTan> da misT. Sedarebebs _ aseve
Glied [›membre‹]. Tu misgan yvela mniSvnelobas amoviRebT, sityvas aRar
eyoleba wevrebi; garkveuli danawevrebis safuZvelze (bgeriTi dana-
wevrebis garda), maSinac ki, Tu manamde Canda, TiTqos mas es wevrebi
gaaCnda. 208
Item. sityva inerte... 209
Item. unda vizrunoT, rom SegveZlos Tqma: enobriv/lingvisturi niSnis
unisivrcobrioba yovel jerze sagrZnobi unda iyos da is sème-is zo-
gadi niSan-Tviseba ar aris. 210
Item. savaraudod, Rirs imis Tqma, rom iseTi diakritikuli niSnis uni-
sivrcobrivi principi, rogoricaa ο, fonetikur xelnawerSi ar irRve-
va, radgan am SemTxvevaSi mTlianobidan mxolod erTaderTi sème mi-
iReba (arc erTi wevri). magram aq, albaT, kidev raRac rCeba saTqmeli. 211
Item. enobriv-lingvisturi sème unisivrcobrivi sème-ebis sayovelTao
ojaxs miekuTvnebian, romelsac aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi yvela sème
miekuTvneba, romelic akustikur gadatanas [›transmission‹] emsaxureba.
<magram mniSvnelovania ara akustikuri gadatana, aramed unisivr-
cobrioba.> 212
Item. SemTxvevebi. _ Tu sityvas an misT. vizualuri signalebiT warmo-
vadgenT, rogorc erTmaneTis gverdigverd ganvalageT, savsebiT

205
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.2.
206
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.3.
207
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.4.
208
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.5.
209
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 38, N 15, Nr. 3317.6.
210
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.1.
211
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.2.
212
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.3.

243
sworia, yovel SemTxvevaSi im pirobiT, rom signali erTmaneTis gver-
digverd ganlagebuli erTeulebis ganusazRvreli raodenobisagan Se-
dgeba da ara, magaliTad, amgvarad, 1. 2. 2. da a.S., radgan
am SemTxvevaSi warmodgenebis ori rigi erTmaneTSi aireva da
aris zustad is magaliTi vizualuri niSnis SesaZlo Tanxvedrisa
droSi (an ara-unisivrcobriobisa) _ sxva SemTxvevaSi ki mxolod ma-
Sin, roca is danawevrebadia. 213
Item. savaraudod, gaCndeba moTxovna multisivrcobrivi sème-s magali-
Tis dasaxelebisa, <raTa gvqondes saSualeba, rom sème-s cneba ukeTe-
sad ganvsazRvroT>. auCqareblad rom daviwyoT, SemiZlia es saxeli
vuwodo alegoriul suraTs _ an romelime ferwerul tilos, ramde-
nadac <warmodgenil obieqtebs> ukavSirdeba sagnebis mniSvnelobac
[›la signifiance‹]. SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, rom es suraTi marcxniv iwyeba
da [ ] wydeba. 214
Item. Tu marTlac sityvaSi erTmaneTis Tanamimdevruli bgeriTi ele-
mentebis asaxva gvsurs, maSin gvWirdeba ekrani, romelzec <laterna
magikas meSveobiT> erTmaneTis Tanamimdevruli ferebis Cveneba gaxde-
boda SesaZlebeli da mainc, is mcdari iqneboda, radgan Cven ver SevZ-
lebdiT, erTi STabeWdilebiT xelaxla SegvekavSirebina [›recolliger‹] es
erTmaneTis Tanmimdevruli ferebi da amitom aris sityva, romelic
<rogorc mTlianoba> ekranze marjvnidan marcxniv an marcxnidan mar-
jvniv sivrcobrivad iwereba da es sityva CvenTvis sityvis ukeTesi
asaxvaa, <TumcaRa is droebiTia>. akustikuri sème metwilad dafuZne-
bulia vizualuri formebisgan gansxvavebiT akustikuri formebis <as-
magad> gamartivebul memorizaciaze. 215
Item. iseve, rogorc musikaluri fraza droTa ganmavlobaSi viTardeba,
radgan vinarCunebT [ ]-s, vizualuri fraza, romelic, magaliTad, SeiZ-
leboda yofiliyo mTiani sartyeli. [ ]-is sawinaaRmdegod. aRsaniSna-
via aseve: arc erTi vizualuri fraza, romelic erTmaneTis Tanmimdev-
ruli momentebisgan Sedgeba da amitom grafikul asaxvas SevudgebiT. 216
Item. <intertôme-s sasargeblod. > TviT iseTi termini, rogoricaa sôme
(σώμα), Tu gaamarTlebda, Zalian mokle droSi aRqmuli iqneboda, ro-
gorc sème-s sinonimi, romlelsac mas Seupirispirebdnen. aq lingvis-
turi terminologia xarks uxdis swored im WeSmaritebas, romelsac
Cven dakvirvebis faqtad vadgenT. yovel terminSi, rogoricaa sôme, wi-
naswar gansazRvrulia, sul mcire, ori mniSvneloba sityva=niSani: 1.
unisivrcobrivi sazRvrebis damTxveva, imgvarad, rom sôme Zeus zustad
imis sapirispiros aRniSnavs, rasac sème Zeus..., _ 2. zustad maSin, roca
niSans Tavisi mniSvnelobisgan gamovyofT, goneba niSanSi (an sôme-Si)
sul mcire im intencias debs, romelsac kunTebi moZraobaSi mohyavs

213
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.4.
214
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.5.
215
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.6.
216
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.7.

244
da amgvarad nebas amtkicebs. _ 3. < sôme iqneba organizebul nawilebSi
danawevrebadi karkasi, rac mcdaria. > 217
Item. organizebul/organul arsSi [›être organisé‹] <SeiZleba> funqcia
<mokvdes> ise, rom organizmi ar mokvdes. TviT gvamsac aqvs Tavisi
organoebi, rac anatomiuri mecnierebebisTvis masalas warmoadgens.
sityvaSi absoluturad araferia avtonomiuri, anu ar aris dasabuTe-
buli aranairi gansxvaveba Semadgenel nawilebs Soris, romlebic
funqciasa da Semadgenel nawilebs Soris kavSirSi imyofebian, romle-
bic am funqcias emsaxurebian, arsebobs mxolod erTmaneTis msgavsi
intonaciebis Sedegi, imdenad, ramdenadac sxva araferi gamodgeboda,
fexis nacvlad sityva filtvi rom Segveqmna. identuri tevadobis
principi. 218
Item. <diaTezi? _ Tu diakosmia? mocemul momentSi enis [›langue‹] ekono-
miisTvis. _ (= idiosinqronia). > 219
Item. Sedareba anatomiasa da fsiqologiasTan. enisaTvis [›langue‹] orive
maTgani erTi da igivea. _ Secdoma swored is iqneba, Tu vifiqrebT,
rom gramatika fsiqologiaa (funqciebis gamokvleviT), maSin, roca fo-
netika _ Tu fonologia? _ =anatomia iqneboda. saWiroa imis danaxva,
Tu sad moikoWlebs es analogia. Tvali ar utoldeba xels, iseve, ro-
gorc filtvi xerxemals; da amgvarad anatoms, maSinac ki, roca fun-
qciidan abstragirebas axdens, TiToeul organoSi gansxvavebuli obi-
eqti aqvs. magram aranairi gansxvaveba ar aris, magaliTad, mdedrobi-
Tis niSan î-sa da survilis gamomxatvel î-s Soris; rCeba mxolod dau-
muSavebeli materia, sanam ar gaviTvaliswinebT lingvistikaSi konven-
ciuri funqciis arsebobas. es aris funqcia, romelic intonaciis
[›phonisme‹] matarebelia, romelic Seadgens imas, rac am intonacias _
romelic Tavis TavSi yvela sxva danarCen intonacias utoldeba, <da
rogoric is aris,> SeuZlia absoluturad yvela funqciis Sesruleba
sakuTar Tavze aiRos _ upirvelesad ki organosTvis saxelis miniWeba.
_ msgavsi SeniSvna sityvis struqturis Sesaxeb. kidev erT-erTi am su-
raTTagani, romlebic sicxadis iluziis qveS faraven mcdari da cu-
dad asaxuli warmodgenebis samyaroebs. sityvas aranaklebi struqtu-
ra aqvs. sanam sxvadasxva nawilebis arsidan movaxdenT abstragirebas
[ ]. 220
Item. (gagrZeleba wina mxridan) Wadrakis TamaSTan SedarebiT ise
xdeba, rom funqcia (faseuloba) konvenciuria, magram rac struqturas
Seexeba, es analogia aranair safuZvels ar gvTavazobs, imdenad,
ramdenadac Wadrakis yoveli figura Semdgom danawevrebas aRar
emorCileba, radgan is, rogorc sityvis erTeuli, sxvadasxva nawilebs
sxvadasxva funqciebTan erTad Seicavs. 221

217
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.8.
218
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3318.9.
219
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3319.1.
220
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3319.2.
221
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3319.3.

245
~ ~ rasakvirvelia, manqana, meqanizmi ise ver dagvexmareba analogiaSi,
rogorc organizmi. aq gvaqvs anatomiac da fiziologiac. 222
~ ~ magram am sakiTxSi Zalian didi yuradReba unda mivaqcioT sityvis
nawilebis ›merizms‹ [›‹mèrisme›‹ 223 ] (droSi gadanawilebulobas); sonoru-
li jaWvis am gadanawilebulobas ufro meti wvlili Seaqvs, vidre
bgeraTa mravalferovnebas 224 , rom organuli jgufebis iluzia daTr-
gunon. safuZvelSive gasaocaria, rom iseT adgilebSi svamen defiss,
rogoricaa λυ-νη-σό-μευο-ς. 225
~ ~ aqedan gamomdinare, qimiuri analogia gonebas veranair informa-
cias ver awvdis, rac, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, sworia. 226
~ ~ davakvirdeT, rogor xdeba es taqtikuri analogiis dros, sabrZo-
lo wesrigis warmoCenisas. 227
Item. niSnis floba mxolod im SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, roca mas,
rogorc buSts, haerSi mivdevT da viciT, rom aucileblad daviWerT,
roca misi bunebis Sesaxeb angariSs srulyofilad CavabarebT _ or-
magi buneba, romelic araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar Sedgeba garsisgan da
gonebisgan, aramed wyalbadisgan, romelsac masSi CauSveben da <ro-
melsac> aranairi faseuloba ar eqneboda am garsis gareSe. _ buSti,
es aris sème da garsi – sôme, magram es Zalian Sorsaa im mosazrebisa-
gan, romelic gveubneba, rom garsi aris niSani da wyalbadi misi mniS-
vneloba ise, rom buSti TavisiT ver iarsebebda. haernaosnebisaTvis is
yvelaferia, zustad iseve, rogorc lingvistebisTvisaa sème yvelaferi. 228
Item. contre-sôme = mniSvneloba, iseve, rogorc sôme, SegviZlia Tu ara
isic ganvixiloT sème-sgan damoukideblad? sasurveli iqneboda, mag-
ram mocemul momentSi amis winapirobas lingvistebi da fsiqologebi
ver xedaven. <saqme exeba> imas, rom sôme da anti-sôme TavianT <moce-
mul> sferoebSi SevzRudoT, rac mxolod fizikuri iqneba. es aris
zustad benfeiseuli [›benfeyesques‹] orgiebis warmomavloba da axsna.
anti-sôme Tavis sferoSi savsebiT SeuzRudavia. amasobaSi aris sème da
sème-s sfero. 229
Item. † rasac Cven mniSvnelobas vuwodebT, aris is, rasac parasôme ewo-
deba da romlisganac, sôme-sagan gansxvavebiT, verasdros gavTavisufl-
debiT. is TviTon SeiZleba gaxdes kvlevisa da dakvirvebis obieqti.
sworad gvesmis: mas, garkveulwilad, SeuZlia kvlevisa da dakvirvebis
obieqti gaxdes, im pirobiT, Tu ganuwyvetliv davubrundebiT sème-s, an
sxvadasxva sème-s, romlebic am parasôme-s materialuri bunebiT aer-
Tianeben, anu sôme-Ti, magram es ar SegviZlia SevadaroT sôme-s kvle-
vas [›ètude‹], romelic damoukidebel movlenad vaRiareT. 230

222
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3319.4.
223
berZn. merisma-dan »gamijvna«.
224
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 39, N 15, Nr. 3319.5.
225
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3319.5.
226
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3319.6.
227
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3319.7.
228
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3320.1.
229
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3320.2.
230
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3320.3.

