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Ability: can, could, be able to

We use can to say that someone has the ability or opportunity to do something. The negative of can is cannot
(contraction: can't).
Can you swim?
He can play the guitar.
It's nice today. We can sit in the garden.
I can't open this bottle.
Can usually expresses the idea that something is possible because certain characteristics or conditions exist. Can
combines the ideas of possibility and ability.
Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box. (It
is possible for Tom to lift that box because
he is strong.)
I can play the piano. I've taken lessons for
many years. (It is possible for me to play the
piano because I have acquired that ability.)
That race car can go very fast. (It is possible
for that car to go fast because of its special
Can you meet me tomorrow evening? (Is it
possible for you to meet me? Will you be free?)
We can use be able to instead of can eg Are you able to swim? but can is more common.
Could and was/were able to
We can use could to say that someone had the general ability to do something in the past.
I could swim when I was 4 years old.
My sister could talk when she was 15 months
We also use was/were able to with this meaning. I was able to swim when I was 4 years old.
But when we want to say that someone had the ability to do something, and that they did it in a particular situation,
we must use was/were able to (could is not possible).
Even though I'd hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat. (Not: ... I could swim
back ...)
The manager wasn't in the office for very long, but we were able to speak to him for a few minutes. (Not: we could
ayeak to him ...)
We can use managed to (+ infinitive) or succeeded in (+ -ing form) instead of was/were able to in this meaning.
Even though I'd hurt my leg, I managed to swim back to the boat/I succeeded in swimming back to the boat.
We normally use managed to or succeeded in when the action was difficult to do.
There is an exception with the verbs of perception see, hear, smell, taste, feel, and some verbs of thinking eg
understand, remember. We use could
with these verbs when we actually did these things in particular situations.
We could see a man in the garden.
I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door.
We use could not (contraction: couldn't) for both general ability and particular situations.
My grandmother couldn't dance.
He tried very hard, but he couldn't swim back
to the boat.
Could have ...
We use could have + past participle to say that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the
past but did not do it.
You could have helped me. Why didn't you? I could have gone to China on holiday last year, but I decided not to.
Expressing ability in other forms: be able to
Can has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with be able to.
I'd like to be able to play the piano. (We cannot say I'd like to can play ... ) In the future, people will be able to live
on other planets. (We cannot say ... people will can live ... )
She enjoys being able to speak foreign languages. (We cannot say Ghe enjoys canning ...) I've been able to drive
since I was 18. (We cannot say I've could ...)
Possibility: can
We use can to talk about 'theoretical possibility'.
You can ski on the hills. (= It is possible to ski, i.e. circumstances permit: there is enough snow. )
Anyone can learn to swim. (= It is possible for anyone to learn to swim.)
We can't bathe here on account of the sharks. (It isn't safe.)
Can you get to the top of the mountain in one day? (Is it possible?)
In this use, can often has a similar meaning to 'sometimes'.
My brother can be very nice. (= My brother is sometimes very nice.) The Straits of Dover can be very rough. (= It is
possible for the Straits to be rough; this sometimes happens.)
We use could to talk about theoretical possibility in the past.
My brother could be really horrible when he was a child.
/. Supply can, can't, could, couldn't, was/were able to, managed to. Alternatives are possible.
I. A good 1500-metre runner ... run the race in under four minutes. 2. Bill is so unfit he ... run at all."3. Our baby is
- only nine months and he ... already stand up. 4. When I was younger, I... speak Italian much better than I... now. 5.
He ... draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he's a famous artist. 6. ... she speak German very well? — No,
she ... speak German at all. 7. After weeks of training, I ... swim a length of the baths underwater. 8. It took a long
time, but in the end Tony ... save enough to buy his own hi-fi. 9. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? — No,
I ... get any. 10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they saw them
and ... reach them without too much trouble..
II. Rewrite these sentences using can, can't, could or couldn't.
1. Do you see that man over there? 2. I smell something burning. 3.1 understood what he said. 4. Did you
understand what he said? 5. I don't see anyone. 6. I didn't understand
what he said. 7. I don't remember his name. 8. Did you hear any noise at night? 9. Do you see a bird in that tree?
III. Supply suitable forms of be able to in these sentences.
1. Our teacher says we ... speak English fluently in a few months. 2. I've been trying for hours, but so far I (not) ...
get through on the phone. 3. If he had asked me earlier, I ... help him. 4. I'm sure she would have helped you if she ...
5. I think I ... play tennis better after a bit of practice. 6. You ... ski when you go to Geneva. 7. It's nice ... go to the
opera. 8. He has managed to live in England for years without ... speak English. 9. I'm practising hard because I
want to ... pass my driving test first time. 10. If I ... sing, I would have loved to be an opera singer. 11. It's been a
quiet day, I ... get some work done.
IV. Fill the following spaces, using can for present, could for past and shall/will be able for future. There is no
need to use other able forms in this section. Put to where necessary before the infinitives.
1. ... you stand on your head? — I ... when I was at school but I (not) ... now. 2. When I've passed my driving test
I ... hire a car from our local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone
bill which he (not) ... pay. 4. I (not) ... remember the address. — ... (not) you even remember the street? 5. When the
fog lifts we ... see where we are. 6. You've put too much in your rucksack; you never ... carry all that. 7. When I was
a child I (not) ... understand adults, and now that I am an adult I (not)... understand children. 8. When you have
taken your degree you ... work as an interpreter? 9. Don't try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise
when you get home you (not) ... remember any of them. 10. When I first went to Spain I... read Spanish but I (not) ...
speak it. 11. ... you type? — Yes, I... type but I (not)... do shorthand. 12. I'm locked in. I (not) ... get out! — ... you
(not) squeeze between the bars? - No! I ... ; I'm too fat.
V. Complete the sentences using could or was/were able to.
Sometimes either form is possible,
1. He was very strong; he ... ski all day and dance all night.
2. The car plunged into the river. The driver ... get out but the passengers were drowned. 3. I was a long way from
the stage. I ... see all right but I (not) ... hear very well. 4. We ... borrow umbrellas, so we didn't get wet. 5. ... you
walk or did they have to carry you? 6. I had no key so I (not) ... lock the door. 7. I knew the town so I ... advise him
where to go. 8. When the garage had repaired our car we ... continue our journey. 9. At five years old he ... read
quite well. 10. When I arrived everyone was asleep. Fortunately I ... wake my sister and she let me in. 11. The
swimmer was very tired but he ... reach the shore before he collapsed. 12. The police were suspicious at first but I...
convince them that we were innocent. 13. We ... put out the fire before much damage was done. 14. My daughter ...
walk when she was only 11 months old. 15.1 ... finish all the work you wanted me to do yesterday. 16. ... you speak
French before you went to live in Paris? — I (not) ... speak it very well. 17. They were talking quite loudly. I ... hear
everything they said. 18. I looked everywhere for the book but I (not) ... find it. 19. He had hurt his leg, so he
(not) ... walk very well. 20. She wasn't at home when I phoned but I ... contact her at the office. 21.1 looked very
carefully and I... see a figure in the distance. 22. They didn't have any tomatoes in the first shop I went to, but I... get
some in the next shop. 23. The boy fell into the river but fortunately we ... rescue him. 24. Did you persuade them?
— Yes. It was difficult but we ... persuade them. 25. Did they find your house? — Yes. It took them a long time but
they ... find it. 26. He (not) ... come to the meeting last week. He was sick.
VI. Complete the sentences using can or could where possible. If can or could is not possible, use a form of be able
1. When Robert was younger he ... run quite fast. 2. Look! You ... see the mountains from this window. 3. How long
you ... play the guitar? 4. Look! I ... lift this chair with one hand. 5. I'm sorry but I (not) ... come to the party on
Saturday. 6. I (not) ... sleep very well recently. 7. Tom ... drive but he hasn't got a car. 8. I can't understand Martin.
I ... never... understand him. 9. I used ... stand on my head but I can't do it now. 10. Ask Ann about your problem. I
think she ... help you. 11. Did you win the match? — Yes. It wasn't easy but I ... win it. 12. I (not) ... swim very far
these days but ten years ago I ... swim from one side of the lake to the other. 13. I ... read a book by moonlight but I
(not) ... read in sunlight. 14. Where are the keys? I (not) ... find them last night. 15. The theatre seats were awful. We
(not) ... see the stage. 16. The show is very popular but luckily I ... get two seats for Saturday. 17. My car broke
down and I (not) ... drive it for a week. 18. The exam was easy. I ... do all the questions. 19. It's nice ... sleep on
Sundays. 20. After the accident he (not) ... smell or taste anything. 21.1 lost all my money but fortunately I... borrow
some from my friends. 22. When Lynn was younger she (not) ... afford to buy a camera, but she has a good job now,
and she ... afford several cameras. 23. By the way, ... you ... find that tie you borrowed last night? — Uh ... no. If I
(not) ... find it, I'll buy you a new one. OK? — It was my favourite tie. — I know, Dad. I've looked everywhere, and
I (not) ... find it. But I'll keep looking. 24. If they (not) ... fix the car today, they can fix it tomorrow. 25. Mr Wilson
is taking a course in Computer Programming. At the moment he (not) ... write complicated programs, but soon he ...
write them quite well. 26. Julie is taking a typing course. She knows she ... pass her secretarial exams next year
unless she improves her typing speed. She's doing well, and soon she ... type 60 words a minute.
VII. Substitute could for the italicized verbs if possible.
1. We had a good time yesterday. We went to the zoo. The children enjoyed themselves very much. They saw polar
bears and elephants. (No substitution of 'could' is possible.) 2. When I lived in St. Louis, I went to the zoo whenever
I wanted to,
but now I live in a small town and the nearest zoo is a long way away. ('/ could go' can be used instead of 'I went' to
give the idea of 'used to be able to.') 3. Usually I don't have much time to watch TV, but last night I watched the
news while I was eating dinner. I heard the news about the political situation in my country. 4. When I lived at
home with my parents, I watched TV every day if I wanted to, but now while I'm going to school, I live in a small
apartment and don't have a television set. 5. When I worked as a secretary, I was able to type 60 words a minute
without making a mistake. My typing skills aren't nearly as good now. 6. Yesterday I typed these reports for my
boss. I don't type very well, but I was able to finish the reports without making too many mistakes. 7. When I went
to my favourite fishing hole last Saturday, I caught two fish. I brought them home and cooked them for dinner. 8.
When I was a child, the river that flows through our town had plenty of fish. My mother used to go fishing two or
three times a week. Usually she caught enough for our dinner within an hour or so. 9. Last night Mark and I had an
argument about politics. Finally, I managed to convince him that I was right. 10. My grandfather was a merchant all
his life. He knew how to make a sale by using psychology. He was able to convince anyone to buy anything whether
they needed it or not. 11. The game we went to yesterday was exciting. The other team played good defence, but my
favourite player managed to score two goals. 12. When I ran into Mrs Forks yesterday, I recognized her even
though I hadn't seen her for years.
VIII. Complete the sentences with could and the verb in parentheses if possible. If the use of could is not possible,
provide any other appropriate completion.
1. When I was younger, I ... up late without getting sleepy, but now I always go to bed early, (stay) 2. Last night
we ... to a restaurant. The food was delicious, (go) 3. The teacher gave the students plenty of time for the test
yesterday. All of them ... it before the time was up. (complete) 4. I was
tired, but I ... my work before I went to bed last night, (finish) 5. Last night I ... TV for a couple of hours. Then I
studied, (watch) 6. I like to ride my bicycle. I ... it to work when we lived on First Street but now I can't. Now I have
to drive because we live too far away, (ride) 7. Susan ... her bicycle to work yesterday instead of walking, (ride) 8.
The picnic yesterday was a lot of fun. All of us ... it a lot. (enjoy) 9. After years of devoted work, Mr Bailey
finally ... a raise in salary last April, (get) 10. I ... long distances when I was a teenager, (swim) 11. I had to put
together my daughter's tricycle. It came from the factory unassembled. It was a struggle and took me a long time,
but in the end I ... it together, (get).
IX. Respond using can or can't.
Example Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham
No, you can't buy sweets at Buckingham Palace. Example. Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office
Yes, you can go to the top of the Post Office
1. Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham Palace?
2. Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office Tower?
3. Is it possible to have clothes washed at the hairdresser's?
4. Is it possible to put all your clothes in a handbag?
5. Is it possible to go by train from London to Bristol?
6. Is it possible to swim in a boat?
7. Is it possible to swim when the tide is in?
8. Is it possible to book seats at the theatre?
9. Is it possible to have clothes made at the launderette?
10. Is it possible to get medicine at the newsagent's?
X. Complete the sentences using can or could and the verbs in the box. Use each verb only once.
grow be make reach live survive cross
Example Tigers can be dangerous.
1. Elephants ... for up to 70 years.
2. Temperatures near the South Pole ... minus 43 degrees centigrade.
3. A hundred years ago ships ... the Atlantic in 10 days.
4. Camels ... for up to 17 weeks in the desert without water.
5. Dinosaurs ... up to 5 meters long.
6. Anyone ... mistakes.
XI. Rewrite these sentences with can or could be.
1. The sea is often rough in the harbour.
2. She is bad tempered at times.
3. She was often rude when she was a girl.
4. It is often cold here in winter.
5. He was often helpful when he wanted to be.
6. He was often naughty when he was a boy.
7. Winter here is often really cold.
XII. After their climb, Stephen and his friends were all very hungry, hot, tired, thirsty, and happy. Use could with
items in the box to complete their exclamations:
drink 8 bottles of lemonade sleep for 24 eat a kilo of rice melt
hours look at them all day

Stephen: I'm so hungry I could eat a kilo of rice! Julie: I'm not hungry, but I'm so thirsty ...
John: I didn't sleep well last night. I'm so tired ...
Anne: Me too. And the weather needs to be cooler to
climb mountains — I'm so hot ... Julie: The mountains are so beautiful, though. I ...
Later, Julie wrote a postcard to her parents, and described how everyone had felt:
Stephen was so hungry he could have eaten a kilo of rice.
Continue her letter, writing the other sentences in the same way:
I wasn't hungry, but I was so thirsty I .... John and Anne were so tired they ... , and Anne was so hot she ... . The
mountains were so beautiful, though. I ....
XIII. Write the most appropriate 'wish' for the people in the sentences below, using the words in the table:
eat the instructions
get my key
use a new car
I wish I/ we could... understand cakes
find dictionaries
afford a job
1. Someone on a diet: 'I wish I could eat cakes.'
2. Someone locked out of their house:'_________________'
3. Students taking an English exam:'__________________'
4. Someone whose car won't start:'____________________'
5. An unemployed person:'___________________________'
6. Some people who have just bought a new computer:'____'
XIV. Paraphrase using 'be able to' instead of 'can'.
Example-. If I hadn't done well at school, I couldn't have gone to university.
If I hadn't done well at school, I wouldn't have been able to go to university.
1. If I hadn't done well at school, I couldn't have gone to university.
2. Even if I hadn't gone to university, I could have worked for this firm.
3. If I hadn't won a scholarship, my parents couldn't have afforded to send me.
4. If my parents had had more money, I could have stayed for three more years.
5. If my brother had worked harder, he could have gone to university too.
6. If John hadn't given Mary so many presents, he could have bought a car.
7. If he had bought a car, he could have taken his friends to Italy in it.
8. If I hadn't studied hard, I couldn't have passed my exams.
XV. Robert Wells is 52 years old. Sometimes he feels that he has wasted his life.
Read about Robert. Replace the words in italics with could have ... , as in the example.
Example: When Robert was 26 he had the chance to get married, but he decided not to. When Robert was 26 he
could have got married, but he decided not to.
1. Robert had the ability to go to university, but he didn't want to go.
2. He had the intelligence to pass his final exams at school, but he didn't take them.
3. A lot of people thought he had the ability to be a professional footballer when he was younger, but he didn't try.
4. He had the opportunity to start his own business once, but he didn't want to.
5. He had the chance to emigrate to Australia a few years ago, but he decided not to.
XVI. Write could (have), managed to or an appropriate form of able to in each gap.
1. What's forty-eight divided by eight? I ... never ... to do sums in my head. 2. ... drive has changed my whole life.
Now I can go wherever I want without having to worry about public transport. 3. I had a row with Sheila last night
about nuclear arms. I... understand the point she was trying to make, but I still didn't agree. 4. A girl was drowning,
but I jumped in and ... save her. I ... swim since I was six. 5. The view was breathtaking. You ... see right across the
valley to the hills in the distance. 6. Why don't you stop
smoking? You ... do it if you tried. 7. Anna's operation was very successful. The doctors say she ... walk again in a
few weeks. 8. I'm learning Russian because I want ... talk to people when I go there next year. 9. We didn't go out
last night. We ... (go) to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. 10. If I ... sing as well as you, I would join the
opera. 11. I had my last vacation in July. If I'd had enough money, I ... (go) to Florida.
XVII. Complete these sentences using an appropriate form of could or be able to (sometimes both are possible).
When I was at school I ... (speak) German quite well, but last week I met a German at a party and I ... (not
understand) a word he said. He spoke a little English and he ... (tell) me that he was staying in England only for a
few days. He was a nice man and I would have invited him home if I ... (understand) him better. He didn't look
German, in fact he ... (be) English from his appearance. He invited me to Germany next summer and I would go if
I ... (afford) it. Mary speaks German and she ... (come) with me if I went. My boss said that I ... (take) my holiday in
June if I wanted to. After the party my car wouldn't start, but the German gentleman was staying near where I live so
he ... (take) me home in his car. Then, when I got home, I found I didn't have a key, but the kitchen window was
open so I ... (climb) in.
XVIII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Я думаю, что вы смогли бы уговорить его, если бы попытались. — Я попытаюсь. 2. Несмотря на шторм,
он смог доплыть до берега. 3. Он сможет свободно говорить по-французски, если проведет пару лет в
Париже. 4. Когда я был молодым, я мог пройти 30 километров в день. 5. Почему ты не сказал мне раньше?
— Я бы мог купить эту книгу в Лондоне. 6. Хорошо, если бы ты мог пойти с нами. — К сожалению, не могу.
7. Вы сможете отвезти меня завтра в аэропорт? — Конечно. 8. Эту книгу можно купить в любом
магазине. 9. Я смогу перевести эту статью, если ты дашь мне хороший словарь. 10. Погода была хорошая, и
мы могли гулять в парке каждое утро. 11. Погода сегодня хорошая, и мы могли бы погулять. 12. Жаль, что
брата нет дома. Он бы смог помочь тебе. 13. Она много занималась, и ей удалось сдать экзамен. 14. Ты смог
починить телевизор вчера? — Нет, я попытаюсь сделать это сегодня. 15. Если бы ты попросил меня, я бы
смог помочь тебе. Я был тогда свободен. 16. Мы смогли перевезти все товары в течение десяти дней. 17.
Когда он приехал в Лондон, он мог вести переговоры с фирмами без переводчика. 18. Он сказал, что не
сможет дать ответ, пока не обдумает вопрос как следует. 19. Я мог бы прийти пораньше, если нужно. 20.
Было так темно, что мы ничего не видели. 21. Ты не сможешь ,, перевести название, не прочитав всей
статьи. 22. Хотя пилот был тяжело ранен, он смог объяснить, что произошло. 23. Ребенок сможет ходить
через несколько недель. 24. Я не могу заплатить вам сегодня. Вы можете подождать до завтра? 25. С тех
пор, как произошел несчастный случай, он не выходит из дома. 26. Вы могли бы вести дела само-
стоятельно? 27. Он сказал, что потерял паспорт и не мог выехать из страны. 28. Я бы мог одолжить тебе
денег. Почему ты не попросил у меня? 29. Зима здесь бывает очень холодной. 30. Мы смогли достать
билеты на матч вчера. 31. Мы не смогли вчера достать билеты на матч. 32. Он бывал очень капризным,
когда был ребенком. 33. Он смог вас встретить? — Да, но он не смог отвезти нас в гостиницу. 34. Это можно
и нужно сделать. 35. Боже мой! Тебя могли убить.
XIX. Study and practise the following texts. Report the conversations. Speak about your skills and achievements.
1. Sarah: Well, there are a lot of things I can't do! I can't draw and I can't drive a car, but I want to have lessons. I
can ... I can type and I can use a word processor, because I have one at work and I use it all the time. What about
sports? Mm. Well, I certainly can't ski, but I'm quite good at tennis,
yes, I can play tennis. Well, I usually win when I play with my friends. And I can swim, of course. And I can cook. I
think I'm a very good, well, no, just good ... a good cook! Now, then ... languages. I can speak French and German, I
don't know any Italian at all, and I know about five words in Spanish — adios, manana, paella — no, I can't speak
Spanish! And I can't play any musical instruments, not the piano, the guitar, or anything.
2. Miss Conrad, the new music teacher, wants to start a school orchestra.
Miss Conrad: Well now ... what instruments can you play?
Kevin, can you play the piano? Kevin: No, I can't.
Miss Conrad: Well, what about the recorder? Kevin: Yes, I can play the recorder.
Mark: I can play the recorder too, Miss Conrad.
Miss Conrad: Good! Kevin: My friend Barbara's away today, but she's
very good at music.
Miss Conrad: Oh! Can she play the piano? Kevin: Yes she can.
Miss Conrad: That's great! Now we need a guitar and a
3. Mr Horn: Miss Abe? Keiko: Yes.
Mr Horn: Please come in. I'm Bruce Horn, Director of
Keiko: I'm pleased to meet you.
Mr Horn: Please sit down. Keiko: Thank you.
Mr Horn: So, you want to be a secretary at United Bank.
Can you tell me a little about yourself? Keiko: Well, I'm 19 years old. I was born in Japan,
and I came here about a year ago. And I'm
studying English and Business at school.
Mr Horn: You can speak English very well.
Keiko: Thank you.
Mr Horn: Do you have any hobbies or special skills?
Keiko: I like to read, and I like to swim.
Mr Horn: Can you use a computer?
Keiko: No, I can't, but I'd like to learn about computers.
Mr Horn: But you can type, can't you?
Keiko: Oh, yes. I can type about sixty words a minute.
4. Susan: It's really great here in this lake. The water's
so warm. And it's so clean. I can see the bottom. It's quite deep. David: Susan! Be careful. I know you can
swim but
you shouldn't swim out too far in such cold
water. Susan: Don't worry about me. I can swim for miles
without getting tired. David: All right then, but I'm getting out. I can't
swim as fast as you and I can't stand being
beaten by a girl!
5. Olga: Were you able to fix the lawn mower? Eddie: No, so I couldn't mow the lawn. Olga:
Eddie: What's the matter? Did you hurt yourself?
Olga: I cut myself.
Eddie: Do you want some help?
Olga: No, I'm all right. I can finish it myself. Why
don't you help your sister clean the living room? There are records and books everywhere.
Eddie: Those are all Isabel's things. Anyway, she
doesn't want help.
Olga: Well, check with your father. I think he's rea-
dy to paint the kitchen, and it's too big for him to paint alone.
Eddie: Do I have to?
Olga: Yes, you have to. He won't be able to do it
by himself. It'll take too long.
6. Mrs Jones: I hear your grandchildren and Mrs Tailor's boys had a narrow escape* at the beach last Sunday, Mrs
Mrs Smith: Yes, those little bays are so dangerous. They could easily have been drowned.
Mrs Jones: You only have to take your eyes off children for a moment, don't you?
Mrs Smith: That's right... We never dreamed anything like that could happen.
Mrs Jones: It was lucky you were able to find that man with the motor-boat, wasn't it?
Mrs Smith: Yes, and it was lucky that young Tommy is such a good swimmer for his age too.
Mrs Jones: Just think! If anything ever happened, one would never be able to forgive oneself. One would have it
on one's conscience for the rest of one's life, wouldn't one?
Mrs Smith: Yes, but you can't watch them every single minute of the day, can you?
Mrs Jones: But one has to try, if one takes one's responsibilities as a parent seriously, don't you think?
* Note-, to have a narrow escape — едва избежать опасности, быть на волосок (от смерти и т.п.)
XX. Complete the sentences with couldn't or was able to.
Retell the text.
Petra was flying a helicopter over the Peruvian jungle when suddenly there was a huge storm. She ... bring the
helicopter under control and seconds later the helicopter crashed to the ground. Petra fell 5,000 metres. Luckily she
was strapped to her seat. That is how she ... survive the fall. Rescue parties searched the jungle for several days, but
they ... find either Petra or the helicopter. Even radar equipment... find her. The jungle was so dense that the rescuers
... see through the trees. Petra knew that she ... survive for long without water. She
... find a river because she had been on a survival training course. She realized that she ... defend herself against wild
animals, so she built a shelter. At first Petra ... find any food that was safe to eat. She had studied botany at Univer-
sity, so she ... to recognize the poisonous plants. She ... to find enough to eat for several days at a time.
A. Work with a partner. In a short paragraph, write what you think happened to Petra next. Use couldn't, was able
to and managed to, like this:
Petra was bitten by a dangerous insect. She was very ill and she couldn't move for two days. She was hungry and
exhausted. Luckily she managed to find some plants and some fruit to eat. When she felt better she decided to light a
large fire. Petra was able to send smoke signals and finally ...
B. Take turns to read your paragraph to the class.
XXI. Complete the account of the climb with could/couldn't wherever possible — otherwise use was/were able to.
Retell the text.
Stephen and Julie were spending a few days camping with some friends in Snowdonia. On a climb, there was a
difficult section. Stephen has long arms and ... climb this easily, but Julie is not so tall and ... reach the hold. In the
end, she ... reach it by standing on her friend's shoulders. 'Never mind,' he said. 'I ... get up this bit the first time I
tried.' The rest of the climb was easier, and they ... reach the top by 12 o'clock. It was warm and sunny, and they ...
see the whole of Snowdonia.
A. Have you ever had any experience of this sort? Could you tell about it?
XXII. Put in suitable forms which express ability. Retell the text.
The journey to Western Papua had been very hard. We ... make much progress in the heavy rain. After two months'
journey, we ... see smoke in the distance and knew we must be near a village. There was a boiling river in front of
us, but we ... cross it by using a rope bridge we had brought with us. At last we approached the village and
wondered how we ... communicate with the chief. None of us ... speak the local language. Soon, a young, dignified
and smiling man approached us.'... you speak English?' I asked hopefully. 'Of course,' the young man replied. 'I was
educated at Oxford University. I'm Chief Naga. Welcome to my village!'
§2. Permission: can, could, may, might, be allowed to
Asking for permission
We use can, could, may and might to ask for
permission, depending on the situation.
1. Can is the commonest and most informal: Can I borrow your umbrella (please)?
2. Could is more polite than can: Could I borrow your umbrella (please)?
3. May is more formal, more respectful than can and could: May I borrow your umbrella (please)?
4. Might is the most polite but the least common: Might I borrow your umbrella (please)?
5. We can add possibly and use the expressions like Do you think and I wonder if to make requests even more
Can/Could/May/Might I possibly borrow your
Do you think I could/Do you think I might
(possibly) borrow your umbrella?
I wonder if I could/I wonder if I might
(possibly) borrow your umbrella?
Giving and refusing permission
We use can or may to give permission (but not could or might). May is formal and not often used in speech.
You can wait in my office if you like. Could I borrow your calculator? — Of course you can. You may watch TV
for as long as you like.
To refuse permission we use the negative forms.
I'm sorry, but you can't picnic here. Members may not bring more than two visitors into the club.
We can also use must not.
Bicycles may not (OR must not) be left here.
Talking about permission
We sometimes talk about rules made by someone else. To do this we use can, could and be allowed to. We use can
to talk about the present or the future, and we use could for the past:
Present: Each passenger can take one bag onto the plane.
Future: I can't have another day off tomorrow.
Past: Years ago you could park your car any-
We can also use be allowed to:
Present: Passengers are allowed to take one bag
onto the plane. Future: Will I be allowed to record the interview
on tape?
Past: We weren't allowed to feed the animals at the zoo yesterday.
For a general permission in the past we use either could or was/were allowed to:
I could always stay (OR I was allowed to stay) up late as a child.
But we cannot use could when we mean that an action really happened at a time in the past.
I was allowed to leave work early yesterday. (Not: I could leave ...)
This is like the difference between could and was/ were able to.
Compare questions with may and be allowed to:
May I take a photo of you?
(Asking for permission: 'Will you allow it?')
Are we allowed to take photos?
(Asking about permission: 'What is the rule?')
I. Study and practise the following dialogues.
1. — Could I go home early, Steve? I don't feel very well.
— Yes, of course. What's the matter?
— I feel dizzy.
2. — Can I see my sister, doctor?
— I'm afraid you can't. She's being examined by the professor now.
3. — Could I borrow your car tonight?
— Actually, I need it myself. Sorry.
4. — May I take this book?
— No, please don't. I haven't finished it yet.
5. — Might I use your bicycle?
— No, I'm afraid not. Sorry.
6. — Could I possibly use your phone?
— Sure.
7. — Can (May) I come in for a moment?
— Please do.
8. — I wonder if I might take the day off?
— No, sorry. You ought to finish the report.
9. — Could I have a look at your magazine?
— Yes, of course.
10. — Do you think I could close the window?
— Please do,
11. — Could I possibly borrow your bike for half an hour?
— Of course you can.
12. — Can I go swimming now?
— Please don't.
13. — May I bring a friend with me this afternoon?
— Sure.
14. — Can I stay here for a while?
— Certainly.
15. — Can I speak to Emily?
— I'm afraid you can't. She's out.
II. Ask for permission using the words in the box.
May I sit Do you think I could in? a look at your magazine? this
close Could I have Can I try on? here? your bike for half an
May I come Can I borrow hour? the window?

III. Rephrase these notices to give or refuse permission. Begin each sentence with 'You ...'
1. Thank you for not smoking. You may not smoke.
2. No camping or picnicking_________________________
3. Fishing strictly forbidden__________________________
4. Campers welcome________________________________
5. Private-Keep Out________________________________
6. No parking_____________________________________
7. Do not lean out of the window_____________________
8. Leave your litter here____________________________
9. No stopping____________________________________
10. Do not walk on the grass___________________________
11. Do not feed the animals__________________________
IV. Write formal versions, with may (not), of:
1. You can't take dogs into this restaurant. Dogs may not be taken into this restaurant.
2. Children under 12 can't enter unless they're with a grownup.
Children under 12________________enter unless accompanied by an adult.
3. Sorry, we can't sell alcoholic drinks to anyone under 18.
We regret that alcoholic drinks______________sold to
anyone under 18.
4. You can only book a court if you're a member of the tennis club.
Courts__________only____________by members of
the tennis club.
5. Don't smoke in the classrooms! Students________________.
VI. Ask a classmate a polite question. Use may I, could I, or can I.
Example. (...) has a book. You want to see it for a minute.
STUDENT A: May/Could/Can I (please) see your book for
a minute?
STUDENT B: Of course./Sure./ etc. STUDENT A: Thank you./Thanks.
1. (...) has a dictionary. You want to see it for a minute.
2. (...) has a pen. You want to use it for a minute.
3. (...) has a calculator. You want to borrow it.
4. (...) has a camera. You want to see it for a minute.
5. You want to see something that a classmate has.
6. You want to use something that a classmate has.
7. You want to borrow something that a classmate has.
8. You are at a restaurant. (...) is your waiter/waitress. You have finished your meal. You want the check.
9. You are at (...)'s house. You want to use the phone.
10. You are speaking to one of your teachers. You want to leave class early today.
11. You are visiting a friend and you want to make yourself some coffee.
12. You are visiting an acquaintance and want to use the lavatory.
13. You are visiting a friend and want to borrow his new car.
VII. Put an appropriate verb in its correct form into each gap. The verbs are can, could, to be able.
The forms are positive and negative.
1. In my country you ... get married when you are 16. 2. Women ... vote in England until 1922. 3. Last night I... get
into my house because I had forgotten my key. 4. I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I ... smell gas, which is
very dangerous. 5. 'Hello. Is that the dentist? ... I make an appointment to see you, please?' 6. I'm learning car
mechanics because I want... to service my own car. It costs a fortune if you send it to the garage. 7. Many night
animals ... see very
well, but they have a highly developed sense of smell. 8. If you ... do this exercise, you're very clever!
VIII. Read the instructions below. Say what they mean, using not allowed to or allowed to.
You're not allowed to take more than one piece of hand luggage.
1. No more than one piece of hand luggage.
2. Passengers may check in at any British Airways desk. 2. No passengers beyond this point without a boarding
4. No smoking in the toilets.
5. Passengers may smoke in rows 16—20.
6. No pipes or cigars.
IX. Read about legal ages in Britain.

