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Paul Kußmaul

Verstehen und
Übersetzen
Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

2. Auflage

narr studienbücher
narr studienbücher
Paul Kußmaul

Verstehen und
Übersetzen
Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

2., aktualisierte Auflage


Paul Kußmaul, Ph D, Akad. Direktor i. R., 34 Jahre tätig in der Ausbildung von Diplomüber-
setzerinnen und Diplomübersetzern am Fachbereich Angewandte Sprach- und Kultur-
wissenschaft der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz in Germersheim.

Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek


Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen National-
bibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über <http://dnb.d-nb.de>
abrufbar.

2., aktualisierte Auflage 2010


1. Auflage 2007

© 2010 · Narr Francke Attempto Verlag GmbH + Co. KG


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Bindung: Nädele, Nehren
Printed in Germany
ISSN 0941-8105
ISBN 978-3-8233-6542-6


 

   

 
 

 
 
 

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Wenn die Wörter zu fehlen scheinen 35

bone. Auch diese Beispiele lassen sich in umgekehrter Richtung betrachten. Dann
ergeben sich wieder Divergenzen, und konkrete Vorstellungen (Szenen) sind
dann wieder eine Übersetzungshilfe. Ein Satz wie She was cutting the meat off the
bone erweckt eher nicht die Vorstellung vom Entgräten eines Fischs, sondern vom
Fleischtranchieren, und die Übersetzung von bone ist dann nicht „Gräte“, sondern
„Knochen“.

1.6 Wenn die Wörter zu fehlen scheinen


Es wird immer wieder gesagt, es gebe Wörter, die unübersetzbar seien. Ein oft
genanntes Beispiel ist „gemütlich“. Gemütlichkeit, so heißt es, sei etwas so ty-
pisch Deutsches, dass es dafür im Englischen, Französischen oder Italienischen
kein Wort gebe. So zu denken ist falsch. Natürlich kann man das Wort
„gemütlich“ übersetzen, es wird ja nicht ohne Kontext gebraucht. „Ein
gemütliches kleines Zimmer“ lässt sich bei entsprechender Größe und0|E
lierung mit a cosy little room übersetzen, und „Er ist ein gemütlicher Mensch“
bei entsprechendem Wesen und Verhalten mit He is an easy-going person. Es wird
auch hier wieder deutlich, dass es auf unsere Vorstellungen (Szenen) von den
Dingen und Personen ankommt. Zwar gibt es im Englischen kein Wort, das die
gleiche umfassende Bedeutung wie „gemütlich“ hat, aber innerhalb der
jeweiligen Szenen gibt es durchaus Entsprechungen.
Gute zweisprachige Wörterbücher deuten zumindest an, was wir hier als Szene
bezeichnen. Langenscheidt/Collins Großwörterbuch Englisch z.B. differenziert:
a (=bequem, behaglich) comfortable
(=freundlich) friendly
(=zwanglos) informal
(=klein und intim) cosy
b Mensch good-natured, pleasant
(=leutselig) approachable, friendly
(=gelassen) easy-going, relaxed
c (=gemächlich) unhurried, leisurely
Bei dem englischen Wort local wird zwar niemand sagen, man könne es nicht
übersetzen, aber es ist oft schwierig, eine Entsprechung zu finden. Es ist ein fal-
scher Freund der gefährlichen Sorte. Es kann manchmal mit „lokal“ übersetzt
werden, z.B. local news mit „Lokalnachrichten“ oder local newspaper mit „Lokal-
zeitung“, aber nicht immer ist das möglich. Manchmal fehlt uns das passende
Wort. Im bereits erwähnten ISSP, hier aus dem Jahr 2001, lautete eine Frage:
Suppose you wanted the local government to bring about some improvement
in your local community. How likely is it that you would be able to do some-
thing about it?
Local taucht hier gleich zweimal auf. Als Übersetzer tendiert man meist dazu, zu-
nächst einmal Entsprechungen auf Wortebene zu suchen. Dass „Lokalverwal-
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Der notwendige Differenzierungsgrad 67