246
Item. <seirnobisas> siamovnebisTvis xeze naWdevs vakeTeb <sityvis uTq-
melad>. pirovneba, romelic Tan maxlavs, am naWdevis Sesaxeb warmod-
genas inaxavs da, eWvgareSea, rom is im momentSi am naWdevTan axdens
ori an sami warmodgenis asocirebas maSin, roca me sxva aranairi war-
modgena ar maqvs, garda imisa, rom igi movatyuo [›mystifier‹] an gaverTo.
_ yoveli materialuri sagani CvenTvis ukve niSania: anu STabeWdileba,
rasac sxvasTan vakavSirebT, <magram materialuri sagnis gareSe es
warmoudgenelia>. enobriv/lingvisturi niSnis erTaderTi gansakuTre-
buloba is aris, rom rom is ufro detalur asociaciebs iwvevs, vid-
re sxvebi da, albaT, SevamCnevT, rom warmodgenis asociaciis yvelaze
srulyofili formaa is, romlis realizebac mxolod konvenciuri
sôme-s meSveobiT xorcieldeba. 231
Item. lingvistur/enobrivi mecnierebis <mokle> istoriis mimoxilva. es
mimoxilva erTi TvalsazrisiT Zalze arasaxarbieloa da sevdiania
warsulis ori gadmosaxedidan. [ ] <gamovlinda gasaocari, marTlac
rom gasaocari sisuleleebi. > lingvistikis warsuli Sedgeba misi
rolis, <misi adgilisa da faseulobis, [ ]-s Sesaxeb> sayovelTao eW-
visagan, Tan axlavs kolosaluri monapovari faqtebis, im faqtebis Se-
saxeb, romelTa Sesaxebac 1810 wlamde umciresi warmodgenac ki ar
hqondaT da ara [ ]. <dainaxes maqs miuleris araseriozuli moZRvreba,
romelic enas [›langue‹] bunebis samflobelod warmoaCenda, romelic
TavisTvis arsebobs [ ]. > enis warsuli [›l’antiquité de la langue‹] maSinve
dafaruli sakiTxi iyo, enis [›langue‹] kontinualurobidan [ ]-is kapita-
lur monapovrad iqca. 232
Item. dainaxes maqs miuleris komikuri moZRvreba, romelic lingvisti-
kas sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa rigs miakuTvnebda da erTgvar
›enobriv/lingvistur samflobelod‹ miaCnda, romelic imave rangSi ar-
sebobda, rogorc botanikosebis mier gamokvleuli ›mcenareTa samyaro‹.
es seriozulad ganixiles da daadgines. magram minda vTqva, rom roca
reagirebdnen, kvlavac aravis SeeZlo imis Tqma, ra Tvalsazriss
eyrdnobodnen isini am reagirebisas, radgan lingvistikas swori sag-
nebis Sesaxeb [›choses justes‹] bundovani warmodgena hqonda da aranairi
SesaZlebloba ar gaaCnda, Seeqmna sakuTari mimarTuleba
[›DIRECTION‹]. 233
Item. Zalian sasaciloa is, rac <A da B mosazrebebs Seexeba,> radgan
es sicili, rogorc Cans, simarTlis marcvals Seicavs, Tumca es aris
zustad safuZvliani simarTlis absoluturi ararseboba, romelic
dRemde axasiaTebT lingvistebs. 234
Item. <bonté-santé>. douteux-Si an <amertume>-Si an noirâtre-Si aSkarad ori
elementia. magram pirveli elementi ar aris doute-s igiveobrivi (idem)
an <amer>, noir. ubralod gvaqvs, douteux: doute=goîtreux: goitre da a.S. _ es
erT-erTi meTodia, raTa safuZvlis cnebas naTeli movfinoT. kargi Se-
dareba: huldvoll Seicavs huld-s rogorc sityvas, xolo huldig mxolod

231
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3320.4.
232
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3320.5.
233
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3321.1.
234
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3321.2.

247
Zirs, romelsac huldig-Sic vxvdebiT. Cf. würdevoll, würdig, würde, <nœud :
noueux, langueur: langoureux>. (saqme exeba ara istoriul sakiTxs, aramed
Segnebul mdgomareobas.) 235
Item. yvelgan <aris> istoriuli mdgomareoba <da> Segnebuli mdgoma-
reoba, <ori mdgomareoba, romelic> erTmaneTs upirispirdeba. orive
maTgani niSnis mimarTulebebia. aqedan gamomdinareobs sirTule da,
aseve, aucilebloba, rom arasodes araferSi ar agverios isini.
isini erTmaneTs upirispirdebian iseve, rogorc sityvis ori sxvada-
sxva SesaZlo mdgomareoba da ori maTganis arCevanis dros sityvis-
Tvis TiToeuls calke aranairi mniSvneloba ar aqvs.
TiToeuli sityva aris diaqronuli da sinqronuli Tvalsazrisis ga-
dakveTis wertili. _ roca gvsurs gavTavisufldeT mudmivi kiTxvisa-
gan ›aris Tu ara es sème?‹, ganvixilavT sityvas, rogorc mocemul, sa-
yovelTaod cnobil sagans. 236
Item. aucilebeli gaxdeba, SevajamoT yvela saxeoba, romelic ›anali-
zis velebs‹ exeba. 237
Item. maSin, roca analizia saWiro imisaTvis, rom sityvis elementebi
davadginoT, sityva ar gamomdinareobs winadadebis analizidan. wina-
dadeba mxolod metyvelebaSi [›parole‹] arsebobs, diskursiul enaSi
[›langue discursive‹], maSin, roca sityva erTeulia, romelic yovelgvari
diskursis gareSe mentalur saganZurSi arsebobs. 238
Item. winaTqmuli ar gulisxmobs, rom sityvis elementebi <arasodes>
ar arseboben TavisTvis, rogorc mentaluri erTeulebi, aramed mxo-
lod imas gulisxmobs, rom sityva nebismier SemTxvevaSi analizisgan
gamoiyofa. 239
Item. faqtobrivad, mexsiereba mza winadadebebis mxolod Zalian
SezRudul raodenobas gvawvdis. es sxva araferi SeiZleba yofiliyo,
Tu ara SesaZlo kombinaciebis SeuzRudavi raodenoba, maSinac ki, Tu
terminebis raodenoba Zalian cotaa. amis sapirispirod, mexsiereba
aTasobiT gvawvdis mza sityvebs. ase rom, sityvas aqvs ara pirveli
saarsebo reJimi, is winadadebis rigiTi wevri ki ar aris, aramed is
SegviZlia ganvixiloT, rogorc winadadeba›mde‹ arsebuli, anu misgan
damoukidebeli, rac uCveuloa sityvis elementebisTvis sityvis erTe-
ulTan mimarTebaSi. danarCen SemTxvevaSi, diskursebSic ki, asobiT
SemTxveva gvaqvs, roca gamoTqvamen ama Tu im sityvas, xolo winadade-
bas – vera. 240
Item. ›saganmanaTleblo‹ faqts, rom Cven SesaZloa winadadebebs vswav-
lobT, sanam sityvebs gavecnobiT, realuri mniSvneloba ar aqvs. is
daiyvaneba Semdegze: vadgenT, rom yoveli ena [›langue‹] <Tavdapirve-
lad> Cvens gonebaSi aRwevs diskursebis meSveobiT, rogorc ukve

235
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3322.1.
236
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3322.2.
237
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3322.3.
238
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 40, N 15, Nr. 3323.1.
239
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3323.2.
240
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3323.3.

248
aRvniSneT da rogorc savaldebuloa. magram iseve, rogorc sityvis
bgera, romelic aseve sagania, romelmac CvenSi SemoaRwia, amgvarad
xdeba diskursebisgan sruliad damoukidebeli STabeWdileba, Cveni
goneba mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi scildeba diskursebs da mxo-
lod sityva rCeba. is faqti, Tu rogor moxda sityvis gamyareba, ar
aris mniSvnelovani, operacia ukve Sesrulda, im winapirobiT, rom
vadgenT: es swored is erTeulia, romelic gabatonebulia. 241
Item. arsebiTad unda aRvniSnoT, rom yovelTvis, roca yuradRebas va-
maxvilebT ama Tu im detalze, bgeris <erT-erT niuansze>, magaliTad,
ori sityvis odnav gansxvavebuli gamoTqma, erTaderTi saSualeba, ro-
melic xelT gvaqvs, aris zustad davakonkretoT sityvis Sesaxeb war-
modgena, Tu ras iwvevs Sesabamisi gamoTqma. Sesabamisad, sème-Si bgera
sxva danarCenisgan arasodes ar aris gamoyofili da Cven mxolod
garkveulwilad vflobT bgeras, roca mTlian sème-s viRebT, anu
mniSvnelobasTan erTad. <sityva Hund-isTvis viwyeb fiqrs Hund-is Se-
saxeb, roca vici, Tu rogor unda gamovTqva es sityva. > 242
Item. zedsarTavi saxeli, arsebiTi saxeli da zmna ar saWiroeben gra-
matikul niSnebs imisaTvis, rom iarsebon, rogorc zedsarTavma sa-
xelma, arsebiTma saxelma da zmnam. magram roca es faqti ufro naTe-
li xdeba, is Zalian Sordeba im mosazrebas, rom zedsarTavi saxelis
an arsebiTi saxelis buneba dadebiTad warmoaCinos.243
Item. Zalian didi gansxvavebaa iseT terminebs Soris, rogoricaa subi-
eqti da a.S., romlebsac winadadebaSi viyenebT ›metyvelebis nawile-
bad‹. winadadebis wevrebs SeiZleba lingvistur/enobrivad aranairi
Sesabamisoba ar hqondeT erTmaneTTan, maSin, roca ›zedsarTav saxels‹
an ›zmnizedas‹ da a.S... sul mcire, is piroba aqvs, rom bgeriTi formiT
iyos warmodgenili. Cven SegviZlia visaubroT winadadebis subieqtze
ise, rom <realurad> ar gagvaCndes es subieqti <ama Tu im materia-
luri gadatanis meSveobiT>, magram Cven ar SegviZlia visaubroT su-
bieqtze ise, rom ar gaviTvaliswinoT am arsebiTi saxelis bgeriTi
garsi, <rac Zalian mniSvnelovania> (sxva SemTxvevaSi, sadac is ar
aris, rasac es garsi, rogorc arsebiTi saxelis garsi aRniSnavda).244
Item. arsebobs sul sami saxeoba: _ bgeriTi gamoxatvis aucileblobis
gareSe: subieqti, predikati.
aucileblobiT, magram niSan-Tvisebebisadmi Seusabamo xmovani gafor-
mebiT: zedsarTavi saxeli, arsebiTi saxeli da a.S.
da, bolos, sxvadasxva bundovani gamoTqmebi. 245
Item. <erTi wami> davfiqrdeT am terminis Sesaxeb: ›gansxvavebis gamoT-
qma‹. TavisTavad igulisxmeba ori xmovani forma da ori masTan dakav-
Sirebuli warmodgeniTi forma [ ]. 246

241
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3323.4.
242
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3323.5.
243
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3324.1.
244
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3324.2.
245
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3324.3.
246
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 15, Nr. 3324.4.