These are the legal ages when you are allowed to do things'
in Britain.
drive a car 17
ride a moped 16
buy cigarettes ; 16
vote in elections 18
join the army 16
get married with your parents' permission 16
get married without your parents' permission 18
In pairs, ask and answer about Britain.
A: When are you allowed to drive a car?
B: (You're allowed to drive a car) when you're seventeen.
A: What about a moped?
B: You're not allowed to ride a moped until you are sixteen.
Now ask and answer about your country.
X. Make rules for the places or situations. Example I. In a library (X) eat or drink
1. You're not allowed to eat or drink in a library.
2. In a restaurant (X) wear beach clothes
3. In a petrol station (X) light a cigarette
4. In a theatre (X) smoke
5. On a motorway (X) cycle
6. On a motorway (X) drive over 120 kmph
XL Read about Ranjit, a sixteen-year-old Indian girl, who talks about growing up in England.
'My parents are devoted Sikhs. They are very strict. I am not allowed to go out at night with either a boy or a
girlfriend. That's not because I'm not old enough, it's because of our religion. Eventually my parents will choose a
husband for me. My parents don't mind if I wear English clothes but I am not allowed to cut my hair short, or wear it
loose. And of course I'm not allowed either to smoke cigarettes or to drink alcohol. So I can't go into pubs or
anything like that.'
A. About you
Were your parents very strict when you were younger or were you allowed to do what you wanted? What things
were you not allowed to do?
XII. Complete the sentences using could or was/were allowed to. Sometimes either form is possible.
1. Andrew ... leave school early yesterday because he wasn't feeling well. 2. Until the 19th century, people ... travel
freely between most countries without a passport. 3. Sue's children ... watch the film on TV last night. 4. Her son has
to wear a uniform in his new school, but in his old school he ... wear whatever he liked. 5.1... see him for a few
moments yesterday. 6. I ... borrow my parents' car last night. 7. When I was 18, I ... borrow my parents' car
whenever I wanted to.
XIII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Вчера детям разрешили не идти в школу из-за погоды.
2. Вы можете пользоваться моей библиотекой. 3. Доктор, мне можно купаться в море? — Да, но только не
купайтесь слишком долго. 4. Вы можете взять любую из этих книг. 5. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу. Это
очень опасно. 6. Можно мне задать вопрос? — Конечно, только не знаю, смогу ли я на него ответить. 7.
Врач сказал, что я могу позвонить ему после 5.00. 8. Скажите ей, что она может прислать мне телеграмму,
если понадобится моя помощь. 9. Можно мне взять ваш словарь? — Боюсь, что нет. Он мне нужен самой.
10. Я думаю, что вам разрешат пользоваться лабораторией. 11. Вам разрешается пользоваться словарем? 12.
Ему только что разрешили пойти домой после того как он провел три часа в полицейском участке. 13.
Можно ли детям пойти на каток? — Нет, уже слишком поздно. 14. Спроси тренера, можно ли нам осмотреть
спортивный зал. 15. Можно мне уйти с урока пораньше? — А в чем дело? — У меня болеет мать. —
Конечно, можешь уйти прямо сейчас. 16. Могу я взглянуть на твое сочинение? — Боюсь, что нет. Я еще не
закончил его. 17. Он спросил, можно ли ему оставить у вас книгу. 18. После аварии ему не разрешается
водить машину. 19. Босс сказал, что я могу пользоваться его телефоном. 20. У меня была виза, и мне
разрешили пересечь границу. 21. Когда он был ребенком, ему разрешалось делать все, что ему захочется. 22.
Можно им прийти навестить вас? 23. Здесь курить не разрешается. 24. Нельзя переговариваться во время
контрольной работы.
XIV. Study and practise.
1. Driver: Excuse me. Can I park here for five minutes
while I wait for a friend?
Traffic warden: No, I'm afraid you can't. These double yellow lines mean that no parking is allowed. But if you
drive round the corner you can park there for thirty minutes without any problems.
2. Customer: I'd like to join the library. Librarian: Could you fill this form in, please? Customer: All
right. How many books may I take out? Librarian: You can have up to five books for two
weeks. You may keep them longer but you
must renew them first. Customer: May I take five books with me today,
straight away? Librarian: Yes, of course.
3. Enrico: May I leave early this afternoon, please? Jill: Yes, you may leave now, in fact. We've
almost finished our work for today. Maria: Can I leave now, too, please? I want to go
with Enrico. We're are going to a lecture
at the University.
Jill: Yes, of course you can.
Juan: Can we all leave early?
Jill: No, I'm afraid you can't.
4. Kevin: Dad!
Mr Wilkins: Yes, Kevin?
Kevin: Dad ... Can I go to Henley Youth Hostel
this weekend? Mr Wilkins: Who with? Kevin: Mark and Barbara.
Mr Wilkins: Mmm... Kevin: Well? Can I?
Mr Wilkins: No you can't. Kevin: Oh, Dad! Why not?
Mr Wilkins: Because you can't! Kevin: Mum, can I go to Henley Youth Hostel
with Barbara and Mark? Mrs Wilkins: When? Kevin: This weekend.
Mrs Wilkins: What do you think, Stan? Mr Wilkins: Well, Liz, there's a lot of work to do in
the garden. Mrs Wilkins: But we can do it, Stan.
Mr Wilkins: Oh, all right then. Kevin: Thanks, Dad.
5. Johnny: Excuse me, sir. It's cold in this classroom.
Could I close the window? Teacher: OK, Johnny. Close it quickly and then sit
down and get on with the test. Johnny: Sir, could I have another sheet of paper?
I've spoiled this one. Teacher: Here's another sheet. Now, please get on
with your work. Johnny: Sir! Sir! Could I just leave the room for a
few minutes? Teacher: Why didn't you go before you began the
exam? Johnny: I didn't want to go then, sir.
6. Mr Thomas: Mr Roberts? Could I have a word with you? Mr Roberts: Yes, what is it?
Mr Thomas: Well, as you know, my father can't walk very well, and he needs to go into hospital. I was wondering if
I could have a day off work?
Mr Roberts: It's not a very convenient time at the moment.
Mr Thomas: I'd be terribly grateful. He wouldn't be able to go if I wasn't there to help him.
Mr Roberts: Well, if that's the case I suppose you should.
Mr Thomas: That's very kind. I'll make up the time, I promise.
7. Son: Dad, can I have the car tonight? Father: No, you can't. I need it.
Son: But I'm taking Dave to see his girlfriend in
Father: I told you. I need it.
Son: Oh, please. He won't be able to go if I don't
give him a lift. Father: All right. I suppose I can walk. The exercise
will do me good. Son: Thanks a lot, Dad. I won't be home late.
8. Mrs Wilkins is on a strict diet. 'Am I allowed to eat toast and butter for breakfast?' she asked the doctor. 'I'm
afraid not, Mrs Wilkins. You can only have half a grapefruit and a glass of water. You can't eat any kind of fat and
you are not allowed to eat biscuits or sweets. But don't worry, you will be able to eat what you like after two months
of this diet.' Mrs Wilkins was very determined and took a lot of exercise as well. After two months' diet and exercise
she said to her husband, 'I still can't touch my toes as I could before we were married.' 'Don't worry, my love,' he
said kindly. 'Perhaps your fingernails were longer in those days!'
9. One day, while they were playing in the sand near their home in New Zealand, nine-year-old Patrick and two
friends found a giant egg. It was over a hundred times bigger than a chicken's egg. 'Can we keep it?' Patrick asked.
'Of course you can,' said his father. Patrick's friend added, 'I once found some old coins and I was allowed to keep
them.' The children wanted to know all about their egg, so they wrote a letter to a scientific laboratory. This is what
they said: 'Could you please help us to find out about our egg? May we bring it to show you? Would you please do
some tests and tell us what's inside it? Are children allowed to visit your laboratory? If they are, could we please
come soon?'
Patrick and his friends were allowed to take their egg for laboratory tests. The tests showed that it was an egg of the
extinct elephant bird and that it was at least two thousand years old. What a surprise! 'We will be allowed to keep it,
won't we, Dad?' Patrick asked. The children and their egg soon became famous. They appeared on television and
someone offered them 75,000 dollars for it. They began to plan how they would spend the money. But it was all too
good to be true. One day, a government letter arrived which said: 'The egg is public property. You are not allowed to
keep things which belong to the State. We are sorry but you will have to give the egg to us. We will pay you some
money, but only a small amount.' 'They can't have it!' said Patrick, 'If we can't have it, nobody can.' Patrick was very
angry. He buried the egg in the sand again and he still refuses to tell anyone where it is.
A. When Patrick and his friends took their egg to the laboratory, they asked a scientist to find out lots of things.
Make their requests with 'Could you ...?' Say your answers.
They asked the scientist to tell them how old the egg was. Could you please tell us how old the egg is?
1. They asked the scientist to find out what was inside.
2. They wanted the scientist to explain the tests to them.
3. They wanted the scientist to tell them what kind of egg it was.
4. They asked the scientist to find out what the eggshell was made of.
5. They wanted the scientist to tell them all about the elephant bird.
B. Patrick and his friends asked for permission to do the following things in the laboratory. Ask their questions
using can or may.
They wanted to look through the microscopes. Can/May we look through the microscopes?
1. They wanted to look at the equipment.
2. Patrick wanted to help with the tests.
3. They wanted to stay until the tests were over.
4. Patrick wanted to see the results on the computer screen.
5. They wanted to take the results home.
C. Work with a partner. One partner is Patrick, the other partner is the scientist. Ask for permission to do the things
in (B). Give or refuse permission with can, can't or be allowed to.
Patrick: Can/May I look through the microscopes? Scientist: Yes, you can. or No, I'm sorry you can't. Children
aren't allowed to use the equipment.
What are you allowed to do where? Say what you think.
in a cinema
stand up during the film/eat and drink/smoke?
You aren't allowed to stand up during the film.
You are allowed to eat and drink if you don't make a
noise. You aren't allowed to smoke.
1. in a library
talk loudly/run about/ sit and read?
2. on a plane
play a radio/open the door/talk to the pilot?
3. in a museum
take photographs/touch things/talk to the museum attendants?
4. in a public park
pick the flowers/play football/ drop litter?
5. at school
eat during lessons/listen to music/shout?
§3. Requests: can, could, will, would, may, might
Polite requests with 'I' as the subject
MAY I (a) May I (please) borrow May I and could I are
COULD I your pen? used to request permission.
(b) Could I borrow They are equally polite.*
your pen (please)? Note in {b}: In a polite re-
quest, could has a present or
future meaning, not a past

CAN I (c) Can I borrow your pen? Can I is used informally to

request permission, es-
pecially if the speaker is
talking to someone s/he
knows fairy well. Can I is
usually not considered as
polite as may I or could I.

TYPICAL RESPONSES: Certainly. Often the response to a

Yes, certainly. Of course. Yes, of cour- polite request consists of an
se. Sure, (informal) action, a nod or shake of the
head, or a simple 'uh-huh.'

Polite requests with 'You' as the subject

WOULD YOU (a) Would you pass The meaning of would you
WILL YOU the salt (please)? (b) and will you in a polite
Will you (please) pass request is the same.
the salt? Would you is more
common and is often
considered more polite.
The degree of politeness,
however, is often
determined by the speaker's
tone of voice.
COULD YOU (c) Could you pass Basically, could you and
the salt? would you have the same
meaning. The difference is
slight: would you = Do you
want to do this please?
could you = Do you want
to do this please, and is it
possible for you to do this?
Could you and would you
are equally polite.

CAN YOU (d) Can you pass Can you is often used
the salt? informally. It usually
sounds less polite than
could you or would you.

TYPICAL RESPON- A person usually responds

SES: Yes, I'd (I would) in the affirmative to a
be happy to. Yes, I'd be polite request. If a negative
glad to. Certainly. Sure, response is necessary, a
(informal) person might begin by
saying, I'd like to, but...',
(eg, 'I'd like to pass the salt,
but I can't reach it. I'll ask
Tom to pass it to you.').

Polite requests with would you, mind

ASKING PERMISSION Notice in (a): would you mind if
(a) Would you mind if I closed I is followed by the simple past.*
the window? (b) Would you The meaning in (a): May I close
mind if I used the phone? the window? Is it all right if I
close the window? Will it cause
you any trouble or discomfort if I
close the window?

TYPICAL RESPONSES No. Not Another typical response might be

at all. No, of course not. No, that 'unh-unh,' meaning no.
would be fine.

ASKING SOMEONE ELSE TO Notice in (c): would you mind is

DO SOMETHING followed Ъу-ing (a gerund). The
(c) Would you mind closing the meaning in (c): I don't want to
window? (d) Excuse me? Would cause you any trouble, but would
you mind repeating that? you please close the window?
Would that cause you any incon-


be happy to. Not at all. I'd be glad

/. Study and practise.
1. — Will/Would you be able to fix my brakes today?
— I'm sorry. I won't be able to do it until tomorrow.
2. — Can/Could you possibly check my oil today?
— Sure. I can do it right away.
3. — I'm dying of thirst. Would you make a cup of tea?
— OK. I'll put the kettle on.
— And could you bring me some biscuits?
— Yes, I'll open the new packet.
4. — Excuse me. Could you open the door for me, please?
— Yes, of course.
— Thank you very much.
5. — Could I have the bill, please?
— Certainly, sir. I'll bring it straight away.
6. — It's a present. Do you think you could gift-wrap it for
— Yes, indeed. I'll just take the price off.
7. — Would you mind opening the window?
— Not at all. It's very stuffy in here.
8. —I'll give you a lift if you like.
— That's great. Would you drop me at the station?
9. — Yes, madam. Can I help you?
—Yes, I bought these here two days ago and the heel's broken. Can you change them?
— Oh, dear. I'm so sorry. I'll just see if we've got another pair for you.
10. — Turn that wretched music down, will you?
Or better still, turn it off!
— Oh, all right.
11. — Anita, will you come here a minute? Could you get
me the file on sales in France? I just need to check something. Oh, and Anita, I'd love a cup of coffee, if that's at all
— Yes, Mr Parkinson.
12. — Would you mind mailing these letters for me?
— All right. I'll do it when I go downtown this afternoon.
13. — Would you mind not smoking here?
— OK. I'll go outside.
14. — Excuse me. Could you move your bag, please?
— I'm sorry, but it's not mine.
15. — I wonder if you could tell me where the library is.
— Certainly. It's just round the corner.
16. — Would you mind if I borrowed your paper?
— Actually, I'm just going to read it myself. Sorry.
— Never mind. It doesn't matter.
17. — Do you mind if I open the window? It's a bit stuffy
in here.
— No, not at all. Please do.
— Thank you.
18. — Excuse me. Is that your motorcycle outside?
— Yes, it is.
— I wonder if you'd mind moving it. It's blocking my car.
— OK. I'll park it across the street.
19. — You know, this book is difficult to read!
— Oh, really?
— Yes. Can I borrow your dictionary? I'll only need it for about an hour.
— Sorry, I'm using it.
20. — Mom!
— Yes, honey.
— Can you help me with my homework? I really can't understand these history questions.
— Yes, in a minute.
21. — Is that the six o'clock news?
— Yes, it is.
— Would you mind turning up the TV? I can't hear it. I want to hear the weather report.
— All right.
22. — Uh, are you going to the cafeteria?
— Yes, I am.
— Could you get me a soda from the machine? I'm really thirsty.
— Sure.
23. — Excuse me?
— Yes?
— Would you mind if I went before you? I have to make a very quick call, but it's really urgent.
— Er ... er ... No, go on, that's fine.
— Oh, that's very kind. Thank you.
24. — Megan.
— Mmm.
— Could you do something for me? Can you see the paper over there? Could you get it for me?
— Sorry, where is it?
— On the television.
— OK.
25. — Is it all right if I leave my bags here for a moment?
— Of course, go ahead, (informal)
26. — May I come in?
— By all means.
27. — Hello.
— Hello. I wonder if you could help me? Would you mind if I left my bags here just for one minute. I have to make
a phone call.
— No, I'm sorry, sir. It's not allowed.
— It's only for a short time.
— It's against the rules. No luggage can be left in reception for security reasons.
//. Change the following sentences into polite requests using the words in parentheses.
1. I want you to hand me that book, (would)
Would you please hand me that book? 2.1 want you to give me some advice about buying a computer.
3. I want to borrow your wheelbarrow, (could) 4.1 want to have a cup of coffee, (may) 5. I want to use your bicycle
tomorrow, (can) 6.1 want you to read over my composition for spelling errors.
7. I want you to open the door for me. (would you mind)
8. I want to leave early, (would you mind)
///. Student A Make a polite request for the given situation. Student В Give a typical response.
1. You and (...) are sitting at the dinner table. You want the butter.
Student A: (Anna), would/could/will/can you please
pass me the butter? Student B: Certainly. /Sure./ I'd be glad to. Here you
2. You want to ask your teacher a question.
3. You're at your friend's apartment. You want to use the phone.
4. You're speaking on the phone to your brother. You want him to pick you up at the airport when you arrive
5. You want to leave class early. You're speaking to your instructor.
6. You want (...) to meet you in front of the library at three this afternoon.
7. You knock on your professor's half-open door. He's sitting at his desk. You want to go in.
8. You want to make an appointment to see Dr North.; You're speaking to her secretary.
9. You are at a gas station. You want the attendant to check the oil.
10. You are in your chemistry class. You're looking at your textbook. On page 100 there is a formula which you do
not understand. You want your professor to explain this formula to you.
11. You call your friend. Her name is (...). Someone else answers the phone.
12. You want to see (...)'s dictionary for a minute.
13. You want a stranger in an airport to keep her eye on your luggage while you get a drink of water.
14. You want (...) to tape something on the VCR tonight while you're away at a meeting.
15. You want a stranger to tell you the time.
16. You want your friend to hand you (something).
17. You wrote a letter to a university. You want your teacher to read it and correct the mistakes.
18. (•••) is going to the library. You want him/her to return a book for you.
19. You and (...) are on vacation together. You'd like to have a picture of the two of you together. You see a
stranger who looks friendly. You want her to take a picture of you.
IV. Using the verb in parentheses, fill in the blank either with if 1+ the past tense or with the -ing form of the verb.
In some of the sentences, either response is possible but the meaning is different.
1. A: It's hot in here. Would you mind (open) opening
the window? B: Not at all. I'd be glad to.
2. A: It's hot in here. Would you mind (open) if I opened
the window?
B: Not at all. Go right ahead. I think it's hot in here, too.
3. A: Would you mind (take)_________the took back
to the library for me? B: Not at all.
4. A: This story you wrote is really good. Would you
mind (show)________it to my English teacher?
B: Go right ahead. That'd be fine.
5. A: I'll wash the dishes. Would you mind (dry)
____________them. That would help me a lot.
B: I'd be happy to.
6. A: I'm feeling kind of tired and worn out. This heavy
work in the hot sun is hard on me. Would you
mind (finish)____________the work by yourself?
B: No problem, Grandpa. Why don't you go and rest? I'll finish it up.
7. A: Would you mind (use)___________your name as
a reference on this job application? B: Not at all. In fact, ask them to call me.
8. A: Would you mind (wait)____________here for
just a minute? I need to run back to the classroom. I forgot my notebook.
В: Sure. Go ahead. I'll wait right here.
9. A: You have an atlas, don't you? Would you mind (bor-
row) ___________it for a minute? I need to settle
an argument. My friend says Timbuktu is in Asia, and I say it's in Australia.
B: You're both wrong. It's in Africa. Here's the atlas. Look it up for yourself.
10. A: Since this is the first time you've owned a computer,
would you mind (give)___________you some advice?
B: Not at all. I'd appreciate it.
11. A: Are you going to the post office? B: Yes.
A: Would you mind (mail)__________this letter for me?
B: Not at all.
12. A: Are you coming with us?
B: I know I promised to go with you, but I'm not feeling
very good.
Would you mind (stay)___________home?
A: Of course not.
13. A: I still don't understand how to work this algebra
problem. Would you mind (explain)__________it
again? B: Not at all. I'd be happy to.
14. A: It's getting hot in here. Would you mind (open)
______the window?
B: No.
15. A: This is probably none of my business, but would you
mind (ask)___________you a personal question?
B: It depends.
16. A: Would you mind (smoke)________?
B: I'd really rather you didn't.
17. A: Excuse me. Would you mind (speak)__________a lit- •
tie more slowly? I didn't catch what you said. B: I'd be happy to.
18. A: I don't like this TV program. Would you mind (change)
__________the channel?
B: Unh-unh.
19. A: I'm getting tired, I'd like to go home and go to
bed. Would you mind (leave)_____________early?
B: Not at all.
V. Change these sentences into polite requests beginning with Would you mind ... ?' or 'Do you mind?'.
1. You would like your English teacher to speak more slowly.
Would you mind speaking a little more slowly?
2. The music is a bit soft and you would like to turn the volume up.
3. You would like your landlady to take any messages for you while you are out.
4. The room is cold and you would like to turn the heating on.
5. You are in a friend's house and you would like to make yourself a cup of tea.
6. You would like the telephone company to send you another bill. (You have lost the original one.)
7. You would like your friend to type a letter for you.
VI. Study very polite ways of asking permission and requesting:
Could you possibly do me a favour?
Do you think you could help me with a problem I've got?
I was wondering if you could lend me some money for a. few
You couldn't possibly lend me £20, could you?
Use each form once in the following situations. Use a more direct form in two of them.
1. Mr Wilson asks his boss if he can leave the office an hour earlier than usual.
2. Stephen asks his guitar teacher to lend him his guitar for the evening.
3. Mr Wilson wants his neighbour to help him carry a cupboard upstairs.
4. You ask someone to move his car, as it's blocking the entrance to your garage.
5. Julie and two of her friends ask their typing teacher for permission to leave early.
6. Mrs Wilson would like Julie to do some shopping for her, if she has time.
7. You ask a stranger next to you in a train if you can look at his newspaper.
8. You ask your host for permission to use his phone.
9. You ask someone you hardly know for a lift into town.
10. You are checking out of a hotel, and want to pay your bill.
Less formal Can you please lend me $ 100? Could you
let me use your car? Would you be able to
mail this letter? Would you mind letting
me use your Walkman? Would it be OK if
I borrowed your car? Would you mind if I
used it? I wonder if you'd mind lending me
your cassette player.

Most formal

VII. Pair work. Make requests with modals or if-clauses using the cues below. Then practise them.
a) You want to borrow someone's A: Would you mind ... B: Sorry. It's
typewriter. not working right. A: ... B: OK.
b) You want someone to drive you What time?
to the airport. A: ... B: Sure, that'll be fine, but I'm
c) You want someone to help you only free in the afternoon.
move on Saturday. A: ... B: Gee, I'm sorry, I'm going to
d) You want someone to lend you use it later.
a camera.

e) You want to use someone's A: ... B: All right. Go ahead!

Class activity. Go round the class and make your requests. How many people accepted and how many refused?
Accepting a request Refusing a request
Oh, sure. I'd be glad to! OK. Oh, sorry, I can't right now. I'm
I'll do that. All right. Sure! No sorry, but I'm busy. I'd rather not.
problem! By all means. Of What? You must be kidding! Please
course, go ahead. don't.

VIII. Ask polite questions in the following situations. Use any appropriate modal (may, could, would, etc.).
1. Your train leaves at 6 p.m. tomorrow. You want your friend to take you to the station.
2. You're sitting at your friend's house. A bowl of fruit is sitting on the table. You want an apple.
3. You're in class. You're hot. The window is closed.
4. You're in a car. Your friend is driving. You want her to stop at the next mailbox so you can mail a letter.
5. You're trying to study. Your roommate is playing his music tapes very loudly, and this is bothering you.
6. You call your friend. Someone else answers and tells you that he's out. You want to leave a message.
7. You want your pen. You can't reach it, but your friend can. You want her to hand it to you.
8. You're at a restaurant. You want some more coffee.
9. You're at your friend's house. You want to help her set the dinner table.
10. You're the teacher. You want a student to shut the door.
11. You want to make a telephone call. You're in a store and have to use a pay phone, but you don't have any
change. All you have is (a one-dollar bill). You ask a clerk for change.
12. You're at a restaurant. You've finished your meal and are ready to leave. You ask the waiter for the check.
13. You call your boss's house. His name is Mr Smith. You want to talk to him. His wife answers the phone.
14. You're walking down the hall of the classroom building. You need to know what time it is. You ask a student
you've never met.
15. You're in the middle of the city. You're lost. You're trying to find the bus station. You stop someone on the
street to ask for directions.
17. You call the airport. You want to know what time Flight 62 arrives.
18. You're in a department store. You find a sweater that you like, but you can't find the price tag. You ask the clerk
to tell you how much it costs.
IX. Translate from Russian into English.
1. He могли бы вы дать мне консультацию сегодня? 2. Не принесете ли вы мне стакан воды? 3. Пожалуйста,
брось письмо в почтовый ящик по дороге на работу. 4. Ты не поможешь мне перевести эту статью? 5. Вы не
возражаете, если я приглашу своих друзей? — Конечно нет. Я буду рад. 6. Можно мне включить телевизор?
— Боюсь, что нет. Уже поздно и пора ложиться спать. 7. Пожалуйста, скажите мне, где я должен выйти,
чтобы попасть на стадион. 8. Ты не можешь зайти ко мне сегодня вечером? 9. Можно мне взять на минуту
ваш бинокль? Я хочу рассмотреть лицо певца. 10. Вы не поможете мне с чемоданами? — Конечно. 11.
Пожалуйста, подожди меня немного. — Хорошо. 12. Вы не могли бы подвезти меня на вокзал? — С
удовольствием. 13. Вы не могли бы помочь мне при переезде на новую квартиру? — Боюсь, что не смогу. Я
уезжаю в командировку. 14. Приходите после обеда, хорошо? 15. Вы не возражаете, если я открою окно?
Здесь очень душно. 16. Можно мне сесть рядом с вами? — Да, пожалуйста. 17. Не мог бы ты помочь мне
упаковать вещи? — С удовольствием. 18. Будьте добры, помогите мне выбрать подарок жене. 19. Вы не
против, если я возьму ваш зонтик? — Нет конечно. 20. Не могли бы вы
показать нам свой город? — С удовольствием. 21. Вы не передадите мне соль? — Вот, пожалуйста. 22.
Можно мне оставить свой портфель в гардеробе? — Да. 23. Вы не будете возражать, если я оставлю свои
вещи до возращения? — Нисколько. 24. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы мы пообедали в кухне? В
столовой слишком холодно. 25. Пожалуйста, позвони в кассу и закажи билеты на самолет. 26. Покажите мне
расписание поездов, пожалуйста. 27. Вы не возражаете > если я верну вам остальные деньги через неделю?
— Хорошо. 28. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я пользовался вашим компьютером? 29. Не могли
бы вы одолжить мне немного денег? 30. Вы не могли бы отнести мою книгу в библиотеку?
X. Study and practise the following conversations.
1. Isabel is at Sandy's house.
Sandy: Are you hungry?
Isabel: Yeah. I haven't had lunch yet. Could you make
me a sandwich?
Sandy: Sure. I'll make it for you in a minute. Isabel: And could you get me something to drink, too? Sandy:
Yeah. Could you show me your English
homework while you're eating? Isabel: Sure. Let me get it.
Sandy: Oh, could you lend me a pen? I can't find mine. Isabel: Here. The sandwich is delicious. Sandy:
Thanks. Isabel: Could you pass the salt and pepper?
2. Mr Adams: Bob, would you please get me the report that's
in my outbox?
Bob: Of course, Mr Adams.
Mr Adams: Bob, could you bring me the stapler that's on
my desk?
Bob: Of course, Mr Adams.
Bob: Maria, could you help me fix the typewriter
that's on Mr Adams' desk?
Woman: No, not at all. It is rather hot.
Man: Tickets, please.
Liz: Excuse me, but do you know what time this
train gets to Paddington? Man: 10.35, madam.
Liz: Thank you. Er, could I possibly borrow your
newspaper for a moment? Woman: Yes, certainly. By all means. I've finished with
it. Liz: Thanks. I just wanted to check the times of a
film I'm going to see this afternoon. Woman: Are you going to see anything interesting? Liz: Well,
actually, I'm taking my four-year-old
niece to see Bambi!
(Some time later)
Man: Any more tickets?
Liz: Oh, excuse me, but do you think you could
help me with my case?
Man: Certainly, madam. There you are!
Liz: Thanks very much.
A. Ask polite requests beginning with 'Do you think you could ...?'.
1. You want your teacher to check a letter you have written in English.
2. You want your friend to lend you his camera for the weekend.
3. You want a shop-assistant to change a £5 note for you.
4. You want your landlady to forward your post when you leave.
5. You want a friend to answer the phone while you are out.
B. Ask for permission in different situations beginning with 'Excuse me. Do you mind if I ... ?'
1. You are in a cafe. You want to borrow the salt and pepper from another table.
2. You are in a hospital waiting room where there is a TV. You would like to change the channel.
3. You are in the reception area of a hotel. You would like to use the phone.
4. You are on an aeroplane. You would prefer to sit in the aisle seat.
5. You are in a dentist's waiting room. You would like to turn the radio on.
C. Make polite requests.
You are making a train journey. You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag.
A: Would you mind looking after my bag? B: I'm sorry?
A: Could you possibly look after my bag? B: Oh yes, of course. No problem.
1. You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag.
2. You ask the assistant at the newspaper kiosk to give you a fifty pence in the change.
3. On the train you want to do the crossword in your newspaper. You wonder if your neighbour could lend you a
4. You feel a little chilly. You would like the person next to the window to close it a little.
5. Your suitcase is on the rack and you would like the person opposite to lift it down.
6. A woman in the corner has got her walkman on very loud. You would like her to turn it down a little.
D. Write a dialogue for the following situation.
— You are in the departure area at a ferry terminal after your ferry has been delayed. You notice a place next to a
woman and ask if you can sit there.
— You then notice that a woman has a magazine on the seat beside her and you ask politely if she could lend it to
— The woman doesn't realize that you are talking to her and you repeat your request.
— You have a portable radio with you which you and your friends would like to play. You feel it polite to ask
permission to do this. Tell her you won't play it very loud.
XI. A. Write a note to a friend or classmate asking for several favours and explain why you need help.
I'm taking my boss and her husband out to dinner on Saturday, and I want to make a good impression. Would you
mind if I borrowed your car? I promise to drive very carefully. And I wonder if you'd mind lending me that red bow
tie of yours. Could you let me know as soon as possible? Thanks!
B. Pair work. Exchange notes and write a reply accepting or declining the requests.
Of course you can borrow my car on Saturday. You can
pick it up at ...
About my red bow tie, I'd like to lend it to you but ...
§4. Obligation and necessity (1): must, have to, have got to
Must and have to
We use both must and have to to express obligation or necessity, but there is sometimes a difference between them:
We normally use must when We normally use have to when
the authority comes from authority comes from outside
speaker. the speaker.
Mother: You must be home Daughter: I have to be home
by 10 o'clock. (I insist.) by 10 o'clock. (My parents
I've got a terrible pain in my I have to go and see the doctor
back. I must go and see the at 9.00 tomorrow morning. (I
doctor. (I think it is neces- got an appointment.)
You must drive care- You have to drive on the left
fully. (I insist.) in Britain. (That is the law.)
We tend to prefer must:
— when we refer to ourselves (with I/we): I really must weed this garden.
— With you to express urgency: You must phone home at once.
— in public notices, etc.: Cyclists must dismount.
— (= Can't you stop yourself?): Must you interrupt?
— pressing invitations or advice: You must come and see us. You must repair that fence.
We only use must (+infinitive) to talk about the present and the future. When we talk about past obligation or
necessity, we use had to.
I had to work late yesterday.
Must has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with have to.
I'll have to work late tomorrow.
He hates having to get up early.
She's had to work hard all her life.
Note that in questions and negatives with have to we use do/does in the present simple and did in the past simple.
What time do you have to start work?
We don't have to hurry. We've got plenty of
Did you have to walk home last night?
Have got to
We often use have got to instead of have to to talk about obligation and necessity. Have got to is more informal and
is used primarily in spoken English. Have to is used in both formal and informal English.
I have to hurry. Do you have I've got to hurry. Have you
to go? got to go?
We normally use have to, not have got to, for things that happen repeatedly, especially when we use one-word
adverbs of frequency eg always, often. Compare:
I always have to work late I've got to work late this
on Wednesday evenings. Do evening. ? Have you got to get
you have to get up early' up early tomorrow?