für einen deutschen Leser, der nicht weiß, wofür Winchester steht, nicht direkt
falsch, aber nicht genau genug, also unterdifferenziert, und müsste nach einem
nichtbinären Maßstab klassifiziert werden. Die in public school enthaltene und
durch den Satz im Ausgangstext in den Vordergrund gerückte Eigenschaft „eli-
tär“ könnte vom Leser nicht ohne weiteres erschlossen werden. Eine Übersetzung
dagegen wie
(2b) Als sein Vater starb, konnte seine Mutter es sich nicht mehr leisten, ihn
nach Eton zu schicken, jene teure englische Privatschule, aus deren Absolven-
ten auch heute noch ein Großteil des politischen und wirtschaftlichen Füh-
rungsnachwuchses hervorgeht.
wäre viel zu detailliert. Zwar hat der Übersetzer hier die im Originalsatz impli-
zierte Tatsache, dass es sich um eine teure Schule handelt, explizit gemacht, aber
so viele zusätzliche Informationen hinzugefügt, dass man geradezu sagen kann,
dass die hier wichtigste Information, nämlich „teuer“, verdeckt wird. Wenn der
Text jedoch das Thema „das englische Bildungssystem“ hätte, könnte man sich
überlegen, ob man public school auf diese Weise detailliert übersetzen sollte.
Das Prinzip des notwendigen Differenzierungsgrads lässt sich durch psycho-
linguistische Beobachtungen untermauern. Eine Gruppe von Psycholinguisten
(Barcley et al. 1974) stellte anhand von Experimenten fest, dass wir im Verste-
hensprozess nicht alle potenziellen Eigenschaften einer Vorstellung (mit Fillmore
können wir hier auch von einer „Szene“, die „Elemente“ enthält, sprechen)
aktivieren, sondern nur die im Kontext relevanten, manchmal nur eine einzige.
(„Aktivieren“ ist ein von Psycholinguisten in diesen Zusammenhängen verwen-
deter Terminus, wir könnten auch sagen „wird in unserer Vorstellung lebendig“.)
Dies lässt sich durch ein inzwischen häufig zitiertes Beispiel aus diesen
Experimenten illustrieren (Barcley et al. 1974:passim). Das Wort Klavier hat
potenziell eine ganze Reihe von Eigenschaften: SCHWER, HÖ LZERN, TÖ NEND,
SCHÖ N usw. Wenn jedoch jemand die Sätze
1. Der Mann hob das Klavier.
2. Der Mann zertrümmerte das Klavier.
3. Der Mann stimmte das Klavier.
4. Der Mann photographierte das Klavier.
hört oder liest, aktivieren die Verben jeweils nur eines der verschiedenen Ele-
mente der Szene „Klavier“. Der erste Satz aktiviert das Element SCHWER, der
zweite das Element HÖ LZERN, der dritte das Element TÖ NEND, der vierte das
Element SCHÖ N (Barcley et al. 1974:476).
Es erscheint mir wichtig, auf die Rolle der Verben in diesen Sätzen hinzuwei-
sen. Sie sind der Kontext, in dem eine Vorstellung lebendig wird. In diesen Bei-
spielen, die ja jeweils nur aus einem Satz bestehen, ist der Kontext nicht sehr um-
fangreich. In der Praxis des Übersetzens ist ein solch minimaler Kontext eher die
Ausnahme. Meist müssen wir etwas weiter blicken, manchmal ganze Abschnitte
ins Auge fassen, um zu merken, was aktiviert wird, d.h. um zu erkennen, was
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Erweiterung des Weltwissens 83