249
250
N 16 247
»realurad arsebuli obieqtebi«

ra saxis realurad arsebul obieqtebTan gvaqvs saqme lingvistikis


SemTxvevaSi?
magaliTad, brealis semantikaSi, gv. 29-35 vkiTxulobT 248 ; gvxvdeba er-
Ti momenti, romelSic, erTi mxriv, vxedavT, rom amgvari konstruqci-
ebidan [›ausführungen‹] <gonebaSi> naklebad rCeba rame da, amavdroulad,
vxedavT Semdegs: is imazea damokidebuli, rom saubari yovelTvis
terminebsa da enas [›langage‹] Soris viTardeba. imisaTvis, rom am mimar-
Tulebas mivyveT, pirvel rigSi, saWiroa vicodeT, raSi mdgomareobs
misi arsis gageba, sanam arsebul terminebs Soris fenomenis Sesaxeb
visaubrebT. _ <Cf. immerhin S. 40 ff.> 249

N 17 250
»realurad arsebuli obieqtebis refleqsiebi«

3. realurad arsebuli obieqtebis refleqsiebi [ ]. 3. im mizezebis Ca-


monaTvali, romlebic enisagan [›langage‹] obieqts qmnian, romelic yo-
velgvari Sedarebis gareSe <dgas> da ar eqvemdebareba klasifikacias,
arc lingvistebis, arc filosofosebis mxridan.
pirveli mizezi: mniSvnelovani enebis [›langages‹] ararseboba, romlebic
bgeriT ki ara, sxva instruments mimarTaven imisaTvis, rom awarmoon
niSani.
am mimarTulebiT ufro Sorsac wavidnen, roca sasaubro enas [›langage‹]
adamianis organizmis funqcia uwodes, ris gamoc bgeriTi aspeqti ga-
mudmebiT erevaT imaSi, rasac niSnis meSveobiT azris gadatana hqvia,
romelic nebismieri saxiT SeiZleba gadmoices da iseve srulyofil
vizualur da TvalsaCino niSnebs warmoqmnis an gramatikas Seicavs,
rogorc aranakleb konvenciuri niSnebis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac bgeri-
Ti aspeqtisTvis virCevT. 251

N 18 252
»fiziologiis anatomia«

anatomia da fiziologia. arsebobs sityvis analizis msgavsi ram? ara.


aqedan gamomdinare: anatomi organuli sxeulidan gamoyofs nawilebs,
romlebic, sicocxlis abstraqciis mixedviT, sicocxlis arcTu mniSv-
nelovan faqtebs <warmoadgenen>. anatomiuri TvalsazrisiT, kuWi aris
sxeuli: amitom anatoms Tavisi dana Suagul kuWTan ki ar miaqvs, ara-
med mTeli drois ganmavlobaSi mis konturebs Semoavlebs 253 , romle-

247
savaraudod 1897-1900; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
248
M. Bréal: Essai de sémantique, Paris 1897.
249
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 16, Nr. 3325.
250
savaraudod 1897-1900; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
251
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 17, Nr. 3326.
252
savaraudod 1897-1900; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
253
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 41, N 18, Nr. 3327.1.

251
bic sicocxlis aucileblobiTaa nakarnaxevi da dadgenili, romlebic
kuWis garSemo arian da mas amavdroulad xels uSlian imaSi, rom igi
aerios elenTaSi an sxva romelime organoSi... <ase, magaliTad> avi-
RoT sicocxles mowyvetili sityva (misi bgeriTi substancia): kvla-
vac qmnis is organul sxeuls? araviTar SemTxvevaSi, aranairi mosaz-
rebis Tanaxmad. centralur principze dayrdnobiT, rom sôme-s mniSvne-
lobasTan kavSiri SemTxveviTia, gamodis, rom rac axlaxan άπο-δειχ-το-ς
iyo, axla mxolod uformo masaa a + p + o + d + e +. _ sadme CavurTavT:
sôme-s gamo mivdivar daTmobaze, vinaidan σώμα marTalia mkvdar, magram
mainc organos evolucias axdens. 254
<Tavdapirvelad séme?>
sôme. mas sWirdeba <terminis> <savse, Rrma, damajerebeli> argumenti,
raTa sabolood daesvas wertili mimdinare paronimias, rasac oraz-
rovnebis Sesaxeb diskursSic ganixilaven [ ].
<da> jer ar var darwmunebuli, rom Tu sôme-s aRiareben, sôme <male
ar gaxdeba> sityvis ormagi mniSvnelobis matarebeli, mTeli im wa-
ruSleli simZimiT, romlebic am sityvis pirvel mniSvnelobasTanaa
dakavSirebuli.
mizezi martivia _ sicocxle: esa Tu is sityva cocxlobs [ ] da sa-
zogado cxovrebaSic mxolod da mxolod <imitom, rom> [ ].
es mizezi ki imdenad sagulisxmoa, ramdenadac is terminis Ziebis TiT-
qmis Seusrulebeli misiaa, romelmac unda daadginos formasa da mniSvne-
lobas Soris zRvaris gamyofi, vgulisxmob terminebs, romlebic absolu-
turad miiCneva da aranair safrTxes ar qmnian, rom pirvelive enobriv
labirinTs vemsxverplebiT da masSi CaveflobiT. es terminebi <sul
ufro> metad vlindeba cocxali sxeulis anatomiuri kveTisas: [ ]. 255

N 19 256
»aforizmebi«

x. yoveli enobriv/lingvisturi faqtis winapirobaa, sul mcire <or


termins Soris> movaxdinoT Sedareba, <romlebic> erTmaneTis mimdev-
ruli an sinqronuli SeiZleba iyvnen. meore terminis arqona, <Tuki>
is, <rogorc yovelTvis> warmoebadi Cans, mxolod moCvenebiTia. 257
XI.

enaSi [›langue‹] ar arsebobs <SesaZlo> gansxvaveba imas Soris, Tu


XII.
ras gamoxatavs sxeuli da imas Soris, Tu ras ayalibebs is. rom ara
mxolod erTi momenti [ ]
XII. enaSi
[›langue‹] <iseve, rogorc> yvela semiologiur sistemaSi, ar Se-
iZleba gansxvaveba arsebobdes imas Soris, Tu ras gamoxatavs sxeuli
da imas Soris, Tu ras ayalibebs is. rom ara mxolod erTi momenti,
TviT erTaderTi da [ ] am simarTlis erTxel damtkiceba rom SeiZle-

254
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 18, Nr. 3327.1.
255
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 18, Nr. 3327.2.
256
savaraudod 1897-1900; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
257
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 19, Nr. 3328.1.

252
bodes, maSin TviT nebismieri momentisTvis, [ ] an misi arseboba, ro-
melic im gansxvavebebisgan damoukideblad, romelsac is gansazRvravs
[ ] an Tu misi sapirispiros damtkicebas SevZlebdiT erTxel [ ]. 258
XII. <elementi da niSan-Tviseba [›caractère‹] erTi da igivea. > is aris enis
[›langue‹] erTi <mimarTuleba> rogorc yvela sxva semiologiur siste-
maSi zogadad, rom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes gansxvaveba masSi, Tu ras
gamoarCevs sagani da imas Soris, Tu ras ayalibebs igi. 259
XIII. arc erT kanons, romelic erTdroulad arsebul terminebs Soris
gvxvdeba, ar aqvs savaldebulo xasiaTi. 260
XIV. ramdenime
WeSmariteba, romlebic [ ]-Si kvlav moiZebneba.
Cven arc aqsiomebis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT, arc principebisa da Tezebis
Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi saqme exeba <martivad da> wminda etimologiu-
ri TvalsazrisiT aforizmebs, gamijvnebs.
[ ] magram sazRvrebi, romelTa Soris es WeSmaritebebi kvlav moiZeb-
neba, saidanac gamomdinareobs [ ]. 261

N 21 262
»a. seSes Teoriuli lingvistikis meTodebis programis
Sesaxeb Canawerebi« 263

TiToeuli mcdeloba, romlis mizanicaa enis [›langage‹] safuZvlebis


Seswavla, Tavidanve <sakmaod> did gamoxmaurebas hpovebs _ Tuki is
dainteresebulia gansakuTrebuli meTodiT da amavdroulad enebis
[›langues‹] gaRrmavebuli codniT _, radgan is mxolod <mniSvnelovani>
pirovnuli refleqsiis produqti SeiZleba iyos.
aq ar gvaqvs arc winaswar aRniSnuli gzebi, romliTac ama Tu im ad-
gilas ganStoebebs vipovidiT, arc kvali, romelic mimarTulebas gviC-
venebda, romelsac unda gavyolodiT.
nawilobriv indoevropuli enaTmecnierebis dinamikaSi, nawilobriv ki
am dinamikis miRma Catarda ramdenime cda, raTa angariSi CaebarebinaT
obieqtebis WeSmariti bunebis Sesaxeb, romelic sityvebis, sufiqsebis,
prefiqsebis, winadadebebis da sxv. Sesaxeb gaaCndaT _ imiT, rom aRi-
ares maTi ara mxolod damoukidebeli arseboba, aramed yofis yvela
atributi, droSi maTi cvalebadobis CaTvliT. me rom yvela es cda
CamomeTvala, vilhelm fon humboldtidan dawyebuli herman pauliT
da fsiqolog vundtiT damTavrebuli, es iqneboda mxolod imis saT-
qmelad, rom isini masaliT mdidari cdebia, romelTac SeuZliaT aR-
marTon Senoba ise, rom am Senobis arc erTi safuZvelis monaxazi ar
gaaCndeT. zogierTi rusi lingvisti, gansakuTrebiT boduen de kurte-
ne da kruSevski enis [›langue‹] Teoriul xedvasTan ufro axlos iyvnen,

258
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 19, Nr. 3328.2.
259
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 19, Nr. 3328.3.
260
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 19, Nr. 3328.4.
261
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 42, N 19, Nr. 3328.5.
262
1908; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
263
A. Sechehaye: Programme et méthods de la linguistique théorique. Psychologie du langage, Paris, Leipzig,
Genf 1908.

253
vidre <nebismieri sxva vinme>, ise, rom isini ar iTvaliswinebdnen
wminda lingvistur/enobriv dakvirvebebs; miuxedavad amisa, isini da-
savleTis mecnierTa sazogadoebis mier ignorirebuli iyvnen. <uiTni.
amerikel uiTnis, romelsac me udides pativs vcemdi, am Temebis Sesa-
xeb arasodes uTqvams araferi, rac araswori iqneboda, magram is, ro-
gorc yvela sxva danarCeni, ar fiqrobs, rom ena [›langue‹] sistematikas
saWiroebs. TiToeuli sistematuri wamowyeba warmoadgens Sedegad
imas, ris Sesaxebac, gavbedav vTqva, rom SedarebiT axalia da uSua-
lod warmoadgens pirovnul, Zalze damoukidebel da xangrZlivi da-
Zabulobis Sedegs, romelic mxolod im pirobiTaa SesaZlebeli, Tu
WeSmarit azrovnebas lingvistur/enobriv codnasTan davakavSirebT,
WeSmarit filosofiur unarTan an ufro sworad, lingvistikis farg-
lebs gareT sxvadasxva disciplinebTan, rac [ ] mas aklda. >
Tu enis [›langue‹] fsiqologia gvinda SevqmnaT dadebiTi TvalsazrisiT
_ <aq ar viReb gadawyvetilebas imis Sesaxeb, > aris Tu ara es is, ri-
si gakeTebac m. seSes namdvilad surda _, rogorc Cans, aucilebelia,
lingvistikas Tavdapirvelad sxva mecnierebebTan mimarTebaSi iseTi
adgili mivuCinoT, <romelic lingvistikas> Seexeba; <magaliTad,
socialur mecnierebaTa lingvistika,
lingvistika da [ ], >
ise, rom Tavidanve vicodeT, Tu ra masStabiT aris <Tavis mxriv> fsi-
qologia amaSi CarTuli.
es ormagad aucilebeli gaxdeba, Tu m. seSes msgavsad lingvistikas
warmovadgenT, rogorc individualuri Tu koleqtiuri fsiqologiaSi
CarTul [›emboîtement‹] martiv dargad (an Tundac imad, rasac maTSi _
<gverdi avuare [ ] >). am SemTxvevaSi kidev ufro formalurad SegviZ-
lia moviTxovoT sicxade, raTa davinaxoT pirdapiri warmomavloba _
ama Tu im sazRvris dawesebis gareSe _ <zust> fenomensa da enis [›lan-
gue‹] fenomens Soris da aseve fsiqologiuri fenomenebis erTianobas
Soris. 264
~ ~ ~ vinaidan enis [›langue‹] fsiqologias ganvixilavT, unda aRvniSnoT,
rom, rogorc Cans, m. seSe aRar saubrobs brokas tvinis lateralu-
robisa da paTologiuri dakvirvebebis Sesaxeb, romlebic afaziis
sxvadasxva formebis saSualebiT daadgina, <romlebic> did interess
iwvevs, <ara marto> imitom, rom <imsjelos fsiqologiis mimarTebaze
[ ]-sTan, aramed sxva datvirTvac aqvs > <TviT> gramatikisTvisac. maga-
liTisTvis movixmob afaziis SemTxvevebs, romelTac arsebiTi saxelis
mTeli kategoria akliaT maSin, roca logikisa da aseve sxva Tval-
sazrisiT ganxilul <imgvar> kategoriebs SenarCunebuli aqvT subieqti. 265
danarTis saxiT davamateb, rom am mosazrebis dasadastureblad imaze
ukeTesi da seriozuli argumenti ar arsebobs, vidre imis warmodgena,
rom <sxva amosavali masalis Tanaxmad> is marTebulad miviCnioT.
<Tu is, iseve rogorc me, daadgens, rom es WeSmaritebaa, maSin unda
vTqvaT>, rom aprioria, roca SevityobT, rom enis [›langue‹] makontro-
lebeli tvinis erTi naxevarsferos dambla, a) mTel signologias Se-
exeba, anu [ ] 266

264
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 43, N 21, Nr. 3330.
265
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 35; N 21, Nr. 184.
266
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 36; N 21, Nr. 188.