We use got mostly in the present. To talk about the past, we normally use had to, not had got to.
I had to work late last night.
I. (i) Mrs Woods isn't very well. The doctor is speaking to her. Complete what the doctor says using must and the
verbs drink, take, stay and continue. Use each verb only once.
Doctor: Well, Mrs Woods, your temperature is a little high, so you ... in bed for the next few days. You can eat
whatever you like, but you ... plenty of liquids. And I'll give you some medicine. You ... it three times a day after
meals. And you ... to take it for the next ten days.
(ii) Now Mrs Woods is explaining the doctor's instructions to Mr Woods. Complete what Mrs Woods says using
have to and the verbs drink, take, stay and continue. Use each verb only once.
Mrs Woods: The doctor gave me some medicine. I ... it three times a day after meals. And I ... to take it for the next
ten days. I'm not allowed to get up at the moment. I ... in bed for the next few days. Oh, and I'm allowed to eat
whatever I like, but I ... plenty of liquids.
//. Complete the sentences using must or a form of have to. Sometimes two answers are possible.
1. I couldn't go to the party last night because I ... babysit for my sister. 2.1... get up early tomorrow morning. 3. You
... get a visa to visit the United States. 4. It's getting late. We ... go now. 5. I ... stay in bed yesterday because I wasn't
very well. 6. Mr Mason ... wear glasses since he was a child. 7.1 don't like ... work at weekends. 8. He ... try harder
if he wants to win the prize. 9. Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrellas ... be left at the desk.
10.1... do all the typing at my office. 11. You ... read this book. It's really excellent. 12. The children ... play in the
streets till their mothers get home from work. 13. She felt ill and ... leave
early. 14. Mr Pitt ... cook his own meals. His wife is away. 15.1 hadn't enough money and I... pay by cheque. 16.1
never remember his address; I always ... look it up. 17. Employer: You ... come to work in time. 18. If you go to a
dentist with a private practice you... pay him quite a lot of money. 19. Father to small son: You ... do what Mummy
says. 20. My neighbour's child ... practise the piano for three hours a day. 21. Doctor: I can't come now. Caller: You
... come; he's terribly ill. 22. English children ... stay at school till the age of 16. 23. Notice above petrol pump: All
engines ... be switched off. 24. Mother to daughter: You ... come in earlier at night. 25. The shops here don't deliver.
We ... carry everything home ourselves. 26. The buses were all full; I ... get a taxi. 27. Notice beside escalators:
Dogs and push chairs ... be carried. 28. Tell her that she ... be here by six. I insist on it. 29. Park notice: All dogs ...
be kept on leads. 30. She ... learn how to drive when her local station is closed. 31. Railway notice: Passengers ...
cross the line by the footbridge. 32. I got lost and ... ask a policeman the way. 33. If you buy that television set you
... buy a license for it. 34. When I changed my job I ... move to another flat. 35. Father to son: I can't support you
any longer; you ... earn your own living from now on. 36. Whenever the dog wants to go out I ... get up and open the
III. Make questions with have to.
Example 'Tom had to go to the police station.'
'Why did he have to go to the police station?'
1. 'Ann has to leave tomorrow.'
'What time exactly______________________________?'
2. 'We had to answer a lot of questions at the examination.' 'How many
3. 'George had to pay a parking fine.'
'How much_____________________________________?'
4. 'He will have to work hard next month.'
5. 'We had to get up early to catch the bus.'
'What time_____________________________________?'
6. 'My mother has to go abroad a lot.'
'How often_________________________________ ?'
7. 'I have to leave tomorrow morning.'
'What time_____________________________________?'
8. 'We had to wait for ages.'
'How long______________________________________?'
9. 'I have to take my car to the garage.'
10. 'Peter had to stay in bed for a week.'
'Why__________________________________ ?'
11. 'She'll have to go by bus.',
12. 'We have to dine out.'
IV. Make up short dialogues.
A: About this parcel — do we have to tie it up? B: Oh, yes, it must be tied up.
About ... — do we have to ...
1. these books ... take them back?
2. these old newspapers ... throw them away?
3. this broken glass ... sweep it up?
4. this wallet we've found ... hand it in?
5. these old curtains ... take them down?
6. the carpet ... roll it up?
7. this watch we are giving him ... wrap it up?
8. this information ... pass it on?
9. this notice ... put it up?
10. the instructions ... write them down?
11. these forms ... fill them up?
12. the money ... pay it back?
13. the dishes ... wash them up?
14. his orders ... carry them out?
15. the wall that you say is unsafe ... pull it down?
16. the documents ... lock them up?
17. the meeting ... put it off?
V. Say 'why'.
Examples: Jane is going - food/money/wine
to the bank.
She has got to go to the bank because she needs some money.
I am going to the shop, dress/glass of
I have got to go to the shop because I need a dress.
1. Jane is going to the food/money/wine
2. I am going to the shop. dress/glass of water/money
3. Peter is going to the stamps/parcel labels/
post office. traveller's cheques
4. Peter is stopping at the perfume/petrol/medicine
5. Simon is asking for bath/hot dog/girl-friend
some money.
6. Mr and Mrs Hunt are sleep/whisky/holiday
going to bed.
7. The man is stopping at newspaper/tyre/scarf
the newsagent's.
8. They are phoning Direc- book/telephone number/room
tory Enquiries.
9. You are going to the food/telephone/presents
10. We are going to the car/room/holiday
hotel now.
§5. Obligation and necessity (2): mustn't, don't have to, don't need to, haven't got to, needn't
Compare mustn't and don't have to:
Father: Annie, you have a Susan: I'm on holiday. I
bad cold. You mustn't get up don't have to get up early
today. (= Do not get up.) (= It is not necessary to get
up early. )
You mustn't wash that You don't have to wash that
sweater. It has to be shirt. It isn't dirty. (= It is
dry-cleaned. (= Do not not necessary to wash it. )
wash it.)
We use mustn't when We use don't have to when
there is an obligation it is not necessary to do
not to do something. something.
Mustn't means 'it's forbidden'.
mustn't — prohibition don't have to = absence (lack)
of necessity
Life belts must not be re- Tomorrow is a holiday. We moved, (no choice) don't have to go to class.
We can also use don't need to, haven't got to or
needn't to say that it is not necessary to do something.
I don't need to get up today. I haven't got to get up today. I needn't get up today.
Note that we often use needn't when the speaker gives someone permission not to do something.
You needn't pay me back the money you owe me until next week. (= I give you permission not to pay me back the
money until then.)
/. Choose the correct form.
1. You've been late for work twice this week. You mustn't/ needn't be late again tomorrow. 2. We mustn't/don't have
to hurry. We've got plenty of time. 3. We mustn't/haven't got to make any noise going into the house. It's very late
and everybody is asleep. 4. You mustn't/needn't tell Nicki about the party. I've already told her. 5. You mustn't/don't
need to phone the station about the time of the trains. I've got a timetable. 6. I mustn't/haven't got to go now. I can
stay a bit longer if you want me.
II. Jim is going to backpack around the world for a year, but his mother is worried. Listen to them.
Mum: You must write to us every week!
Jim: Yes, Mum! I will.
Mum: You mustn't lose your passport!
Jim: No, Mum! I won't.
Work in pairs. Make similar dialogues between Jim and his
mother. Use the cues and must or mustn't.
— look after your money — — talk to strangers — drink too
go out when it's dark — make much beer — have a bath
sure you eat well — phone us regularly
if you're in trouble — go anywhere that's dangerous

III. Complete the utterances using haven't got to and the prompts in the right column.
Examples: Jane is not tired.
Sheila has got a lot of clothes.
buy a new dress go to bed early.
Jane has not got to go to bed early. Sheila has not got to buy a new dress.
1. Jane is not tired. 2. Sheila has buy any food this week
got a lot of clothes. look for a flat
3. Harry has got a lot of money. phone the restaurant
4. Mrs Hunt has got a lot of cash a cheque today
food in the house.
5. We have bought a house in the go to bed early
6. You have already booked a table. buy a new dress
7. I have got six airletters. go to a snack-bar
8. We have hired a car. phone them tonight
9. I have written to the Blakes. go to the post office yet
10 They have already had dinner buy a car
in the hotel.
IV. This time make negative sentences with have to.
Example: 'Did they have to change trains?'
'No, it was a through train so they didn't have to change (trains).'
1. 'Did you pay to get into the concert?'
'No, we had free tickets so we_____________________'
2. 'Does Jack shave?' 'No, he's got a beard so___________'
3. 'Did you get up early this morning?' 'No, it's my day off
4. 'Do you work?' 'No, I'm extremely rich so___________'
5. 'Will you have to walk?' 'No, we have a car so________'
6. 'Did you have to ask a doctor in?' 'No, my sister is a doctor so______________________________________'
7. 'Did you have to hire a taxi?' 'No, the hotel is not far from the station so______________________________'
8. 'Shall I have to wait?' 'No, the boss is free so_________'
V. Complete the sentences with any appropriate form of have to. Include any words in parentheses.
1. A: (You) ... leave so early?
B: I'm afraid I do. I have some work I ... finish before I go to bed tonight.
2. Last night Jack ... go to a meeting. (You) ... go to the
meeting last night too?
3. Joan travels to Russia frequently. Luckily, she speaks
Russian, so she (not) ... rely on an interpreter when she's there.
4. I (not) ... water the garden later today. Joe has agreed to do it for me.
5. I ... write three term papers since the beginning of the semester.
6. Why (Tom) ... leave work early yesterday?
7. I found some milk in the refrigerator so we (not) ... go to the store after all. There is plenty.
8. (John)... buy a round-trip ticket when he went to Egypt?
9. Matt is nearsighted. He ... wear glasses ever since he was ten years old.
10. By the time this week is finished, I ... take eight examinations in five days. The life of a student isn't easy!
11. (You, not) ... return these books to the library today? Aren't they due?
12. If Jean stays in Brazil much longer, she ... teach English part-time so that she'll have enough to support herself.
(She) ... apply for a special work visa? Or can she work part-time on a student visa?
13. Because it was Emily's birthday yesterday, she (not) ... do any of her regular chores, and her mother let her
choose anything she wanted to eat for dinner.
VI. Use must not or do not have to in the following sentences.
1. I've already finished all my work, so I ... study tonight.
2. I ... forget to take my key with me. 3. You ... introduce me to Dr Gray. We've already met. 4. In order to be a
good salesclerk, you ... be rude to a customer. 5. I ... go to the doctor. I'm feeling much better. 6. Johnny! You ...
play with sharp knives. 7. We ... go to the concert if you don't want to, but it might be good. 8. This is an
opportunity that comes once in a lifetime. We ... let it pass. We must act. 9. If you encounter a growling dog, you ...
show any signs of fear, it is more likely to bite a person. 10. A person ... get married in order to lead a happy >.nd
fulfilling life. 11. The soup is too hot. You ... eat it yet. Wait for it to
cool. 12. You ... have soup for lunch. You can have a sandwich if you like. 13. Liz finally got a car, so now she
usually drives to work. She ... take the bus. 14. Tommy, you ... say that word. That's not a nice word. 15. Mr Morgan
is very rich. He ... work for a living. 16. If you are in a canoe, you ... stand up and walk around. If you do, the canoe
will probably turn over. 17. When the phone rings, you ... answer it. It's up to you. 18. When you have a new job,
you ... be late the first day. In fact, it is a good idea to be a few minutes early. 19. A: You ... tell Jim about the
surprise birthday party. Do you promise? B: I promise. 20. I... forget to set my alarm for 5.30. B: Why do you have
to get up at 5.30? A: I'm going to meet Ron at 6:00. We're going fishing. 21. A: Listen to me carefully, Annie. If a
stranger offers you a ride, you ... get in the car. Never get in a car with a stranger. Do you understand? B: Yes,
Mom. 22. A: Do you have a stamp? B: Uh-huh. Here. A: Thanks. Now I ... go to the post office to buy stamps.
VII. Use must not or need not to fill the spaces in the following sentences.
1. You ... ring the bell; I have a key. 2. Notice in cinema: Exit doors ... be locked during performances. 3. You ...
drink this: it is poison. 4. We ... drive fast; we have plenty of time. 5. You ... drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 6.
Candidates ... bring books into the examination room. 7. You ... write to him for he will be here tomorrow. 8. We ...
make any noise or we'll wake the baby. 9. You ... bring an umbrella. It isn't going to rain. 10. You ... do all the
exercise. Ten sentences will be enough. 11. We ... reheat the pie. We can eat it cold. 12. Mother to child: You ... tell
lies. 13. You ... turn on the light; I can see quite well. 14. You ... strike a match; the room is full of gas. 15. You ...
talk to other candidates during the exam. 16. We ... make any more sandwiches; we have plenty now. 17. You ... put
salt in any of his dishes. Salt is very bad for him. 18. You ... take anything out of a shop without paying for it. 19.
You ... carry that parcel home yourself; the shop will send it. 20. You ... clean
the windows. The window-cleaner is coming tomorrow. 21. Mother to child: You ... play with matches. 22. Church
notice: Visitors ... walk about the church during a service. 23. I ... go to the shops today. There is plenty of food in
the house. 24. You ... smoke in a non-smoking compartment. 25. Police notice: Cars ... be parked here. 26. We ...
open the lion's cage. It is contrary to Zoo regulations. 27. You ... make your bed. The maid will do it. 28. I want this
letter typed but you ... do it today. Tomorrow will do. 29. I'll lend you the money and you ... pay me back till next
month. 30. We ... climb any higher; we can see very well from here. 31. You ... ask a woman her age. It's not polite.
32. You've given me too much. — You ... eat it all. 33. We ... forget to shut the lift gates. 34. Mother to child: You
... interrupt when I am speaking. 35. If you want the time, pick up the receiver and dial 8081; you ... say anything.
VIII. What do you say to the other person in these situations. Use need't or mustn't.
Situation. You are talking to a little girl. She is playing
with some matches. Response You mustn't play with those matches.
Situation Someone is speaking English to you very slowly. Response You needn't speak so slowly.
1. You are in a petrol station. Someone is smoking.
2. You are in someone's house. They are going to turn the heating up. You are warm enough.
3. Your secretary is willing to work late. You can do without
4. Your friend is going to park his car where there is a sign saying 'No Parking'.
5. Your friend is willing to drive you somewhere. You are willing to walk.
6. Your friend is going out and it is going to rain. You can see he is going to forget his umbrella.
7. Someone is shouting at you but you are not deaf.
8. Your taxi driver is willing to wait but it is not necessary.
IX. You must... It's necessary You mustn't ... It's forbidden
You needn't ... It's not necessary
When you arrive in Britain, there are plenty of regulations to worry about. There are things that are necessary,
unnecessary, or forbidden. Use the modals above to complete the following statements.
1. You ... bring animals into Britain.
2. You ... have a passport.
3. ... have a visa, if you want to stay a long time.
4. ... have a visa if you are from an EEC (Common Market) country.
5. ... declare any restricted goods at the customs.
6. ... declare cigarettes up to a certain limit.
7. ... take guns into Britain.
8. ... drive on the left.
9. ... stop at pedestrian crossings unless someone is on them.
10. ... use the horn on your car except in an emergency.
X. Mrs Wilson is telling her husband what has been happening. Write his reactions, using must, mustn't or needn't
+ one of these expressions, and a tag question.
buy anything too expensive do be paid immediately make him
any housework be stopped change his mind

. 1. Stephen has announced that he is going to drop out of school.

We must make him change his mind, mustn't we? 2. They have been invited to a wedding, and will have to buy a
present. They________________________,__________?
3. The owners of the house across the road want to open a gambling club.
4. The doctor has told Gran to rest completely.
5. The telephone bill has arrived — the final date for payment
is in two weeks.
It ______________________,_____________?
XI. Complete the sentences using must, mustn't, have to or will have to.
1. Julie, trying to train her dog: You ... sit when I tell you to!
2. The teacher who is invigilating Stephen's exam: You ... try to talk to each other during the exam.
3. The doctor to a nurse about a patient with a bad heart: He ... stay in bed for several weeks, and ... talk too much.
4. Mr Wilson phones his wife at 6 pm:
I'm afraid I'm going to be late — I ... finish some letters.
5. The immigration officer notices that a traveller hasn't signed his new passport:
You ... sign it as soon as you get it.
6. Mr Wilson explains why he is taking a pill: I ... take these pills for my blood pressure.
7. Mrs Wilson is offering more cake to a guest at a tea party:
You ... have some more cake.
8. Stephen has hurt his knee playing football: The doctor says I ... play for three weeks.
XII. You work in a gym club. In pairs, use the cues below to make rules for the gym, sauna, and carpark, using must
always and mustn't.
You must always wear sports shoes and sports clothes. You mustn't smoke.
wear sports shoes and sports clothes
use the equipment without a teacher
use training bicycles for more than twenty minutes
clean the equipment after using it
wear a swimming costume
remove any jewellery
read newspapers
use the sauna after 8 p.m.
lock your car
make any noise after 9.30 p.m.
leave your car overnight
play your car radio loudly
XIII. Choose the correct verb in these exchanges.
1. I can't go to the disco tonight. I'm afraid I ... get up early tomorrow.
a) mustn't b) I've got c) will
2. You ... wear shoes in the gym.
a) don't b) haven't got to c) mustn't
3. ... go through that door. It says 'No entry'.
a) Don't b) Not c) You mustn't to
3. It was a lovely party. We ... write and thank them, a) got to b) do c) must
5. You're driving at 120 kph. You really ... drive so fast, a) don't b) didn't c) mustn't
XIV. Supply mustn't or needn't/don't have to/haven't got to.
Note: We can use needn't, don't have to and haven't got to
in place of each other to mean it isn't necessary: I needn't/ don't have to/haven't got to go to the office tomorrow.
1. They ... wear a uniform. It's not obligatory. 2. She ... leave the office last. She can go when she is ready. 3. You
really ... waste money like that. It worries your parents. 4. Visitors ... enter the laboratories without permission. 5.
You ... go to the party if you don't want to. Nobody's forcing you. 6. He ... do the job today, as long as it gets done
some time this week. 7. Surely we ... leave home yet. It's far too early to go to the station. 8. Passengers ... smoke in
the toilets. 9. 'Are you going to read the report?' — 'No, I.... It's confidential.' 10. 'Are you going to read the report?'
— 'No, I .... I already know what it says.' 11. You ... attend the meeting tomorrow. It's for union officials only. 12.
You ... attend the meeting tomorrow. It's not important. 13. You ... forget to pay the electricity bill, or we'll be cut
off. 14. We ... worry about Tom. He's just phoned to say he's all right. 15. You ... work such long hours. You won't
earn any more.
XV. Supply must, need, or a form of have to. Question forms and negatives are also included.
1. 'What time ... we ... leave for the airport?'
'It's only a thirty-minute drive, so we ... go until about 3.30.' 'I ... do my packing. I haven't started yet!'
2. I have an interview for a job next week, but before the interview I ... have a medical examination.
3. How did you damage your bike? You ... learn to look after your toys. When I was your age, I... clean my bike
every night.
4. There's a new Indian restaurant just opened that you ... go to. It's wonderful! You ... book, though, because it's
so popular already.
5. I'm sure she didn't mean to upset you. You ... take things so personally.
6. I hate ... get up on cold, winter mornings.
7. I hate ... tell you this, but you've just got a parking ticket.
8. I have perfect teeth. I ... never ... have a single filling.
9. I think I've put on weight. I ... watch what I eat in future.
10. I don't think a career in the army would suit me. I ... wear a uniform, for a start.
11. You ... worry about me. I can look after myself.
12. I got something for my cough from the chemist's, so I ... go to the doctor's.
13. You ... drive me to the station. I'd much rather go on foot.
XVI. Replace the words in bold type by need not/need I? etc., or a negative or interrogative have to form.
I've been invited to a wedding; but I can't go. Will it be necessary for me to send a present? Shall I have to send a
1. It isn't necessary for him to go on working. He has already reached retiring age. (He ... ) 2. Was it necessary for
you to wait a long time for your bus? 3. It isn't necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day. 4. It will be
necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day. 5. We had to stop at the frontier but we were
not required to open our cases. 6. It wasn't necessary to walk. He took us in his car. (We ...) 7. My employer said, 'I
shan't require you tomorrow.' (You ... come.) 8. It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays. 9. When I am
eighteen I'll be of age. Then it won't be necessary to live at home if I don't want to. 10. New teacher to his class: It
isn't necessary for you to call me 'Sir'; call me 'Bill'. 11. Will it be necessary for us to report this accident to the
police? 12. When you buy something on the installment system you are not required to pay the whole price at once.
13. 'Did you know enough English to ask for your ticket?' 'It wasn't necessary to say anything. I bought my ticket at
a machine.' 14. It isn't necessary to buy a license for a bicycle in England. (We ...) 15. Is it essential for you to finish
tonight? 16. Is it necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice? 17. Will it be necessary for me to sleep
under a mosquito net? 18. Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard. 19. It wasn't
necessary to swim. We were able to wade across. 20. It isn't necessary
for you to drive me to the station. I can get a taxi. 21. Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at the airport. But it
wasn't necessary to pay for the lunch. The airline gave it to us. 22. Is it obligatory for us to vote? 23.When you were
a child were you required to practise the piano? 24.1 saw the accident but fortunately it wasn't necessary for me to
give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses. 25. Small boy to friend: It won't be necessary for you to work
hard when you come to my school. The teachers aren't very strict. 26. They had plenty of time. It wasn't necessary
for them to hurry. 27. Is it necessary for you to take your dog everywhere? 28. What time was it necessary for you to
leave home? 29. I brought my passport but I wasn't required to show it to anyone. 30. I missed one day of the exam.
Will it be necessary for me to take the whole exam again? 31. Is it really necessary for you to practise the violin at 3
a.m.? 32. Everything was done for me. It wasn't necessary for me to do anything. 33. Are French children obliged to
go to school on Saturdays? 34. I was late for the opera. — Was it necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act
before finding your seat? 35. He repaired my old watch so it wasn't necessary for me to buy a new one after all. 36.
Were you required to make a speech?
XVII. Rewrite each of the sentences below using mustn't, can't and don't/doesn't have to, as appropriate.
I. You're not allowed to smoke on the lower deck of a bus in Britain. 2. It's impossible to learn a language properly
in just a few weeks. 3. In Britain it isn't necessary for men to do military service. 4. It's impossible to be served in an
English pub if you're under eighteen. 5. In Britain it isn't necessary for people to carry identity cards. 6. 'Don't put on
any more weight,' his doctor said. 7. 'Don't forget to post my letter,' she said to him. 8. He's not going to work next
Monday because it's a public holiday.
§6. Needn't have and didn't need to
Needn't have + past participle says that someone did something, but it was not necessary.
I needn't have made so much food for the party. Nobody was very hungry.(= It was not necessary to make so much
food, but I did.) I needn't have told Kate what happened. She already knew. (= It was not necessary to tell Kate, but I
Didn't need to + infinitive says that something was not necessary (but it does not say if someone did it or not).
She needn't have waited. (= She didn't need to wait. (=
It was not necessary to wait, It was not necessary to
but she did.) wait; we don't know if she
did or not.)
They needn't have worried. They didn't need to worry.
(= It was not necessary to (= It was not necessary to
worry, but they did.) worry; we don't know if
they did or not.)
When we use didn't need to, it often means that someone did not do something (because it was not necessary).
I didn't need to unlock the door because it
was already unlocked.
I didn't need to write to you so I phoned you
But we can also use didn't need to (with stress on need) when something was not necessary but someone did it.
I didn't 'need to write to you, but I wrote to you anyway.
/. Respond using needn't have done/could have done.
A: You sent the sheets to the laundry, I suppose? (wash
them myself)
B: No, I washed them myself. C: You needn't have washed them yourself. You. could have
sent them to the laundry.
1. You went by taxi, I suppose? (take a bus)
2. You went by bus, I suppose? (walk)
3. You took the lift, I suppose? (walk up the stairs)
4. You phoned him, I suppose? (write)
5. You got the tube tickets from a machine, I suppose? (stand in a queue)
6. You borrowed the books, I suppose? (buy)
7. You asked the shop to send the parcels home, I suppose? (carry them)
8. You painted the car yourself, I suppose?(have it sprayed)
9. You sewed it by hand, I suppose? (use the machine)
10. You walked up the ski-slope, I suppose? (take the ski-lift)
11. You paid by cheque, I suppose? (pay by cash)
12. You dialled the Paris number direct, I suppose? (ask the exchange to get)
13. You replaced the bulb yourself, I suppose? (send for the electrician)
14. When the curtain caught fire you put it out yourself, I suppose? (ring for the Fire Brigade)
15. You covered the grand piano with a sheet before you painted the ceiling, I suppose? (moved it out of the room)
16. You went second class, I suppose? (go first class)
17. You left your heavy case at the station, I suppose? (take it with me)
18. As you needed a copy you used a carbon, I suppose? (type it twice)
//. Complete the sentences using needn't have where possible. If needn't have is not possible, use didn't need to.
I. 'Did you water the garden?' 'Yes, but I... (do) it. Just after I'd finished it started to rain!' 2.1 didn't wear my coat
when I went out. I... (wear) it. It wasn't cold. 3. He was very anxious before the exam, but he ... (worry). It wasn't as
difficult as he'd expected. 4. She ... (pay) the man, but she gave him some money anyway. 5. She ... (pay) the man,
so she didn't give him any money. 6. Thank you very much for the flowers, but you really ... (buy) them for me. 7. I
... (phone) the plumber. I learnt later that John had already phoned him. 8. You ... (bring) your umbrella after all. It
hasn't rained. 9. The forecast was for fine weather so I knew I ... (bring) my umbrella. 10. I ... (wash) these clothes. I
didn't know they had already been washed.
II. I ... (cook) a meal last night because we went out and the food I prepared was uneaten. 12. She had rich parents,
and she ... (work) for a living and spent her time travelling. 13. She knew that the exam would be easy, and as she ...
(worry) she was very relaxed. 14. He bought a loaf of bread, but he ... (buy) one because his wife had already
bought one. 15. They ... (pay) for their son on the train because he was only two years old. 16. Brian had no money,
so he sold his car. A few days later he won a lot of money in a competition. He ... (sell) his car. 17. Jack was very
angry with Jill and threw a book at her. Later Jill said, 'I know you were very angry but you ... (throw) the book at
HI. Complete this text using needn't have or didn't need to.
1. I ... (take) a taxi to the station because Mr Peters took me there in his car. We were held up in a traffic jam and I
thought we would miss the train, but we ... (worry) because it was half an hour late anyway. There was a restaurant
car on the train but I... (have) a meal because I had had a good breakfast. I ... (take) any luggage with me because I
was coming back the same day. I took a book to read but I ... (bother) because I didn't even open it. The firm had
booked a seat for me but they ... (do) so because the train was half empty. When I got to the meeting they told me I...
(come) because the matter had already been dealt with. That night, when I got home I found no key, but I ... (wake)
my wife because she was still up.
§7. Obligation and arrangement, part of a plan: be to, be supposed to
Be to
The be + infinitive construction, eg I am to go, is
extremely important and can be used in the following
1. To convey orders or instructions:
No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police, (no one must leave) He is to stay here till we
return, (he must stay)
This is a rather impersonal way of giving instructions and is chiefly used with the third person. When used with you
it often implies that the speaker is passing on instructions issued by someone else. The difference between (a) Stay
here, Tom and (b) You are to stay here, Tom is that in (a) the speaker himself is ordering Tom to stay, while in (b)
he may be merely conveying to Tom the wishes of another person. This distinction disappears of course in indirect
speech, and the be + infinitive construction is an extremely useful way of expressing indirect commands,
particularly when the introductory verb is in the present tense:
He says, 'Wait till I come.' =
He says that we are to wait till he comes.
or when there is a clause in front of the imperative:
He said, 'If I fall asleep at the wheel wake me up.' =
He said that if he fell asleep at the wheel she was to wake him up.
It is also used in reporting requests for instructions:
'Where shall I put it, sir?' he asked. = He asked - where he was to put it.
2. To convey a plan( an arrangement):
She is to be married next month.
The expedition is to start in a week's time.
This construction is very much used in newspapers:
The Prime Minister is to make a statement tomorrow.
In headlines the verb be is often omitted to save space: Prime Minister to make statement tomorrow.
Past forms:
He was to go. (present infinitive)
He was to have gone, (perfect infinitive)
The first of these doesn't tell us whether the plan was carried out or not. The second is used for unfulfilled plan, i.e.
one which was not carried out:
The Lord Mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but was taken ill last night so the Lady Mayoress is doing it
was/were + infinitive can express an idea of destiny:
He received a blow on the head. It didn't worry him at the time but was to be troublesome later, (turned out to
be/proved troublesome) They said goodbye, little knowing that they were never to meet again, (were destined never
to meet)
Compare: must, have to and be to.
a) In order to graduate you must pass your exams.
must = obligation, absolute necessity with no freedom of choice
b) You have (got) to go now or else you'll miss your train.
have (got) to = necessity arising out of circums-
b) We are to start tomorrow morning.
be to = obligation arising out of arrangement
Be supposed to
We can use supposed to to talk about what people are expected to do because of an arrangement, a rule, or a duty.
You're supposed to start work at 8.00 every
I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon.
Note: Both fee supposed to and be to express expectations about scheduled events or correct procedures. Be to is
stronger, more definite than fee supposed to. Compare:
(a) The game is supposed to begin at 10.00.
(b) The game is to begin at 10.00.
(c) The committee is supposed to meet tomorrow.
(d) The committee is to meet tomorrow.
We use not supposed to to express prohibitions.
You know you're not supposed to eat in the classroom.
There is often a difference between what is supposed to happen and what really happens.
I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon, but
I'm not going to have enough time.
Put those sweets away! You know you're not
supposed to eat in the classroom.
He was supposed to phone me yesterday, but he
Note that we also use supposed to to mean 'said to' eg I'd like to read that book. It's supposed to be very good.
/. Explain the meanings and forms of be to in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
I. We were to act as guides to the party. 2. Now will you please show me the room where I am to work. 3. The
children are not to touch anything in the room. 4. There was a special order that no one was to come to the station to
see the battalion off. 5. Norman said I was to leave you alone. 6. The plane was not to take off at night as the
weather was too bad. 7. The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad. 8. It was the first and
the last ceremony I was to see. 9. What do you want with my things? Am I to be moved to another cell? 10. I want
to know on what terms the girl is to be here. Is she to have any wages? And what is to become of her when you've
finished your teaching? You must look ahead a little. 11. Eliza, you are to live here for the next six months, learning
how to speak beautifully. 12. He was to have had a music lesson in the morning but the teacher called up to cancel
it. 13. It is evident that we are to have a backward season for grains. 14. 'My dear Trot!' cried my aunt in a terrified
whisper, 'I don't know what I am to do.' 15. Why are you late? You were to have come an hour ago. 16. The order
came that we were not to leave the village before dawn.
17. We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from
18. Renny grinned: 'If we are to be neighbours for life — if you are to marry into a family I'm attached to — we
should be on friendly terms.' 19. Sorry, but I must be off. I am to have tea with Betty this afternoon. 20. All junior
officers are to report to the colonel at once. 21. He said you were to go to the police-station, did he? 22. Tell them
they are not to stop work just now to talk about football. 23. He knew that
he was to be punished for his crime sooner or later. 24. I didn't see Mike at the appointed place and I wasn't
surprised. We were to have met at 6 sharp. 25. What's the matter? The luggage is not packed yet. — Ann was to
have packed it an hour ago. It's all her fault. 26. Classes were to begin within two days and the past week had seen a
steady stream of new arrivals. 27. The meeting was to take place in a public room, at a hotel. 28.1 was to tell you
she is sorry you are not free. 29. But I tell you, you are to come down, miss, this minute: your mother says so. 30.
He was going to meet for the first time the people with whom he was to work for the next few years.
//. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. The building custodian is supposed to unlock the classrooms every morning. 2. You're not supposed to open that
door. 3. Where are we supposed to meet? 4.1 have a meeting at seven tonight. I am supposed to be there early to
discuss the agenda. 5. When we go to the store, Annie, you are not supposed to handle the glassware. It might break,
and then you'd have to pay for it out of your allowance.
III. It is evening and a group of people engaged in a team activity have been given their instructions .for the next
day. Martin wants to know what the others have been told to do. They always use Jack's name in their reply.
A: You went with John today, didn't you? B: Yes, but I'm to go with Jack tomorrow.
A: Bill carried John's equipment today, didn't he? B: Yes, but he's to carry Jack's equipment tomorrow.
1. Ann looked after Peter's children today, didn't she?
2. Peter and Mary worked with Tom's group today, didn't they?
3. You followed Bill's car today, didn't you?
4. You drove Bill's car today, didn't you?
5. Mary led Tom's team today, didn't she?
6. George rode Peter's horse today, didn't he?
7. They took their orders from Bill today, didn't they?
8. You trained with Peter today, didn't you?
9. You stood in front of Bill today, didn't you?
10. They tested Peter today, didn't they?
11. Mary filmed Andrew's group today, didn't she?
12. You and Hugo gave Charles a lift today, didn't you?
IV. Pretend you are taking a bus load of students (ages 12 to 16) on a trip to a nearby town. You are the supervisor.
Make a list of rules you want the students to follow. Use be to in your list.
1. You don't want the students to bring glass containers onto the bus.
For safety reasons, students are not to bring glass containers onto the bus.
2. You want the students to keep the bus clean.
3. You don't want the students to lean out of the windows.
4. You don't want the students to toss anything from the bus.
5. You want the students to store personal items under the seats.
6. You don't want the students to yell, scream, or shout on the bus.
7. You want the students to stay in their seats at all times while the bus is moving.
8. (Make additional rules you want the students to follow.)
V. Restate the following rules in sentences with be to.
1. NO SMOKING. —*• You are not to smoke.
VI. Practise using be to. Make up several sentences using be to for each of the following situations.
Example: The teacher gave the students a writing assignment. Tell us what the students are to do.
Possible response. They are to write a composition./ They are to write about a person they admire./ They are to hand
it in next Tuesday./They are to write it in ink./ They are not to write it in pencil.
1. Jack's back hurt, so he went to a doctor. She gave him some instructions. Tell us what he is to do and what he is
not to do.
2. This is your assignment for the next class. (Supply an assignment.)
Can you repeat to me what you are to do?
3. Your son has some jobs to do before he can go outside and play. What is he to do?
4. You have a new job as a cook. Your boss told you what she expects of you. Can you tell us what she expects of
5. You are on a committee to make rules for this school. The committee is writing a list of rules. What does this list
6. All of us use the library. What behaviour is expected of us? (We are to ... )
7. You are in charge of some children at a playground. You want to make sure they understand the rules you set.
Tell them the rules. (Children, you are to ...)
8. Who lives in an apartment building or dormitory? What is expected of its residents?
VII. Complete the sentences using the correct form of be supposed to and the verbs in the box.
Example: I'm on a diet, so I'm not supposed to eat cream cakes.
arrive not eat go not open not park have
1. What are you doing with your birthday presents? You ... them until your birthday! 2. I ... to work yesterday, but I
couldn't because I was ill in bed. 3. You ... your car here at any time. 4. We ... in Manchester at 6 o'clock this
morning, but our plane was delayed. 5. Peter ... a one-hour lunch break, but he sometimes takes a bit longer.
Not allowed to
This is used when the speaker is giving a definite rule: We're not allowed to go in the theatre.
Not supposed to
This is often used when talking about a rule which people sometimes break:
You're not supposed to block the street.
Note: In the positive allowed to = have permission to, but supposed to = have an obligation to, i.e. it is expected
Write restrictions and rules for the following places or situations.
I. In an aeroplane you're not allowed to smoke in the toilets.
You're not supposed to stand up until the plane comes to a complete halt.
1. in an aeroplane
2. in a petrol station
3. on a motorway
4. in a library
5. visiting people in hospital
6. in your school
Look at the signs below and state the rules connected with them using not allowed to and not supposed to.
No right turn
Don't drop litter! £20 fine
Thank you for not smoking in this office.
It is illegal to travel without a ticket.
Please keep our city clean. Don't drop litter.
No parking between 08.00 and 18.30.
Please do not talk to the driver.
IX. Make up short dialogues.
A: What were your instructions about phoning Bill? B: I was to phone him at 6.00.
What were your Instructions about ...
1. reporting? 2. posting the 7. leaving? 8. paying the
documents? 3. meeting workmen? 9. inspecting
George? 4. contacting Ann? the camp? 10. taking off?
5. seeing the agents? 6. 11. starting? 12. opening
joining? the doors?

A: Did you borrow a car?