Was wir uns aber fragten, war: Wer ist Martin Amis (1. Abschnitt), und was
hat er für Haare? Selbst wenn unsere Leser Martin Amis kennen, können wir
nicht damit rechnen, dass sie sofort ein Bild von ihm vor sich sehen und über
seine Frisur Bescheid wissen.
Wie beim letzten Beispiel suchen wir nun Informationen zum heutigen Zeit-
punkt. Über Google finden wir den Eintrag in der Wikipedia, einer mehrsprachi-
gen, freien Online-Enzyklopädie, zu der jeder mit seinem Wissen beitragen kann
(http://de.wikipedia.org). Die Wikipedia ist natürlich kein Brockhaus. Wer dort
schreibt, ist nicht unbedingt ein Fachmann. Die Informationen sind also mit etwas
Vorsicht zu genießen. Der große Vorteil der Wikipedia ist aber, dass dort auch
über ganz aktuelle Themen neueste Informationen zu finden sind. Mit den fol-
genden beiden Beispielen kann sich jeder eine Meinung zur Qualität und Nütz-
lichkeit der Informationen bilden:
Martin Amis (*25. August 1949 in Oxford) ist ein englischer Schriftsteller und
Sohn des Romanciers Kingsley Amis. Für seinen ersten Roman The Rachel Pa-
pers erhielt er (1974) den Somerset Maugham Award. Amis veröffentlichte
eine Reihe weiterer Romane, Kurzgeschichten, sowie einen Band Memoiren
(Experience), in dem er sich vor allem mit seiner Beziehung zu seinem
berühmten Vater auseinandersetzt.
In der Wikipedia ist dieses Bild von ihm zu sehen:

Abb. 2

Seine Haare und seine Frisur sehen eigentlich ganz normal aus. Man fragt sich,
was daran so besonders sein soll, dass sie ein Gesprächsthema sein könnten. Es
wäre wenig sinnvoll, in der Übersetzung nach dem Prinzip des notwendigen
Differenzierungsgrads zu erklären, wer Martin Amis ist, und dann seine Frisur zu
beschreiben. Als ich den Text mit meinen Studentinnen und Studenten über-
setzte, beschlossen wir, „Martin Amis’ hair“ durch „Das Outfit von Madonna“ zu
ersetzen. Dazu führten uns Überlegungen über die kommunikative Funktion der
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Qualitätskontrolle und Evaluierung 169

Übersetzungen einzelner Textstellen. In der Berufspraxis werden Übersetzungen


am Schluss noch einmal durchgesehen und, wenn nötig, korrigiert. Bei der
Umfragenübersetzung nimmt diese Phase einen breiten Raum ein.
Evaluierung und die dazugehörigen Methoden sind ein fest etabliertes Gebiet
der Übersetzungswissenschaft. Ich verweise auf die Artikel 108-114 in dem von
Mary Snell-Horny et al. herausgegebenen Handbuch Translation (1998). Ich greife
einige Punkte heraus, die im Kontext meines Buchs wichtig sind.
Bei der Qualitätskontrolle geht es zunächst einmal um Organisation. Die
Kontrolle muss zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt im „Herstellungsprozess“ einer
Übersetzung stattfinden und fest etabliert sein. Für Übersetzerbüros ist dies
wichtig, wenn sie die heutzutage begehrte und allgemein angestrebte Zertifizie-
rung erlangen wollen. Sie ist geregelt durch die ISO (International
Standardization Organization) 9000ff. und DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung)
2345 (vgl. Schmitt 1998b:394ff.). Seit 2006 gilt statt der DIN 2345 die EN 15038,
eine europäische Norm. Das Korrekturlesen (Qualitätslektorat) geschieht
normalerweise nach Abschluss der Übersetzung. In Übersetzerbüros mit
mehreren Übersetzerinnen und Übersetzern findet das Korrekturlesen in der
Regel durch eine Kollegin oder einen Kollegen statt.