254
faqtobrivad vxedavT, rom 1. mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi <afaziis
SemTxvevebis> sinaTleze gamotanisas, bgeraTa gamoTqmis unari, <uf-
ro sxva ramea> vidre unari, rom regularuli enis [›langage régulier‹]
niSnebi movixmoT, rac Seesabameba Cvens mtkicebas. 267
2. aranakleb xazgasasmeli da aRsaniSnavia, rom sametyvelo enis prob-
lemebis [›troubles du langage oral‹] asobiT saxeoba Sereulia [ ]-is
problemebTan. 268
lingvistikis bunebrivi dayofis Sedegad, yvela enobriv/lingvisturi
fenomeni maTi fsiqologiuri etiologiis safuZvelze ganixileba.
amasTan, etiologia xsnis, ramdenadac amis danaxvaa SesaZlebeli, im
garemoebebis cvlilebebis mizezebs, romlebic aRweven Tanafardobas,
stabilurobas ise, rom es avtoriseuli survili ar iyo [ ].
iseve, rogorc [ ]-is ganxilva.
_ jer kidev lingvistikamde yvela socialuri mecniereba _ sul mci-
re, isini, romlebic mniSvnelobas Seiswavlidnen _ sabolood fsiqo-
logiamde daiyvaneboda; es xels ar uSlis imas, rom zogad fsiqolo-
giasa da im mecnierebebs Soris, romlebsac sWirdebaT is cnebebi, ro-
melTac maT arc zogadi, arc TviT koleqtiuri fsiqologia ar awv-
dis [ ], arsebobdes uzarmazari gamyofi xazi.
maqs miuleris <enaTmecnieruli pretenziis mqone> samecniero-popula-
ruli warmodgenebi miuReblad rom ar mieCniaT, maSin maqs miuleris
periodis mTeli mecniereba unda dakmayofilebuliyo daaxloebiT
imiT, aTasobiT lingvistur/enobriv Temas Soris erTidan meoreze ga-
dasuliyo, <anekdoturi TvalsazrisiT, > da es yvelaferi yovelgvari
seriozuli warmodgenisa Tu pretenziis gareSe, romelic lingvisti-
kis mecnierul safuZvlad SeiZleboda qceuliyo.
ganvmartav Cems kritikas. mTlianobaSi TviT m. seSe, mas Semdeg, rac
man vundts samarTlianad usayvedura gramatikuli problemis ugule-
belyofa, TviTon mivida daskvnamde, rom amis Sesaxeb sakmarisi formu-
lireba unda Camoeyalibebina. es formulireba iqneboda, rom gramati-
kuli xdomileba moeqcia sakuTari Tavisa da imis farglebSi, riTac
is yvela sxva fsiqologiuri Tu logikuri aqtisagan gansxvavdeba.
rac ufro metad irjeba avtori, rom saazrovno formasa [›forme pensée‹]
da azrovnebas [›pensée‹] Soris gaumarTlebeli barieri gawyvitos, miT
ufro Sordeba, rogorc Cven vxedavT, sakuTar mizans, romelic imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom Camoayalibos gamoTqmis veli da misi kanonebi da
ara imaSi, rasac Cvens saerTo fsiqizmTan [›psychisme‹] aqvs zogadad
saerTo, aramed imaSi, rac, piriqiT, gaaCnia enis [›langue‹] fenomens spe-
cifikuri da absuluturad ganumeorebeli.
CemTvis mniSvnelovania aRvniSno, rom is exeba ara mniSvnelobas, ro-
melic SeiZleba hqondes CarTulobis [›emboîtements‹] Teorias, romelic,
ase vTqvaT, m. seSes meore Teziss warmoadgens mecnierebaTa zogadi
klasifikaciis Sesaxeb da romelic masTan erTad viTardeba, rac enis
[›langue‹] fsiqologias qmnis.
enis [›langue‹] fsiqologias rac Seexeba, is SeiZleba ise ucnaurad mi-
viCnioT, rogorc lingvistikis TiToeuli dargi, misi marTebuloba
deduqciuri gziT dgindeba da es deduqciuri gza isea warmodgenili,

267
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 36; N 21, Nr. 187.
268
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 35; N 21, Nr. 185.

255
rom ar aris naCvenebi, Tu rogor adasturebs upiratesobas wina kla-
sifikaciebTanN SedarebiT, romelic gamocdilebis safuZvelze miiRes.
isini, ra Tqma unda, emTxveva erTmaneTs, magram is, risi klasificire-
bac gamocdilebis safuZvelze moxda, formalurad [ ] moxmobis Rirsia.
unda gavimeoro, rom upirvelesad _ sworia Tu ara _ fsiqologiaSi
CarTva [ ]. 269

N 22.1 270
»Canawerebi Course II-is orobiTobebis Sesaxeb«

I. ena [›langage‹] SeiZleba daviyvanoT xuT an eqvs orobiTobamde an sa-


ganTa wyvilebamde, Tu am orobiTobis dadebiT mxares vaCvenebT.
II. mniSvnelovani upiratesobaa, isini <gansazRvrul wyvilTa [›paires
déterminées‹]> zust raodenobamde daviyvanoT. rogorc ikveTeba, [›offert‹],
ena [›langage‹] iqneba mxolod <simravlis [›multiplicité‹]> Sesaxeb <warmod-
genis> Sesatyvisi, romelic TviTon Sedgenili iqneboda heterogenuli
xdomilebebisagan da romelic warmoadgenda iseT mTlianobas, rom-
lis klasificirebac SeuZlebeli iqneboda [›ensemble inclassable‹].
III. orobiTobis kanoni gadaulaxavi rCeba.
pirveli wyvili, anu orobiToba: <niSnis orive fsiqologiuri mxare. >
asociacia ~ ~ ~. 271
meore wyvili, anu orobiToba: individi | masa.
ena [›langue‹], sagani, romelic metyvel adamianTa masis raodenobis gaT-
valiswinebis gareSea, uciloblad aris dakavSirebuli adamianTa
masebTan.
sxva formebi: ena [›langue‹] socialuri movlenaa, sxva SemTxvevaSi is ar
arsebobs. enas [›langue‹] individis gonebis mokrebis mizniT unda gacan-
des koleqtivis sanqcia. 272
<niSani, sanam is Sinagani asociaciis wyalobiT, romelsac is Seicavs
[›qu’il comporte‹], ormag mniSvnelobas SeiZens, da Semdgom ormagi mniSvnelo-
biT or sistemaSi Tavisi arsebobiT, ormagad gamoiyeneba [›manutention‹]: >
saganTa mesame wyvili enisa [›langue‹] da metyvelebis [›parole‹] meSveobiT
yalibdeba.
ena [›langue‹] socialurad sanqcierebulia da ar aris damokidebuli
individze. 273
individs an metyvelebas [›parole‹] miekuTvneba:
- yvelaferi, rasac moicavs fonetika,
- yvelaferi, rac kombinaciaa. _ yvelaferi, rac nebaa. _
orobiToba:
metyveleba ena [›langue‹]
individualuri socialuri
neba unebeloba
aq pirvelad aris saubari ori enaTmecnierebis Sesaxeb. 274

269
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 43, N 21, Nr. 3330.
270
1908-1909; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
271
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 27, N 22.1, Nr. 133, 139.
272
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 28, N 22.1, Nr. 141.
273
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 41, N 22.1, Nr. 241, 245.

256
N 23.1-7 275
»Canawerebi Course III-is Sesaxeb«

N 23.1. »leqciis Sesavali da geografiuli enaTmecniereba«

rogorc aRvniSneT, Cvens leqcias sam nawilad gavyofT da pirveli da


meore nawilis saTaurebi erTmaneTisagan mxolod mxolobiTi da mrav-
lobiTi ricxviT gansxvavdebian: I nawili _ enebi [›langues‹], II nawili _
ena [›langue‹]. es gansxvaveba <sinamdvileSi> savsebiT sakmarisia <oraz-
rovnebis gareSe> imisaTvis, rom xazi gavusvaT, Tu ra unda iyos am
or nawils Soris azrobrivi gansxvaveba. <erTi maTgani meoris ganzo-
gadeba iqneba.> arc saWiroebas ar warmoadgens da arc <Wkvianuria>,
rogorc SeiZleba sjerodeT, rom winaaRmdegobas dasawyisidan ukeTe-
sad axsnian imiT, rom, magaliTad, erTmaneTs daupirispireben 1. enebs
[›langues‹], 2. enis [›langue‹] sicocxles.
<faqtobrivad> Zalian damabneveli iqneboda CvenTvis, <sul mcire> Ce-
mi SefasebiT, Tu misi gageba mogviwevda mxolod saTauris mixedviT,
rom sagnebi, romlebsac enis [›langue‹] daxasiaTebisaTvis sayovelTao
mniSvneloba aqvT, iqnebodnen erTi sicocxlis Semadgeneli nawilebi,
biologiis <an am organizmis istoriis>: bevri maTgani arsebobs, ro-
melic am xedvas <gvTavazobs>, romlebic enaTesavebian sicocxlis an
istoriis fenomens, magram arseboben sxvebic, romlebic am CarCoebSi
arasgziT ar Tavsdebian, maT Soris enis [›langue‹] mTeli logikuri mxa-
re Seucvlel mocemulobebzea damokidebuli (an SeiZleba iyos damo-
kidebuli), romlebic ar exebian droisa da geografiuli adgilmdeba-
reobis SemTxveviTobas. <da amgvarad saTauri enis [›langue‹] sicocxle
Zalian cudi arCevani iqneboda, metismetad zusti da, aqedan gamomdi-
nare, metismetad SezRuduli. >es rom mxolod mosazreba yofiliyo,
gasagebia, magram vxedavT, rom yvela safuZveli gvaqvs imisa, rom <Ta-
vad> saTauriT ar davaskvnaT: enebi [›langues‹] konkretuli obieqtebia,
romlebic lingvistebis winaSea wardgenili. ena [›langue‹], es aris sa-
xelwodeba, romelic SegviZlia imas mivaniWoT, risi dadgenac ling-
vists sivrcesa da droSi enebze [›langues‹] dakvirvebis Sedegad SeuZlia. 276
pirveli Tavi: enis [›langue‹] geografiuli sxvadasxvaoba. es aris pirve-
li xdomileba, romelic yuradRebis miqcevas saWiroebs. <am> gansxva-
vebulobis sxvadasxva doneebi. 277
<dedamiwaze> enis [›langue‹] formaTa mravalferovneba, enis [›langue‹]
sxvadasxvaoba, rodesac gadavdivarT erTi qveynidan meoreSi an erTi
teritoriidan meoreze, es aris, ase vTqvaT, gadamwyveti [›primordiale‹]
konstatacia, romelTanac yvelas SeuZlia uSualod mivides.
es garemoeba ar unda agverios misi SesaZlo mizezebis ZiebasTan, mivi-
RoT is iseTi, rogoradac warmogvidgeba. getyviT imasac, rom es geog-
rafiuli diferenciacia pirveli xdomilebaa, romelic iseve, rogorc
lingvistebs, agreTve zogadad yvelas interess aRuZravs. enis [›langue‹]

274
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 42, N 22.1, Nr. 246.
275
1910-1911; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.
276
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 435, N 23.1, Nr. 2844, 2846.
277
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 435, N 23.1, Nr. 2845.