B: No. We were to have borrowed a car but the plan fell through.
Did you ...
1. camp on the beach? 10. swim before breakfast?
2. hire a boat? 11. water-ski?
3. visit the island? 12. get up at dawn?
4. anchor in the bay? 13. climb the cliffs?
5. explore the caves? 14. search for the sunken
6. bathe by moonlight? 15. take photographs under
7. spend a week there? 16. have sing-songs round the
camp fire?
8. cook over open fires? 17. invite everyone to a bar-
9. make a film of the seabirds? becue?
X. Combine the modal verb be to with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.
1. I stood at the window, looking at them, disappear, and my heart kept repeating 'Good-bye, good-bye!' I was not
(see) them for nearly five years. 2. Nobody met me when I came. I was (arrive) by the ten o'clock train, but I
couldn't get a ticket for it. 3. Remember that we are (be) at his place not later than eight. 4. Hot compresses were
(apply) all night to the knee. 5. You knew exactly what you were (get) when you took on the job. 6. Why are you so
late? Didn't you get my letter saying that we were (meet) at 4? 7. What am I (do) if she starts crying? 8. It's clear that
we are (have) a very cold and rainy spring. 9. She is very excited today. She is (take) to her very first party. 10.
There was a violent storm that night and the Albatros which was (arrive) at the port in the morning had to drop
anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port. 11.When are they (dock)? Have they written? 12. Ba-teman
remembered the winter at the end of which Isabel and Edward were (marry), a winter of dances and theatre-parties.
13. That is that. But who is (tell) her about it? 14.1 don't like the idea. Am I (stay) here all this time? 15.1 told you
expressly that Miss Adeline was not (ride) at any more horse shows this autumn. 16. I just mention it because you
said I was (give) you all the details I could. 17. I promised to go to a club in Whitechapel with her last Tuesday, and
I really forgot all about it. We were (play) a duet together. 18. Everything has been arranged. You are (not have) any
wages the first six months. Just your keep.
XI. Fill in the blanks with have to or be to in the correct tense forms.
1. At nightfall the ship put in at a small port where they ... • to load three hundred bags of coffee. 2. They ... to light
a fire to cook their supper. 3. It was too late to change the plan and it ... to remain as it was. 4. The arrangement was
that you ... to give your views and I... to say what I thought of them. 5. He set off to the school where he ... to write
examinations for entry to the University. 6. When I got home I found I had left my olive oil in front of the notice-
board and I ... to return in the afternoon to collect it. 7. I wondered what ... to happen to us. 8. We agreed that the
one who came first... to reserve seats for the rest of us. 9. Nobody met me at the airfield as I ... to have arrived a day
later and could not warn any of my friends of the change. 10. He always puts off doing what he ... to do until it... to
be done.
11. We ... to leave on Monday, but because of a two days' delay with the visas we ... to book tickets for Wednesday.
12. There is nothing strange in what he did. It ... to be expected. 13. What ... to be done? We can't sit around like
this the whole day. 14. He made all arrangements for the marriage which ... to take place on the day of his mother's
arrival. 15. The Finnish woman who ... to work for Finch has not arrived yet. 16. Uncle Nick's things ... to be moved
out of his room so that it could be re-let. 17. Eden went to the wood where he ... to meet his brother for a ride. 18.
For the next few weeks I ... to stay in bed. Everyone came to visit me, and brought me presents, and I ... not to do
the cooking. 19. That day, however, I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I ... to cut my visit short. 20.
When no food ... to be had he seemed capable to do without. 21. ... I to do it all by myself? 22. You ... not to tell him
anything about it before you get further instructions. 23. You ... not to tell him about it if you don't want to. 24. It
was too late to change the plan and it ... to remain as it was. 25. They hoped to spend the summer together, but that
... not to be.
XII. Fill in the blanks with be to, have to, or must, using the correct form of the infinitive.
1. I did not know who ... (be) my travelling companion.
2. According to the state plan, many new dwelling houses ... (build) this year. 3. We ... (work) hard to achieve good
results. 4. 'It is eight o'clock. The children ... go to bed,' Mr Hudson said to the nurse. 5. She ... (go) to bed at eight
o'clock to be up in time for the first train. 6. This is serious; you ... (not joke) about it. 7. What ... (become) of the
girl? ...
she (pay) anything? 8. 'I've told my husband he ... (not smoke) in the living room.' 'And I... (not tell) my husband
such things; he's a born gentleman.' 9. The doctor told her that she ... (eat) chocolate. 10. He ... (stay) the night with
us. I won't let him drive to the country in this rain. 11. He ... (stay) the night with us because he has missed the last
bus. 12. He ... (stay) the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe. 13. We ... begin as early as
possible or we shan't finish it today. 14. My bike is under repair and I ... (walk) here this morning. 15. My bike was
under repair and I ... (collect) it that afternoon. 16. My bike is under repair and I ... (collect) it yesterday. 17. He told
me that I ... (not repeat) what I had heard. 18. No need to worry about the children. They ... (pass) the night in the
country. 19. Mike ... (break) the news to his mother. She must know all about it already. 20. 'She's sinned and she ...
(suffer),' said the missionary. 21. 'She has a lot to put up with, poor girl.' 'You ... (not tell) me. I know.' 22. He told
me I... (not use) words which I didn't know. 23.1 did not expect that the worst ... (happen). 24. Sir Peter (looks at his
watch): This is the time I ... (go). 25. Presently we ... (cross) the river, which we did on the craziest ferry-boat you
can imagine. 26. Cokane (to Trench): How ... anybody (know) that you are well brought up if you don't show it by
your manners? 27.1... (start) on my new job on Monday. 28. You ... (take) the dog away. I won't have it here any
longer. 29. They ... (take) the dog along with them because there is no one who could look after it. 30. She ... (learn)
to do things for herself. I refuse to help her in future. 31. What a pity you ... (go). I know it's time for you to catch
your train. 32. I ... (be) off. I want to go to bed. 33. My mother says that I ... (not be) out after eleven o'clock, but I ...
(not hurry) home because she herself is out playing bridge. 34. He told me that I ... (learn) by heart some twenty
lines every day to know English well. 35. Meat ... (keep) in a refrigerator or it will spoil.
XIII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если у тебя будут неприятности, ты должна послать за мной. 2. Мне придется обдумать это и принять
3. Если вы приходите сюда работать, то вы обязаны работать. 4. Ты должен научиться серьезно относиться к
жизни, Стивен. 5. Вы должны сейчас же спуститься вниз, мисс: так говорит ваша мать. 6. Я рассказал эту
историю, потому что кому-то надо было говорить. 7. Я должна выздороветь. Это слишком дорого обходится
Барту. 8. Опять ему пришлось работать по ночам, и опять работа продвигалась медленно. 9. Я был
несколько удивлен, обнаружив в зале, где я должен был выступать, так много людей. 10. Мне не пришлось
их знакомить. Оказалось, что они встречались раньше. 11. Тебе придется взять пальто. Холодает. 12. Озеро
было так близко, что Алан, который не любил ходить пешком, согласился, что не нужно брать машину. 13.
Он знал, что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять. 14. Через десять минут вы должны сдать контрольные
работы. 15. Он обязан (ему полагается) знать это. 16. Незачем было нести эти свертки самой. Магазин бы
доставил их, если бы вы попросили. 17. Незачем брать зонтик. На небе ни облачка. 18. Один из гостей сел
около меня. Мне не нужно было говорить, кто он. 19. Извини за опоздание. Мне пришлось отвести детей в
школу. 20. Вы должны пользоваться словарем. Я устал исправлять ваши орфографические ошибки. 21. Тебе
не надо было делать пересадку. Автобус №8 довозит прямо до моего дома. 22. Объявление гласило, что
посетители не должны кормить животных. 23. Концерт должен был состояться пятого февраля, но был
отложен из-за болезни дирижера. 24. Дети, вы не должны играть со спичками. 25. Почему Тому пришлось
вчера уйти с работы так рано? 26. Разве тебе не нужно сегодня вернуть книги в библиотеку? 27. Врач сказал,
что за ребенком нужно хорошо ухаживать. 28. Ты можешь подождать полчаса? — Нет, не могу. Я должен
быть дома в два часа, и мне нужно поторопиться, так как сейчас без двадцати минут два. 29. Если боль
прошла, то ему не нужно принимать лекарство. 30. У него хорошие способности к языкам, и ему не
приходится много заниматься. 31. Руди пригласили на обед к Мэри. После обеда они должны были пойти в
кино. 32. Вы должны сделать работу к четвергу. 33. Мне не нужно будет
сдавать этот экзамен. 34. Если бы я не приготовил все заранее, мне нужно было бы сделать это сейчас. 35.
Он должен был уехать утренним поездом, но что-то задержало его и ему пришлось ехать вечерним поездом.
36. Не полагается разговаривать во время контрольной работы. 37. Он сказал, что я могу не оплачивать счет
до 31 числа. 38. Я должен встретить их на вокзале? — Нет, не нужно. Ты должен ждать их здесь. 39. Кому-
нибудь придется ее проводить. Я сам не смогу.
XIV. Study and practise.
1. Customer: I wonder if you can tell me what the special
requirements are for a visit to Poland?
Official: First you have to arrange a visa. This can take up to three weeks so you must apply early-
Customer: Thank you. I'll have to contact my friend before I can make any definite arrangements. But I can see we'll
have to move more quickly if we want to travel in July.
Official: Yes, sir. You must fill in the form as soon as you can.
2. Susan: Can't you come and have tea now, Peter? Peter: Not yet, dear. I must water the garden first.
Susan: Do you have to water it now?
Peter: I'm afraid I must.
Look at it! It's terribly dry.
Susan: What a nuisance!
Peter: Last summer it was very dry, too. I had to water it every day.
Susan: Well, I'll have tea by myself.
Susan: That was quick!
Have you finished already?
Peter: Yes, dear.
Look out of the window.
Susan: Good heavens! It's raining.
That means you needn't water the garden. Peter: That was a pleasant surprise.
It means I can have tea, instead.
3. Maria: Hey, Judy, want to come to lunch with me? Judy: Oh, lunch would be great right now, Maria,
but I just don't have the time. I have this three o'clock sales meeting with the vice president and I have to finish
typing my report before I do another thing.
Maria: Oh, but this is the third time this week you've skipped lunch.
Judy: Well, I know, but this is just too important to miss. Listen, could you bring me back a sandwich?
Maria: Sure.
Judy: I'll have to eat it at my desk while I make a few more phone calls to check on some sales figures before the
Maria: Sure, but... but why can't your secretary help finish the report?
Judy: Well, I'd have my secretary do it only, with this deadline, I just can't trust him to type it fast enough. I want to
do it myself so I know it's done right. Look, I can't talk any more, Maria, I have to get started on this report. There
are just too many important things to do before this meeting this afternoon.
4. Josh has now got a job as a tour guide through Work International. His first job is to take a coach party around
Clare: OK. So is everything all right for Monday? Josh: Yes, fine. Oh, just one thing. How much do I
have to know about each city? Clare: You don't have to be an expert but it helps if
you know a little. Josh: I see.
Clare: They use local guides.
Josh: Ah, that's good. Do things ever go wrong on
these trips? Clare: Oh, yes, often. You have to be quite resourceful!
A. 1. What is Josh's first job? 2. How much does he have to know about each city in Europe? 3. What sort of person
does a tour guide have to be?
B. Do you know anyone who has been a tour guide? Do you think it is an exciting job?
C. An English-speaking friend is interested in the way you live in your country. In pairs, use the list below to ask
and answer about laws in your country.
A: Do you have to carry an ID card all the time? B: Yes, you do./No, you don't.
Do you have to:
— carry an ID (identity) card all the time?
— show an ID card to buy alcohol?
— do military service if you are a man?
— pay for water?
— pay when you visit the doctor?
— buy your own books at school?
— pay traffic fines on the spot (immediately)?
5. John Byron is a tour guide who takes coach parties through Europe.
'All sorts of things can go wrong on these tours. One of the worst problems is when the bookings are wrong. For
example, you arrive late at the hotel and there are only thirty beds when you've got forty people on the bus! You
have to be very resourceful. You have to sort out problems quickly. There is always one big drama during a tour.
Last year in Austria a man in my party had an asthma attack in the middle of the night and I had to call a doctor. The
man couldn't breathe. In fact he nearly died and the hotel owner was very worried because he didn't want a death in
his hotel! The doctor
forgot to bring any alcohol to sterilise his needles and he had to use some local brandy from the hotel bar! You have
to be on your toes all the time in this job!'
A. Have you ever had any problems on a school trip, guided tour or package holiday?
B. In pairs, choose three adjectives from the box to describe the qualities most needed for each of the jobs below.
I. A teacher has to be ...
1. teacher
2. a personal assistan
3. a writer
4. a nurse
5. a model
6. a hairdresser
7. an engineer
reliable resourceful patient efficient
attractive creative kind intelligent
smart friendly hardworking practical
6. I=Interviewer M=Megan L=Laura
I: What are some of the good things about being a
teenager, not an adult? M:Um ... well, you don't have to go out to work, for a
start. L: And you don't have to pay bills. You can go out with
your friends, go shopping, go to the cinema. M: But I always have to tell my Mum and Dad where I'm
going first.
L: So do I. Another thing is we don't have to do the housework and the washing and cleaning, and all that stuff,
which is really boring. M:One problem is that you never have enough money.
We get some money from our parents, but it's never
enough. You aren't allowed to buy what you want. I: What do you think it's like being an adult? L: Well, adults
have to worry about bills and looking
after their family. They can't do what they want when
they want.
I: They have responsibilities, you mean?
L: Yeah. I feel more sorry for my Mum. She's always rushing around and she has to go to work as well. She doesn't
have to work on Thursdays and Fridays, but she has loads of different things to do in a day, like shopping, er ...
cooking, taking me to dancing and swimming.
I: So do you think Dad has the easier life?
L: Well, I don't know. He has to work full-time, and he drives over a thousand miles a week, but he doesn't have to
do anything in the house. When he gets in at 7.30, everything's been done!
I: Urn, tell me about school. What are some of the school rules?
M:Huh! We have to wear a stupid school uniform, and we're not allowed to wear white socks, they have to be black.
We can't wear make-up, and we aren't allowed to chew gum!
I: And if you break one of the rules, you get a Friday afternoon detention!
A. What are some of the things Megan and Laura like a don't like about being a teenager? Complete the gaps.
a. You ... go out to work.
b. You ... pay bills.
c. You ... go out with your friends.
d. I always ... tell my Mum and Dad where I'm going.
e. We ... do the housework.
f. You ... buy what you want.
g. Adults ... worry about bills.
h. We ... wear a stupid school uniform, i. We ... wear make up. j. We ... chew gum!
B. Laura's parents are called Malcolm and Barbara, wnat are some of the things they have to do, and some of the
things they don't have to do? Who do you think has an easier life, Barbara or Malcolm? What about your family?
Is there a division between what the men do and what the women do in your family?
7. Molly Morgan is going to her sister's house for a week.
Molly: Now, Mick! What have you got to do while I'm away?
Mick: I've got to hoover the carpet ... and do the washing. Oh ... and I've got to feed the cat. Have I got to do the
Molly: No you haven't. There's lots of food in the fridge.
Mick: And have I got to cut the grass?
Molly: Yes, you have. It's very long. I'm coming back on Sunday.
Mick: OK. Goodbye, Molly.
A. Write a list of things you've got (haven't got) to do today.
B. Rewrite these sentences with have (n't) got to or must not
as appropriate.
Example: If you want to take the exam it is necessary to sign your name.
If you want to take the exam you've got to sign your name.
1. It isn't necessary to answer all the questions, but you can if you want to.
2. It is necessary to answer at least three questions or you'll fail.
3. You can't use a pencil in the examination.
4. It is forbidden to leave the room during the first hour of the exam.
5. It isn't necessary to answer the questions in numerical order.
6. Everybody must answer question I, but you needn't answer
question 2, if you don't want to.
7. You needn't spend half an hour on every question.
8. If you finish half an hour early it isn't necessary to wait until the end.
g. Tessa hasn't seen Maggie for a long time and would like her to come round to her flat.
Tessa: It would be nice to see you again, Maggie. Are
you free on Sunday evening? Maggie: I'm sorry, I'm not. I've got to visit my aunt in
hospital. Tessa: Oh, that's a pity. Monday's difficult for me.
What about Tuesday evening? Maggie: Tuesday's bad for me as well. I've got to go to a
Tessa: Wednesday then? Maggie: No, Wednesday's out for me I'm afraid. I've got
to stay in and do some work. I really must. Tessa: Oh, that's a shame. Well, I can't make Thursday.
Friday? Maggie: I'm awfully sorry, I've got to go out for dinner
on Friday.
Tessa: Have you got to? Can't you get out of it? Maggie: I'm afraid not, I've simply got to go. Tessa: Well ... it
looks as if we'll have to wait till next
week then. Maggie: Yes, I am sorry Tessa. Look, I must go now. I
have to meet Stephen in ten minutes. Ring me
next week sometime. Tessa: Fine. Try and keep an evening free for me.
9. John: I'd love to continue this conversation, but I really need to go now. I have to get back to the office.
Steve: Well', let's get together soon.
John: Okay. Would you like to have lunch some day next week?
Steve: Sure. How about Monday?
John: Hmm. I'm afraid I can't make it on Monday,
I've got to fly to Chicago on business. 'Steve: Well, unfortunately, I'm tied up on Tuesday. I'm supposed to have
lunch with an important visitor from out of town, and I don't think there's
any way I can get out of it. Are you free on Wednesday?
John: Wednesday? Let's see. Hmm. Somehow I think I've already got something scheduled for Wednesday. Oh, yes!
I've got an appointment with my dentist to have my teeth cleaned, and it's essential that I keep it.
Steve: Well, I'm afraid Thursday is out for me. I'm expected to attend a meeting of our personnel committee, and it's
very important for me to be there.
John: So that leaves Friday. I don't have any obligations or commitments on Friday. How about you?
Steve: Friday sounds good. Where should we meet?
John: You know I really must be going now or I'll be very late.
Steve: Can you give me a call tomorrow and we'll decide?
John: Fine. Speak to you then.
Sorry I have to rush off like this.
Steve: That's okay. I understand.
John: Good-bye.
Steve: So long.
A. Make up similar dialogues.
lO.When Margaret went into Wilson's office, she noticed that he looked very tired. In fact, he looked awful. She
knew it was not a good time to ask for a rise, but she felt she had to. She tried to think of something casual to say
first. It was always best to begin such conversations casually.
'Uh ... you're looking a bit tired,' she said. Wilson sighed. He told her he had just seen the Financial Controller, the
man who told everybody at the EBC how much they could spend.
'As usual, he said I was spending too much. It wasn't a very pleasant conversation,' he said. Then he mentioned that
he had a headache. Margaret began to feel sorry for him. She offered to get some aspirins for him from the canteen.
'You needn't bother. I can go there myself,' he said.
'Oh, but I'm going to the canteen anyway. It's no trouble,' she protested. Wilson thanked her and gave her some
money for the aspirins. She left. It was only after she had closed the door behind her that she realised something.
She had forgotten to ask for the rise!
A- Margaret says:
'I'll go to the canteen now.'
and Wilson answers:
'That's very kind of you, but you needn't bother. I
can go there myself.'
What are his answers if she says:
1. Til type that letter.'
2. 'I'll post those letters.'
3. 'I'll carry that bag for you.'
4. 'I'll take care of this matter.'
5. Til solve the problem for you.'
6. 'I'll dial the number for you.'
11. 'Do you call that a hat?' I said to my wife.
'You needn't be so rude about it,' my wife answered as she looked at herself in the mirror.
I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. We had been in the hat shop for half an hour
and my wife was still in front of the mirror. 'We mustn't buy things we don't need,' I remarked suddenly. I regretted
saying it almost at once.
'You needn't have said that,' my wife answered. 'I need not remind you of that terrible tie you bought yesterday.' 'I
find it beautiful,' I said. 'A man can never have too many ties.' 'And a woman can't have too many hats,' she
Ten minutes later we walked out of the shop together. My wife was wearing a hat that looked like a lighthouse!
A. Put mustn't, needn't or needn't have in the gaps in the following sentences.
1. You ... give Freddy any more sweets or he won't eat any tea.
2. The Doctor said I... go back to the hospital; my leg is all right.
3. You ... make any sandwiches for me. I'm not hungry.
4. My tea was already sweetened. I ... put any sugar in it, but I did and made it too sweet.
5. She ... fill in a new application form, we have the other one.
6. You ... mention this to Kate, or she'll get upset.
7. I... answered the questions, which would have saved me a lot of time.
8. She ... bring a doctor's certificate, she was only away for one day.
9. You ... take any more aspirins, you've had four already.
10. Tell her she ... open any letters marked 'personal'.
11. You ... stayed if you hadn't wanted to-
12. Mike: Do you think I can borrow the car tonight, Mum? Mum: No, you can't. Your father and I will be using it.
We're going to the annual general meeting at the
bridge club.
Mike: But they aren't holding the meeting tonight. Mum: Aren't they? How do you know? Mike: I heard Dad telling
Mr Jones it had been postponed
for a month. Mum: Well, he didn't mention it to me. If that's the
case you can use the car, but you're not to cram it
with too many of your friends again. There must
have been eight or nine of you in it last week.
You'll spoil the upholstery, and besides it's against
the law. Mike: Well Pete's car had broken down, so ours was the
only available. Anyway there are only seven of us
this week, Mum: That car's only meant to take five people. You are
not to go far in it, or you'll break the springs. Mike: We're only going to a party at Topsham. I'll drive
slowly and gently. Mum: Another of those parties! You're to be home at
midnight, or your father and I will be worried to
death that you've had a crash. Mike: Mum, the party will hardly have started by
midnight. Just go to sleep and forget about me. Mum: If you're late in, you are not to make a noise ...
And you're not to drink any alcohol or the police
will stop you and you'll lose your license. Mike: For god's sake, Mum, you must think I'm 9 years
old, not 19!
A. Look at the examples below. Make up similar dialogues.
A: I can't take the car tonight, can I? B: No, you're not to take the car tonight.
A: Mike's got to come back before twelve o'clock, hasn't
he? B: Yes, he's to come back before twelve o'clock.
13. Mum:Hello, Mike. Did you enjoy the weekend in Paris?
Mike: Yes, it was great, Mum. Look, I've brought you back some wine, and here are some cigarettes for Dad.
Mum: Thank you, dear. That's lovely. But you needn't have gone to that expense.
Mike: Well, I don't often buy you presents, but I don't often go to Paris either.
Mum: Tell me about it. What did you do with yourself?
Mike: Well, we had quite a good flight, and we got to the hotel at about seven o'clock. We had a super dinner, and
then Olive, Tim and I went to a nightclub.
Mum: Didn't anyone else go with you?
Mike: No, no one else wanted to come. All the others were too tired. Then on Saturday morning we did some
shopping, and of course we watched the international rugby match in the afternoon. The match was drawn, but
England were lucky not to lose.
Mum: Where else did you go? Didn't you look round the Louvre?
Mike: Yes, but it was a lightning visit. And.we went up the Eiffel Tower too, of course. But we didn't have time for
much else. We were told we were not to be late for check-in at the airport and we had to rush like mad. When we
got there, though we found we needn't have hurried because take off had been delayed for an hour.
Mum: What else did you buy then?
Mike: Let me see ... A few souvenirs, some postcards, a bottle of perfume for Janet ... Nothing much else because I
ran out of money. By the way, can you lend me a couple of pounds until next week, Mum?
Mum: So that's the price of my French wine, is it?
A. Complete the sentences using had to, didn't have to, was not to, or was not allowed to.
1.1... go to London last week for a meeting. The firm paid so I ... buy the train ticket. I ... go first class because the
firm was trying to economise on fares. I ... be in London by 10 o'clock, so I... get up early to catch the train in the
morning. The boss said I ... be late because I ... meet a very important client from New York. The discussions only
lasted a few hours and I... stay the night because there was a fast train home in the evening. I wanted to stay and see
a show but my wife wasn't well and she said that I... be away all night. After the meeting I ... rush to the station to
catch the train.
14. Nick: Hello, Alex. Alex: Oh, hi Nick! Nick: What's happening? Alex: We're waiting to see Timothy Dalton. I
want to
get his autograph. Nick: Why don't you go in? Alex: We're not allowed to. We have to wait until he
comes out. Man: Come on, you lot, move on. You know you're not
supposed to block the street.
Alex: Here he is! Later Alex: Well at least I got his autograph! Do you want to
come and have a coffee? Nick: O.K. But I'll have to be quick. I'm supposed to be
A. Complete the text by Inserting one of the verb phrases below.
not allowed to not has to didn't have have to
supposed to was allowed to
I've got a new job as a security guard and it's a big change. We ... clock in at 7.30 but in my last job we ... start until
eight o'clock. Also in my last job ... take an afternoon off every two weeks but here we don't get any half days.
They're strict about smoking too but I think that's good. We're ... smoke anywhere in the building. Anyone who
wants to smoke ... go outside. But they're not so strict about the lunch hour. We're ... take more than an hour off but
everyone does. Nobody seems to mind very much if you're a bit late back.
15. The education of children starts as soon as they are born; girls wear pink and boys wear blue; boys play with
guns and girls play with dolls. Boys are allowed to make more noise and cause more trouble, while girls are
supposed to be more interested in talking to and understanding people. This kind of education prepares boys for
power in the world but for little else.
A. Are your parents strict?
Say what you are (not) allowed (supposed) to do.
§8. Obligation and advice: should, ought to, had better
Should and ought to
We can use both should and ought to to talk about obligation and duty, to ask for and give advice, and, in general,
to say what is right or good.
You should learn to swim./You ought to learn
to swim.
You shouldn't tell lies./ You oughtn't to tell
What do you think I should do?/ What do
you think I ought to do?
Should and ought to are very similar in meaning, but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes
from outside the speaker eg from laws or rules. Should is a little more common, and ought to is a little more
Note that after should, we use the infinitive without to eg learn, tell.but after ought, we use to+ infinitive eg to
learn, to tell.
We use should have/ought to have + past participle to say that someone did the wrong thing in the past.
I should have posted this letter yesterday, but I forgot. (I did not post it.) I'm really tired this morning. I shouldn't
have stayed up so late last night. (I stayed up late.) Haven't you finished your homework yet? You ought to have
done it last night. (You did not do it.)
Had better
Had better (+ infinitive without to) expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation.
I'm going to an interview tomorrow. I'd better iron my shirt.
It's going to be cold tonight. We'd better turn on the heating.
('d better =had better)
We always use had (not have) with better in this structure, but the meaning is present or future, not past.
We form the negative with had better not. We'd better riot be late.
Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning of possible bad consequences and is stronger than should or
ought to.
You'd better take care of that cut on your hand soon, or it will get infected.
Should/Ought to and Must compared
All of them are used to express obligation, but must is often obligation with the sense of command, while the
meaning of obligation in should and ought to is weakened to advice, admonition, recommendation. (must = strong
obligation, should/ought to — mild obligation)
Must also expresses duty but is a much stronger word than should or ought to. People are often punished if they do
what they must not do, or if they don't do what they must do.
A man must not steal. (If he steals he will be put into prison.)
You must study your lessons. (If you do not study you will not pass your exams. Failure is a kind of punishment.)
But people who do what they should not do, or what they ought not to do, are not always punished.
We should (ought to) clean our teeth after every meal. (But many of us forget to clean our teeth, or we have no time
to clean them, and we are not punished.)
Should and ought to suggest that the person or
thing concerned is advised, required or expected to
take a certain action but is free to avoid it. Must
differs from should and ought to in that the person
or thing concerned is not considered free to avoid
the required or expected action. With must this
action is imagined as inevitable.
Should and ought to are used when must would
sound too peremptory.
Must indicates an obligation, usually one that comes
from outside. Rules and regulations usually make
use of must.
Ought to and should are often used to indicate
moral obligation, the feeling of obligation that comes
from inside us.
Illustrative Situations
1. Tony is typical of many young men today. He is overweight and he never gets any exercise. He drives
everywhere. Even if he wants a packet of cigarettes from the corner shop, he drives there. The doctor has told him to
get more exercise and to walk as much as possible.
He should get more exercise.
He should walk when he goes to the corner shop.
Perhaps he should take up tennis or golf.
2. Young Dr Pildare is drunk. Everyone is shocked. The worst thing is that he has just come into the operating
theatre without a mask on. There is also a dirty black cigar in his mouth. He knows all this is strictly forbidden.
He should be wearing a mask. He shouldn't be smoking.
3. You went out without your mac yesterday. When it started raining you didn't even shelter under a tree.
You should have been wearing your mac. You should have sheltered under a tree.
4. The supervisor was furious. It wasn't tea-time, yet when she went into the packing-department she found all the
girls there were not working. They were having a cup of tea. They didn't go back to work when she came in. In fact,
they laughed at her.
They shouldn't have been drinking tea. They shouldn't have laughed at her.
5. The goal-keeper suddenly decided to have a rest. He sat down in front of the goal and didn't even bother to get up
when the other team attacked. One of the forwards shot the ball into the net. He simply watched.
He should have been standing up. He should have stopped the ball.
6. Jack smokes and coughs a lot. His wife says, 'You ought to stop smoking. You ought to have done that long ago.'
7. Robert has an important examination in a few days, but he spends a lot of time on the beach swimming and
sunbathing. His mother says, 'You ought to be studying for your exam. You shouldn't be spending all your time on
the beach.'
8. Susan and Ron have just had an accident. Luckily neither of them was hurt. Susan says, 'You ought to have
stopped at the traffic lights. You shouldn't (oughtn't to) have been driving so fast.'
9. Frank Martin has not been feeling very well lately. He has been working a lot overtime because he wants to buy
a new car. The doctor has been examining him. 'You've been working too hard, that's all,' he is saying. 'You'd better
take things easy for a while. You'd better not work so hard.'
10. Peter is making a long-distance call to Canada. He has been talking for six minutes and the operator has just
asked him to put some more money in. He has not got any. 'Look,' he is saying to the person in Canada. 'I think I'd
better hang up now.'
11. Mrs Wilson: Did you remember to pay the phone bill? Mr Wilson: No, I completely forgot. We'd better pay
it soon, or they'll cut us off! Well, it's 8.20. I'd better leave for work.
Mrs Wilson: It's raining, you know, you'd better not go without a coat.
Mr Wilson: You're right.
/. Analyse the meanings expressed by should and ought to.
Observe the forms of the infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. 'I'm sorry.' 'You should be.' 2. 'You should come here often,' he said to Shelton. 'You ought to come here often,' he
repeated to Shelton. 3. 'I've come to tell you that I'm sorry.' 'You ought to be,' I said. 4. He looked more than ever
out of place, he should have stayed at home. 5. 'You ought to be careful not to make a fool of yourself,' I said to
Percy. 6. It's late. You should go to bed. 7. Look, if you're worried you ought to see Dr Devit. He is a sensible
doctor. 8. He thought, 'She is not thinking of me — why should she? She's young.' 9. She smiled. 'You ought to get
married yourself, my boy.' 10. Betty says it's a kid's game anyway and I ought to be ashamed of myself flying a kite
at my age.
11. 'I'm not sure, young man,' said Eden, 'that I oughtn't to refuse straight out — in your own best interests.' 12. But
she was too young to know that wisdom shouldn't be spoken about when you are happy. 13. Perhaps it is one's duty.
Perhaps I ought to do it. Perhaps you'd better tell them I will do it — just as a matter of duty. 14. He ought never to
have married a woman eighteen years younger than himself. 15. You should have gone to the concert. Why should
you miss the music? 16. There were fifteen equally good reasons why she should not have played bridge. 17. 'Mr
Davidson thinks that such a costume should be prohibited by law,' said his wife. 18. Why should I know anything
about them?
19. Oh, Renny, you should not have done what you did.
20. They both thought it an opportunity that shouldn't be missed. 21. I think you ought to show some respect for the
dead. 22. The doctor told her she ought to go to a sanatorium. 23. 'He was pleased with his present,' said Mr
Sunbury to change the conversation. 'And so he ought to be,' said Mrs Sunbury still upset. 24. He knew he ought to
tell Gorin and allow him to take other plans, but he continued to postpone the decision. 25. Aunt Milly took it into
her head that I ought to become an engineer. 26. Small children ought not to play in the streets. 27. Some people are
colour blind. They ought not to drive cars and buses. 28. 'Well,' Michael mumbled, 'I'm very glad to know at last
what it was all about.' 'You ought to have been told before.' 29. Oughtn't you to be more careful? 30. When Charles
saw Ann playing tennis, he came up and said, 'Are you sure you ought to be doing that?' 31. The responsibility is
entirely mine. I acted very wrongly indeed. I ought not to have let this relationship start. 32. 'When is he going
back?' 'How should I know?' 33. I'm the head of the noblest branch of the family and I ought to live up to it. 34. She
will expect you to marry, Harry; a doctor ought to marry. 35. 'I ought to have told Soames,' he thought, 'that I think
him comic.' 36. You should have left me alone. It's all I'm fit for. 37. They should be taught a lesson. 38. One should
always eat muffins quite calmly. It is the only way to eat them. 39. You'd better stop taking these pills. 40. Your
daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing should be encouraged.
II. Complete the conversations using ought to. Roleplay the conversations.
1. A university tutor is talking to one of her students. The student knows that he isn't working hard enough.
Tutor: This essay is useless. You simply haven't written enough.
Student: Yes, I know I ought to write more.
Tutor: It's typical, there's absolutely no evidence of any background reading.
Student: _______________________________________.
Tutor: Furthermore, I understand you go out every night.
2. Mr Fox, the editor of Euromode, works very hard and feels that he might be in danger of having a nervous
breakdown because of the pressure of his work. He is talking to his wife.
Mr Fox: I don't know what's the matter with me. Mrs Fox: Too much work. You need a break, a rest, something
to stop you worrying. Now if you took a
holiday ...
Mr Fox: Ought I to take a holiday, do you think? Mrs Fox: It would be a good idea. Work can affect your
health, you know. Why not see a doctor? Mr Fox: _______________________________, do you
think? Mrs Fox: Yes, I think you should. But have you told the
director you're worried about work?
Mr Fox: ______________________________________?
Mrs Fox: That's up to you, but it won't do any harm.
Another thing is that you do too much yourself.
You ought to get an assistant you know.
Mr Fox: ______________________________________?
Mrs Fox: Yes, then you could relax a bit more. On the
other hand, perhaps getting a new job would
help you.
Mr Fox: __________________________________?
Mrs Fox: Well ... I don't know about that. Now if you
stopped working for a bit ...
Mr Fox:______________________________________?
Mrs Fox: A change is as good as a rest you know.
Mr Fox: Oh, you are marvellous! I don't know what I'd
do without you ...
III. Complete the advice using should or ought to; find the advice for the problems.
Example: 'I've lost my credit card.'
'You should report it to the credit card company immediately.'
'You ought to report it to the credit card company immediately.'
Problems Advice
1. 'I've lost my credit card.' 'I think you/sell it.'
2. 'I can't wake up in the 'Perhaps you /look for another
mornings.' job.'
3. 'I'm bored with my job.' 'Don't you think you/apologize
to them?'
4. 'I've got a terrible head- 'Perhaps you/buy a new alarm
ache.' clock.'
5. 'I was very rude to my 'You/report it to the credit card
parents. ' company immediately.'
6. 'My car keeps on breaking 'Perhaps you/take some aspirin.'
down. '
7. 'My sister's birthday is only 'You/go/to a dentist.'
a month away.'
8. 'I have a toothache.' 'I think you/buy a present/befo-
IV. Criticize somebody you know using shouldn't or oughtn't.
Examples: You shouldn't eat so much.
Our teacher ought not to give us so much work.
V. Make up short dialogues using had better.
A: I haven't told Tom yet.
B: Then you'd better tell him today. (HAD here is normally contracted.)
I haven't ... yet.
1. done the ironing 11. returned the books
2. apologized 12. decided
3. explained 13. suggested it
4. applied 14. booked the seats
5. enrolled 15. ordered the coal
6. finished my essay 16. advertised the house
7. washed the car 17. answered his letter
8. mended the fuse 18. reported the accident
9. fixed the aerial 19. renewed my license
10. paid the rent 20. seen Tom about it
VI. Transform in the same way.
'I want to have your name and address. Perhaps I'll need them.'
— I think I'd better have your name and address just in case I need them.
1. I want to borrow some money. Perhaps I'll need some.
2. I want to leave now. Perhaps the bus will come early.
3. I want to take this umbrella. Perhaps it will rain.
4. I want to study. Perhaps there'll be a test tomorrow.
5. I want to borrow your revolver. Perhaps someone will attack me.
6. I want to take the bag. Perhaps I'll do some shopping.
7. I want to put on my overcoat. Perhaps it'll get colder.
VII. Complete the following sentences.
1. I should study tonight because ....
2. I ought to study tonight because ...
3. I had better study tonight. If I don't ...
4. I should wash my clothes today, but ...
5. I'd better wash my clothes today, or ...
6. It's a beautiful day. We ought to ...
7. It looks like rain. If you're going out, you'd better ...
8. You'd better obey the speed limit. If ...
9. You shouldn't stay up late tonight because ...
10. You'd better not stay up late tonight. If you do ...
VIII. Give advice in the following situations by using should, ought to, or had better.
Example I have a test tomorrow.
Response You. should (ought to, had better) study tonight.
1. I'm writing a composition, and there is a word I don't know how to spell. 2.1 don't feel good. I think I'm catching
a cold. 3.1 can't see the blackboard when I sit in the back row. 4. I'm cold. 5. I'm homesick. 6. My roommate snores
and I can't get to sleep. 7.1 need to improve my English. 8. I can't stop yawning. 9. My library book is due today. 10.
There's no food in my house, and some guests are coming to dinner tonight. 11. I have only twenty-five cents in my
pocket, but I need some money to go out tonight. 12. My apartment is in a mess, and my mother is coming to visit
me tomorrow. 13. I have a toothache. 14. I have the flue. 15. My friend is arriving at the airport this evening. I'm
supposed to pick him up, but I've forgotten what time his plane gets in. 16. I'm really fed up with my job. 17. I never
have any money.
IX. Give advice to the people in the following situations. Use should, ought to, or had better.
1. Ann would like to make some new friends. —»• I think she should join some clubs so she can meet people who
have similar interests.
2. Ellen is having a lot of trouble in her chemistry class. She's failed the last two tests.
3. Sam and Tim, both teenagers, have messed up the house, and their parents are coming home soon.
4. Pierre is feeling really homesick these days.
5. Ron is wearing jeans. He's expected at a formal reception this evening.
6. Alice is planning to drive across the country by herself
this summer, but she's never changed a flat tire or even pumped her own gas.
7. Mike can't understand what's going on in his English class.
8. William's parents expect him to work in the family business, a shoe store, but he wants to be an architect.
9. Richard's roommate stays up very late studying. While his roommate is studying, he listens to loud music, and
Richard can't get to sleep.
10. The Taylors' daughter is very excited about going to Denmark to live and study for four months. You've been an
international student, haven't you? Could you give her some advice?
11. Virginia doesn't really have enough money saved for a vacation, but she wants to go someplace. Do you know
of any inexpensive but wonderful place she could go?
12. Mr Rice is behind schedule in the history class he's teaching. Should he skip some less important historical
events, or should he give the students longer assignments?
13. Maria is expecting George to meet her when she arrives at the airport in an hour, but George's car won't start.
What should George do?
X. Use should have or ought to have + past participle in your response.
Example You failed the test because you didn't study. Response I should have studied./I ought to have studied.
Example: You didn't study because you went to a movie. Response I shouldn't have gone to a movie./ I oughtn't
to have gone to a movie.
1. You are cold because you didn't wear a coat.
2. You misspelled a word because you didn't look up in the dictionary.
3. Your friend is upset because you didn't write him a letter.
4. You are broke now because you spent all your money foolishly.
5. The room is full of flies because you opened the window.
6. You don't have any food for dinner because you didn't go to the grocery store.
7. You overslept this morning because you didn't set your alarm clock.
8. Your friends went to (New Orleans) over vacation. They had a good time. You didn't go with them, and now
you are sorry.
9. John loved Mary, but he didn't marry her. Now he is unhappy.
10. John loved Mary, and he married her. But now he is unhappy.
11. You didn't have a cup of coffee. Now you are sleepy.
12. You didn't stop for gas, and then you ran out of gas on the highway.
13. You were sick yesterday, but you went to class anyway. Today you feel worse.
14. The weather was beautiful yesterday, but you stayed inside all day.
15. You bought your girlfriend a box of candy for her birthday, but she doesn't like candy.
16. The little girl told a lie. She got into a lot of trouble.
17. You have a stomach ache because you ate (five hamburgers).
18. You had to pay a fine because your library book was overdue.
19. You lent your car to (...), but s/he had an accident because
s/he was driving on the wrong side of the road.
20. When (...) fell asleep on the overnight train from (place name) to (place name), her purse was stolen.
21. There was an important meeting yesterday afternoon, but you decided not to go. That was a mistake.
22. Ann didn't feel well a couple of days ago. I told her to see a doctor, but she didn't. That was a mistake. Now she
is very sick.
23.1 didn't invite Sam to my party. That made him feel bad.
I'm sorry I didn't invite him. 24. Mary sold her car. That was a mistake because now she
can't take trips to see her friends and relatives.
25. Alex signed a contract to buy some furniture without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he is
paying a lot more money than he expected. He made a mistake.
XI. Make up short dialogues.
A: Look at that man shaving while he drives!
B: He shouldn't be shaving now. He should have shaved before he left the house.
Note-. This exercise could also be done with ought to (have) and oughtn't to (have).
1. Look at that woman doing her nails in the bus queue!
2. Look at that man correcting exercises in the bus!
3. Look at that man polishing his shoes in the bus!
4. Look at that boy tying his shoelaces as he goes into school!
5. Look at that woman putting on her earrings on the stairs!
6. Look at that girl sewing on a button in the library!
7. Look at that man eating his breakfast as he walks down the path!
8. Look at that girl putting on her make-up in the bus queue!
9. Look at that man brushing his coat in the lift!
10. Look at that man putting in his contact lenses on the escalator!
11. Look at that boy combing his hair in the classroom!
12. Look at that woman cleaning her glasses while she drives!
13. Look at those children doing their homework in the bus!
14. Look at that man putting in his false teeth in the street!
Ann, a student at a summer school, has the following programme:
7.00—7.30 get dressed 7.30— 9.30—10.00 watch television
8.00 (have) breakfast 8.00— programme 10.00—10.30 discuss
8.30 wash up 8.30—9.30 programme 10.30—12.00 (attend)
(do) P.T.(phy-sical training) lectures