Abb. 2

Wie die Qualitätskontrolle bei sozialwissenschaftlichen Umfragen aussieht, habe ich in


Kap. 3.2 kurz beschrieben. Bei dem erwähnten TRAPD-Verfahren versucht man, durch
mehrere Stufen (Übersetzung, Überprüfung, Entscheidung für eine Übersetzungs-
variante, Testlauf, Dokumentation) eine gute Qualität zu erreichen. Meist werden zwei
Übersetzer für einen Ausgangstext eingesetzt, und die Entscheidung für eine der
beiden Übersetzungsvarianten oder für eine Kombination aus beiden wird von einer
Gruppe von Personen getroffen. Dadurch ist ein relativ hohes Maß von Objektivität
und Zuverlässigkeit gewährleistet. Dass es trotz dieser geradezu idealen formalen Vor-
aussetzungen dennoch Verstehens- und Übersetzungsprobleme geben kann, habe ich
in Kap. 4.4 (Übersetzung von nowadays und government) gezeigt.
Wer als Übersetzer allein arbeitet, wird sich normalerweise selbst korrigieren
müssen. Dies ist auch die wohl häufigste Situation in der Ausbildung, wenn man
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Lösungsvorschläge zu Kapitel 7 199

gebrauch des Homo sapiens noch deutlicher, der im Bild ja einen Hammer in der
Hand hat. Man kann die Übersetzung vereinfachen zu „mit der Hand umschlos-
sen hielten“, denn die Bedeutung von „Hand“ bezieht sich sowohl auf die Hand-
fläche als auch auf die Finger.
Hafts and shafts sind, wie aus den Definitionen des DCE hervorgeht, eigentlich
Synonyme:
haft a long handle on an axe or other weapon
shaft a long handle on a tool, spear etc
In der Abbildung sind allerdings keine Waffen zu sehen, sondern ein Hammer.
Man kann die Wortgruppe wohl als Hendiadyoin (eine aus zwei Synonymen
bestehende rhetorische Figur) betrachten. Nach dem Prinzip des notwendigen
Differenzierungsgrads (Kap. 3) genügt es hier zu übersetzen, wie es eine
Klausurteilnehmerin tat, mit „indem sie an ihren Werkzeugen Stiele anbrachten“,
und das passt auch zur Abbildung.
Übersetzungsvorschlag für den 3. Abschnitt:
Es ist seit längerem bekannt dass der Neandertaler Werkzeuge anders hielt als
der Homo sapiens, und zwar nicht so wirkungsvoll. Die Neandertaler hand-
habten ihre Werkzeuge vor allem mit einem so genannten power grip, indem
sie z.B. einen Stein oder Faustkeil mit der Hand umschlossen hielten. Im Ge-
gensatz dazu macht der moderne Mensch ausgiebig von Werkzeugen mit
Stielen, z.B. Hämmern, Gebrauch, durch deren Hebelwirkung mehr Kraft aus-
geübt werden kann.
Kommentar: Die oben erörterten Übersetzungen mit ihren Vereinfachungen sind
hier integriert. Beim letzten Satz lautete die Übersetzung zunächst: „Dadurch
ergibt sich ein mechanischer Vorteil und damit mehr Kraft.“ Als ich mit meinen
Studenten diese Textstelle diskutierte, schauten wir uns noch einmal die Abbil-
dung an, worauf der Vorschlag gemacht wurde, hier den Begriff „Hebelwirkung“
zu verwenden. Dadurch wird der Begriff „mechanischer Vorteil“ noch weiter
präzisiert und konkretisiert. Außerdem ergibt sich dadurch, wie wir noch sehen
werden, eine Möglichkeit, das Wortspiel am Schluss des Texts (shafting the opposi-
tion) wiederzugeben.

Aufgabe 2
Zur Übersetzung von a 3D grid of the surface in question empfiehlt es sich, noch
einmal den unmittelbar vorausgehenden Kontext zu lesen und sich vorzustellen,
was der Photograph getan hat. Dann hat man die Ausgangsbasis für die Überset-
zung, und man wird vermutlich die Stelle mit „3D-Raster der Handknochen“
übersetzen. Damit ist die Kohärenz und Anschaulichkeit des Texts verbessert.
Die Textstelle humanity’s ancestors were shafting the opposition nimmt das Thema
hafts and shafts aus dem 3. Abschnitt wieder auf. Die konkrete Bedeutung wird
hier zu einer übertragenen Bedeutung abgewandelt, wie sie laut DCE in shaft als
Verb enthalten ist.
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