257
temporaluri cvalebadobis ganmavlobaSi damkvirvebeli Tavdapirve-
lad ver amCnevs, rom droSi enis cvalebadoba SeiZleba gamorCes. Cven
odnav mogvianebiT visaubrebT droSi enis cvalebadobis Sesaxeb da
davinaxavT, rom fundamenturad SeuZlebelia misi gamijvna sivrceSi
enis cvalebadobisagan. magram gavimeoreb da vityvi, rom mxolod meo-
rea uSualod mocemuli. damkvirvebeli imyofeba garkveuli Taobis
CarCoebSi da is enas [›langue‹] Tavisi survilis mixedviT ar irCevs; ase
rom, mas aranairi SesaZlebloba ar aqvs, rom aRniSnos igi [ ]. [ ]-is
sapirispirod. TviT veluri tomebi... da kerZod amiT, SegviZlia
vTqvaT, rom ganviTarebis dabal safexurze mdgomi eric gaacnobie-
rebs enas [›langue‹].
aloglosebTan kontaqti... babilonis godolis mSeneblobis Zveli mi-
Ti gviCvenebs, rom problema [ ] erTi jer kidev gamoucdeli mSenebe-
li, romelic Tavis dialeqtze saubrobs [ ].
amavdroulad, yuradReba mivaqcioT imasac, ra formiT vafasebT primi-
tiul erebs [ ]; isic interesis Rirsia. erTi mxriv, is ganasxvavebs
maT sxvaTa cxovrebisagan [ ]. 278
erTi niSan-Tviseba; da tanisamosi, Tmis varcxniloba, aRWurviloba.
sulac ar aris umniSvnelo: <Cveuleba, > da ara kanis feri, aRnagoba.
ίδίωμα-s orive mniSvneloba aqvs.
Tumca aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom, cxadia, yvela eri sistematurad sxva
enebTan mimarTebaSi afasebs sakuTar Tavs:
bègues _ βαρβαρος, mlêchas (aq gvaqvs sayovelTaod miRebuli msvleloba,
TviT civilizebuli erebisTvisac, rom yoveli fenomenis gaTvaliswi-
nebiT dro davuTmoT mosazrebebs, romlebic jansaRi adamianis go-
nebas uSualod ewinaaRmdegeba.)
~ ~ ~ sakuTriv lingvistikas rac Seexeba [ ].
lingvistika jer kidev [ ]-dan moyolebuli arsebobs.
gramatika, rogorc Sinagani analizi [ ]. berZnebi, [ ].
δίάλεχτοι. 279
~ ~ ~ replika: formacvalebadi [›proteiforme‹]. naklebi mimarTeba gramati-
kasa da enaTa [›langues‹] sxvadasxvaobas Soris.
~ ~ ~ sxva SeniSvna: Tu ena [›langue‹], erTi SexedviT, geografiulad gans-
xvavebuli Cans, is iseTi gvevlineba, rac eTnosebs erTmaneTisagan
ganasxvavebs?
eTnikuri = droSi variaciis principi, an droSi variaciis fardobiTi
winaRobis principi. amis Sedegad Sefasebebi, romlebic uSualod araa
mocemuli, SeiZleba erTmaneTSi agverios.
meore mniSvnelovani konstatacia sxvadasxvaobis xdomilebis mixed-
viT: met-naklebad Zlieri analogia, met-naklebi msgavseba an gansxvave-
buloba. 280 konstatacia, romelic bevrad martivia, vidre Cven warmo-
gvidgenia, Tu davinaxavT, rogor elodeboda mas SepirispirebiTi gra-
matika. daumuSavebeli... niSandoblivia... ara mxolod dialeqtebi, ara-
med: italiuri da franguli.
berZnebi dadebiTad afaseben, rom laTinuri ena didi raodenobiT [ ]-s
Seicavda.

278
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 436, N 23.1, Nr. 2847-2850.
279
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 437, N 23.1, Nr. 2852-2855.
280
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 438, N 23.1, Nr. 2855-2858.

258
sadamde mivyavarT mecnieruli ganxilvebis am dakvirvebas? msgavseba,
Tu mas seriozulad miviCnevdiT: naTesauri kavSiri. naTesauri kavSiri
saWiroebs genealogiis gaTvaliswinebas, anu warsulSi, wyarosTan
dabrunebas. amitom SeuZlebelia, rom isini detalebSi avurioT: mxo-
lod principi.
enobrivi ojaxebi [›familles de langues‹]. Tu am jgufebs Tavis mxriv Seva-
darebT erTmaneTs [ ]. gadaulaxavi sazRvrebi. 281
ori mniSvnelovani SemTxveva 282 :
sxvadasxvaoba naTesauri kavSiris dros
sxvadasxvaoba naTesauri kavSiris gareSe.
_ lingvistikis situacia am sxvadasxvaobis ori saxeobis gadmosaxedidan.
momenti, romelsac xazi unda gaesvas, aris is, rom lingvistika, faq-
tobrivad, Seiswavlis erTmaneTs Soris reducirebad enobriv ojaxebs,
romlebic erTmaneTisagan savsebiT izolirebulia. 283
1. imedi unda viqonioT, rom gadavlaxavT [ ]-s? semitur-indoevropuli.
trombeti. 284
2. yvela Sedareba akrZalulia? TiToeuli istoriuli Sedareba, di-
ax, magram ara gramatikuli organizaciis Sedareba. 285
1. warmoSobiT erTgvarovani enis [›une langue originairement une‹] diversi-
fikacia. <adgilze> danawevrebis principi. sayovelTao principad iqna
aRiarebuli, rom procesi, romlis meSveobiTac ena [›langue‹] <mraval-
ferovani [›multiple‹] xdeba>, nawevrdeba sxvadasxva enebSi [›langues‹],
aucilebeli ar aris, rom is kavSirSi imyofebodes <mosaxleobis>
spekulaciebTan. es spekulaciebi SeiZleba gaxdes faqtori, romelic
SeiZleba agverios, ase vTqvaT, gardaiqmnas, magram arsebiTi mniSvne-
loba aqvs imis dadgenas, rom es fenomeni iseve kargad funqcionirebs
am faqtoris miRma, rogorc misi zemoqmedebiT. Tu mocemulia geogra-
fiulad SemosazRvruli da erTenovani farTobi garkveul A momentSi,

geografiuli farTobi
momenti A
dro È
momenti B

aq gvaqvs ori ram, rac unda gavarkvioT da davadginoT: manamde vico-


diT, rom momenti B sxva, A momentis sapirispiro an nakleb modifici-
rebul enobriv mdgomareobas [›état de langue‹] warmogvidgenda. es aris
drois [›Temps‹], an imis Sedegi, rom ena [›langue‹] droSi [›Temps‹] cvale-
badobas ganicdis.
es pirveli xdomileba mxolod misTvis Tu iqneboda warmosadgeni, anu
marTalia, B Secvlil mdgomareobas gviCvenebs, magram is aranakleb
erTenovania, vidre A.

281
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 439, N 23.1, Nr. 2858-2860..
282
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 440, N 23.1, Nr. 2872.
283
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 441, N 23.1, Nr. 2872-2874.
284
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 439, N 23.1, Nr. 2863; A. Trombetti: L’unita d’origine del linguaggio, Bologna 1905.
285
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 441, N 23.1, Nr. 2875.

259
erTenovani farTobi (a)
A

B
erTenovani farTobi (b)

(erTgvarovani Sedegi cvlilebaSi)


magram meore, dakvirvebebis Sedegad dadasturebuli principi mdgoma-
reobs imaSi, rom cvlilebas arasodes mivyavarT mTliani zedapiris-
Tvis identur Sedegamde. yovelTvis xdeba ise, rom am cvlilebebis,
sul mcire, erTi nawili gansxvavebul mimarTulebas iRebs 286 zedapi-
ris gansxvavebul wertilebSi; da ase droSi [›Temps‹] cvalebadobas
yovelTvis Seesatyviseba diversifikacia sivrceSi.
erTenovani farTobi (a)
A

B
araerTenovani farTobi (b’, b’’, b’’’)

Tu erTi enis [›langue‹] SemTxvevaSi droiT sivrces [›l’Espace du Temps‹]


<sakmaris dros mivcemT, raTa SesamCnevi gaxdnen>, an rac aqedanve ga-
momdinareobs, Tu temporalur zemoqmedebas sivrcul elements Sev-
ZenT, arasodes mivalT iqamde, rom Sedegi iyos sivrcis an drois je-
radi, anu [ ]. idiomebis (b’, b’’, b’’’) mravalferovneba idiomebis cvlile-
bisgan damoukideblad:
a a
bÈ b’ È
magaliTi. mTel italiaSi garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi laTinu-
rad saubrobdnen. SesamCnevad identur laTinurs. Tu Cven imave geog-
rafiul sivrces dRes davakvirdebiT, es cvlileba warmogvidgeba
rogorc:
A erTgvarovani laTinuri
B erTgvarovani italiuri?
araviTar SemTxvevaSi. italiuri, romelsac sasaubrod iyeneben genua-
Si, veneciaSi, florenciasa da neapolSi [ ]. Tumca arsebobs permanen-
tuli mcdeloba, Seqmnan saerTo ena [›langue commune‹], saxeldobr, eg-
reTwodebuli literaturuli italiuri, magram es aris arsebiTad
literaturis produqti da eris nebis Sedegi [ ], TavisTavad toskanu-
ri dialeqtis safuZvelze.
laTinuris uSualo produqtebi imdenad gansxvavebulia, rom milane-
li, romelic neapolis saxalxo sasceno warmodgenas stumrobs, ver
gaigebs, Tu ras amboben msaxiobebi. evropis warmodgena xalxebis
gareSe. 287

286
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 446, N 23.1, Nr. 2919.
287
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 447, N 23.1, Nr. 2919.

260
geografiuli uwyvetobis pirobebSi sxvadasxvaobis
formireba

Cven mxolod im regionis monakveTidan gamovdivarT, romelic warmo-


SobiT sruliad erTenovani iyo an 288 aseTad SegveZlo CagveTvala. da
Cven aviReT <mTel am regionis> mkvidri mosaxleoba. nimuSad SegviZ-
lia avirCioT galiis regioni 200 wels, romelsac marTlac erTi ena
[›langue‹] hqonda, romelic garkveul momentSi erTi kuTxidan meoreSi
erTgvarovnad aRiqmeboda, romauli asimilaciis Sedegad; laTinuri,
romel enazec saubrobdnen trevSi, tursSi Tu tuluzaSi, Jenevasa da
marselSi, erT garkveul momentSi identuri iyo.
pirveli gansazRvruli faqti, roca mxolod dros ganixilaven. xan-
mokle Tu xangrZlivi periodis Semdeg, magaliTad 500 wlis Semdeg,
<Tu rogori iqneba es ena [›langue‹]> yvela sxva faqtebisagan damouki-
deblad, <iqamde mividodiT>, rom is aRar iqneba <igive>, sakuTar Tav-
Tan identuri, Tu mas drois am monakveTis meore <bolos> Sevada-
rebT. saidan viciT es? radgan es aris universaluri gamocdileba.
nebismier magaliTSi, romlis SemTxvevaSic istoria nebas gvrTavs miv-
yveT enis [›langue‹] or an samsaukunovan ganviTarebas, vadgenT, rom es
ganvlili drois monakveTi yovelTvis Seesabameba enis [›langue‹] met-
naklebad TvalSisacem cvlilebas. 289
absoluturi uZraobis [›immobilité absolue‹] magaliTi ar arsebobs. mxo-
lod droSi enis [›langue‹] dinamikis principia absoluturi; moZraobis,
romelic sxvadasxvagvarad mimdinareobs da konkretul SemTxvevaSi
met-naklebad swrafad, magram uciloblad [›fatalement‹]. arafers ar Se-
uZlia misi SeCereba: savaraudod, omebis, ajanyebebis da areulobebis,
erovnuli krizisebis periodebSi is ufro daCqarebulad mimdinare-
obs, rogorc es araerTxel daasabuTes; magram es fundamenturad
mniSvnelovani ar aris,
radgan TviT yvelaze wynar periodebSic ar xdeba, rom enis [›langue‹]
ganviTarebis dinamika (Tu calkeuli, gansazRvruli drois monakveTSi
SevxedavT) Tanabari iyos da ar aqvs mniSvneloba, aris Tu ara maT
Soris kontaqtebi. sayovelTao xdomileba SemTxveviTis msxverpli
xdeba, Tu safuZvlebs CavukvirdebiT, romelTac <xandaxan> am moZrao-
bis daCqareba SeuZliaT; sakmarisia, rom am moZraobam SeuCereblad,
bunebrivad, yovelgvari garegani faqtoris gareSe iarsebos. 290
[...]

N 23.3
»nomenklatura«

enis [›langue‹] problema umetesad nomenklaturis formiT warmogvidge-


ba. dabadebis IV TavSi vxedavT adams [ ] saxels aZleven da roca [ ]
SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom [ ] 291

288
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 452, N 23.1, Nr. 2951-2952.
289
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 453, N 23.1, Nr. 2952-2953.
290
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 318 f., N 23.1, Nr. 2205-2206.
291
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 147, N 23.3, Nr. 1035.