12.00—1.00 help with lunch 5.00—6.00 practise the piano

1.00—2.00 (have), lunch rest 6.00—7.00 rehearse play
2.00—2.30 work in garden 7.00—7.30 supper type lecture
2.30—3.30 (play) tennis tea 7.30—8.00 notes read in
3.30—4.30 8.00—9.00 library lights out.
4.30—5.00 11.30
(a) A: It's 7.20 and Ann is sleeping.
B: She shouldn't be sleeping. She should be getting dressed.
(b) A: At 7.20 yesterday Ann was sleeping.
B: She shouldn't have been sleeping. She should have been getting dressed.
(a) It's ... and Ann is ...
1. 7.45 ... getting up
3. 8.45 ... washing up
4. 9.45 ... doing P.T.
5. 10.15 ... watching television
6. 12.30... listening to a lecture
7. 2.15 ... playing tennis
8. 2.45 ... resting
9. 3.45 ... working in the garden
10. 5.15 ... having tea
11. 6.15 ... practising the piano 12.7.15 ... rehearsing the play 13. 7.45 ... having supper 14.8.15 ... typing
her lecture notes 15. 12.00 ... listening to records
(b) At ... Ann was ...
1. At 7.45 Ann was getting up.
2. 8.15 ... having breakfast i.e. as in (a) but replacing IS
by WAS
It is Thursday evening. The secretary is inclined to leave everything till Friday, which doesn't please the boss. But
perhaps the secretary has too many duties.
A: I'll remove the old newspapers tomorrow.
(a) B: But they should be removed every day.
(b) B: But they should have been removed today.
I'll ... tomorrow.
1. open your windows dust 9. clear your out-tray 10. refill your
2. your desk tidy your cigar-box 11. check the cash 12. test
3. books water your pot the alarm system 13. change the
4. plants wind your clock combination of the safe 14. write up
5. empty your waste-paper the diary 15. file the copies 16.
6. basket wash your coffee exercise the guard dogs
7. cup clean your office

XII. Write two sentences, one in the positive and one in the negative, for each of the following situations.
Example: Margaret was mugged last night. She was walking home alone.
She shouldn't have been walking home alone. She should have gone with someone or taken a taxi.
1. Andrew was arrested last night. He was driving home after a party, and he'd had too much to drink.
2. Graham was wounded when he tried to stop a man robbing a post office. The robber shot him in the leg.
3. Annie lost her purse yesterday. It was in her bag, but her bag wasn't fastened, and she left it unattended for a few
minutes while she bought a newspaper.
4. My briefcase was stolen from my car yesterday. I'd left it lying on the passenger seat while I got out to do some
shopping, and I'm afraid the window had been left open.
5. Jenny was caught travelling on a train without a ticket.
6. There was a fire at Henry's house yesterday. Their son Max was playing with matches, and he set fire to the
furniture. Unfortunately the flat wasn't insured, so they've lost everything.
XIII. Now answer as Robert Wilson does here.
Linda: I haven't finished the report yet. Robert: Really? You should've finished it! Linda: I've been working on
something else.
Robert: Really? You shouldn't have been working on something else!
1. I haven't even started it.
2. I was taking a nap when you came in.
3. I've been using your phone.
4. I used it yesterday.
5. And I've been looking through your letters.
6. I've read them.
7. I was reading them when you came in.
8. I threw some of them away.
You work in an office. Yesterday the office manager was away, so you, two secretaries and the office boy used his
office to have a party. The office manager came back in the middle of it. You weren't working. You were dancing.
You didn't stop when he came in. You asked him if he wanted to dance, as well. Naturally, he was furious. Describe
all the things you should have done, shouldn't have been doing, etc. Think of more examples!
XIV. Put an appropriate verb of obligation in its correct form into each gap. The verbs are must, have to, had to,
have had to, should.
The forms are positive, negative, and gerund.
1. I really do think you ... get your hair cut. 2. Careful, darling. You ... play with matches. They're too dangerous. 3.
My wife suddenly became ill in the middle of the night and I ... call the doctor. 4. I'm overweight. The doctor said I
... eat too many sweets or potatoes. 5. I like Saturdays because I ... get up early. 6. A: Why have you got so much
money on you? You ... keep it in the bank. B: I know. But today's the day I ... pay my employees. 7. It's my mother's
birthday next week. I... remember to buy her a present and a card. 8. No one likes ... work at weekends. 9. You ...
come with me if you don't want to. I don't mind going on my own. You stay here if you like. 10. I have a really bad
for phone numbers. I... look them up in the book every time. 11. When I was at school we ... wear a uniform.
Everybody hated it. 12. You ... touch electrical appliances if you've got wet hands. You could kill yourself. 13. She
has a private income. She ... never ... do one day's work in the whole of her life.
XV. Use should(n't), ought (not) to, must (n't) haven't got to, or have to, giving more than one answer where
Charles: I really ... do some work tonight, but I feel too
Barbara: You ... work so hard. You'll make yourself ill. Charles: I'd like to take a holiday, but I simply ... finish
these plans by the end of the month. Barbara: Yes, but you ... finish them by next week. I think
you ... have a holiday. Can't we have a long weekend
in Paris? Charles: All right. But I ... stay longer than next Tuesday
or I'll never finish my work on time. Barbara: Good. But if we are going, you ... book the seats
today. Charles: I'll ... ask Mr Peters first, but I don't think he'll
XVI. Complete these sentences using had to or ought to have.
1. James ... (work) harder, then he would have passed the exams.
2. Graham didn't play squash because he ... (help) his wife.
3. Bill ... (visit) his mother-in-law on Saturday so he missed the match.
4. You ... (take) a taxi, then you wouldn't have missed the train.
5. He opened all the windows but he ... (know) better.
6. I left the office early because I... (meet) Mary at 5 o'clock.
7. They ... (sell) their car last month in order to pay their debts.
8. We ... (buy) a house last year when the prices were lower.
XVII. Change the following sentences to the passive.
1. People should save pandas from extinction. —*• Pandas should be saved from extinction.
2. People must obey all traffic laws.
3. Someone ought to repair this broken window.
4. Someone should have supplied the hotel guests with clean towels.
5. Someone had better take this garbage to the dump soon.
6. Someone is supposed to tell Fred about the meeting.
7. Someone has to finish this work today.
8. Someone ought to have reported this accident to the police.
9. You shouldn't put bananas in the freezer.
10. We should teach children to respect their elders.
XVIII. Make sentences using should(n't) ..., ought(n't) to ..., should(n't) have ... or ought(n't) to have ... and the
words in brackets.
Example: My car is always dirty. (I/clean/ it more often.) I should clean it more often./I ought to clean it more often.
1. You think your friend works too hard. You tell him/her: (You/not work/so hard.) (You/relax/more.)
2. Your friend overslept this morning and was late for work. His boss said to him: (You/buy/an alarm clock!)
3. Kate didn't feel well yesterday, but she went to work and now she feels really terrible. (She/not go/to work yester-
day.) (She/stay/in bed.)
4. Mr Woods walked straight out into the road without looking. He was nearly killed by a bus. (He/not walk/into
the road without looking.) (He/look/first.)
XIX. Here are five situations where you will be able to use the modals you have been practising. Use each modal
only once.
must/mustn't/ought to/needn't/'d better
1. There's a fantastic film on at the Odeon. Advise your friend to see it before it's too late.
2. Tell your friend not to drive her car till it's insured.
3. You are going to play tennis with a friend at the tennis club. Tell him it isn't necessary for him to bring any tennis
balls as the club supply them.
4. Your friend has just received his bank statement. He's sure it's incorrect. Advise him to telephone the bank.
5. Tell your Venezuelan friend that she needs a visa to get into France.
XX. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Тебе не следовало жениться на мне, Дэвид. Это было большой ошибкой. 2. Я прошу прощения. Мне не
следовало это говорить. 3. Тебе бы лучше остаться дома. Похоже, будет дождь. 4. Мне следовало пригласить
его тоже. 5. Я думаю, вам следует проявлять больше уважения к старшим. 6. Моррис сказал, что если это
долг, то его следует исполнить. 7. Тебе должно быть стыдно за такие злые слова. 8. Она бросила меня. Она
должна заплатить за это. 9. Тебе следовало выбрать более подходящее время, чтобы сообщить мне об этом.
10. Когда он возвращается? — Откуда мне знать? 11. Это его вина. Ему следовало развестись с вами, когда
он мог это сделать. 12. Тебе следует купить это платье. Оно тебе идет. 13. Тебе бы лучше туда одной не
ходить. 14. Ну, что же, вы были правы. Мне не так надо было сделать это. 15. Почему вы не пришли вчера?
Вы должны были позвонить мне, если вы были заняты. 16. Мне нужна была копия этого письма, поэтому я
напечатала его два раза. — Не нужно было печатать его дважды. Вы могли воспользоваться копиркой. 17.
Вам не следовало упоминать об этом в его присутствии. 18. Не надо звонить ей. Она уже пришла. 19. Не
надо портить глаза. Зажги свет. 20. Вам следовало бы поговорить с директором еще раз перед тем, как вы
поедете в Лондон. 21. Вам бы лучше пойти и поговорить с ним сейчас же, пока он еще не ушел. 22. Нам бы
лучше не говорить об этом Энн. Она рассердится. 23. Он юрист, и он должен знать такие вещи.
24. Они должны действовать так, как им сказали. 25. Тебе следует самому зарабатывать на жизнь. 26. Нельзя
зажигать спичку. В комнате много газа. 27. Он сказал, что я не должен открывать дверь. 28. Следует ли ей
заняться спортом всерьез? — Думаю, да. 29. Ты выглядишь усталой. Тебе следует поехать за город на
выходные. 30. Нельзя вставать так рано. Ты всех разбудишь. 31. Он сказал, что мы должны встретить его на
вокзале. 32. Я подумал, что тебе следовало бы знать об этом. 33. Не следует разрешать ставить здесь на
стоянку автомобили: улица слишком узкая. 34. Вы должны носить форму на дежурстве, не так ли? 35. Она
сказала, что мне не следовало поступать подобным образом. 36. Необходимо сообщить ей эту новость как
можно скорее. 37. Давно нужно было сообщить ей эту новость.
XXI. Study and practise.
1. Mother: Kathryn, I want to talk to you about something.
Have you got a minute?
Kathryn: OK. What's the problem now?
Mother: You know you don't have a job and you're getting money from Social Security. You said you wanted to
prepare for your exams. I think you should stay at home and do some work.
Kathryn: I think you should leave me alone. You don't know if I'm working or not. It's not your business.
Mother: Kathryn! You shouldn't talk to me like that! I'm your mother.
2. Trainer: OK, boys. We've got the big competition in front
of us now. It's our big chance. You must train
harder than ever. Player: We're going to do that. You needn't worry.
But I think we ought to practise more often
together this week. Coach: No, we oughtn't to overdo it. We'll become
stale and tired. We shouldn't risk that.
3. Jenny: Nick, Mum has a headache. We ought to be quiet.
We shouldn't make so much noise. Nick: Did you say something? Jenny: The music is too loud. You ought
to turn it
Nick: I can't hear you! Jenny: Don't shout, Nick! Shut up! And turn the music
Nick: Yes, I've already been to town. Jenny: No, Nick. Your music. Turn down your music! Nick: I can't
hear you. The music's too loud.
A. Some of your friends have problems. Give advice with ought to. Use these or your own ideas:
go to bed earlier talk to them
join a club work harder
see a doctor wear glasses
get a job save money for a new one
go on a diet get it cut
tidy it
I'm always tired.
You ought to go to bed earlier.
1. My eyes are sometimes red and sore.
2. I never have enough money.
3. My school marks are bad.
4. I'm too fat.
5. I've got spots.
6. I've had a quarrel with my parents.
7. I haven't got many friends.
8. My old bicycle needs repairing again.
9. My hair looks terrible.
10. I can't find anything. My room is so untidy.
4. Gina: Susan, please. Make up your mind. I'm exhausted. Susan: I know, I'm tired, too. But this is an
important decision.
Oh, which one should I buy? Yon Mi: Susan, you're young! Why don't you buy a sports
car? Sports cars are fun. Susan: Maybe you're right. The red one is nice. Maybe
I'll look at that one. Lucy: Wait a minute! You won't be single forever, you
know. You should think about the future and
buy a family car. Susan: Hmm. That's good advice, too. Oh, I'm confused.
I don't know what to do. Gina: What about that green car? It's a lot bigger, and it
isn't too expensive. Susan: Oh, I don't know. The red sports car is nice, but
you're right, Lucy. It's too small and impractical.
And I really can't afford it. I think I'll buy the
green one. Yon Mi: Well, it's your choice, but you shouldn't decide
too quickly. Let's go and get a cup of coffee. We
can sit and talk about it and come back later. Susan: Good idea!
A. What should or shouldn't Susan do? Match each sentence on the left with the best response.
1. Susan likes to drive fast. a. She shouldn't get a two-door
2. She thinks big cars are safer b. She should buy an economical
than small cars. car.
3. She likes to listen to music. c. She shouldn't buy an expensive
foreign car.
4. Gas is expensive. d. She should get a car with air
5. Dallas is very hot in the e. She should get a sports car.
6. She can't afford an expen- f . She shouldn't get a small car.
sive car.
7. She isn't a very good driver. g. She should get a car with a good
8. She has to drive her aunt and h. She should practise a lot.
uncle to work.
B. Ask and answer questions as in the examples.
you/wear a seat belt when people/cross the street when the
you drive light is red ;
A: Should you wear a seat A: Should people cross the .
belt when you drive? street when the light is red? .
B: Yes, you should. B: No, they shouldn't.
1. people/drive slowly when 5. You/swim after you eat
it rains
2. you/drive fast on a crow- 6. you/cover your mouth when
ded street you sneeze
3. you/look at your passen- 7. you/stand under a tree
gers when you drive during a storm
4. drivers/pay attention to 8. children/disagree with
traffic signs when they their parents
5. Simon is talking to Ellen Change, a travel agent.
Ellen: You and your wife have been to France before, haven't you?
Simon: No, we haven't.
Ellen: Well, then, you really ought to go. You'll love Paris, and the weather is perfect this time of the year.
Simon: But we don't speak French.
Ellen: You shouldn't worry about that. A lot of people speak English in France, especially in the hotels and
Simon: Should we make our reservations now?
Ellen: Well, you ought to make them as soon as possible.
Simon: Where should we stay? Do you have any suggestions?
Ellen: I'll find an inexpensive hotel for you.
Simon: Do you have any brochures? I don't know anyone
in Paris, and I don't know anything about the city.
Ellen: I'll give you some brochures, but you ought to visit Notre Dame, the Eiffel Tower, and the Louvre. Also, if
you have time you ought to drive to Versailles for a day. It's really beautiful.
A. What is the travel agent's advice? Choose the appropriate word in parentheses.
1. Simon and Lucy (should/shouldn't) go to France.
2. They (should/shouldn't) worry about speaking French.
3. They (should/shouldn't) make their reservations as soon as possible.
4. They (should/shouldn't) stay in an inexpensive hotel.
5. They (should/shouldn't) plan to visit Notre Dame, the Eiffel Tower, and the Louvre.
6. They (should/shouldn't) try to visit Versailles.
B. Give advice for someone who is thinking of taking a vacation abroad.
You must get a passport.
You shouldn't pack too many clothes.
a) ... get a passport.
b) ... pack too many clothes.
c) ... buy a roundtrip ticket.
d) ... make hotel reservations.
e) ... get health insurance.
f) ... check the weather.
g) ... carry lots of cash.
h) ... get traveller's checks.
i) ... take a lot of luggage.
j) ... check on visas.
j) ... carry your wallet in a back pocket.
Pair work. Give more pieces of advice.
Group work. What advice would you give tourists planning
to visit your city or country?
What time of the year should they visit?
What kinds of clothing do you think they ought to bring?
Where should they stay?
What places should they visit?
What should they see?
Is there anything they shouldn't do?
What other advice would you give them?
6. Chris: Nell! I was digging in the garden and I've just cut
my foot with the spade.
Nell: Oh dear! How did you manage to do that? OK. You'd better let me have a look.
Chris: Ouch! It really hurts a lot.
Nell: It doesn't look too good. I think you'd better go along to the Out-patients Department at the hospital. You'd
better have an injection. There could be germs in the wound.
7. Gina and Frank are having lunch.
Gina: Frank, we've got a problem. We don't have enough money to pay the rent this month.
Frank: I know. I guess I'd better ask Mom and Dad for a loan.
Gina: And I'd better ask my boss for a raise.
Frank: Do you think you'll get it?
Gina: I don't know. But maybe I'd better not take another English course for a while.
Frank: Gina, you can't stop studying English. It's important. This is an English-speaking country. You can't get
ahead without English.
Gina: I know.
Frank: I'd better get a part-time job. I can work at the office during the day and then do something else at night. In
fact, I'd better check the newspaper right now.
A. Pretend you have something to do (a date, a meeting, a class, etc.). Ask the time and then give yourself some
A: Victor, have you got the time?
B: Yeah, it's 3.00.
A: I'd better go. I haven't done my homework yet.
I have a date at 3.30. I'd better not be late.
8. Maggie and Daisy are having tea with Daisy's aunt in the country.
Aunt: Would you like some bread and butter Daisy? Daisy: No thank you, I'd better not have any, I'm on a
Aunt: Some bread and butter for you, Maggie? Maggie: Well, I know I shouldn't, but I think I will have
Aunt: How about a cake then, Daisy? Daisy: No thank you, I'd better not have one, I'm on a
Aunt: What about you Maggie, would you like one? Maggie: Well, I know I shouldn't, but I think I will have
A. Complete the following and discuss the meaning you wish to express by giving reasons for your statement.
Example, I'd better...
Possible response: I'd better write my mother a letter. (Reason: If I don't, there will be a bad result: she'll be angry or
start worrying about me or feel hurt.)
1. I should ... 2. I'm supposed to ... 3. I ought to ... 4. I'd better ... 5. I have to ... 6. I've got to ... 7. I am to ... 8. I must
... 9. I shouldn't ... 10. I'm supposed to ... 11. I'd better not ... 12. I don't have to ... 13. I must not ...
9. Jane: Sylvia is having trouble with her parents. They say
she ought to do more at school. She knows she should work harder for the exams, but she's angry because her
parents don't like her friends. Although she's almost sixteen, she's supposed to be home every night by eight o'clock.
Nick: Perhaps her parents ought to trust her more. They shouldn't treat her like a child. Why don't they like her
Jane: I'm not sure. Sylvia's mother says that they are very rude. They don't do any school work. Sylvia is supposed
to do her homework every night but she goes out with her friends instead. She says she wants to leave home.
Nick: She had better not do that. She might regret it.
Jane: But her parents just complain and never listen.
Nick: I think they had better start listening before it's too late.
a. What do you think Sylvia, her parents and her friends should do to improve the situation? Say sentences from the
Sylvia should/ought to talk to her parents.
Sylvia Her should shouldn't talk to her parents, work
parents Her ought to harder, listen to Sylvia, leave
friends home, leave school, be more
tolerant, be rude to her
parents, ask her friends
home, be so strict, trust
Sylvia, encourage Sylvia to
leave home.
b. What else do you think Sylvia, her friends and Sylvia's parents ought to/should do or shouldn't do? Write five
more suggestions. Take turns to read them to the class.
Sylvia's parents should try to get to know her friends better.
c. What do you think they should do in the following situations? Say a sentence with had better and a sentence with
had better not for each situation.
Sylvia's exams are in two weeks' time. She had better do some work. She had better not waste time.
1. Sylvia's friends want to go to the cinema.
2. Sylvia wants to invite her friends to a party.
3. Sylvia's parents want to watch television, but Sylvia is playing very loud music in her room.
4. Sylvia's friend Anne wants Sylvia to go on holiday with her and her family.
5. Sylvia wants to go away for the weekend with some friends.
Her parents are worried about her. They don't want her to go.
6. Sylvia has decided to try to explain to her parents why she isn't happy at home.
a. Sylvia is supposed to be home by eight o'clock every evening. Which of the following things are you (not)
supposed to do? Say your answers.
I am supposed to tell my parents the truth.
I am not supposed to park my bicycle in the living-room.
tell your parents the truth
park your bicycle in the living-room
help at home sometimes
tell your parents where you are going every time you go
be punctual for meals
tell your parents if you will be home later than usual
eat everything that's on your plate
sit at table in silence during meals
stay out all night without permission
take all your friends home to meet your parents
stay in bed until lunchtime at weekends
wear dirty shoes inside the house play loud music late at night go everywhere with your parents
b. Work with a partner. Interview him/her about what he/ she is supposed to do at home.
YOU If you want to go out, are you always suppo-
sed to ask your parents?
PARTNER I am supposed to ask them if I want to stay overnight at a friend's house.
10. Liza is Mrs Ross's au pair. One Sunday evening she came back from London looking very upset.
Mrs Ross: What's the matter dear?
Liza: Something awful happened. We went to the
Portobello Road and someone stole my handbag.
Mrs Ross: Oh, dear, did you lose a lot of money?
Liza: No, only a few pounds, but my passport was in
the bag. That's what I'm really worried about.
Mrs Ross: You must tell your embassy about it and I think they'll issue you with a new one.
Liza: I'd better go tomorrow.
Mrs Ross: No, you needn't go tomorrow, but you mustn't leave it too long. Did you report it to the police?
Liza: No, I couldn't find a policeman.
Mrs Ross: Well, you must report that it's been stolen and give the police a description of your handbag. You'd better
go to the local police tomorrow morning.
Liza: Perhaps I could go to the embassy on Satur-
Mrs Ross: They might not be open on a Saturday, so you ought to ring them to check first.
Liza: Yes, I'll do it tomorrow.
Mrs Ross: And Liza ...
Liza: Yes?
Mrs Ross: Don't be too upset ... it's not the end of the world.
A. Questions:
1. What is Liza's job? 2. What happened to her in the Portobello Road? 3. Did she lose much money? 4. What else
did she lose? 5. Where can she get a new one? 6. Where must she go on Monday? Why? 7. When might she go to
the embassy? 8. What ought she to do first?
B. Look at these ideas:
You must tell your embassy. You ought to ring them.
You'd better go to the local police station tomorrow
Note that all three of these are interchangeable, but by changing them we alter the meaning of the sentence.
YOU MUST TELL YOUR EMBASSY ABOUT IT is an urgent recommendation in this text, though it is usually an
order. YOU OUGHT TO INFORM YOUR EMBASSY is a strong recommendation.
YOU'D BETTER INFORM YOUR EMBASSY is a piece of advice.
You are speaking to a friend. Make up three sentences for each situation below.
1. see/dentist/tomorrow
2. speak/doctor/about it
3. complain/manager
4. take it back/shop
5. write/to him tomorrow
6. ask/day off
7. tell Jack/deal with it
8. send her/telegram
9. telephone/hotel
10. have/a few days off
C. Look at this pattern:
A professional footballer train very hard/smoke
A professional footballer must train very hard. A professional footballer mustn't smoke.
Say what these people must or mustn't do.
1. The driver of a car
have a licence/drive without a licence
2. A doctor
study for a long time/practise without being qualified
3. A teacher of English for foreigners speak too fast/ speak clearly
4. a hospital nurse
be kind and understanding/too upset at the sight of blood
5. A passenger on British Rail
have a ticket/travel without a ticket
6. A visitor to the zoo
pay at the entrance/feed the monkeys
7. A bus driver
drive too fast/drive very carefully
8. A shop assistant
be rude to the customers/be familiar with the goods she's selling
9. A referee
know the rules of the game/be afraid of making unpopular decisions
10. A policeman
accept bribes/be honest
D. Look at this pattern:
tomorrow/you can go on Saturday
You needn't go tomorrow, you can go on Saturday.
What other things needn't your friend do?
1. any coffee/we have plenty
2. your key/I've got mine
3. lock ... door/we'll be back in a few moments
4. wait ... landlady/you can leave her a note
5. umbrella/isn't going to rain
6. money now/ you can pay me later
7. coffee for me/I've just had my tea
8. any money/the shops will all be closed
9. reserve seats/ it's not a very popular play
10. get ... stamps/ I found some
E. Give your friend some advice in the following situations. Use you'd better ...
1.1 only bought these shoes last week and this heel has come off already.
2. This tooth hurts when I drink anything cold.
3. I sent the money off for those theatre tickets two weeks ago. I still haven't heard anything, and the performance is
on Friday.
4. The milkman forgot to deliver any milk today.
5. Oh, dear. I forgot to take that book to the library.
6. It's some time since this suit was cleaned.
7. Bother, I didn't post that letter to the bank.
8. Oh, I forgot to send my sister a birthday card and it's her birthday tomorrow.
F. Idea for discussion
In big cities there are thieves, and they often steal from foreign visitors. What advice would you give your young
brother or sister, who was going abroad for the first time? Are there special places where a visitor must be careful?
Is it more dangerous at night? How much cash should one carry? What is the advantage of having traveller's che-
11. A: How was your dinner party? B: I think it went pretty well. A: That's good.
B: Yeah, but we shouldn't have invited my wife's boss.
We couldn't get him to leave! A: Really? How late did he stay?
В: Until two o'clock in the morning! And we both had to
work the next day. A: Oh, he shouldn't have stayed so late. That was really
inconsiderate. I would have asked him to leave earlier. B: Well, it's really difficult to say that to your boss!
A, What would you have done in this situation?
B. Do you sometimes wish you had done things differently in your life? Think of three things and talk about them.
Well, I probably should have gone to a different university. I guess I shouldn't have got married so young.
12. Gloria didn't do as well as she should have at a job interview today. She didn't get the job, and she realizes now
that she should have done a few things differently.
She should have spoken more confidently. She should have told more about her previous experience. And she
probably should have worn more conservative clothes,
In addition, she shouldn't have arrived late for the interview. She shouldn't have smoked a lot in the interviewer's
office. And she definitely shouldn't have asked so many questions about vacations and sick days.
Gloria will certainly do a few things differently the next time she has a job interview!
A. Questions
1. How did Gloria do at a job interview today? 2. What does she realize now? 3. How should she have spoken? 4.
What should she have told more about? 5. What should she have worn? 6. In addition, what shouldn't she have
B. In your opinion, what should Gloria do the next time she has a job interview?
C. Discuss or write what you think the people in the following situations should have done and should not have
1. Tom didn't study for the test. During the exam he panicked and started looking at other students' test papers. He
didn't think the teacher saw him, but she did. She warned
him once to stop cheating, but he continued. As a result, the teacher took Tom's paper, told him to leave the room,
and failed him on the exam.
Tom should have studied for the test.
He shouldn't have panicked during the test.
He shouldn't have started cheating.
He should have known the teacher would see him cheating.
He should have stopped cheating after the first warning.
The teacher should have ripped Tom's paper and sent
him out of the room the first time she saw him cheating.
2. John and his wife, Julie, had good jobs as professionals in New York City. John was offered a high paying job in
Chicago, which he immediately accepted. Julie was shocked when he came home that evening and told her the
news. She liked her job and the people she worked with, and she did not want to move away and look for another
3. Ann agreed to meet her friend Carl at the library to help him with his chemistry homework. On the way, she
stopped at a cafe where her boyfriend worked. Her boyfriend told her he could get off work early that night, so the
two of them decided to go to a movie. Ann didn't cancel her plans with Carl. Carl waited for three hours at the
4. Donna had been saving her money for three years for a trip abroad. Her brother Larry had a good job but spent
all of his money on expensive cars, clothes, and entertainment. Suddenly, Larry was fired from his job and had no
money to support himself while he looked for another one. Donna lent him nearly all of her savings, and within
three weeks he spent it all on his car, more clothes, and expensive restaurants.
13. Last Christmas, the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, decided to take some presents to a children's hospital. Dressed
up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a 'guard of honour' of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street of
the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. He should have known that the police would never allow
this sort of thing. A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side-street as Jumbo
was holding up the traffic. Though Jimmy agreed to go at once, Jumbo refused to move. Fifteen policemen had to
push very hard to get him off the main street. The police had a difficult time, but they were most amused. 'Jumbo
must weigh a few tons,' said a policeman afterwards, 'so it was fortunate that we didn't have to carry him. Of course,
we should arrest him, but as he has a good record, we shall let him off this time.'
A. Supply the correct form of should, ought to, or have to in these sentences.
1. I (... not tell) him this news; he was so much upset but I really (... do) so, for the circumstances demanded that.
2. I didn't go shopping this morning as I (... do) the housework.
3. You (... see) him dance! You have missed a lot. I (... take) you to the concert.
4. You (... ask) for permission before you left the table.
5. 'It is very wicked of you,' she said. 'You (... be) ashamed of yourself.'
6. After she had gone I found myself wondering whether I ... do anything for her.
7. I'll see and speak to Maurice. He (... not behave) like that.
8. That day, however, I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I (... cut) my visit short.
9. I think I (... let) your parents know we are here.
10. I realize now I (... not say) anything.
11. What a pity you (... go). I know it's time for you to catch your train.
12. I finished all of my homework this afternoon. I (... not study) tonight.
13. These books (... return) to the library by tomorrow.
14. He is her freind. He (... invite) to the party.
§9. Possibility or uncertainty: may, might, could
Present and future possibility
We use may, might and could to talk about present or future possibility.
'There's someone at the door.' 'It may be Sarah.' (=Perhaps it is Sarah.)
We aren't sure what we are going to do tomorrow. We might go to the beach. (= Perhaps we will go to the beach.)
'Where's Simon?' 'He could be in the living room.' (= Perhaps he is in the living room.)
Might is normally a little less sure than may. Could is normally less sure than may or might.
+++ may ++ might + could
We use the negatives may not and might not (contraction: mightn't) with this meaning, but not could not.
Simon may not be in the living room. (= Perhaps he is not in the living room.) We might not go to the beach. (=
Perhaps we will not go to the beach.)
Note the form: may /might /could + be + ... -ing.
They may be having dinner at the moment. (= Perhaps they are having dinner.)
Possibility in the past
We can use may/might/could + have + past participle to talk about possibility in the past.
'Where was Sally last night?' 'I think she may have been at the cinema.' (= I think perhaps she was at the cinema.)
'Peter is late.' 'He might have missed his train. (= Perhaps he missed/ has missed his train.) 'I can't find my wallet
anywhere.' 'You could have left it at home.' (= Perhaps you left/ have left it at home.)
'She walked straight past me without saying hello.' 'She might not have seen you.' (= Perhaps she didn't see you.)
We also use could and might (but not may) with have + past participle to say that something was possible in the past
but did not happen.
'I forgot to lock my car last night.' 'You were lucky. Someone could have stolen it.' You were stupid to try to climb
that tree. You might have killed yourself.
Illustrative Situations
1. Pam: Do you know the Bartons' new address, Jeff? Jeff: No, sorry, I don't.
Pam: Do you think Steve will have it? Jeff: Yes, he may know it. Ring him. Pam (Rings the number.): No reply. Oh,
it's Wednesday.
Jill may be at her evening class. Jeff: And Steve said he might have to work late. They
may not be home until after 9 o'clock.
2. It's World Cup time. Stephen and Jim are talking about football and the different matches.
Jim: I wonder what's going to happen. Do you think
Russia will win the cup? Stephen: They might win the cup, but I doubt it.
Jim: Do you? I wonder if Charlie Watts will play for
England. Stephen: He might play for England but I doubt it.
3. Mrs Collins usually has a driving lesson every afternoon. Her instructor isn't sure if he can give her one
tomorrow. She might have one tomorrow.
If she has a driving lesson at all tomorrow it will be from 2 to 3 o'clock. One of Mrs Collins's friends has just rung
up and has said she wants to come over at 2.30. 'Don't come over then,' Mrs Collins says. 'I might be having a
driving lesson.'
4. Two weeks ago an old woman was found dead in her attic in Amsterdam. Among her scanty belongings two large
paintings were discovered, each with the name of 'Rembrandt' at the bottom. An art expert is examining the
paintings now. He cannot be sure about them yet. Certainly, however, the style is right and it has been established
through various tests that the paintings are the right age. They might have been painted by Rembrandt.
5. Lady Crocker casually left her car with the keys still in the door. It was still there when she got back.
It could have been stolen.
/. The people interviewing Julie for the job can't understand why she is so late.
A: Why isn't Miss Wilson here?
B: She may be ill — or she might be too nervous. It may not be her fault.
What other possible explanations do the interviewers think of? Use may/might (not):
1. Perhaps her train is late.
2. Perhaps her watch is slow.
3. Perhaps she doesn't know the way.
4. It's just possible she thinks it's on another day.
5. Perhaps there's a traffic jam.
6. Maybe she feels the salary is too low.
7. There's a slight possibility that she doesn't want the job after all.
8. Perhaps she's not feeling well today.
9. It's just possible she has a good reason.
//. The dentist isn't sure if he can save the tooth but he hopes to. He says:
'Well, I may be able to save it.' What do you say in the same situation if someone asks you:
1. Can you come to the party?
2. Can you do this work?
3. Can you learn all these words?
4. Can you repair the damage?
5. Can you carry this case?
III. Make up similar dialogues using the prompts.
1. James/win/tennis championship?
A: Do you think James will win the tennis championship? B: Well, he might, but I doubt it. He hasn't been playing
very well recently.
1. you/pass/exam?
2. Peter/get/promotion he wants?
3. there/be/nuclear war?
4. we/find/cure for cancer?
2. When/you/be/back home? 6.00
A: When do you think you'll be back home?
B: I might be back at 6.00. It depends on the traffic.
1. How/you/find/money to buy a car? Bank loan.
2. When/your book/be/ready for publication? In six months' time.
3. Who/get job of Director? Henry.
4. How long /your trip around the world/take you? A couple of years.
3. A: Where are you going for your holidays this year? B: We haven't decided yet. We might go to Greece, or we
might go to Italy.
Student A Ask В the questions.
Student В You haven't made up your mind!
1. travel? fly/go by car
2. stay? hotel/rent a house
3. How long ...?
for a week/for a fortnight
4. When ... ? July/August
5. Who ... with? friends/alone
IV. What are some of the things you might be doing at these times:
7.30 tomorrow morning
6.15 tomorrow evening
10.25 next Saturday morning
11 o'clock in the morning on a warm day next summer
this time next year
V. Respond by using 'I don't know' + may/might/could.
Example: (...)'s grammar book isn't on her desk. Where is
it? Response-. I don't know. It may/might/could be in her book
1. (...) isn't in class today. Where is s/he? (/ don't know. S/he ...)
2. Where does (...) live? (I don't know. S/he ...)
3. What do you think I have in my briefcase/pocket/purse?
4. What kind of watch is (...) wearing?
5. I can't find my pen. Do you know where it is?
6. How old .do you think (someone famous) is?
7. What are you going to do tomorrow?
8. What's the weather going to be like tomorrow?
VI. Listen to the clues; then make guesses. Use could, may and might.
Example made of metal and you keep it in a pocket.
TEACHER: I'm thinking of something made of metal that you can find in my pocket. What could it be?
STUDENTS: It could be a pen. It could be some keys. It might be a paper clip. It may be a small pocket knife. It
could be a coin.
TEACHER: (...) was right. I was thinking of the keys in my pocket.
1. has wheels and a motor
2. is made of plastic and can be found in my purse/pocket
3. is brown, is made of leather, and is in this room
4. is flat and rectangular
5. is white, hard and in this room
6. is played with a ball on a large field
7. has (three) stories/storeys and is made of (brick)
8. has four legs and is found on a farm
9. is green and we can see it out of that window
10. is sweet and you can eat it
VII. Put in suitable forms which express uncertainty or possibility.
We make decisions all the time, but we ... never be certain whether we are right or wrong. The work you choose to
do ... be suitable for you or it ... not. The person you marry ...
be a perfect match or ... be the worst possible choice. Suppose you have saved money for the future. You ... invest it
wisely so that it grows in value or you ... lose the lot in a foolish moment. You think you have a healthy diet, but the
food you eat ... actually be very bad for you and ... be the cause of terrible illness. Perhaps you travel a lot by plane.
All the flights you make are routine, but one of them ... be your last. Decisions! Decisions! But we .don't learn from
experience. Experience is the quality that allows us to go on making the same mistakes with more confidence!
VIII. Replace may by might or can, as appropriate.
1. They may come with us, but I think they're too busy. 2. I know it rained yesterday and today, but it may be fine
tomorrow. 3. You may leave as soon as you have finished. 4. I know you don't like television but you may enjoy this
programme. 5. The snow is getting deeper. The trains may not be running. 6. The students may answer the questions
in any order they like. 7. Visitors to Britain may not work in the country without a permit. 8. Jamie may ask for a
sweet; if he does, he may have one. 9. My father says I may go to the party as long as I get home by midnight.
IX. Make up short dialogues.
[> The speakers are wondering what happened to certain things/people.
A: Perhaps she took it with her.
B: Well, she may have taken it away with her, I suppose.
Note This exercise can be done with might /could instead of may. Perhaps ...
1. he stole it.
2. she sold it.
3. you lost it.
4. she drank it.
5. he threw it away.
6. she left it at home.
7. he ate it.
8. they hid it in the attic.
9. he burnt it.
10. she tore it up.
11. they had an accident.
12. their car broke down.
13. he advised them not to 16. he was murdered. 17.
come. 14. he fell overboard. something delayed them. 18. he
15. they got lost. took the wrong drug.

