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On January 1, 1892, Manuel Acuña Roxas was born in Capiz to Gerardo Roxas, Sr. and
Rosario Acuña. .

On January 1, 1906, by virtue of Philippine Commission Act No. 1123 of April 1904, the official
language of the Philippines became English. It was used in court proceedings and no person
was eligible for government service who did not know the language.

On January 2, 1899, when the Council of Government was created, Apolinario Mabini was
designated President or Chairman of the Council and at the same time was designated to hold
the post of Secretary of Foreign Relations in concurrent capacity.

On January 3, 1949, the Central Bank of the Philippines was inaugurated with Miguel Cuaderno,
Sr. as the first governor. The main duties and responsibilities of the Central Bank were to
promote economic development and maintain internal and external monetary stability.
Shortly after President Manuel Roxas assumed office in 1946, Finance Secretary Miguel
Cuaderno, Sr. was instructed to draw up a charter for a central bank. The establishment of a
monetary authority became imperative a year later as a result of the findings of the Joint
Philippine-American Finance Commission chaired by Cuaderno. The Commission, which
studied Philippine financial, monetary, and fiscal problems in 1947, recommended a shift from
the dollar exchange standard to a managed currency system. A central bank was necessary to
implement the proposed shift to the new system.

On January 4, 1897, 11 of the 15 Bicol Martyrs were executed in Bagumbayan (present day
Luneta park) five days after Dr. Jose Rizal was shot to death in the same place on December
30, 1896.

The 15 Bicolanos, most of them masons, were among the first victims of Spanish cruelty under
Governor-General Camilo G. de Polavieja's administration which became extremely merciless
against those it considered as traitors to Spain. Of the 15 martyrs, four died earlier while in exile
or in prison.

On January 5, 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo issued manifestos declaring his opposition to the
"benevolent assimilation declaration" of US President McKinley. Aguinaldo declared that "I
protest 1001 times with all the energy of my soul against such authority. I solemnly declare that
neither in Singapore, Hongkong, nor here in the Philippines did I ever agree, by word or in
writing, to recognize the sovereignty of America in this our lovely country".

On January 6, 1812, Melchora Aquino de Ramos, who became known as "Tandang Sora", was
born in Balintawak.
On January 7, 1901, Major General Arthur MacArthur Jr. ordered the deportation to the island of
Guam a number of politicians and leaders of the Revolution led by Filipino hero Apolinario

On January 8, 1851, Severino de las Alas, one of the more prominent signatories of the
Biak-na-Bato Constitution, was born in Indang, Cavite.

On January 9, 1945, the United States Army under General Douglas MacArthur landed at
Bonuan (Blue Beach) in Lingayen, Pangasinan near Dagupan, which liberation forces fanned
out without resistance to Central Luzon.

On January 9, 1973, a barter trade zone was established in Mindanao by virtue of Presidential
Decree No. 93. Under the decree, the government allowed businessmen from the Sulu
Archipelago, Balabac Islands, and Zamboanga del Sur to trade with neighboring islands and sell
imported items within the region without tariff duties.

Below is the complete text of Presidential Decree No. 93.

On January 10, 1983, President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed into law, in Malacanang, the
country's first comprehensive Local Government Code (Batas Pambansa Bilang 337) which
defined the powers and functions of local elective officials, giving them autonomy while
decentralizing government powers in barangays, towns, cities and provinces.

On January 11, 1897, the so-called "Thirteen Martyrs of Bagumbayan" were executed following
their arrests after the Cry of Pugadlawin on charges of treason and sedition.

On January 12, 1889, Hispano-Filipino Association, an organization composed of Filipinos and

Spaniards, was formed in Madrid, Spain calling for reforms in the Philippines during Spanish

On January 13, 1975, Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat (also spelled Qudarat) of
Maguindanao was hailed as national hero of the Filipino people and not just of Muslim Filipinos.
Following Letter of Instruction 126, which then President Ferdinand Marcos issued in
September 1973, Sultan Kudarat commemorative stamps were presented to descendants of the
hero to help highlight Muslim Filipinos' contribution to Philippine struggle against 400 years of
foreign domination.

On January 13, 1933, the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act became the first measure passed by the
United States House of Representatives, overriding a veto by President Herbert Hoover, to set
definite date for the independence of the Philippines.
On January 14, 1899, General Carlos P. Romulo, journalist, diplomat and the first Filipino to
become President of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), was born in Camiling,

On January 14, 1975, Miguel Cuaderno one of the so-called "Seven Wise Men" who drafted the
1935 Constitution and one of the early main pillars of the Philippine economy, died at the age of
74. He was born on December 12, 1890 in Tondo, Manila.