261
N 23.4
»realurad arsebuli obieqtebi da misi Semadgeneli nawilebi«

nawilebi
identobebi
4-saaTiani matarebeli 292 »la guerre, vous dis-je, la guerre!« 293

abstraqtulad arsebuli obieqtebi 294


wyoba hôtel-dieu. Dois-je. désireux.
(efuZneba nawilebs)
naTesaobiTi brunva. 295
1. mainc materialur erTeulebs efuZneba.
2. abstraqtuli = ara lingvistur/enobrivi.
3. Tu=mosaubre subieqtis cnobierebisTvis yvelaferi
konkretulia. 296

N 23.5
»sityva “terminis” mniSvneloba«

sityva “terminis” mniSvneloba. warmoudgenelia.


absoluturi SemTxveviTobis dayvana fardobiT SemTxveviTobamde yo-
vel enobriv sistemaSi [›système de langue‹], is, rac qmnis »sistemas«.
enis [›langue‹] arsi obieqtebis dasaxelebas rom iTvaliswinebdes, am
enis [›langue‹] sxvadasxva terminebs erTmaneTTan aranairi kavSiri ar
eqnebodaT. <erTi maTgani meorisagan> iseve gancalkevebiT idgeboda,
rogorc TviT es obieqtebi; <terminebi>, asea Tu ise, Seasrulebdnen
im amocanas, rasac materialuri da xilvadi <sagnebis> dasaxeleba
hqvia. ase, magaliTad, pain, caillou. 297
dakvirveba. _ sxva safuZvelis mqone gamokvleva. gamoTqma. moicavs
mniSvnelobebis gamokvlevas.
gamoTqmis sxva safuZveli: mniSvneloba.
pirdapiri _ arapirdapiri/iribi
martivi _ kompleqsuri/rTuli
daunawevrebeli _ danawevrebadi
(sinTezuri _ analitikuri)
1. »analitikuri« yvelafers ar Seicavs
2. »sinTezuri«
»sruliad SemTxveviTi« _ »nawilobriv SemTxveviTi«. 298
arsebobs SedarebiT SemTxveviTi da sxva, absoluturad SemTxveviTi
elementebi:

292
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 243, N 23.4, Nr. 1762-1763.
293
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 244, N 23.4, Nr. 1764.
294
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 309, N 23.4, Nr. 2165.
295
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 313, N 23.4, Nr. 2190.
296
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 315, N 23.4, Nr. 2195.
297
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 300, N 23.5, Nr. 2105.
298
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 302, N 23.5, Nr. 2117.

262
A termini B

termini C

vingt dix neuf 299


ormeau Poirier
berger vacher
geôle prison
hache couperet
concierge portier
jadis autrefois, toujours
souvent frequemment, parfois
aveugle, sourd, chauv bossu, boiteux
commencer entreprendre
violet
lentille
bien (bon)
Laub feuillage
métier Handwerk
Laub feuillage
1 feuille 2 age 300

+
Sinagani _ garegani asociacia
_ sistema: gramatikuli meqanizmi
_ »leqsikologiuri«
_ maizolirebeli _ makoordinirebeli enebi [›langues‹]
_ dargebis karada. izolirebuli dargebi, Sesatyvis dargebi

germanuli, inglisuri, Cinuri 301


ganviTareba. laTinuri Ö franguli
separare
ministerium. 302

299
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 297, N 23.5, Nr. 2090, 2094.
300
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 298, N 23.5, Nr. 2095-2096.
301
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv 302, N 23.5, Nr. 2119-2121.
302
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 303, N 23.5, Nr. 2123.

263
N 23.6
»niSnebis cvlilebis aucilebloba:
sinqronia da diaqronia«

sanam am Tavs davamTavreb, minda minaweri CavurTo, rogorc erT-erTi


<moCvenebiTi> gamotovebuli adgilis pasuxad, romelsac <masSi> miag-
nebT. albaT, ityviT, rom niSanTa cvlilebis [›altération‹] »aucileblo-
bas« arasakmarisad movfineT naTeli, maSinac ki, roca saubari iyo am
cvlilebaze.
cxadia, rom sanam vcdilobdiT CavwvdomodiT <mizezebs>, romlebic
ganapirobeben uwyvetobas = ara-Tavisuflebas droSi [›Temps‹], _ Cven
am cvlilebisTvis aranairi specialuri mizezi ar migvicia [ ]. <dro-
idan [›Temps‹] gamomdinare.> Cven vTqviT, <da CemTvis Zalian mniSvnelo-
vania> kidev erTxel gavusva xazi, rom is sxva araferia, Tu ara uwy-
vetobis erT-erTi forma, rom <TviT am faqtis meSveobiT> niSnebi
kvlav ganagrZoben arsebobas, isini iqamde midian, rom cvlilebebs ga-
nicdian. magram vaRiareb, ar gviTqvams ra ganapirobebs maT cvlile-
bas. ar miZneldeba <am gamotovebulis mizezis> moxmoba. Tavidanve
mivuTiTe, rom am cvlilebisTvis gansxvavebuli faqtorebi arsebobs,
romlebic imdenad Sereulia TavianT gavlenaSi, rom ar iqneba mizan-
Sewonili, myisve maTi gamijvna movindomoT. rogorc ukve vTqvi, faq-
tis, rogorc mTlianobis konturebis Semoxazva <darwmunebiT> SegviZ-
lia aRmniSvnelsa da aRniSnuls Soris <mTeli> urTierTmimarTebis
spekulaciebis gamoyenebiT, am cvlilebas adgili aqvs aRmniSvnelSi
Tu aRniSnulSi.
amrigad, Cven am cvlilebas viRebT ise, rom ar vmijnavT maT misi mi-
zezebisa Tu formebisagan, radgan arsebobs safrTxe, rom es dadge-
nili meTodis mixedviT ar moxdeba. vinaidan Tavi CaviyeneT situaci-
aSi, romelic Tavidan <gansakuTrebul mizezebs ugulvebelyofs, na-
Telia, rom> pirdapir ar SegviZlia imis Tqma, rom mis mizezebs Cavw-
vdebiT. aucileblobisa da gardauvalobis sakiTxi cvlilebis faqto-
rebisgan gancalkevebiT dgas; magaliTad, <drois pirobaze damokide-
buli masisTvis> gardauvalia, rom niSnebi bgeriTi aspeqtiT, <materi-
alurad> (TavianT akustikur xatSi) Seicvalon?
is, vinc am aucileblobis dasabuTebas SeZlebs, <jer> verafers gas-
cems pasuxs, <verc mizezebs, diax, verc im saidumloebiT mocul mo-
mentebs [›mysteres‹] axsnis safuZvlianad> da verc erT SemTxvevaSi ver
gamoxatavs Tavis mosazrebas romelime sxva aucileblobis Sesaxeb 303 ,
iseve rogorc cvlilebas, romelsac bgeriTi aspeqtiT warmogvidgens
da amgvaradve aRviqvamT: [ ].
ramdenadac saqme exeba droSi sayovelTao uwyvetobis mizezebs, isini
yvela damkvirveblisTvis advilad misadgomia: <rogorc apriori>; Cven
mxolod garkveuli, TvalsaCinoebisaTvis SeumCneveli mizezebi gamov-
yaviT, rogorc faqti, rom TiToeuli adamiani yoveldRiurad iyenebs
enas [›langue‹].
Tu saubaria droSi cvalebadobaze, umjobesia, Tavidan terminebisa da
mniSvnelobis globaluri mimarTebis spekulaciebze visaubroT imgva-

303
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 170, N 23.6, Nr. 1278.

264
rad, rom uari vTqvaT am aucileblobis apriorulad dasabuTebaze,
radgan calkeuli mizezebi erTmaneTisagan ar unda gavmijnoT. 304
umeteswilad mouxmoben xolme im martiv faqts, rom im tipis sagnebi,
romlebic dros [›Temps‹] eqvemdebarebian, icvlebian ise, rom sabolo-
od viRebT enas [›langue‹] an mimarTebebis jams [ ]. (<rom Sedegad ena
[›langue‹] = aRmniSvnels Soris mimarTebaTa jams [ ]. >) 305

IV Tavi, <rogor CavurToT winamdebare>: statikuri da istoriuli


enaTmecniereba
es Tavi winamdebare Tavis uSualo gagrZelebaa da, amavdroulad,
gvaZlevs zogad safuZvels, romlis Sesaxebac Semdgom SevCerdebiT.
am warmodgenis Tavdapirvel gegmasTan dakavSirebiT, <romelmac>, al-
baT, mis CanawerebSi pova asaxva, mciredi azrTa Seusabamobac ki ar
arsebobs. iyo martivad drois monakveTis gadayvana, romelSic me
drois [›Temps‹] <mocemuloba> Sevitane, istoriuli cneba 306 , <romelic
mesame TavSi gagacaniT>. faqtobrivad, drois faqtorTan dakavSirebiT
SeiZleba viyoymanoT, radgan ukve SemovitaneT drois [›Temps‹] <mocemu-
loba>. rogorc dainaxavT, misTvis mogvianebiT rom mimeCina es adgi-
li; am yvelaferze Semdgom gveqneba saubari.
magram radgan saqme exeboda nomrebs ise, rom substanciaSi araferi
Secvliliyo, eWvi ar Semparvia, garkveuli dadebiTi faqtorebis mxed-
velobaSi miRebiT, gaTvaliswinebulze adre Semometana Tavi drois
Sedegebis Sesaxeb.
is faqti, rom dro [›Temps‹] enis [›langue‹] dasamaxinjeblad <an Sesacv-
lelad> Cndeba, Tavidan arc ise mZime Sedegebis momtani Cans im piro-
bebisTvis, romlebsac emorCileba lingvistur/enobrivi mecniereba. aq-
ve imasac davZen, rom lingvistebis mxolod umniSvnelo nawils vxe-
dav, romelic mzad iqneboda daejerebina, rom drois [›Temps‹] sakiTxi
lingvistikisTvis gansakuTrebul pirobebs qmnis, gansakuTrebul sir-
Tuleebs, gansakuTrebul sakiTxs, ufro sworad, centralur sakiTxs,
romelsac ZaluZs lingvistika or mecnierebad gaxliCos.
Tu sxva mecnierebebs mivapyrobT yuradRebas, vimeoreb, naklebad Tu
SevZlebdiT gansakuTrebuli zegavlenis moxdenas, romelic drois
[›Temps‹] faqtoris gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinareobs (=<Tanamedrove>
terminebis cvalebadoba).
vxedavT, rom astronomiam mis gankargulebaSi arsebul minimalur
droSi <SesamCnevi> cvlilebebi daadgina <caze>, magram amitom ver
vxedavT <aSkara> safuZvels, rom astronomia orad gavyoT, rom misgan
ori mecniereba warmoiSvas.
vxedavT, rom geologia, astronomiisagan <odnav> gansxvavebiT, <gamu-
dmebiT> memkvidreobaze fiqrobs, droSi cvlilebebze, magram rogorc
ki is dedamiwaze myari garemoebebis Seswavlas iwyebs, romlebic dro-
is faqtoris miRma imyofebian, am ori sagnidan principulad gancalke-
vebul obieqtebs ver qmnis. 307

304
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 171, N 23.6, Nr. 1278-1279.
305
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 172, N 23.6, Nr. 1280.
306
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 174, N 23.6, Nr. 1301-1302.
307
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 175, N 23.6, Nr. 1302-1306.