(a) A: Perhaps he is working for Jones. B: Yes, he may be working for Jones.
(b) A: Perhaps he was working for Jones. B: He may have been working for Jones.
Note This exercise can be done with might/could.
(a) Perhaps ... (b) Perhaps ...
1. he is waiting for 1. he was waiting for someone. someone.
2. they are wondering what 2. they were wondering to do. what to do.
3. she is trying to confuse us. i.e. just as in (a),. but re-
4. they are window-shopping. placing IS/ARE by WAS/
5. she is expecting a letter WERE from us.
6. he is looking for another job.
7. they are working overtime.
8. he is listening at the keyhole.
9. they are watching television.
10. he is following us.
11. he is learning karate.
12. she is telling his fortune.
13. he is showing her the way.
14. she is doing exercises.
15. they are burying something.
16. he is taking drugs.
17. they are helping the police.
Ann and Bill are worried about a packet they are expecting from a not very efficient firm.
A: Perhaps they didn't treat this order as urgent.
B: Yes, it may/might not have been treated as urgent.
Perhaps they...
1. didn't deal with the order at once.
2. didn't post the packet promptly.
3. didn't mark it urgent.
4. didn't address it correctly.
5. didn't label it clearly.
6. didn't tie it up properly.
7. didn't send it by air.
8. didn't stamp it sufficiently.
9. didn't register it.
10. didn't insure it.
X. Here, Wilson is speaking to his secretary, Margaret Dobson.
Wilson: Can you type all these letters? I must have
them before 6. Margaret: Well, I may have typed them all by then. I
can't be sure.
Reply as Margaret did. Wilson says:
1. Finish all this work by this evening.
2. Do you think you can do it before 5?
3. Type this interview before noon.
4. Oh, and you must make all these-phone calls before I get back.
5. And book my tickets before lunch.
Wilson: My airline ticket still hasn't arrived. It was
sent five days ago. Margaret: Well, it may have got lost in the post.
What does she say if she thinks that perhaps:
1. the postman delivered it to the office downstairs
2. the airline sent it to the wrong person
3. the airline has forgotten to post it
4. it has come in this morning's post
5. she has put it on his desk
6. someone has taken it away by mistake
XI. Draw possible conclusions.
A: He was found wandering around the house at three in
the morning, (he/sleepwalk) B: He might have been sleepwalking.
1. I don't know who she was talking to for so long, (she/ phone/her boyfriend)
2. Why did you tell me to turn down the music? (the neighbours/try to sleep)
3. There was a strange sound outside the sitting room window
last night, (someone/try to break in)
4. I phoned her but her number was engaged, (she/try to phone you)
5. You weren't in when I called yesterday. (I/sit in the garden)
XII. Here is some advice that the travel agent gave Mr Wilson before he went to a foreign country. Complete it with
may/ might (not) + phrases from the list:
get ill stop have to pay a lot
ask be a lot of traffic have been washed
1. You'd better leave for the airport early — there______.
2. Don't drink water from the taps — you______.
3. Don't eat salad in restaurants — it ______.
4. You'd better take out medical insurance — you______
5. Mind how you cross the road when you're there — the traffic______even if the lights are red.
6. Take your passport everywhere with you — the police ______to see it.
XIII. Rewrite these sentences using may/might (not) or may/ might (not) have instead of perhaps, it's possible and
maybe. (Remember that the only difference between may and might is that might is weaker.)
1. Perhaps they have forgotten where we live.
2. It's possible they've lost our address.
3. There's a possibility that they didn't get our invitation.
4. Or maybe they thought it said Thursday, not Tuesday.
5. It's possible their car has broken down.
6. Perhaps they have been held up by a traffic jam in the centre.
7. Or maybe someone telephoned them when they were leaving.
XIV. Turn these 'certain' statements into 'possible/less than certain' statements.
1. He is at home now______. He may-might could be at
home now.
2. He will be at home tomorrow.____________________.
3. He was at home yesterday.______________________.
4. She leaves at nine.____________________________.
5. She will leave tomorrow._______________________.
6. She has left._________________________________.
7. She left last night.____________________________.
8. She will have left by nine.______________________.
9. He is working today.___________________________.
10. He will be working today._______________________.
11. He was working today._________________________.
12. He has been working all day .____________________.
XV. Write uncertain answers to these questions.
1. Where's Jim today? He may/might/could be at home.
2. Where was Jim yesterday?
3. Where will Jim be tomorrow?
4. What time does the train leave?
5. What time did the train leave last night?
6. What's Sue doing at the moment? - 7. What was Sue doing yesterday?
8. What will Sue be doing tomorrow?
9. What has Sue been doing this week?
10. What has John had for breakfast?
11. Where has Ann parked the car?
12. What did the car cost?
XVI. Now answer as В does here.
A: I drove very fast but I didn't have an accident. B: Yes, but you might have had an accident! That's why you
shouldn't have driven so fast!
1. I ran out into the street without looking and nothing
happened to me. 2.1 drank five bottles of whisky and I did not die afterwards.
3. I shouted at the boss but he did not sack me.
4. I didn't set the alarm clock and I didn't oversleep the next morning, either.
5. They built the house with very cheap materials and it didn't fall down.
6. I didn't lock my car last night but it wasn't stolen.
XVII. Imagine you are talking to someone who has written a book on the Titanic disaster.
A: The other ship didn't help. It just sailed away. B: In other words, the other ship could have helped but it didn't.
1. Some passengers didn't escape even though there was some room in the lifeboats.
2. They didn't even get into the boats.
3. The telegraph operator knew there were icebergs around. He didn't tell the captain.
4. The Titanic didn't avoid the iceberg even though it saw it in good time.
5. For some reason, the other ship didn't stop.
6. And so, all those people were never saved.
XVIII. Imagine you are an old man or woman. You are looking back at all the things you never did when you were
younger. You are sure you could have done all these things.
Example You never became rich.
You say. I could have become rich, but I didn't. What a pity.
Think of more things you might say. For example: you never learned Chinese, became a famous film star, travelled
round the world, etc.
XIX. Make up short dialogues.
A: I got there on Tuesday.
B: Couldn't you have got there before? (=Wouldn't this have been possible?)
1. I posted it on Tuesday.
2. They paid me on Tuesday.
3. She started on Tuesday.
4. He brought it back on Tuesday.
5. He sent in his application on Tuesday.
6. I phoned him on Tuesday.
7. They moved out on Tuesday.
8. We left on Tuesday.
9. She wrote on Tuesday.
10. He applied on Tuesday.
11. He booked the tickets on Tuesday.
12. They reported it to the police on Tuesday.
13. We re-addressed the letters on Tuesday.
14. I got back on Tuesday.
15. I made the arrangements on Tuesday.
16. I cancelled the tickets on Tuesday.
17. I answered his letter on Tuesday.
18. I gave her the message on Tuesday.
19. We invited him on Tuesday.
20. I told them about it on Tuesday.
XX. Complete the following sentences in an appropriate way, using either might or could + an infinitive (present or
1. If I don't have too much work tonight, I______.
2. My car's being repaired at the moment. Sorry. If I had it, I______.
3. If I earned more money I______.
4. Four people died in a fire at their home. If they had had a smoke detector, they______.
5. If you were more understanding of other people,______.
6. If it's a nice day on Sunday, we______.
7. I've got terrible toothache. If the dentist decides I've got a bad tooth,______.
8. The ship had no life boats, and twenty-five people drowned. If______.
9. I started writing poetry after I'd met a famous poet at a cocktail party. He encouraged me to start. If______.
10. It's a lovely day, and the sea's beautifully warm. What a pity we didn't bring our swimming costumes! If______.
XXI. Write may, might, or could with an appropriate infinitive (present or past, simple or continuous) in each gap.
Often all three are possible, but pay attention to the form of the infinitive.
1.1 wonder why Alan didn't buy me anything for my birthday. I suppose he ... (forget). Or he ... (think) that now I'm
getting on, I don't like to be reminded of my advancing years. On the other hand, he can't have forgotten! He ...
(give) me a present this evening when I see him. Oh no! He ... (plan) a surprise party, as he did last year. What a
disaster that was! I hope he isn't doing it again!
2. Every time I phone Jane, it's engaged. It's very annoying. I suppose she ... (try) to phone me while I'm phoning
her. I'll wait a while.
3. I can't help worrying when Jack is late back home. I always think that he ... (have) an accident, and that he ... (lie)
on the side of the road with ambulances and police cars all about him. I know it's irrational. Wait a minute! It's
Tuesday today, isn't it? He works late some Tuesdays. He ... (not leave) the office yet, I'll give him a ring.
4. I wonder why Helen has got all these books on Greece from the library. I suppose she ... (think) of going there on
holiday. On the other hand, she ... (not get) them out
for herself. They ... (be) for Henry. He ... (write) a project on Greece for his geography course.
XXII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Где Том? — Он, возможно, в библиотеке. 2. Интересно, почему нет Билла. — Возможно, он все еще ждет
автобус. 3. Вы думаете самолет прибудет вовремя? — Не знаю. Он может опоздать из-за тумана. 4.
Возможно, он не сам ведет машину. 5. Интересно, откуда Том узнал о помолвке Энн. — Возможно, он
слышал это от Джона. 6. Возможно, он эмигрирует. 7. Уже пять часов. Собрание могло уже закончиться;
подождем немного, он может скоро прийти. 8. Может быть, он и видел ее на концерте, но он мог и
ошибиться. Он ведь очень близорук. 9. Он, может быть, и заходил ко мне вчера, но меня не было дома. 10.
Возможно, она не получила нашу телеграмму. 11. Я подумал, что если его часы были там, то и деньги могли
оказаться там же. 12. Возможно, телевизор уже починили, и мы сможем посмотреть этот фильм. 13.
Возможно, я не смогу пойти сегодня на концерт. 14. Виктора и Хелен нет дома. Они, возможно, в пабе. 15. К
вечеру может пойти дождь. 16. Их, возможно, не было вчера в городе. 17. Возможно, я слушала музыку. Я
не слышала, как звонит телефон. 18. Он, может быть, не заметил тебя, поэтому и прошел, не поздоровав-
шись. 19. Может быть, ее обидел твой тон. Ты должен быть тактичнее. 20. Не возвращайте пока книгу в
библиотеку; она может вам понадобиться для доклада. 21. Ее не было на вечере. Возможно, ее не
пригласили. 22. Почему его нет? — Возможно, он не знает, как добраться сюда. 23. Она боялась, что могла
забыть выключить утюг перед уходом. 24. Возможно, они еще не приехали. 25. Возможно, он не поверит
вам. 26. Он сказал, что он, возможно, возьмет напрокат автомобиль. 27. Я знал, что нам, возможно, придется
ждать на границе. 28. Возможно, Том одолжит мне деньги. 29. Вы думаете, он не сможет расплатиться? 30.
Они, возможно, работают над этой же проблемой. 31. Хорошая новость! Мне, возможно, вскоре предложат
работу. У меня вчера было собеседование в одной инженерной фирме.
give her a ring next week. Perhaps she'd like to
have lunch with me one day. Clare: I'm sure she'd love to, Mum, but she might not be
here. I think she's going to Ireland next week. Ann: Goodness! When is she going back to Australia? Clare: I'm not
sure. She may try to get a job here in
England for a while. Ann: Good. Oh, just look at that sky! I think we're going
to have a lovely autumn.
A. In pairs, say why you should take certain things on a walking trip.
A: Shall I take a sweater? B: Yes, you might get cold.
1. a sweater 4. a pair of binoculars
2. a compass 5. a camera
3. a bar of chocolate 6. some matches
get lost get hungry need to light a fire
want to do some birdwatching
want to take some photos get cold
B. In pairs, ask and answer questions about possible future events.
A: Where do you think you'll go for your next holiday? B: I think I might go to Thailand.
1. What are you going to do at the weekend?
2. What are you going to do about your English studies after this course?
3. What's the next article of clothing you are going to buy?
4. What's the next film you are going to see?
5. What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow?
6. Pierre: Where are you and Simon going to go for your
Lucy: We haven't decided yet. We might go to Paris, or we might go to Madrid.
Pierre: Oh, that's nice. Paris is an interesting city. It's beautiful. I was there a couple of years ago. Of course, Madrid
is very nice, too.
Lynn: Have you ever been to France?
Lucy: No, I haven't. My family was from Spain originally so I've travelled in Spain and Portugal, but I've never
gone to France.
Pierre: Has your husband ever been there?
Lucy: No. Simon's never been there either.
Pierre: Well, Paris might be a nice place for a vacation. It's very romantic!
Lucy: Yeah, but it may be expensive. I have to check with my travel agent.
Lynn: What's the weather like this time of the year?
Lucy: I don't know. It may not be very nice. I have to check that, too. Madrid might be warmer.
A. Read the statements about Lucy and Simon. Work in groups and make comments about each statement with might
(not) or may (not).
Simon and Lucy aren't going to take many suitcases on their vacation.
A: They might not like carrying a lot of things. B: They may prefer travelling light. C: They may not need a lot of
1. Lucy and Simon don't want to spend a lot of money for their plane tickets.
2. Simon isn't interested in going to a beach.
3. Lucy isn't interested in going to the country.
4. They want to go to a big city.
5. They're worried about going to Paris.
6. They can't go on a long vacation. They're going for only a week.
7. A: You know, we're studying dinosaurs in science class.
It's really interesting.
B: Oh, yeah? Hey, have you learned why the dinosaurs disappeared?
A: Well, no one knows for sure.
B: I thought it had something to do with the climate. The
temperature might have gotten cooler and killed them
off. A: Yeah, that's one theory, another idea is that they may
have run out of food. B: Uh-huh. And you know, there's even a theory that
they could have been destroyed by aliens from outer
space. A: That sounds crazy to me!
A. You have arranged to meet a friend in front of a coffee shop at 4 o'clock. It is 4.15. You are there but your friend
is not. Why? Think of possible explanations with may have..., might have, or could have. For example: perhaps he
forgot about it, or has had an accident, or his car has broken down, etc.
8. George didn't come to his English class yesterday evening, and all the students in the class are wondering why.
Natasha thinks he might have gotten sick. Henry thinks he might have had a doctor's appointment. Mr and Mrs
Ramirez think that one of George's children may have been sick. Nicole thinks he may have had to work overtime.
Mr and Mrs Sato think he might have gone to the airport to meet his relatives who are arriving from overseas. And
Maria thinks he may have decided to study in another school.
All the students are curious about why George didn't come to English class yesterday evening ... and they're a little
A. Tell a story using this model as a guide.
Our English teacher didn't come to class today, and all the students are wondering why.
And I think______.
We're all curious why our English teacher didn't come to class today ... and we're a little concerned.
§10. Deduction (certainty): must, can't
Must, can t
We use must in deductions to say that we are sure (certain) about something.
It's not very warm and you're not wearing a coat. You must be cold. (= I am sure that you are cold.)
Mrs Woods must know London very well. She has lived there all her life. (=1 am sure that she knows London very
We use can't (not mustn't) as the negative of must in this meaning. We use can't in deductions to say that something
is impossible.
Peter was here a moment ago, so he can't be
far away. (= It is impossible that he is far
Annie can't be asleep. There's a light on in
her bedroom. (= It is impossible that she is
Note the form: must/can't + be + ... -ing.
You've been working hard all day. You must be feeling tired. (= I am sure that you are feeling tired.)
Simon has bought two tickets for the concert, so he can't he going on his own. (=It is impossible that he is going on
his own.)
We also use can in questions about possibility.
'Can this be Mr Darcy?' thought she.
The telephone is ringing. Who can that be?
Sally is late. Where can she be?
Must have ... and can't have ...
We use must/can't + have + past participle for deductions about the past.
Those shoes you bought are very nice. They must have been expensive. (= I am sure that they were expensive.)
You can't have been at the swimming pool yesterday! The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday! (= It is
impossible that you were at the swimming pool!)
We can use couldn't have ... instead of can't have ... here.
You couldn't have been at the swimming pool yesterday! The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday!
We use can have ... and could have in questions about past possibility.
Where can they have gone?
Sally is very late. What could have happened
to her?
Could the bank have made a mistake?
Note].-Must is not used to express deductions with reference to the future. Instead of the modal verb the adverbs
probably, evidently and the word combinations be likely (unlikely), be sure are used.
He will probably feel lonely. Он, вероятно, будет чувствовать
Evidently the weather will себя одиноко. Очевидно, погода
change tomorrow. The weather завтра изменится. Вероятно
is likely (unlikely) to change (навряд ли), погода скоро
soon. He is sure to win a изменится. Он обязательно
scholarship. получит стипендию.

Note 2: Must is not used to express deductions in negative sentences. There are several ways of expressing the
negative meaning of probability in such sentences: by negative affixes, or negative pronouns or lexically.
You must have misunder- Ты, должно быть, не понял
stood me. меня.
You must have been inat- Ты, должно быть, был невни-
tentive. мателен.
She must have failed to recog- Должно быть, она тебя не
nize you. узнала.
He must have had no chance Вероятно, у него не было
to warn you. ности предупредить тебя.
The letter must have never Письмо, должно быть, не
reached them. дошло до них.
The letter must have been Должно быть, письмо оставили
left unanswered. без ответа.
No one must have seen him Должно быть, никто не видел
there. его там.
Evidently he didn't notice Очевидно, он не заметил меня.
Probably he didn't catch Вероятно, он не успел на
the night train to town. вечерний поезд в город.
Note3: The Russian negative sentences of the type — неужели он не ... не может быть, чтобы он не ... can be
translated into English in different ways:
Неужели вы не видели его? Haven't you seen him? Can you
Неужели тебе не нравится have failed to see him? Don't you
футбол? Не может быть, like football? Can you dislike
чтобы он не знал об этом. football? He can't be unaware of it.
Неужели он не понял меня? Didn't he understand me? He can't
have misunderstood me. Can he
have failed to understand me?

Drawing definite conclusions Drawing possible conclusions

He must be a policeman. Look She might be Spanish. Her name's

at his uniform. They can't be Maria. They could be in the park.
lost. They know the way here. They often play there.