On January 15, 1894, Dr. Hilario D. G. Lara, regarded as the Father of Modern Public Health in
the Philippines, was born in Imus, Cavite.

Lara devoted over five decades of his life to the study of the spread of cholera, typhoid fever,
dysentery, measles and diphtheria, resulting in the prevention of these diseases in the country.

Dr. Lara received numerous awards and recognition, including the National Scientist Award in
1985 given by President Ferdinand Marcos.

On January 16, 1981, the Lung Center of the Philippines (LCP) which provides health care
specifically on lung and pulmonary diseases, was established in Quezon City by President
Ferdinand E. Marcos under Presidential Decree No. 1823.

On January 17, 1981, President Ferdinand E. Marcos lifted martial law which he declared
nationwide on September 21, 1972 through Proclamation No. 1081.

On January 18, 1737, a treaty of peace was signed between Governor-General Valdes Tamon
and Alimud Din, the Sultan of Sulu, represented in Manila by Datu Mohammad Ismael and Datu

On January 19, 1974, the Philippine tourism industry opened a "second front" in the south with
the inauguration of the new Zamboanga international airport and terminal.
Zamboanga international airport is the Mindanao's third-busiest after Francisco Bangoy
International Airport in Davao City and Lumbia Airport in Cagayan de Oro City.

On January 20, 1872, the Cavite Mutiny, an uprising of military personnel at the Spanish arsenal
in Cavite, took place. This event subsequently led to the execution of the Filipino priests
Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, otherwise known as GOMBURZA.

On January 20, 1899, United States President William McKinley created the first Philippine
Commission, known as the Schurman Commission.

On January 21, 1853, Leon Ma. Guerrero, nationalist scientist and the so-called "Father of
Botany in the Philippines" was born in Ermita, Manila. He was also dubbed as the 1st Filipino
industrial scientist, forensic chemist and "Father of Philippine Pharmacy."
On January 21, 1961, Senator Ferdinand E. Marcos was elected president of the Liberal Party
at a convention held in a cabaret in Santa Ana, Manila, after having withdrawn his candidacy for
the party's presidential nomination.

On January 22, 1878, Baron de Overbeck was conferred the title Datu Bandahara and Rajah of
Sandakan by Sultan Mahomed Jamal Al Alam, Sultan of Sulu.

On January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, also known as the Malolos Republic, was
inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan with General Emilio Aguinaldo as President.

On January 23, 1942, the Philippine Executive Commission (PEC), was organized and issued
by Order No. 1 by the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Forces in the Philippines. Jorge B.
Vargas was appointed chairman and was instructed to the immediate coordination of the central
organs and of judicial courts, based upon what had existed theretofore with the approval of the

On January 24, 1917, the country lost one of its heroes with the death of General Quintin Salas
who was acknowledged for his valor during the Visayan revolution against Spain and was
among the last officers to surrender to the Americans.
Born on October 31, 1870 in Dumangas, Iloilo province, he was the town mayor or "Capitan
Municipal" there when the revolution broke out in August 1896.

On January 25, 1933, Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, the 11th President
of the Philippines and the first woman to hold such office, was born in Manila.

On January 26, 1954, President Ramon Magsaysay issued Executive Ordtr No. 8, prohibiting
the slaughtering of carabaos for a period of one year, beginning January 31, 1954. The
President stated that Republic Act No. 11, approved September 2, 1946, prohibits the
slaughtering of male and female carabaos, horses, mares, and cows, unless authorized by the
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

On January 27, 1867, Juan Crisostomo Soto, journalist, poet, playwright and known as the
Father of Pampanga Literature, was born in Santa Ines, Bacolor, Pampanga.

On January 28, 1861, Julián Felipe, music teacher, band leader and composer of the Philippine
national anthem, "Lupang Hinirang," was born in Cavite City, Cavite.

On January 29, 1889, Francisco Santiago, the Father of Kundiman Art Song, was born to
musically-minded peasant parents, Felipe Santiago and Maria Santiago, in Santa Maria,
On January 30, 1899, the Supreme Court was organized in Manila superseding the Audiencia
Territorial de Manila which was suspended on the same day. The Audiencia functioned as the
highest tribunal in the country.

On January 30, 1911, Taal Volcano erupted killing approximately 1,500 people and millions of
pesos worth of damage was wrought. Post mortem examination of the victims seemed to show
that practically all had died of scalding by hot steam or hot mud, or both.

On January 31, 1735, Governor-general Fernando Valdez y Tamon, laid the corner stone of the
Ayuntamiento. Its construction was complete in 1738.
The Ayuntamiento was the finest public building in the islands and remained one of the best and
was excellently suited to be converted into a museum of art and history, until it was destroyed
during the World War II.


Esteria, Primo. Significant daily events in January in Philippine history, 23 Nov. 2012,