265
vxedavT, rom arsebobs samarTlis mecniereba da samarTlis istoria
da rom amaze aravin ar ifiqrebda, <amitom> samarTlis istoria unda
vuwodoT mecnierebas, romelic gamoyofilia samarTlis mecnierebisagan.
vxedavT, rom saxelmwifoTa [›Etats‹] politikuri istoria droSi ara-
Cveulebrivad moZraobs, <magram> ar ganixilavs, roca esa Tu is isto-
rikosi Tavisi epoqis tilos eskizs akeTebs da am dros drois cvale-
badobas gamoricxavs.
<vxedavT,> Tu rogor viTardeba politikuri instituciebis istoria
<upirveles yovlisa> <saganTa> garemoebebis TvalsazrisiT, rogor
ver axerxebs is Temis Secvlas, roca is erTdroulad droSi <Tanmim-
devrul> cvlilebebze saubrobs.
vxedavT, Tu rogor aris dakavebuli politikuri ekonomia (politeko-
nomia [›politekonomia‹]) samuSaosa da kapitals, rogorc samuSao Za-
lebs, Soris wonasworobis SenarCunebiT, yvela SesaZlo Sualeduri
formiT. <magram aq>, am momentSi, aRsaniSnavia, rom im yvelaferTan
SedarebiT, rac zemoT ganxilul mecnierebebSi viTardeboda, <uecrad
TiTqos dekoraciis Secvlis Sedegad>, saubaria ekonomiis istoriis,
rogorc calke mecnierebis Sesaxeb (=politikuri ekonomia droSi),
<pirad> daskvnebs ar gamovitan imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad aris gamo-
yofili is faqtTa detalebisagan, CemTvis sakmarisia davinaxo, rom
romelime universiteti or sxvadasxva profesors endoba, rogoricaa,
magaliTad, Cveni ekonomikis istoria da politikuri ekonomia. ris
gamo? 308 albaT <da savaraudod>, amis Sesaxeb srul moxsenebas vera-
vin Cagvabarebs. magram imave mizeziT xdeba, rom Cven vxedavT lingvis-
tur/enobrivi mecnierebis orobiTobebs; saxeldobr imas, rom politi-
kur ekonomikas upirispireben faseulobis cnebas, <rom mxolod erT
Sinagan aucileblobas unda daveyrdnoT:> <Sevusworeb sakuTar Tavs:>
rom politikur ekonomiaSi, Tundac mcire masStabiT vidre lingvis-
tikaSi, saqme gvaqvs faseulobis cnebasTan (ipso facto: faseulobaTa sis-
tema), radgan TiToeuli faseuloba Sedis faseulobaTa sistemaSi. 309
<da ai>, aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom iqamde mividnen, praqtikulad
<SeetyoT survilis uqonloba> faseulobaTa Sesaxeb pirvelive mecni-
erebaSi orive obieqtis erTdroulad gamokvlevisa: calke aRebuli
faseulobaTa sistema <erT konkretul momentSi> da faseulobaTa
sistema droSi. 310
WeSmariti realoba aris is, rom TviT mecnierebebi, romlebic sagne-
bis SeswavliT arian dakavebuli, upiratesobas moipovebdnen, Tu isini
orive RerZze, romlebzec es sagnebi arseboben, srulyofil aRniSvnas
mouZebnidnen.

sinqronulobis RerZi
(romelzec SegviZlia drois
faqtoris ugulebelyofa)

da Tanmimdevrobis RerZi
(sagnebi x dro).

308
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 176, N 23.6, Nr. 1307-1313.
309
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 177, N 23.6, Nr. 1315-1317.
310
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 178, N 23.6, Nr. 1323.

266
Tu im mecnierebebs mivubrundebiT, romlebic faseulobebs Seiswavli-
an, gansxvaveba iqneba is, rac manamde TiTqmis mxolod fakultatiuri
iyo, pirveli rangis Teoriuli da praqtikuli aucilebloba gaxda.
dReis Semdeg SegviZlia davTqvaT, rom mecnierebad ver aRiqmeba, vinc
ver SeZlebs am ori RerZis miRma mecnierebas Cauyaros safuZveli. 311
mesamejer ukve Tu im mecnierebebTan mivalT, romlebic SemTxveviT
fiqsirebul faseulobebs Seiswavlian (semiologia), <da ara faseu-
lobas, romlis fesvi sagnebSia>=SemTxveviT <fiqsirebuli> (enobriv/
nlingvisturi) niSani, maSin ori RerZis diferenciaciis aucilebloba
Tavis ukidures maqsimums aRwevs, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom martivi
statistikis safuZvelze, apriorulad faseuloba aqvs mxolod imas,
rac TvalsaCinod faseulia [›valable‹].
TiToeul faseulobas, iseve rogorc <enobriv/lingvistur> niSans,
ori mxare aqvs. sanam am faseulobas, sul mcire Tavisi erT-erTi
mxridan jer kidev aqvs safuZveli sagnebSi, magaliTad:

miwis nakveTi Z
50 000 franki

(faseuloba: frankebTan mimarTebaSi>,


jer kidev SedarebiT SesaZlebelia, mas im droSi gavyveT, Tavisive
faseulobis variaciebSi da Tan ar unda daviviwyoT, rom awmyo (50 000
franki), Tavis mxriv, meryeobs Tavis fasSi oqros raodenobis Tval-
sazrisiT da a.S. magram es yvelaferi Seicavs sagnebis saboloo fa-
seulobas da umetes SemTxvevaSi ver laxavs garkveul zRvars.
amis sapirispirod, asociaciaSi, romelic qmnis niSans, pirvelive mo-
mentidan gvaqvs ori faseuloba, romelTagan erTi <mxolod meoris
wyalobiT> arsebobs (niSnis SemTxveviToba). Tu enobriv/lingvisturi
niSnis oridan erT-erTi mxare Tavis TavSi <arsebulad> CaiTvleboda,
maSin es cnebis mxare iqneboda warmodgena, rogorc niSnis
safuZveli. 312
enaSi [›langage‹] ena [›langue‹] gamoyofilia metyvelebisagan [›parole‹]; da
roca erTdroulad gvaqvs misi nawili, igi [ ] [ ] mosaubre masis su-
lieri samyaros nawilia, rasac metyvelebis [›parole‹] SemTxvevaSi ar
aqvs adgili. 313
<Tu aviRebT enas [›langue‹],> erTi SexedviT, araferi gviSlis xels,
rom ena [›langue‹] aRviqvaT logikad, radgan niSani SemTxveviTia. mosa-
ubre masis arsebobis faqti ar cvlis sagnebs, garda fsiqologiur-
logikuri [›psychologico-logique‹] Tvalsazrisisa, magram uSualod ar
gviCvenebs [ ]-s.

311
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 177, N 23.6, Nr. 1319-1322.
312
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 178, N 23.6, Nr. 1324-1329.
313
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 172, N 23.6, Nr. 1282.

267
magram roca erTveba dro [›Temps‹], sociofsiqologiis faqtTan erTad,
maSin vgrZnobT, rom ena [›langue‹] ar aris Tavisufali 314 ; mosaubre masa
x dro. 315
<gansazRvreba:> Tu enas [›langage‹] CamovaSorebT yvelafers, rac moi-
cavs metyvelebas [›parole‹], faqtobrivad darCenil nawils SegviZlia
vuwodoT ena [›langue‹] da SenarCunebuli iqneba mxolod fsiqikuri
terminebi, fsiqikuri naskvi warmodgenasa da niSans Soris, rac met-
yvelebis [›parole‹] SemTxvevaSi WeSmariti ar iqneboda.
magram es iqneboda mxolod ena [›langue‹] Tavisi socialuri realobis
miRma <aRebuli>, <rac ararealuria, radgan> Tu arsebobs ena [›lan-
gue‹], mas sWirdeba mosaubre masa, romelic am enas [›langue‹] iyenebs. ena
[›langue‹] koleqtiur sulSi cxovrobs 316 da es meore faqti Tavad Segv-
xvdeba gansazRvrebebSi. Tavidan ara metyveleba [›Parole‹].

es aris ena [›langue‹], axla ukve warmosaxviTi <an sicocxlisunariani>;


magram istoriuli realobis miRma.
vinaidan enobriv/lingvisturi niSani Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare,
SemTxveviTia, <erTi SexedviT Cans>, TiTqos araferi gviSlis xels
imaSi, rom iyos Tavisufali sistema, romelic mxolod logikur prin-
cipebze iqneba damokidebuli, [], aseve abstraqtuli Semcvelobisagan
damoukidebeli WeSmariti mecniereba.
mosaubre masis faqti dabrkolebas xom ar qmnis? seriozul
dabrkolebas ar qmnis, sanam mas sruliad gancalkevebiT aviRebT:
fsiqologiur-logikuri [›psychologico-logique‹]. 317
istoriuli realoba an dro [›Temps‹].
(mosaubre masa drois [›Temps‹] gareSe).
(dro [›Temps‹] mosaubre masis gareSe.

314
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 173, N 23.6, Nr. 1292-1293.
315
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 174, N 23.6, Nr. 1293.
316
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 172, N 23.6, Nr. 1283-1285.
317
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 173, N 23.6, Nr. 1288-1292.

268
--------------------------

ena [›langue‹] ar aris Tavisufali, uwyvetobis principis da ganvlil


drosTan dausrulebeli solidarobis gamo. 2. uwyvetoba moicavs cva-
lebadobis faqts, romelic faseulobaTa gadanacvlebas warmoadgens. 318

N 23.7 »enobrivi faseuloba«

is, rac ganuyofelia faseulobisagan, unda mivakuTvnoT sistemas,


erTmaneTis miyolebiT ganlagebuli sidideebis serias, romlebic
sistemas qmnian, an rasac faseuloba qmnis, es <arc> a) ganuyofelia
erTmaneTis miyolebiT ganlagebuli sidideebis seriisagan, romlebic
sistemas qmnian, <da arc> b) [ ] aqvT, aramed orive sagani erTxel da
umarTebulod <erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia>.
[...]
faseuloba aris <yovel momentSi> <saocari> terminis sinonimi, rome-
lic sistemaSi <msgavs terminebTan erTad> gvxvdeba, rogorc <saoc-
rad> SeTavsebadi sagnis sinonimi. [ ] Tu aviRebT <erTi mxriv> SeTav-
sebad sagans da [ ]-sTan mikuTvnebul sidideebs da meore mxriv Tana-
sistematur terminebs, maT Soris naTesaur kavSirs ver aRmovaCenT.
faseulobis Tavisebureba aris is, rom daakavSiros es orive sagani.
mas Cveni goneba sasowarkveTamde miyavs> im uunarobis gamo, rom ar
SegviZlia davadginoT, faseulobis orive mxares Soris arsebobs Tu
ara gansxvaveba da Tu arsebobs, <raSi> mdgomareobs igi. namdvilad
<uTuoa> erTaderTi ram, rom faseuloba or RerZs miuyveba, rasakvir-
velia, ori RerZis Sesabamisad:

... Æ ... Æ

318
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 174, N 23.6, Nr. 1294-1300.

269
similia, Tavis mxriv, <TavisTavad aris Tavisi> dissimile-Ti aRWurvili da
marTebuli suraTi Semdegnairi iqneboda:
Similia> Similia> Similia
Similia> Similia> Similia
amis sapirispirod, bolo suraTi, romelic banaluria da romelic
faseulobas da sagans erTmaneTs uTanabrebs, <Tavis wesebs Tavis Tav-
Si moiazrebs>, imiT, rom mcdar absolutur realobas cnobs.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, vinarCunebT sqemas:

Dissimilie
Similia ← Similia ← Similie →Similia→ Similia 319

mimarTeba Simile:Dissimile sruliad gansxvavdeba mimarTebisagan Simile:Si-


milia da es mimarTeba dausabuTeblad, kerZod ki, Sinagani siRrmiT
[>jusqu’au trefonds<] fasulobis cnebasTan [ ] kavSirSi. 320

N 24 a 321
»semiologia«

mecnierebs surT daadginon, lingvistika sabunebismetyvelo mecniere-


bebis rigs miekuTvneba Tu istoriuls. is arc erT maTgans ar
ekuTvnis, aramed moicavs mecnierebis im ganyofilebas, <romelic Tu
is ar iqneboda, iarsebebda > semiologiis saxeliT, anu niSanTa mec-
nierebidan maTi gamokvleva [›étude‹] xdeba, roca adamianebi cdiloben,
TavianTi azrovneba aucilebeli konvenciebiT axsnan. <yvela semiolo-
giur sistemas Soris> semiologiuri sistema ›ena‹ [›langue‹] erTaderTia
(naweriT, <romlis Sesaxebac mocemul dros visaubrebT, >) romelic
<am gamocdis winaSe dadgeboda>, dros daupirispirda da martivad,
mezoblebs Soris urTierTobiT ki ar aris <dasabuTebuli>, aramed
mamasa da Svils Soris damakavSirebeli tradiciis meSveobiT da im
SemTxveviTobis Tanaxmad, rasac am tradiciaSi aqvs adgili, rac imis
miRma aRar aris Semowmebuli, <arc cnobilia da arc aRwerili>. am-
rigad, Tu movisurvebT, lingvistika fsiqologiuri mecnierebaa imde-
nad, ramdenadac is semiologiuria, magram fsiqologebs arasodes ar
mouxmiaT dro TavianT semiologiaSi.
is faqti, Tu romelia pirveli garemoeba, romelsac filosofosebis
interesis gamowveva SeeZlo, filosofosebis mier ignorirebulia; arc
erTi maTgani ar gvaswavlis, Tu ra xdeba semiologiis gadacemisas
[›transmission‹]. da <igive> faqti imdenad izidavs lingvistebis yuradRe-
bas, <rom maT sjeraT> maTi mecnierebis istoriuloba an savsebiT is-
toriuloba, maSin, roca is mxolod da mxolod semiologiaa: aqedan
gamomdinare, fsiqologiaSi savsebiT apriorulad SenarCunebulia is

319
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 259, N 23.7, Nr. 1864.
320
Cf. CLG/E (I), gv. 260, N 23.7, Nr. 1864.
321
savaraudod, 1908-1912; Sdr. engleri 1975 a, gv. 840.