Illustrative Situations
1. John: Where do you live?
Rita: In Elm Street — at number 6.
John: Really! That must be next door to my friend
Rita: Oh, I don't think I know him. John: You must know him! He's a fanatical runner. You
must have seen him running round your area in
all weathers. Rita: Oh! You must mean the man with the red bicycle!
Yes, I've seen him but I didn't know he was a
friend of yours.
2. Gary must have been daydreaming while he was driving to work yesterday. He drove through a red light at the
busiest intersection in town. Fortunately, he didn't hit anybody. Gary was pretty lucky. He could have caused a
terrible accident.
3. Man: What on earth could that be?
Woman: It's that couple upstairs. They must be having
another argument. Man: An argument? They must be having a battle.
4. Nick: Jenny, look at this letter. It says 'For the young
Bells. Open with care.' The handwriting is so strange. I don't recognize it.
Jenny: Let me have a look. It's so untidy that I can hardly read it.
Nick: Well, it must be for us. It can't be for Mum and
Dad. Their names aren't on the envelope. Jenny: And it can't be a bill. I bet it's from Uncle Joe.
He's such a joker. Let's open it. Nick: It is from Uncle Joe. He's sent us tickets for a.
helicopter flight over London! He always has
such great ideas.
5. Only an hour ago the director of a large firm was found dead in his office with a bullet in his head. The police
have established that he was murdered at 2.35. They are questioning his secretary now. 'I was in the canteen having
lunch at that time,' she has just said. The office manager is listening. 'She can't be telling the truth,' he tells one of the
detectives. 'The canteen was closed at 2.35.'
6. Someone ran into the tree in front of our house. I wonder who did it.
It could have been Sue; she has a car, and she was out driving last night.
• It couldn't have been Jane; she doesn't have a car, and she doesn't know how to drive.
It must have been Ann; she was out driving last night, and today her car has a big dent ( вмятина) in front.
/. From the given information, make your'best guess' by using must.
Example: Alice always gets the best grades in the class.
Why? Response She must study hard./She must be intelligent.
1. (...) is yawning. Why?
2. (...) is sneezing and coughing. Why?
3. (...) is wearing a wedding ring. Why?
4. (...) is going to get married in five minutes. His/her hands are shaking. Why?
5. (...) has already had two glasses of water, but now he/ she wants another. Why?
6. (...) is smiling. Why?
7. (...) is crying. Why?
8. There is a restaurant in town ( в центре города) that is always packed (full). Why?
9. Every night there is a long line of people waiting to get into (a particular movie). I wonder why.
10. Don't look at your watch. What time is it?
11. Make sentences with must do or must be doing for these situations.
1. A man's breath always smells of whisky. He is sitting in the office now.
2. You have just come into a room. Cigarette smoke is hanging over your young son's head. His hands are behind
his back.
3. You hear a strange language behind you. Two Chinese are there and you hear the words 'Mao Tse Tung' several
4. You can hear a typewriter upstairs. You know a writer lives there.
5. In his library he has books in six different languages.
6. The only kinds of bottles in his dustbin are always empty champagne bottles.
7. A priest is walking down the road. There is a small book in his hands and his lips are moving.
8. You go to bed rather late every evening, but when you do there is always a light on in the man's house across
the street.
9. You can see the man now. It is midnight and he is just turning that light off!
10. The beautiful woman in the airport lounge is holding a Pan Am ticket to Los Angeles.
11. Max is asleep but his lips are moving and you can hear a few words.
12. You mentioned the President's name. The man you were talking to called him by his first name.
13. The man in the bus is wearing blue overalls with the word 'Ford' on them.
14. The girl on the beach has her ear next to the radio.
15. Tom knows all about French politics and there are lots of French newspapers in his room.
III. Rewrite the second sentence in each pair below, using 'must've'. You may have to change the person, as in
example a).
Examples: a) It rained during the whole holiday. We felt fed up.
b) I almost fell asleep during the film. It was very boring.
Answers: a) You must've felt fed up.
b) It must've been very boring.
1. My wife and I had a meal in the best restaurant in town. It cost a lot. 2. The computer at the office broke down
yesterday. Everything went wrong. 3.1 worked overtime every evening last week. It made me feel very tired. 4.
Look, there's a crowd outside the bank. There was a robbery. 5. I've phoned him twice but there's no reply. He's
gone out. 6. Peter bought a new car last week. He was given a pay rise. 7. Susan failed her exam. I can't believe it.
She misread a question. 8. Did you hear? Mike's wife's gone off to Australia. She was glad to get away from the
cold weather.
IV. Martin and Simon have just come back to their house after a weekend. Martin notices various changes; Simon
thinks these must be the result of actions by Peter, who shares the house with them.
A: The door's open!
B: Peter must have left it open.
1. My torch isn't here! (borrow)
2. The plates are all clean! (wash up)
3. What are all these books doing here? (leave)
4. The teapot is in pieces! (drop)
5. How shiny the furniture looks! (polish)
6. The steps are unusually clean! (sweep)
7. There are some sandwiches on the kitchen table! (make)
8. There are no biscuits left! (eat)
9. And there's no whisky left! (drink)
10. The car is in a terrible state! (drive into a wall)
11. The clock is going again! (wind)
12. The bath's overflowing! (leave the tap on)
V. Complete the dialogues. Use an appropriate form of must with the verbs in parentheses.
1. A: Paula fell asleep in class this morning. B: She (stay up) ... too late last night.
2. A: George had to give a speech in front of 500 people. B: Whew! That's a big audience. He (be) ... nervous. A:
He was, but nobody could tell.
3. A: What time is it?
B: Well, we came at seven, and I'm sure we've been here for at least an hour. So it (be) ... around eight o'clock.
4. A: My favourite magazine doesn't come in the mail any mo-
re. I wonder why. B: Did your subscription run out? A: That's probably the problem. I (forget) ... to renew it.
5. A: Where's Dorothy? I've been looking all over for her. B: I saw her about ten minutes ago in the living room.
Have you looked there? A: Yes, I've looked everywhere. She (leave)... .
6. A: Listen. Do you hear a noise downstairs? B: No, I don't hear a thing.
A: You don't? Then something (be) ... wrong with your hearing.
7. A: You have a black eye! What happened? B: I walked into a door.
A: Ouch! That (hurt) .... B: It did.
8. A: Who is your teacher?
B: I think his name is Mr Rock, or something like that. A: Mr Rock? Oh, you (mean) ... Mr Stone.
9. A: I grew up in a small town. B: That (be) ... dull.
A: It wasn't at all. You can't imagine the fun we had.
10. A: Why are you here so early?
B: Sam told me that the party started at seven o'clock. A: No, it doesn't start until eight o'clock. You (misunderstand)
11. A: I have passed the exams successfully. B: You (work) ... hard.
A: Yes, and I have deserved a good rest.
VI. Translate from Russian into English.
1. У него дом в Лондоне и еще один дом в Париже, он, по всей вероятности, богат. 2. Я все время встречаю
его в автобусе. Он, вероятно, живет где-то рядом. 3. Он, вероятно, принял снотворное вчера ночью. Он
проснулся только к ленчу, 4. Какой взрыв? Я ничего не слышал. — Вы _ должны были слышать! Весь город
слышал это. 5. Я ждал под часами! — Я тоже, но я не видел тебя! Очевидно, мы ждали под разными часами.
6. Сверху доносится сильный шум. Должно быть, это Том. — Почему обязательно Том? И другие люди
пользуются той квартирой. 7. Ты ничего не ел с самого утра. Ты, наверное, проголодался. 8. Джон женился!
— Ты, должно быть, шутишь! 9. Ты, должно быть, устал после дороги. 10. Я слышал , что у тебя экзамены
на следующей неделе. Ты, должно быть, много занимаешься сейчас. 11. Телефон звонил, но я не слышал
его. Я, вероятно, спал. 12. Я наделал много шуму, когда вернулся домой. Ты, наверное, слышал меня. 13. Я
давно не вижу Джима. Он, скорее всего, уехал. 14. Когда я проснулся сегодня утром, горел свет. Я,
вероятно, забыл его выключить. 15. Она все знала о наших планах. Она, должно быть, подслушала наш
разговор. 16. Письмо, наверное, доставили утром. 17. Посмотрите, на столе что-то лежит. Он, должно быть,
оставил вам записку. 18. Должно быть, ей сейчас около двадцати пяти лет. Она училась в школе вместе с
моей сестрой. 19. Эта статья, вероятно, была напи-
сана пять лет назад. 20. Я не видел Джима, но знал, что он, вероятно, ждет меня где-то здесь. 21. Какой
прекрасный телевизор! Должно быть, он дорого стоил. 22. Интересно, кто взял деньги. — Скорее всего, Том.
Кроме него там никого не было. 23. Я подождал с полчаса, и когда я уже думал, что что-то, должно быть,
случилось с Китти, она приехала на такси.
VII. Study how negation is expressed in the following sentences, translate them into Russian.
I. Nobody must have noticed him leave. 2. He must have left the door unlocked on purpose. 3. He thought that he
must have taken the wrong train, because the names of the stations they were passing seemed unfamiliar. 4. The
news must have never reached him. He never says a word about it. 5. He must have failed to see his mistake, for he
didn't stop to correct it. 6. He must have refused the offer. 7. He seems to be a very quiet child. He must have given
you no trouble at all. 8. They must have been unwilling to leave so early. 9. They treated our offer with suspicion.
They must have misunderstood our intentions. 10. Such a possibility must have never occurred to him. 11. He
must have failed to prove his point.
12. They must have missed the train. They had left too late.
13. He must have left the letter unanswered. 14. He must be quite unaware of his clumsiness. 15. What a pity I
could not say good-bye to them, but they must have had no chance to warn me about their departure.
VIII. Change the following sentences making them opposite in meaning. (See Exercise VII.)
1. Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public. 2. He must have written to them of his
arrival in due time. 3. She must have bolted the door forgetting that I was to come later. 4. He must have a good
chance of winning, he is in good form. 5. The man must have understood me, for he nodded his head. 6. She must
have been quite conscious of having made a mistake. 7. They
must have given us the correct information about the road. I can see all the landmarks they have spoken of. 8. The
telegram must have certainly come in time. 9. She must have been very careful. She did not spill a drop of milk. 10.
He must have done something about it. I see some changes in the design. 11. The dog must have recognized his
master. It did not bark as we approached the house. 12. He must have been very experienced in sailing navigation.
13. He must have kept his promise. 14. They must have caught the train. 15. She must be very patient with children,
they like her. 16. The student must have given the right answer. The teacher was pleased.
IX. Remembering that must in the meaning of probability is not used with reference to the future or in the negative
form, find a suitable way of translating the following sentences into English.
A. 1. По-видимому, студенты не знали, что расписание изменилось. Их никто не предупредил. 2. Он
удивился, когда узнал об этом. Очевидно, он ничего не слышал об этом раньше. 3. Должно быть, вы были
несправедливы к нему. 4. Он, должно быть, не сумел уговорить ее поехать с нами. 5. У него, очевидно, пока
просто не нашлось времени для вас. 6. Они, наверное, не встретили его на станции. 7. Он, должно быть, не
узнал меня и поэтому не подошел ко мне. 8. Вы, наверно, и не пытались это сделать, иначе вы бы не
говорили, что это легко. 9, Иностранец, очевидно, неправильно произнес название этого кушанья, и
официант принес ему совсем другое. 10. Вы, должно быть, давно там не были. 11. Ей, должно быть, ничего
об этом не сказали. 12. По всей вероятности, они не попали на поезд, так как вышли из дому слишком
поздно. 13. Он, наверно, так и не догадался, почему мы смеялись. 14. Ты, наверно, положил ключ не на то
место, и я не смог войти в дом. 15. Их, очевидно, неправильно информировали. Они должны были прийти
сегодня. 16. Очевидно, у него не было возможности поговорить с ней раньше. 17. Не надо на него сердиться.
Он, по всей вероятности, не хотел обидеть
вас. 18. Дома, наверное, нет никого сейчас. 19. Очевидно, она не осознает свою ошибку.
Б. 1. Вероятно, дождя завтра не будет. 2. Очевидно, меня пошлют в командировку. 3. Он наверняка сдаст
экзамен. 4. Вероятно, он не будет ждать ее приезда. 5. Он вряд ли закончит работу к пятнице. 6. Она
обязательно поможет тебе. 7. Вероятно, директор не примет ее завтра. 8. Вряд ли она возьмет ребенка с
собой. 9. Очевидно, она не придет. 10. Очевидно, сегодня будет дождь. 11. Вряд ли наша команда выиграет
матч. 12. Навряд ли я увижусь с Мэри. Меня, вероятно, не будет в Минске в это время. 13. Могу я
поговорить с вами завтра утром? — Я, наверное, буду занят утром. 14. Он, вероятно, попытается достать
билеты на игру за кубок.
X. Give possible reasons for Speaker B's conclusions.
1. A: Someone is knocking at the door. It might be Mary. B: It couldn't be Mary. (Reason? Mary is in
went to a movie tonight.)
2. A: Someone left this wool hat here. I think it belongs to
Alex. B: It couldn't belong to him. (Reason?)
3. A: Someone told me that Fred is in Norway.
B: That can't be right. He couldn't be in Norway. (Reason?)
4. A: Look at that big bird. Is it an eagle? B: It couldn't be an eagle. (Reason?)
5. A: Someone told me that Jane quit school.
B: You're kidding! That can't be true. (Reason?)
XI. Answer the questions in A using1 must or can't, give a reason from B.
Example 1. They can't be Greek. They're speaking Italian.
1. Are they Greek? It's very cold in here.
2. Is he ill? 3. Is the heating He's too young. She's just passed her
on? 4. Are they asleep? 5. driving test. They're speaking Italian.
Is she happy? 6. Is he a Their bedroom lights are off. She's only
doctor? 7. Is Jane married? fifteen. He's got a high temperature.