270
piroba, rom is Tavis mxriv xedavs, rom enaSi [›langue‹] obieqti gaaCnia,
romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi farTovdeba da romelic aiZulebs, Ta-
vi daaRwios droebiTi niSnis an droebiTi warmodgenebis Sesaxeb
spekulaciebs. 322
1. lingvistikaSi ar arsebobs gansxvavebuli xedva, rom SegveZlos sa-
kuTari mosazrebebiT vimsjeloT, aramed ori <iZulebiTi> xedva, ro-
melic obieqtidan gamomdinareobs (sinqronuli da metaqronuli).
2. enobriv/lingvisturi xdomilebisTvis elementi da niSan-Tviseba mu-
dam erTi da igivea. is enisTvis [›langue‹] da yvela semiologiuri sis-
temisTvis saerToa da aranair gansxvavebas ar uSvebs imas Soris, Tu
ris diferenciacias axdens sagani da ras warmoadgens igi (radgan
›sagnebi‹, romelTa Sesaxebac aq aris saubari, esenia niSnebi, romel-
Tac mxolod erTi amocana, <mxolod erTi arsi aqvT, iyvnen
gansxvavebulni>).
3. TiToeuli lingvistur/enobrivi faqti Sedgeba erTi aspeqtisagan da
es faqti mdgomareobs mxolod am aspeqtSi. _ 4. TiToeuli lingvis-
tur/enobrivi faqti winaswar gulisxmobs or termins, romlebic SeiZ-
leba iyos Tanmimdevruli an sinqronuli.
5. enobriv/lingvistur obieqtebs sadme ki ar gaaCniaT fuZe; maT aqvT
Tavisebureba, mxolod maTi gansxvavebulobis wyalobiT iarsebon, ise,
rom ar gamoviyenoT nacvalsaxeli da am etapze sxva termini vuwodoT
da ara gansxvaveba.
6. arc erT kanons, romelic sinqronul terminebs Soris gvxvdeba, ar
aqvs savaldebulo xasiaTi. enis [›langue‹] esa Tu is nawili, romelic
mosaubre masis enidan <amovglijeT> (amiT gansxvaveba im yvelaferTan,
rasTanac lingvistikas aqvs Sexeba, pirveli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, wi-
naswar ar aris apriorulad gansazRvruli, <ramdenadac Semdegi gamo-
uTqmeli da utyuari> SemTxveviTobis niSania), amgvarad, yvelaze
srulyofili sawyisi gulgrilobiT Sefasebul enis [›langue‹] erT
nawils:
1. aqvs gansazRvruli, erTjeradi egzistencia.
2. aqvs arsebobis aranakleb bevri saxeoba. ufro metad ki, zustad sa-
mi saxeoba imisTvis, rom iarsebos:
a) daaxloebiT panqronuli TvalsazrisiT
b) daaxloebiT sinqronuli TvalsazrisiT
g) da daaxloebiT diaqronuli TvalsazrisiT. _ da es <absolutu-
rad> sxva araferia, Tu ar CavTvliT ganawilebas, romelic [ ]-
isTvisaa
1. ar arsebobs iseTi ram, rac Z iqneboda, Tundac fiqtiurad. ar arse-
bobs <centraluri obieqti, romelic nebas mogvcems>, z-sityva da z
erTmaneTTan davakavSiroT da aseve ar arsebobs centraluri warmod-
gena, <da is xelovnurad iqneboda nawarmoebi, > ise, <rom> gonebis-
Tvis am ori sagnidan erTian masas Seqmnida. es aris, ase vTqvaT, wi-
Tels <mocemul faqtsa> da wiTels <(imave faqts)> Soris arsebobs
erTiani <da centraluri> warmodgena, romelic emsaxureba imas, rom

322
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 47, N 24.a, Nr. 3342.1.

271
ganasxvavos konkretuli batalionis <wevrebi> polkSi an sxvadasxva
rangis warmomadgenlebi. Cven mtkiced CamovyalibdiT Semdeg formulaze:

323

Tu sityvis konkretul elements z-iT aRvniSnavT, maSin is sagnebi, ro-


melsac gramatika Seiswavlis, gamonaklisis gareSe warmodgenili iq-
neba z-sityviT. isini arasodes iqneba warmodgenili z-iT.
is, visac z-is gamokvleva surs, Sedegad ikvlevs z-s sakuTar TavSi (an
saerTod ar ikvlevs). ufro metic, mas Semdeg, rac gamoikvlevs z-s
<yvela saxeobas>, jer ar iwyebs gramatikuli sagnebis Seswavlas.
gramatikuli sagnebis Seswavlas igi iwyebs z-sityvis gamokvleviT. Tu
Semdeg imis damtkiceba surs, rom z da z-sityva erTsa da imave idea-
lur gamokvlevas miekuTvnebian, rom isini erTiani azrobrivi saSua-
lebebia, <romlebsac mas vuqvemdebarebT, > Semdgom ki mas misive Te-
zisis yvelaze srulyofil uaryofas vupirispirebT, arsebiTad Cven
uarvyofT, rom is zogad Tema z-s gvaZlevs. 324
enis [›langue‹] upirvelesi <universaluri> niSan-Tvisebaa, iarsebos am
gansxvavebebis wyalobiT ise, rom ar warmoiSvas aranairi Sesusteba
[›mitigation‹], <rogoricaa> magaliTad isini, romlebic ama Tu im pozi-
tiuri terminis Semotanisas konkretul momentSi Cndeba. <da mainc>
meore niSan-Tviseba, rom <am> gansxvavebebis TamaSi <mocemul moment-
Si> gacilebiT SezRudulia imasTan SedarebiT, vidre SeiZleba yofi-
liyo. ocdaaTi Tu ormoci elementi (I)
< (I) amiT mxolod erTi ramis Tqma gvsurs: ›am gansxvavebebis jami,
romelic 30 an 40 elementisagan SeiZleba miviRoT‹. is, rom am elemen-
tebs sakuTriv aranairi faseuloba ar gaaCniaT, es aqsiomaa. > _ ocda-
aTi Tu ormoci elementi Cndeba imisaTvis, rom es didi gamonaklisi
SeinarCunon. da ai is, Tu ra aWarbebs am 30 Tu 40 <realurad arse-
bul obieqts, es aris enisaTvis [›langue‹] saintereso>.
Sesabamisad [ ] [ ] 325
ucnauria, rom saubroben erTi mxriv recto da verso, aseve samosis endroit
da envers-is Sesaxeb, magram is, rom [ ].
arsebobs kontrastebi, romelzec <mijaWvulia> mTeli rigi aucilebe-
li warmodgenebi, maTi antagonizmis miuxedavad, roca samosis endroit
da envers-is Sesaxeb vsaubrob, am calkeuli warmodgenis <garSemo>
uSualod raRac aris, rac Cveni molodinis sawinaaRmdegod moqmedebs
imgvarad, rom envers aRar miiCneva endroit-is martiv winaaRmdegobad.
xolo roca recto-s da verso-s Sesaxeb vsaubrob, isini winaRobebia,
romlebic savsebiT Seesabamebian erTmaneTs, Tu vityviT, rom winaswar,

323
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24 a, Nr. 3342.2.
324
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24 a, Nr. 3342.2.
325
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24 a, Nr. 3342.3.

272
apriorulad, niSani ar <arsebobs>, romelic recto-s da verso-s an piri-
qiT, specialurad ganasxvavebda erTmaneTisagan.
numizmaturi terminologia eZebs, rom ar movtyuvde, [ ]. 326
<SemTxveviT aseT daskvnamde mivdivar: >
Tu <mwerali> sadme viellesse-s nacvlad sénescence-s ambobs, cxadia, rom
am sityvas uSualod eqneba Tavisi gavlena, anu aTasobiT asociacia,
warmodgena, romlis Tavidan acileba mas surda, aicilebs Tavidan; da
is aTasobiT asociacia, romlis gamowveva Tu SemoTavazebac mas sur-
da, gamoiwvevs da SemogvTavazebs kidec. sityva (sénescence an nebismieri
sxva) amrigad, leqsikaSi gvxvdeba da <Sedegad> ise Cans, rom raRac
Seiqmna da es raRac (radgan qmnadoba [›création‹], rac azrovnebidan <ni-
SanSi> gadadis) absoluturad usasruloa. am WeSmaritebis gaazreba
yvelaze niSandoblivia [ ].
lingvistika <organizebuli> mecniereba rom iyos (rogoric is <Zali-
an martivad> SeiZleboda yofiliyo, magram aqamde jer kidev ar aris),
misi erT-erTi gansazRvreba iqneboda: sinonimis Seqmnis uunaroba, rac
absoluturi da Zalze niSandoblivia da rac gamoirCeva yvela im sa-
kiTxs Soris, romlebic niSanTan kavSirSi imyofebian.
sirTule, romelsac SevigrZnobT, roca raRacas viniSnavT, rac enaSi
[›langue‹] bunebrivia, sametyvelo niSnebSi <romlebic qmnian enas> [›dans
les signes de parole qui constituent le langage‹], es aris SegrZneba, rom es niSnebi
mravalricxovanTagan erT-erT yovlismomcvel mecnierebas mie-
kuTvnebian, ramdenadac is aris mecniereba enis Sesaxeb [››science du
langage‹‹].
mgoni naCqarevad visaubreT enis mecnierebis [››science du langage‹‹] Sesa-
xeb. es iyo <erT> dros, roca garda calkeuli romanuli enebis Sems-
wavlelebisa, jer kidev aravis hqonda warmodgena, Tu ra iyo konkre-
tuli ena [› langue‹] an ena zogadad [› langue‹] Tavis dinamikaSi.
pirveli mcdeloba [ ]. 327
sityva signologie, rac mis agebulebas Seexeba, ar aris iseTi Sokismomg-
vreli, rogorc terminologia, sociologia, mineralogia da sxva sit-
yvebi, romlebSic daboloeba -logia laTinuri terminidan isesxes. Tu
am termins <usamarTlod> gansakuTrebulad miviCnevT, radgan didi
xania, Cveni frangulis xelovnur mdgomareobaSi ar viciT, gn iseve un-
da warmovTqvaT, rogorc sityvaSi signe Tu rogorc laTinur signum-Si:
magram amaSi avtori ar aris damnaSave, damnaSavea <mxolod ena [›lan-
gue‹], ramdenadac enis [›langue‹] aRniSnul saxelebs orTografiuli kon-
venciis mixedviT iyenebs, romlebic istoriul da logikur faseulo-
bas saWiroeben.> Tu gvsurs, SegviZlia <akademiurad> movuxmoT
iuridiul termin cognat-s (gamoiTqmis cog-nat), raTa <aseve> gamovTqvaT
signologie, amas aranaklebi mniSvneloba aqvs: ase da amgvarad, <kvlavac
mxolod> frangulad <vilaparakebT>, radgan <viciT>, rom arc <Cveni
Serbilebuli n> arc –gn- ar Seesabameba WeSmarit laTinur gamoTqmas,
rogoric is laTinistebis mier aris aRiarebuli da udris n+n. <Sig-
nologie frangul sityvaTwarmoeba –gue-s davupirispiroT. > sityva signo-

326
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24 a, Nr. 3342.4.
327
Cf. CLG/E (II), gv. 48, N 24 a, Nr. 3342.4.

273
logie moiTxovs ganmartebas. Tavdapirvelad sityva semiologia gamoviye-
ne. am saxeliT marsel nevilma Tavisi mecnierebis klasifikaciis 328
xelaxla gadamuSavebul gamocemaSi am mecnierebas pativiscema gamo-
ucxada da pirvelma Seitana [ ]-is wreSi. 329
) im faqtis gamo, rom ar arsebobs elementi (an Tundac sxva aTasi
<mizezis> gamo, radgan Cven ar virwmunebiT, rom saganTa kartezianu-
li sistema SevqmeniT, romelic yvela SesaZlo TvalsazrisiT azrob-
rivad aRsaqmeli iqneba), vxedavT, rom (jer marTlac) arc erT ele-
ments ar SeuZlia sakuTari Tavis transformireba; aramed es mxolod
maSin moxdeba, Tu mas sxva ramiT Secvlian TviT im SemTxvevaSic, Tu
saqme ›fonetikas‹ exeba da rom amgvarad, zogadad yvela operacia da
mTeli am <operaciebis diferenciacia> Canacvlebis bunebaSia, romel-
sac Cven saubrisas vemorCilebiT. vinc ambobs substituts, imwamsve
aRiarebs, rom termins, romelic substitutSi gvaqvs, gaaCnia egzis-
tencia,... da a.S. 330

N fo