XII. Complete the statements with must or can't.

A: This is Mr and Mrs Arnold's house. They ... be far away
because their car is here. B: Yes, they ... be somewhere near — perhaps they're in the
house. It's a very big house — they ... be poor. A: And look at that expensive car! It ... be a new one. B: They ...
have a child. Look, there's a child's bike. A: It's a small one, so the child ... be very old. B: And there's another bike
there, too. It... be Mr Arnold's.
It ... be Mrs Arnold's because it's a man's bike,
XIII. Make sentences with can't be doing.
1. Someone says, 'Richard's sitting in the park.' You saw him in the office a second ago.
2. You hear piano music and see Jane at the piano. You know she has never played before.
3. Your uncle has something that looks like a cigarette in his mouth. He is the head of the Anti-Tobacco League.
4. You understand Russian but you do not understand the two foreigners at the next table.
5. The six-month-old child has a book open in front of it.
6. 'Bill's playing tennis,' someone says. You know Bill has a broken leg.
XIV. Yesterday someone finished the wine/broke a wineglass/ borrowed Mary's radio etc. Mary thinks it was Tom
who did these things, but you know that Tom was out all day.
A: I wonder who broke the glass. I expect it was Tom. B: Tom couldn't have broken it. He wasn't here yesterday.
/ wonder who ...I expect it was Tom.
1. spoke to her
2. paid the milkman
3. brought the flowers
4. fixed the television set
5. tuned my guitar
6. made all the mess
7. moved the piano
8. spilt the wine
9. opened my letters
10. borrowed my umbrella
11. answered the phone
12. ate the cold meat
13. overheard us
14. planted the rose bushes
XV. Complete the sentences using must have or can't have
and the verb in brackets,
1. She didn't answer the door bell even though I rang several times. She ... (be) asleep. 2. I ... (run out of) petrol. I
only filled up the tank this morning. 3. I'm so sorry I'm late. You ... (wonder) what had happened. 4. Cathy's got a
new BMW! She ... (win) a lottery. 5. I ... (lose) my glasses. They were here a minute ago. 6. The flowers are
beautiful! They ... (cost) you a fortune. 7. Alan ... (get lost). I gave him the address and drew a map.
XVI. Respond to the following statements.
A: Steve's late. He's probably missed the bus. B: Yes, he must have missed the bus.
A: He didn't phone, so I'm sure he has decided not to
come. B: No, he can't have decided not to come.
1. Steve's late. He's probably missed the bus.
2. He didn't phone, so I'm sure he has decided not to come.
3. Jane didn't come. She's probably seen the play already.
4. I can't find the tickets. I'm sure we didn't leave them at home.
5. They aren't in my pocket. I've probably left them in the car.
6. It's after 8 o'clock. The play's probably started by now.
7. There's another bus. Surely Steve hasn't missed two buses.
8. It's Wednesday today, isn't it? Surely he didn't think we were going tomorrow.
XVII. Draw definite conclusions.
A: I couldn't see the little boy anywhere, (he/hide) B: He must have been hiding.
A: She suddenly forgot what she was saying, (she/
concentrate) B: She can't have been concentrating.
1. I couldn't see the little boy anywhere (he/hide)
2. She suddenly forgot what she was saying, (she/concentrate)
3. Sally wasn't home when I called, (she/fetch the children)
4. He came last in the race, (he/try)
5. The man was stopped in his car by the police, (he/drink and drive)
6. I didn't hear the announcement at all. (you/ doze)
7. Don't you remember I said we'd be late? (I/listen)
8. Her eyes were red and puffy, (she/cry)
9. She got burnt on the first day on the beach, (she/wear any suntan lotion).
10. The man couldn't fix the tap in the end. (he/use the right tools)
11. He has achieved brilliant results, (he/work hard)
XVIII. Express doubt about the statements below.
Example — She likes judo.
— Could (Can) she like judo?
1. He is a liar. 2. She is still waiting for you. 3. He has won the race. 4. He was promoted. 5. Jane is in love with
Peter. 6. She has done it. 7. They are still playing football. 8. She speaks five languages. 9. She enjoys football. 10.
Dobson scored two goals. 11. He was studying the whole night. 12. He was waiting for you all this time. 13. She has
enjoyed the performance. 14. It is true. 15. She has passed the exam.
16. Jane has accepted his proposal. 16. She has been walking in the park the whole night.
XIX. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Неужели это правда? 2. He может быть, чтобы это была правда. 3. Неужели они проиграли матч? 4. Не
может быть, чтобы они проиграли матч. 5. Неужели он верит этому? 6. Не может быть, чтобы она вам об
этом рассказала. 7. Не может быть, чтобы она вам об этом не рассказывала. 8. Не мог он этого сказать. 9. Не
может быть, чтобы они уже сделали эту работу. Они приступили к ней только вчера. 10. Неужели они опять
поссорились? 11. Не мог он заблудиться. Он здесь был несколько раз. 12. Неужели он пользовался машиной
в мое отсутствие? 13. Неужели ей не нравится балет? 14. Неужели они ждали нас все это время? 15. Не
может быть, чтобы они были близкими друзьями. 16. Не может быть, чтобы он бросил музыку.
17. Не может быть, чтобы она ошиблась. 18. Неужели сестры так похожи? 19. Невероятно, чтобы он не сдал
экзамен. 20. Ты не мог проголодаться. Мы основательно пообедали два часа назад. 21. Не может быть,
чтобы они уже приехали. Поезд должен прибыть в 7 часов. 22. Неужели он не пригласил вас на свадьбу? 23.
Не может быть, чтобы она сделала такую глупость. 24. Не мог он этого не заметить. 25. Не может быть,
чтобы вас послали ко мне. Я не имею к этому никакого отношения. 26. Неужели он видел их? 27. Где он мог
их видеть? 28. Не может быть, чтобы они ждали нас. 29. Неужели они ждут нас? 30. Кого же они могут
ждать? 31. Неужели ты сам это написал? 32. Он не мог не осознавать опасности. 33. Неужели он не
позвонил тебе вчера? Он сказал, что собирается сделать
это. 34. Кэт запаздывает. Что с ней могло случиться? 35. Детей нет дома. Куда они могли уйти?
XX. Which of the two completions is the speaker most likely to say? Choose the best completion.
1. 'Do you know where Mary is?'
'She ... be at home. She was going either there or to Barbara's after work.'
A. must B. could
2. 'Look at all the children waiting for the bus. What time is it?'
'It ... be after 3.00. That's when school is out.' A. must B. might
3. 'I heard that Jose has received a scholarship and will be able to attend the university in the fall.' 'Wonderful! He ...
very happy to have the matter finally settled.'
A. must B. may
4. 'Excuse me. Could you tell me which bus I should take to get to City Hall?'
'Bus number 63 ... go there. But maybe you'd better ask the driver.'
A. must B. might
5. 'George says that we're going to have a very high inflation
next year.'
'He ... be right. I think his view is as good as anybody's.
I've heard strong opinion on all sides of that issue.'
A. must B. could
6. 'Do you suppose Carl is sick?'
'He ... be. Nothing else would have kept him from coming to this meeting.'
A. must B. may
7. 'Have you heard anything from Ed? Is he still in Africa?' 'He ... be, or he ... already be on his way home. I'm just
not sure.'
A. must/must B. could/could
8. 'It that a famous person over there in the middle of that crowd?'
'It ... be. Everyone's trying to get her autograph.' A. must B. might
9. 'Isn't Peter Reeves a banker?'
'Yes. Why don't you talk to him? He ... be able to help you with your loan.'
A. must B. may
10. 'Isn't Margaret's daughter over sixteen?'
'She ... be. I saw her driving a car, and you have to be at least sixteen to get a driver's licence.'
A. must B. might
11. 'Is that Bob's brother standing with him in the cafeteria line?'
'It ... be I suppose. He does look a little like him.' A. must B. could
12. 'Do you think the grocery store is still open?'
'It ... be. I can't ever remember what their hours are.' A. must B. could
13. 'Is Jeff a good student?'
'He ... be. Although he seems to study very little, I heard he was offered a scholarship for next year.' A. must
B. could
14. 'Have you seen the new movie playing at the Odeon?' 'No, but it ... be sad. Many people leaving the theatre seem
to have been crying.'
A. must B. might
15. 'The speedometer on my car is broken.'
'Do you think you're driving over the speed limit?' 'I don't know. I ... be.'
A. must B. might
16. Jenny and Tom have had a party. It has just finished.
Jenny: There's a taxi outside. Whose is it? Tom: I'm not sure. I think it ... be John's. He was telephoning for
one earlier.
a) will b) might c) can
Jenny: Is there anyone else still here? Tom: No. Only John. Jenny: Well, then it ... be his.
a) must b) won't c) mustn't
John, I think your taxi has arrived.
John: I'm coming. Thanks for the party. It was great. Tom: That's O.K. Oh, wait a moment. Do you know
whose jacket this is? John: I think Martin was wearing something like that.
It ... be his.
a) can't b) will c) could
(John leaves)
Jenny: Goodness. I'm tired. What's the time?
Tom: It's two fifteen.
Jenny: It ... be that late! When I looked at my watch
a few moments ago, it was only one o'clock.
a) can't b) won't c) mustn't
Tom: Well, I'm sorry but that's the time. Jenny: I forgot to tell you. The builders ... here at eight tomorrow
a) come b) are c) will be
Tom: That's too bad because I ... be asleep, a) can b) '11 c) must
XXI. Complete the sentences using might have, must have or can't have, and the correct form of the verb in
1.1 can't find my keys anywhere. I think I... (lose) them. 2. You shouldn't have driven when it was so foggy. You ...
(have) an accident. 3. You never know. They ... (take) the wrong bus. 4. She ... (telephone) because I was in all day.
5. I'm glad you didn't come to see me yesterday. You ... (catch) my cold. 6. I ... (lose) my passport. It was here on
the table just a few minutes ago.
XXII. Respond to the following statements.
A: He didn't answer the doorbell. Do you think he was
B: Yes, he may have been sleeping. A: It was Sunday, so I don't think he was working. B: No, he couldn't have been
1. He didn't answer the doorbell. Do you think he was sleeping?
2. It was Sunday, so I don't think he was working.
3. His car was outside. Perhaps he was having a bath.
4. Graham was out last night. Do you think he was meeting Jack?
5. He didn't take his racket, so I don't think he was playing squash.
6. Mary looked surprised to see Peter. I don't think she was expecting him.
7. I thought Peter was driving a Rolls Royce. Do you think I was dreaming?
8. Charles looked tired this evening. Perhaps he's been working too hard.
XXIII. Complete the dialogue with the correct form (simple or continuous) of the modals in the past. Role-play the
Peter: Hi, Louise! I've been trying to get in touch with you all week.
Louise: Really?
Peter: Yes, first I tried to phone you on Monday evening.
I suppose it was about 7.30.
Louise: Oh, I ... (must/already/leave) for the cinema. Peter: Then on Tuesday evening I phoned at about six
Louise: I ... (might/work late). I usually do on a Tuesday. Peter: Then I tried again on Wednesday, at about ten
o'clock in the evening. Louise: Really? I suppose I... (might/already/go to bed). I
had an early night, I think, on Wednesday. Peter: Then I tried on Thursday evening around eight
o'clock. Louise: I ... (must/shop). It's late night shopping on
Thursday. Peter: Then last night I tried several times but still no
Louise: I think I ... (might/have) a shower. Peter: What! For four hours! You ... (can't/be) in the
shower all evening! I get the feeling you're trying
to avoid me, Louise.
XXIV. Rephrase the following sentences, using must, can't, or might.
A. 1. I'm sure Harry's at least sixty. 2. I'm sure he hasn't retired yet. He still leaves the house every morning. 3. I'm
sure he isn't very well off. His house is in a terrible mess. 4. Perhaps he spent all his money when he was younger. 5.
I'm sure he does a lot of gardening. His garden looks beautiful. 6. I'm sure he's read a lot of books about gardening.
He's certainly an expert. 7. I'm sure he's working in his garden now. I can hear someone digging. 8. Now I can hear
voices. Perhaps he's talking to Miss Appleby. 9. No, I'm sure it isn't Miss Appleby. It's two men's voices. 10. They're
shouting. Perhaps they are having an argument. 11. They're talking about money. Perhaps Harry owes the other man
some money. 12. Now I can't hear anything. I'm sure they've gone inside. 13. My
God! A gun shot! I'm sure Harry has killed him! 14. No, there's Harry outside, so it wasn't Harry who was shot.
15. There's a siren. I'm sure this is the police arriving.
16. Look at all those lights and cameras. Ah! Now I understand. They are making a film!
B. 1. I'm sure John's been held up in a traffic jam.
2. He said he did the journey in three hours! That's impossible.
3. Perhaps Ben has decided to have an early night.
4. I'm sure the train left early.
5. That wasn't an elephant, surely. It was too small.
6. It's highly likely you dropped the envelope as you were running for the bus.
7. There's a chance that one of our employees has double-booked your ticket.
8. I'm sure they decided to take the train after all.
9. Maybe they missed the turning.
10. The boy was evidently reading something funny. He was smiling all the time.
11. The boy is probably reading something funny. He is smiling all the time.
12. It is possible that they left it in the car.
13. I'm certain that he has heard the gong.
14. It is impossible that he should have refused your request.
15. I don't believe that he has done the work carelessly.
16. Is it possible that this old man is her brother?
17. My students are certainly at a lecture now.
18. Is it possible that they have already left?
19. Perhaps they are having a party.
XXV. A detective is investigating a burglary at the home of Mr and Mrs Smith. Put in the correct modal verbs of
'I wonder how the thief got in. He ... used a ladder or he ... had a key.
Ah! What's this? Broken glass by the kitchen door, and the
door has been unlocked. He ... broken the window, put his
hand inside, and turned the key. That ... made a noise. I
wonder if the neighbours heard anything?
(He goes next door to talk to the neighbours, and knocks on
their door.)
There's no reply. I suppose they ... be on holiday, or they ...
watching television.
(He listens at the letter-box.)
I can hear voices. Someone ... in. Rather odd.
(He goes back to the Smiths' house.)
Now, I wonder what was stolen. I don't think the Smith
family is terribly well off, so the thief ... found a lot to
steal. It was clever of him to come in just after Mrs Smith
went shopping. He ... known she would be out.
What was that noise? It came from upstairs. The burglar ...
not... left the house yet! He ... hiding upstairs! I'd better go
and see.'
XXVI. Work in pairs. Respond to the following situations using the word or words in brackets and the perfect
infinitive (have + past participle).
A: I can't find my ticket, (must, drop) B: You must have dropped it.
1. John didn't come to school yesterday, (must, ill)
2. Look at my new gold watch! (can't, buy yourself )
3. Why is Isabel late for class? (might, oversleep)
4. I can't find my homework, (must, forget)
5. The teacher's checking Maria's work, (can't, finish already)
6. Did you know that Charles got top marks in the exam? (must, cheat)
7. Where's my umbrella? (could, leave it on the train)
XXVII. Respond first with may have/might have/could have. Then use must have after you get more information.
Example Jack was absent yesterday afternoon. Where was he?
Possible response: I don't know. He may have been at home.
He might have gone to a movie. He could have
decided to go to the zoo because the weather
was so nice. Follow-up. What if you overhear him say, 'My sister's
plane was late yesterday afternoon. I had to
wait almost three hours.'
Now what do you think? Expected response. He must have been at the airport to meet
his sister's plane.
1. Jack didn't stay home last night. Where did he go?
— What if you overhear him say, 'I usually go there to study in the evening because it's quiet, and if I need to use
any reference books, they're right there.'
2. How did Jack get to school today?
— What if you see him pull some car keys out of his pocket?
3. Jack took a vacation in a warm sunny place. Where do you suppose he went?
— What if you overhear him say, 'Honolulu is a nice city.'
4. Jack visited a person in this class yesterday. Do you know who he visited?
— What if I say this person (supply a certain distinguishing characteristic)!
5. Jack walked into class this morning with a broken arm. What happened?
— Then you overhear him say, 'After this I'm going to watch where I'm going when I'm riding my bicycle.'
XXVIII. Roleplay
Students A and В are waiting to meet an English-speaking friend outside a cinema. The film is about to start and
their friend has not yet arrived. They know that their friend:
— does not know his/her way round the town very well.
— is going to come to the cinema straight from work.
— has recently been ill.
— is going to drive to the cinema and parking is difficult.
They also know that the same film is showing at another cinema in town.
In pairs, draw some conclusions about why the friend has not yet arrived and decide what to do. For drawing
definite conclusions use must or can't; for drawing possible conclusions use could or might, may.
A: I wonder where (Sabina) is.
B: She might be lost. She doesn't know her way round the
town very well. A: No, she can't be lost. But she might be ...
XXIX. Emma and Sadie are students. They've both got exams tomorrow. Complete their conversation using a modal
verb + be + the-ing form of each verb in brackets. Use the modal verbs ought to, might, must and would.
Emma: Hello, Sadie. Aren't you doing any work? You (revise)
for the exam.
Sadie: I (read) my notes if I had them, but I've lost them. Emma: Good Lord! How awful! Do you want to look at
mine? Sadie: No, thanks. It's okay. Don' t worry, Emma. Exams
aren't important. Emma: Not important! You (joke)! I (look) everywhere if my
notes were lost.
Sadie: Well, I'll probably find them before tomorrow. Emma: Have you seen Helen? She's got a book of mine.
Sadie: She was in here not long ago. Perhaps she's outside.
She (sit) in the garden. Emma: I'll go and have a look. Then I (go). I have to get to
the library before it closes. Sadie: What are you doing tonight, Emma? Emma: Revising, of course. Aren't you?
Sadie: I (play) tennis with Rebecca. If the weather stays
fine, that is. It'll be too late for revision tonight.
A. Say what you might be doing at the moment if today was a different day of the week. Find out what the other
members of the class might be doing if it was a Saturday or a Sunday.
XXX. Supply must be, can't be, or mustn't be.
1. The meeting is at 10 o'clock sharp and you ... late. 2. You ... at the station ten minutes before the departure of the
train. 3. The children ... tired already! We've only been walking for ten minutes! 4. The children ... thirsty. They
haven't had a drink for hours. 5. Did you hear that? It ... someone walking about in our garden. 6. I don't recognize
the handwriting on this envelope. It... from anyone we know. 7. Your handwriting ... clear, otherwise no one will be
able to read it. 8. You ... a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. 9. Don't panic! We ... late for the train.
It doesn't leave till 10.05. 10. We ... late for the train or we'll miss our connection.
XXXI. Supply must have been, can't/couldn't have been, have to/had to (be), didn't have to (be).
1. He knows a lot about flying planes. He ... a pilot when he was young. 2. Vera ... at the supermarket this morning.
I didn't see her there. 3. John ... at the bank till 10, so he only arrived here five minutes ago. 4. When ... she ... at the
hospital? — Early this morning. 5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I ... buy any
more. 6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I ... tell her twice. 7. There are so many nice things for tea, I think you ...
expecting us. 8. There ... an accident on South Street because the road is closed off. 9. You ... waiting long. After all,
I'm only five minutes late. 10. When I was a boy we ... sitting at our desks working before the boss got in. 11. I left a
message on your answer phone last night. You ... out. 12. The fire alarm went and we ... out of the building in two
XXXII. Put in must be/must have been, can't be/can't have been, had to be or didn't have to be.
Tracy Evans ... at work till ten, so she ignored her alarm clock. But she woke up with a start when she heard a
strange sound coming from her wardrobe! What was it? It... a mouse, Tracy thought. No, it ... . She knew there were
no mice in her room. I ... careful, Tracy said to herself as she opened the wardrobe. There, in front of her, was the
lovely pair of wedge-shaped sandals she had bought the day before. Then she heard the sound again! 'It ... coming
from my sandals!' she cried. She picked them up and, sure enough, one of them was 'talking'! Tracy ... at work at
ten, but she still had enough time to visit Mr Lucas, her shoemaker. He removed the wooden heel and they were
both amazed to see a white larva eating the wood. Mr Pope, of the Natural History Museum, solved the mystery.
'These shoes ... (import) from Brazil. An insect... (lay) its eggs in the tree from which the shoes were made,' he
XXXIII. Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using must, can't and needn't + perfect infinitive of the verbs in
1. Did you hear me come in last night? — No, I ... (be) asleep. 2. I wonder who broke the wineglass; it ... (be) the cat
for she was out all day. 3. You ... (help) him. (You helped him but he didn't need help.) 4. I had my umbrella when I
went out but I haven't got it now. — You ... (leave) it on the bus. 5. He ... (escape) by this window because it is
barred. 6. I ... (give) £ 10 . £ 5 would have been enough. 7. I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. — You ...
(see) a rattlesnake. There aren't any rattlesnakes in this country. 8. He is back already. — He ... (start) very early. 9. I
bought two bottles of milk. — You ... (buy) milk; we have heaps in the house. 10. I phoned you at nine this morning
but got no answer. — I'm sorry. I ... (be) in the garden. 11. I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. — Someone ...
(borrow) it. 12. When she woke up her watch had vanished. — Someone ... (steal) it while she slept. 13. I've opened
another bottle. — You ... (do) that. We've only just started this one. 14. Perhaps he swam across. — No, he ... (do)
that; he can't swim. 15. Do
you remember reading about it in the newspapers? — No, I ... (be) abroad at the time. 16. He ... (walk) from here to
London in two hours. It isn't possible. 17. We went to a restaurant and had a very good dinner for £ 3. — You ...
(have) a very good dinner if you only paid £ 3. 18.1 have just watered the roses. — You ... (water) them. Look, it's
raining now! 19. That carpet was made entirely by hand. — It ... (take) a long time. 20. The door was open. — It...
(be) open. I had locked it myself and the key was in my pocket. 21. He said he watered the plants every day. — He
... (water) them. If he had they wouldn't have died. 22. We've sent for a doctor. — You ... (send) for him. I am
perfectly well. 23. I've made two copies. — You ... (make) two. One would have been enough. 24. I had to get down
the mountain in a thick fog. — That... (be) difficult. 25.1 saw Ann in the library yesterday. — You ... (see) her; she
is still abroad. 26. You ... (lend) him your map. He has one of his own. 27. He was found unconscious at the foot of
the cliff. He ... (fall) 200 metres. 28. Jane took Spot for a walk and he disappeared. He ... (steal). 29. Lucy looks
upset. She ... (give) a bad mark. 30. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. It ... (leave) by one of the
students in the earlier class.
XXXIV. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Вероятно, они разговаривают по-немецки, но я почти ничего не понимаю. 2. Вероятно, у нее ушло много
времени на то, чтобы добраться сюда. 3. Вряд ли он будет возражать против нашего предложения. 4. Матч,
очевидно, не состоится. 5. Несчастный случай произошел, по всей вероятности, из-за его невнимательности.
6. Должно быть, он не заметил, как она вышла из зала. 7. Мы едем, вероятно, около часа, а лагеря все еще не
видно. 8. Он сказал, что я, должно быть, знаю ее. Я встречался с ней на конференциях. 9. Ей, должно быть,
не прислали пригласительный билет, поэтому она не пришла. 10. Его мать опять в больнице. Она, должно
быть, серьезно больна. 11. Он, должно быть, ждет нас в институте. 12. Он, по всей вероятности, забыл, что
обещал прийти. 13. Должно быть, он не
хочет вмешиваться. 14. Он спит, вероятно, уже около трех часов. 15. Посылку, вероятно, пошлют не позже 5
июля. 16. Ты, наверное, никогда не надевала это платье. Оно совсем новое. 17. Должно быть, они
поссорились. Я его не вижу у нас последнее время. 18. Где Ник? — Вероятно, он пошел осматривать
достопримечательности города. 19. Она, должно быть, гостит у своих друзей. Она писала, что собирается
провести свой отпуск у них. 20. Где письмо? — Вероятно, его уже отослали. 21. Он, должно быть, не узнал
ее. Она так изменилась. 22. Товары, должно быть, были упакованы очень небрежно. 23. Им, вероятно,
сообщили об этом несколько дней тому назад. 24. Она, должно быть, была очень рада встретиться с вами.
25. Я нигде не вижу документы. По-видимому, он унес их с собой. 26. По-видимому, это не было сделано
вовремя. 27. В доме тихо. Дети, очевидно, в школе. 28. У нее самый красивый сад в деревне. Она, очевидно,
им гордится. 29. Не может быть, чтобы она вышла за него замуж. Одно время он ей не нравился. 30.
Неужели она ходила на матч? Я думал, она не любит футбол. 31. Неужели ты все это время спал? Сейчас
уже три часа. 32. Не может быть, чтобы он ушел без разрешения. Это на него не похоже. 33. Не может быть,
чтобы она это сказала. Она всегда так тактична. 34. Он, вероятно, уже ушел. — Не может быть, чтобы он
ушел, не повидав меня! 35. Неужели он уже получил мое письмо? 36. Неужели он не получил мое письмо?
37. Не может быть, чтобы они сейчас работали в саду. Идет сильный дождь. 38. Нет, я не верю этому, не
могла она меня обмануть. 39. Не может быть, чтобы друзья не помогли тебе. 40. Неужели он встречал ее
раньше? 41. Неужели ты не интересуешься политикой? 42. Не может быть, чтобы он не сдержал своего
обещания. 43. Не может быть, чтобы они нас заметили. Мы были довольно далеко от них. 44. Не может
быть, чтобы они нас не заметили. Мы были совсем близко. 45. Вероятно, ему не сообщили, что собрание
перенесено. 46. Цифры, должно быть, не были проверены. 47. Он, возможно, приедет завтра, так как он,
должно быть, получил нашу телеграмму. 48. Эта книга, может быть, показалась
ему скучной, но он, должно быть, прочел ее очень внимательно, так как он помнит все подробности. 49. Он
сказал, что он, возможно, вернется в мае. 50. Если бы все меры были приняты, этого могло бы не произойти.
51. Неужели он сказал это? Он, должно быть, был очень сердит на вас. 52. Мои слова, вероятно, не убедили
его. Он продолжал спорить. 53. Незачем вам было ходить туда. Они могли бы сами прийти. 54. Неужели вы
им поверили? Они, скорее всего, пошутили над вами. 55. Я не могу понять, почему Энн не пришла на
собрание. Не может быть, чтобы она забыла о нем, она, наверное, заболела. 56. Не может быть, чтобы она
прочла эту книгу за два дня; она, возможно, только просмотрела ее. 57. Не может быть, чтобы я потеряла би-
лет, я могла положить его в сумку. 58. Он не смог получить книгу, потому что библиотека была закрыта. 59.
Не может быть, чтобы он получил книгу, ведь библиотека была закрыта. 60. Где ключ? — Не знаю. Ольга
могла взять его с собой по ошибке. — Не может быть, чтобы она его взяла. У нее ничего не было в руках,
когда она уходила. 61. Он, возможно, не был там вчера. 62. Возможно ли, чтобы он был там вчера? 63. Не
может быть, чтобы он был там вчера. 64. Неужели он не смог доказать свою точку зрения? 65. Я не мог не
думать об этом.
XXXV. Study and practise.
1. My aunt is an actress. She must be at least thirty-five years old. In spite of this, she often appears on the stage as
a young girl. Jennifer will have to take part in a new play soon. This time, she will be a girl of seventeen. In the play,
she must appear in a bright red dress and long black stockings. Last year in another play, she had to wear short socks
and a bright, orange-coloured dress. If anyone ever asks her how old she is, she always answers, 'My dear, it must be
terrible to be grown up!'
2. Kate: Can you recognize that woman, Millie? Millie: I think I can, Kate.
It must be Karen Marsh, the actress.
Kate: I thought so.
Who's that beside her? Millie: That must be Conrad Reeves. Kate: Conrad Reeves, the actor?
It can't be.
Let me have another look.
I think you're right!
Isn't he her third husband? Millie: No. He must be her fourth or fifth. Kate: Doesn't Karen Marsh look old! Millie:
She does, doesn't she!
I read she's twenty-nine, but she must be at least
Kate: I'm sure she is. Millie: She was a famous actress when I was still a
Kate: That was a long time ago, wasn't it? Millie: Not that long ago!
I'm not more than twenty-nine myself.
Sybil: Sidney! Sidney! Wake up!
3 Sidney: Eh! What? What's the matter? It can't be eight
o'clock already! Sybil: No, it's half past one. It's those people next door
again. Listen!
Sidney: Oh, yes. They must be having another party. Sybil: Listen to that! They must be waking up the whole
street. And they've got three young children. They
can't be sleeping through that noise. It's disgusting!
Somebody should call the police! Sidney, wake up! Sidney: Eh? I wasn't asleep, dear. They're all laughing.
They must be having a good time! They never
invite us, do they? Sybil: Sidney!
Sidney: Yes, dear. What is it now? Sybil: Listen! They must be leaving. Sidney: Thank goodness for that! Maybe
we'll get some
Sybil: I hope so. It's nearly three o'clock. Goodnight,
Sidney: Oh, hell! They're having a row now. Sybil: I'm not surprised. They always have rows after
parties. Sybil: Oh! They must be throwing the pots and pans
again. Sidney: No, I think that was a plate, dear, or maybe the
television. They'll be sorry in the morning. Sybil: Sidney! Wake up! Sidney: Eh! Oh, what's that?
Sybil: He can't be hammering at this time of night. Sidney: What time is it? Sybil: Four o'clock. What can they
be doing at four
o'clock in the morning?
Sidney: I can't hear any voices. Go back to sleep, Sybil, Sybil: Sidney! Listen. There's someone in the garden next
Sidney: Eh? It must be the milkman. Sybil: No, it can't be. It's too early. It's only quarter to
five. Who could it be? You'd better have a look. Sidney: All right. Ooh! It's Mr Sykes, and he's carrying a
Sybil: Oh, no! You don't think he's killed her, do you? Sidney: Well, we haven't heard her voice for a while. No,
she's probably sleeping.
Sybil: But what can he be doing at this time of night? Sydney: If he has killed her, he might be burying the
Sybil: What! You don't think so, do you? Sidney: Well, he can't be planting potatoes, can he? I
suppose you want me to phone the police? Sybil: No. Ask him what he's doing first! Sidney: Hello, there, Mr
Sykes. You're up early this
morning. Mr Sykes: I haven't been to bed yet. We had a party last
night. I hope we didn't keep you awake. Sidney: Oh, no. We didn't hear anything, nothing at all.
Mr Sykes: Well, it was a pretty noisy party. My wife knocked over the goldfish tank while we were clearing up. The
poor fish died. I'm just burying them before the children wake up.
A. What do you think your parents/brothers/sisters/friends
are doing this moment?
If you think you know what they are doing answer with:
They must be doing this. They can't be doing that. They're probably doing this.
If you don't know, use:
They could/may/might be doing this.
They're possibly doing this.
4. Policeman: OK. I've been following your car now for ten
minutes. You've been driving at far more than
the speed limit and in a very erratic manner.
I think you must have had a little too much to
drink. Driver: I really must protest, officer. I can assure you
that I only drank one glass of whisky — or
maybe two. Policeman: Will you show me your driving licence? And I
need to check your insurance papers too. Driver: Er ... I haven't got them with me. I know I
ought to keep them in the car but I always
forget. Policeman: I think you forgot to stop drinking too! You'd
better get into my car. You certainly oughtn't
to drive any further tonight.
5. Ann: Look, Harry!
That policeman's waving to you. He wants you to stop. Policeman: Where do you think you are?
On a race track?
You must have been driving at seventy miles
an hour!
Harry: I can't have been. Policeman: I was doing eighty when I overtook you.
Didn't you see the speed limit? Harry: I'm afraid I didn't, officer.
I must have been dreaming. Ann: He wasn't dreaming, officer.
I was telling him to drive slowly. Harry: That's why I didn't see the sign. Policeman: Let me see your driving-licence
and your
insurance certificate. Policeman: I won't charge you this time.
But you'd better not do it again! Harry: Thank you.
I'll certainly be more careful. Ann: I told you to drive slowly, Harry.
Harry: You always tell me to drive slowly, dear. Ann: Well, next time you'd better take my advice!
6. Jack is on his way to the sports centre to meet some friends. He's feeling miserable because he hasn't got any
money. It's his girlfriend's birthday next week. He may not be able to buy her a present and she could be very
disappointed. She might even refuse to go out with him! He could ask a friend to lend him a few pounds, but he
already owes money to all his friends.
When he arrives at the sports centre, he sees something pink near the entrance. It's a purse and it's full of money.
Fifty pounds! Who could it belong to?
'A pink purse can't belong to a boy. It must belong to a girl at the centre,' Jack thinks.
Jack doesn't know what to do. He could pay his debts with the money and he could buy Debbie a present. There's no
one in the street, but someone might be watching him.
A. Rephrase the sentences with may.
Perhaps the purse belongs to a girl at the centre. The purse may belong to a girl at the centre.
1. Perhaps the owner is looking for the purse.
2. Perhaps Jack knows the girl.
3.,Perhaps someone will be watching Jack.
4. Perhaps he won't tell anyone about the purse.
5. Perhaps he won't try to find the owner.
6. Perhaps he will put the purse back where it was.
7. Perhaps he will find the owner.
8. Perhaps Jack will get a reward for finding the purse.
B. Say what might happen. Say what you think Jack might or might not do.
Jack might (not) keep the money.
C. What could Jack do with the money? Write five sentences. He could pay his debts.
Say what you could do with fifty pounds in your currency. Think of five things.
I could buy some new clothes.
D. Complete the sentences with must or can't.
It's an expensive leather purse. It isn't scratched. It must be quite new.
1. It smells of leather, so it______be very old.
2. Jack thinks, 'The owner______get a lot of pocket money.'
3. Why does Jack think that the purse______belong to a
4. Why______it belong to a boy?
5. The owner______be very careless to lose so much money.
6. The owner______know that she has lost the purse outside.
No one is looking for it.
E. a) Imagine that you have found these things in the street or on a bus. Make deductions about the things or the
with must and with can't (where possible). Say your answers.
a dog's lead
It must belong to someone who has a dog. The owner must have a dog.
(a pink umbrella, a paintbrush, a tin of cat food, a silk tie, a mask, a pair of football boots, an English grammar book,
a balloon on a string, a book about gardening)
b) A pupil thinks of one of the above objects. The class asks questions and tries to guess the object. The pupil
answers with Yes, you can/No, it isn't etc. After an answer the class says a sentence with It could be/It can't be or It
must be.
Class: Can you use it in the rain?
Pupil: No, you can't.
Class: It can't be the umbrella. Can you read it?
Pupil: Yes, you can.
7. Nick: Jeff wanted to take Ann to the disco on Saturday. She waited for him at home for an hour, but he didn't turn
up and he didn't phone. Ann was angry, so she phoned Jake Cook and asked him to take her to the disco. She knew
that Jeff and Jake didn't like each other. Later that evening, Jeff saw Ann at the disco with Jake. Jeff felt angry, so he
left immediately.
Jane: Something must have delayed Jeff. He should have
phoned Ann to explain. He could even have had an
accident on the way to her house. Nick: He might have forgotten about the disco. Jane: No. He can't have forgotten
about Ann! But she
shouldn't have gone out with Jake. Nick: I agree. But they needn't have been so angry with
each other.
A. Suggest possible reasons why Jeff didn't turn up at Ann's house. Use might/may have been or could + past
A visitor might have arrived unexpectedly. He could have lost his watch.
B. Complete the sentences with must have or can't have + past participle.
Later, Jeff said the he had phoned Ann before the disco. Ann can't have heard (hear) the phone.
1. Why didn't she hear the phone? The television______
(be) too loud.
2. Because Ann didn't answer the phone, Jeff______(think)
that she had already gone out.
3. After the disco, Ann didn't look very happy. She______
(enjoy) the evening.
4. Jake looked miserable too. He______(be) disappointed.
5. Jake didn't mention Jeff. Jake______(know) that Ann
had planned to go to the disco with him.
6. Jane didn't know the story about Ann and Jeff. Ann ______(tell) her.
7. A week after the evening at the disco, Ann got a letter
from Jeff. In the letter Jeff______(explain) what had
happened and how he had felt. Ann understood.
.8. Next Saturday, Ann and Jeff are going to the cinema together. They______(solve) their problems.
C. What do you think Jeff, Ann and Jake should have done or shouldn't have done to avoid problems?
8. Mr Fielding: Sorry to hear about the fire, Charles. Not
too much damage, I hope?
Mr Williams: No, it wasn't too bad. We've had to redecorate the whole of the living-room, but the rest of the house
wasn't damaged.
Mr Fielding: I suppose it must have been a cigarette end.
Mr Williams: Probably. We ought to have checked for that sort of thing after the party, of course, but we were so
tired we went straight to bed.
Mr Fielding: I wonder who the culprit was? It couldn't
have been me — I don't smoke. Mr Williams: It might have been Ted Redman or Bill
Coleman — the more they drink, the worse
they get. Mr Fielding: It could well have been old Bill. He was
standing by the big window, flicking his
ash all over the place. Mr Williams: So he was! Still, it could have been anyone,
and the insurance company's paying the
A. Add the most suitable modal and the appropriate verb forms.
Example He (can't/must/may: finish) yet; he's only just started. He can't have finished yet; he's only just started.
1. Someone has broken a big window in the classroom. The broken glass was inside the room, so it (may/must/can't:
break) from the outside. It was probably broken by a ball, but of course it (might/couldn't/must: be) a stone. I didn't
find a stone or a ball in the room, but a boy (couldn't/must/ could: pick) it up before I arrived. I did some marking in
the room after school yesterday and it (may/must/can't: be) at least 5 o'clock when I left. The window was all right
then, so it (must/mustn't/couldn't: break) after 5 o'clock last night or before 8.30 this morning. William often breaks
things, but it (must/mustn't/couldn't: be) him because he's away from school this week. It (may/must/can't: be) that
rough boy Roy, but I can't be sure because there were at least six boys playing football outside when I left and it
(must/may/ mustn't: be) any of them.
9. Jerry Brennan's brother is a computer programmer. He works on the tenth floor of an old office building in
downtown San Francisco. The building was built in 1938 and is made of brick. He was the only one working late in
his office last
night when an earthquake hit. The streets shook and the buildings swayed from side to side. Windows were
shattered and the electricity was cut off in some areas. In some places, telephone service was interrupted.
The earthquake could have been much more serious than it was, but most of the newer buildings are considered
'earthquake proof so no one was injured. Jerry called Richard at work to make sure that he was all right.
Richard: Hello?
Jerry: Richard, are you all right? Ann and I are worried
about you.
Richard: Sure. Why? Jerry: Didn't you feel the earthquake? You might have
gotten hurt!
Richard: What earthquake? Jerry: I 'm watching the news and San Francisco has
just been hit by an earthquake. Didn't you feel
it? Richard: Well, yeah, I guess so. But I was so busy with my
work that I wasn't paying much attention. Jerry: You must have been awfully busy if you didn't
notice it. Was anything damaged in your office? Richard: Well, now that you mention it, one window was
broken and some books were knocked off the
bookcase. And a chair was knocked over. Jerry: Richard, you shouldn't have stayed there so late.
And you're probably all alone. Richard: Well, yes, I am. But I have such a big report to
do that ...
Jerry: Richard, please go home. And be careful! Richard: Yes, all right. I guess that's a good idea. I can
finish this tomorrow.
A. Work with a group and give an appropriate response to
each statement.
Make assumptions about the past.
£> I called Lucy, but she wasn't at work. She must have been sick.
1. Lynn wasn't at school yesterday.
2. Richard wasn't at home last night.
3. Ann and Jerry called Richard after the earthquake.
Talk about past possibility.
Oscar wasn't at the hospital yesterday. He could have been at home. He might (may) have had class. He might
(may) not have had any class.
4. I called Richard, but he wasn't home last night.
5. Our teacher didn't come to class yesterday.
6. Victor speaks English perfectly.
Talk about past advisability.
I was sick, but I didn't go to the doctor. You should have gone to the doctor. You shouldn't have come to school,
7. Richard worked very late last night.
8. I had a terrible headache yesterday.
9. Ann and Jerry had an automobile accident.
10. My grandfather used to have a beautiful gold pocket watch. He wore it on a fine gold chain across the front of
his waistcoat, and when I was small he promised to leave it to me in his will.
'When I'm gone', he said, 'this is going to be yours.'
Unfortunately that will never happen now. About three months ago, my grandfather came up to London to visit us.
The first Sunday morning after he arrived, my youngest son said he wanted to go to the park.
'We'll do better than that', said my grandfather, 'we'll go and feed the pigeons in Trafalgar Square.' So off they went.
They got home about tea-time and my grandfather was looking very upset.
'My watch,' he said, 'it's gone. Someone must have stolen it while we were feeding the pigeons.'
'Did you tell the police?' I asked.
'No,' he said, 'I didn't think it would do any good.'
'You should have reported it', I said, 'Perhaps you just lost it.'
'No', he replied, shaking his head. 'Someone must have taken it. But I know what I'm going to do.'
My grandfather put an advertisement in the Personal column of the Evening Standard and the Evening News for a
if the gentleman who stole my gold pocket watch near the statue of Nelson will meet me on Sunday 6th May, in the
same place at 1.00 o'clock, I will buy my watch back for the sum of £ 100. This theft has not been reported to the
police, and no questions will be asked.
At a few minutes after one on the afternoon in question, a small nervous man, wearing a cloth cap, approached my
grandfather. 'Excuse me, Sir,' he asked, 'are you the gentleman enquiring about his pocket watch?'
My grandfather nodded. 'Well, you must understand, Sir, that I didn't have it, but the gentleman who did has asked
me to give it back.'
From the pocket of his rather dirty overcoat, he produced my grandfather's watch. My grandfather was delighted. He
paid the man £ 100, as promised, and fixed the watch and chain back where they belonged. Solemnly he shook
hands with the little man.
'If I were you, Sir,' said the little man, 'I should keep you overcoat buttoned up when you're in a crowd like this.'
Then he disappeared.
My grandfather strolled back to the bus stop. He thought he would like to have another look at his watch. So,
smiling to himself, he unbuttoned his coat and looked down. The smile froze on his lips. The watch and chain were
no longer there.
A. It is easy to be wise after the event. Your friend takes a certain action. Things don't turn out successfully. So you
tell him/her what he/she should have done or shouldn't have done.
Look at these examples:
'You should have reported it to the police.' 'You shouldn't have given him all that money.'
Make at least one should have and one shouldn't have sentence for each of the situations below.
1. Your friend is complaining about the price she paid for her coffee at the corner shop. It's cheaper at the super-
2. Your friend has bought a secondhand car recently. It has been giving a lot of trouble.
3. Your friend had to go to Sheffield. He went by coach, and the journey was very slow. Trains go to Sheffield.
4. Your friend has had a problem that has been worrying him/her for days. At last he/she has told you about it.
5. Your friend came to England four months ago, knowing no English at all. The first weeks were very hard for
6. Your friend had an extra ticket for the jazz concert. It cost £ 5.00. He gave it away. Other people were selling
spare tickets outside the theatre.
7. You are out with a friend. He isn't wearing a coat, and it's very cold.
B. Someone stole my watch is a definite statement.
But often we want to say what probably happened. Then we
can use this construction:
'Someone must have stolen my watch.' Use the situations below to make more sentences like this.
Note Some of the situations might lead to more than one idea.
1. You left your bicycle outside the school. When you came back it wasn't there.
2. You had some guests staying in your home. After they had gone, the phone bill came in. It was much bigger than
3. Your friend Kitty was coming to supper. You went to meet
the bus she planned to come on, but she wasn't on it.
4. You are very busy in the office. One moment you have an important letter in your hand, the next you don't. You
know it's not lost.
5. A burglar came into your house and stole several items. In the morning you find a window wide open at the back.
7. You are visiting Wells, in Somerset, and you are shown a model of the cathedral, made entirely out of
C. If we want to express the idea of what possibly happened, we can say:
'Someone might have stolen your watch.'
Look at the situations in exercise B, and see which you could use to make might have statements.
D. Ideas for discustion:
Have you ever had anything stolen? Has your house ever been broken into? What did the thieves steal?
Do you know anybody who has suffered in this way?
When you have remembered some real robberies you will be
able to say:
what must have happened or
what might have happened and
what someone should or shouldn't have done to
prevent the robbery.
§11. Probability: should, ought to
We can use should or ought to to say that something is probable at the moment of speaking, or in the future.
Sally should be at work by now. She's normally
there at this time. (=Sally is probably at work
I should finish work early today. I haven't got
much to do. (=1 will probably finish work early
He ought to pass his driving test easily. He's a
very good driver. (= He will probably pass his
driving test easily.)
She is pretty. She ought to make a good match.
(=She will probably make a good match.)
Should have ... and ought to have ...
We use should have/ought to have + past participle when we expected something to happen and we do not know if
it happened.
They should have arrived by now. (But I do not know if they have arrived.) 'I wonder if he passed his driving test
this morning.' 'He ought to have passed it easily.' (But I do not know if he passed it.)
We also use this structure when we expected something to happen but it did not happen.
They should have arrived by now, but they aren't there yet.
He ought to have passed his driving test easily. I was surprised that he failed.
I. Complete the sentences using should or ought to and the correct form of the verbs in the box. Use each verb only
pass be win not take
sell arrive receive
1. I've only got £ 15, but that ... enough. We won't need to buy very much. 2. You ... my letter first thing tomorrow
morning. I posted it early today. 3. I was surprised Liverpool lost the football match. They ... easily. 4. I... my car
easily. I only want £ 950 for it and it's in very good condition. 5. Andrew ... the exams last week. He worked very
hard for them. 6. 'How long will it take to drive to the park?' 'Well, it ... long. It isn't very far.' 7. I'm still waiting for
the 7 o'clock bus. It ... half an hour ago.
II. Use should or ought to to say that you think something will happen.
1. Do you think Ted will get the job he applied for? Well, .... He's got all the necessary qualifications.
2. Do you think Margaret will pass the examination? Well, .... She has studied very hard.
3. Do you think Jim will win his tennis match against Tom? Well, .... He's a much better player than Tom.
4. Do you think £ 10 will be enough to do all the shopping? Well, it ... . But take a bit more in case it isn't.
III. Stephen and his father are looking at the league table, and trying to predict who will be in the final. Complete
their conversation with should/shouldn't or ought (not) to/ oughtn't to.
Stephen: Brightsmouth ... beat Mancastle.
Dad: I agree, they ... lose that match.
Stephen: How about the other semi-final? Liverton ... beat
Wetford, ... they?
Dad: Yes, they ..., but it won't be easy. Stephen: If Brightsmouth reach the final, they ... win the
cup. They ... have much difficulty against either
Wetford or Liverton.
IV. Use should/ought to, or must in the following.
1. Look at all the people standing in line to get into that movie. It ... be a good movie. 2. Let's go to the lecture
tonight. It ... be interesting. 3. Look. Jack's car is in front of his house. He ... be at home. Let's stop and visit him. 4.
A: Hello. May I speak to Jack? B: He isn't here right now. A: What time do you expect him? B: He ... be home
around nine or so. 5. A: Who do you think is going to win the game tomorrow? B: Well, our team has better players,
so we ... win, but you never know. Anything can happen in sports. 6. A: What time are you going to arrive? B: Well,
the trip takes about four hours. I think I'll leave sometime around noon, so I... get there around four. 7. A: Susie is
yawning and rubbing her eyes. B: She ...
be sleepy. Let's put her to bed early tonight. 8. Hmmm. I wonder what's causing the delay. Ellen's plane ... have been
here an hour ago. 9. I thought I had a dollar in my purse, but I don't. I ... have spent it. 10. Ed has been acting
strangely lately. He... be in love. 11. Forty minutes... She... have been back for her rest hour by now.
V. Rephrase the sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets.
1. I'm sure she is in bed. (must) 2. We'll probably arrive before 11 o'clock, (should) 3. Perhaps he was ill. (may) 4.
It's impossible that they missed the plane, (can't) 5. Perhaps she'll phone later, (might) 6. I'll probably be at home by
6 o'clock, (should) 7. Perhaps they went home, (could) 8. It's impossible that he's telling the truth, (can't) 9. I'm sure
you've heard the news, (must) 10. Perhaps I won't go out this evening, (may) 11. It's impossible that she saw us.
(can't) 12. I'm sure the bus has left, (must) 13. Perhaps he didn't apply for the job. (might) 14. She'll probably be
here soon, (ought to)
VI. Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the
words in parentheses. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense.
1. A: I need to see Tom. Where is he?
B: In his room. Knock on his door softly. He (might + take) a nap.
2. When I walked into the room, the TV was on but the room was empty. Dad (must + watch) TV a short while
before I came into the room. He (must + forget) to turn the TV off before he left the room.
3. Michael wanted to go to the opera, but he put off buying a ticket and now they're all sold. He (should + buy) his
ticket weeks ago. He (should + wait) until now to try to get a ticket.
4. Bob was stopped by a police officer last night. He (must + drive) too fast when she clocked him on her radar. She
gave him a speed ticket.
5. A: Why didn't Jack answer the teacher when she asked
him a question?
B: He was too busy staring out of the window. He (must + daydream). He (should + pay attention). He (should +
stare) out of the windows during class yesterday.
6. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer, you (ought to + know) better.
7. A: Where's your bicycle?
B: I don't know. One of my friends (may + borrow) it.
I hope it wasn't stolen. Maybe Sally borrowed it. A: Sally? She (could + borrow) it. She has a broken leg.
Why should she want to borrow your bicycle?
8. Renny drove her to the train. He (should + be) back at any moment.
9. There's a fine sunset, it (ought to + be) a fine day tomorrow.
10. Tea is between half-past five and six, and it (should + be) ready now.
11. A: Kathy just bought a new car, and now she's looking
for a new apartment. B: She (must + make) a lot of money in her new job.
12. It's five o'clock. The plane (should+land) now.
13. A: The roads are treacherous this morning. In places,
they're nothing but a sheet of ice. I (should+take) the bus to work this morning instead of driving my car. I thought
I'd never make it.
B: I know. It's terrible outside. Jake still hasn't arrived. He (must+walk) to work right now. He doesn't live too far
away, and I know he hates to drive on icy roads.
A: He (might+decide) not to come in at all. He (could+work) on his report at home this morning. I'll check with his
secretary. He (may+call) her by now.
14. Do you hear that guitar music? Carla (must+play) her guitar.
15. My tweed jacket isn't in my closet. I think my roommate (might+borrow) it. He often borrows my things without
asking me.
16. A: Do you think Jane has got my letter yet?
B: She (should+receive) it by now. I haven't heard of any hold-ups with the post.
17. Alex has a test tomorrow that he needs to study for. He (should+watch) TV right now.
VII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Уже 5.30. Гости скоро должны быть здесь. 2. Думаю, вы поняли, что нужно делать. Домашнее задание не
должно занять у вас слишком много времени. 3. Ты думаешь Рита сдаст экзамен? — Да, она должна сдать
экзамен. Она много занималась. 4. Ты думаешь, Рита сдала экзамен? — Полагаю, что она должна была сдать
его. Она много занималась. 5. Мой вопрос, возможно, озадачит вас, но все же я хочу задать его. 6. Он,
должно быть, ничего им не сказал об этом. 7. Тебе следовало бы еще раз прочитать свое сочинение. Там,
наверное, есть ошибки. 8. Зря ты так разговаривал с ним. Он мог обидеться. 9. Вечер, вероятно, будет
интересным. Студенты так долго готовили его. 10. Это вовсе не смешно. Нужно быть серьезнее. 11.
Вероятно, он получил мое письмо. Я отослал его неделю назад. 12. Никто не отвечает. Может быть, он еще
не вернулся с работы. 13. Я бы давно мог это сделать, если бы знал, что это так срочно. 14. Это рассказ О.
Генри, он должен быть интересным. 15. Там, должно быть, никого нет. 16. Вряд ли они вернулись из
зоопарка. Они там впервые и могут долго пробыть. 17. Возможно, они были на вечере, но я их не видел. 18.
Где мой ключ? — Ты, наверное, его потерял. — Не может быть, чтобы я его потерял. Я, возможно, оставил
его в кармане пальто. 19. Они боялись, что их, возможно, спросят, почему Том не пришел с ними. 20. Не
может быть, чтобы он обманул их, он честный человек. 21. Вам не нужно было беспокоить профессора. Я
мог бы дать вам всю необходимую информацию. 22. Он ее брат. Он должен знать ее адрес. 23. Сейчас 10
часов утра. Они, вероятно, уже прибыли в Лондон. 24. Этот экзамен я должен буду сдавать через неделю. 25.
Хотя это очень неприятная миссия, я чувствую, что
я должен сказать тебе правду. 26. Ей не следовало говорить такие вещи в присутствии ребенка. 27. Я
недавно видела эту книгу. Она должна быть здесь, на верхней полке. 28. Ты полагаешь, что поздно
вернешься домой? — Не думаю. Я должна быть дома в обычное время.
§12. Reproach: might
you might can express a very casual request: You might post these for me.
But it can only be used in friendly relaxed situations, otherwise it would sound rude.
With a certain intonation and a strong stress on the important word might can express a reproachful request: You
might 'help me with stress on help might imply 'Why aren't you helping me?/You should be helping me.'
might can also be used with other persons to express this sort of irritation: He might 'pay us! with stress on pay
could mean 'We are annoyed that he doesn't pay/hasn't paid us.'
might + perfect infinitive can express irritation at or reproach for the non-performance of an action in the past: You
might have 'told us with stress on told could mean 'You should have told us.' In this sense might is interchangeable
with could.
You might at least have met me at the station. = You could at least have met me at the station.
Advice with may /might as well
We use may /might as well (+infinitive without to) to say that we should do something because there is no strong
reason not to do it and because there is nothing better to do. This construction expresses very unem-phatic advice.
'Shall we get a taxi or wait for the bus?' 'We
might as well wait for the bus. We're not in a
hurry, are we?'
'Why don't we go out for a walk?' 'We may as
well, I suppose. We haven't got anything else to
'I'll go on Monday by a slow train.' 'You might
just as well wait till Tuesday and go by the fast
'Shall we have dinner now?' 'We might as well.'
/. Express reproach.
Example You do not remember your child's birthday.
You might remember your child's birthday. Example You did not switch off the lights before leaving.
You might have switched off the lights before
1. You do not wear your new suit to the office.
2. You did not sew the buttons on, Alice.
3. You did not even notice how well she played. You do not pay enough attention to your child.
4. Do come and help me choose the present.
5. You did not try hard enough.
6. Please help me with my homework.
7. He didn't meet her at the airport.
8. You didn't tell me at once what was wrong.
9. Please stay with us a little longer.
10. He didn't pay the bill.
11. I can't understand why he didn't offer us a lift.
12. Why didn't you ask me first?
13. You never let me know when something like this happens.
14. You didn't get up earlier and help me to clean after the party.
15. Why don't you write to her?
16. Why didn't you invite him?
17. Why didn't she write?
18. I was a bit upset that they didn't lend a hand.
//. Julie was going to attend an interview for a job. She borrowed her mother's car, but she had a puncture, and was
two hours late for the interview. Later her mother was rather annoyed.
She thought Julie could have: but Julie said:
— got a lift — phoned a garage — — she didn't hav? any tools —
walked to the next village — nobody stopped - — it was too
changed the wheel herself far — there was no phone nearby

Surely you could have ... , No, I couldn't because ... ! I could
couldn't you? Couldn't you have have, but ... !
... ?

Use all four constructions, and the items above, to complete the dialogue:
1. Couldn't you have a got lift? — I could have but nobody stopped.
2. Surely_________________________________________
3. Couldn't_______________________________________
4. Surely_________________________________________
III. Make sentences from the table to go with these ideas.
Example: You may as well switch off the TV. Nobody is watching it.
1____. It's not very far.
2___. I'm too ill to go on holiday.
3___. It isn't going to stop raining.
4___. No one wants any more to eat.
5___. There's a chance I'll get it.
You may as well switch off We might to the station, the table, the
as well stay We may as well walk I hotel bookings, the TV. at
might as well apply You might as home today, for the job.
well cancel I might as well clear

IV. Give unemphatic advice.

Example I'd prefer to buy an orange pullover, but they've
only got red ones.
Then you might as well buy a red one. Example: Mary doesn't want to marry John, but Julie does.
Then he might as well marry Julie.
1. I'd prefer to buy an orange pullover, but they've only got red ones.
2. Mary doesn't want to marry John, but Julie does.
3.1 prefer the expensive flat to the cheap one, but someone's taken the expensive one.
4. She likes the short skirt better than the long one, but the short one is too dirty to wear.
5. They wanted to leave on Saturday, but the planes are full until Sunday.
6. I prefer planes to trains, but I can't afford to take a plane.
7. Mary won't go to the dance with John, but Julie will.
8. The television has finished now, and it's just about our bedtime.
V. Insert the correct form of may/might except in 9 and 33, where a be allowed form is necessary.
1. It... rain, you'd better take a coat. 2. He said that it... rain.
2. We ... as well stay here till the weather improves. 4. ... I borrow your umbrella? 5. You ... tell me! (/ think I have
a right to know.) 6. Candidates ... not bring textbooks into the examination room. 7. If he knew our address he ...
come and see us. 8. ... I come in? — Please do. 9. When he was a child he ... (they let him) do exactly as he liked.
10. I think I left my glasses in your office. You ... ask your secretary to look for them for me. (request) 11. He ... be
my brother (7 admit that he is) but I don't trust him. 12. I ... never see you again. 13. He ... be on the next train. We
... as well wait. 14. If we got there early we ... get a good seat. 15. The police ... (have a right to) ask a driver to take
a breath test. 16. You ought to buy now; prices ... go up. 17. I'll wait a week so that he ... have time to think it over.
18. He isn't going to eat it; I ... as well give it to the dog. 19. You ... at least read the letter. (/ think you should.) 20.
You ... have written. (/ am annoyed/disappointed that you didn't.) 21. We'd better be early; there ... be a crowd. 22.
Nobody knows how people first came to these islands. They ... have sailed from South America on rafts. 23. You ...
(have permission to) use my office. 24. He said that we ... use his office whenever we liked. 25. I don't think I'll
succeed but I ... as well try. 26. You ought to go to his lectures, you ... learn something. 27. If we can give him a
blood transfusion we ... be able to save his life. 28. Two parallel white lines in the middle of the road mean that you
... not overtake. 29. If I bought a lottery ticket I ... win $ 5.000. 30. If you said that, he ... be very offended. 30. I
wonder why they didn't go. — The weather ... have been too bad. 32. ... I see your passport, please. 33. He ...
(negative) drive since his accident. (They haven't let him drive.)
VI. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Ты бы мог подарить что-нибудь сестре. Почему ты не сделал этого? Она обиделась. 2. Вы могли бы
приходить вовремя. Почему вы всегда опаздываете? 3. Право, Ник, ты мог бы помочь мне нести этот
тяжелый чемодан. 4. Наконец-то ты пришла! Ты могла бы прийти пораньше, ты ведь знала, что я больна. 5.
Ты могла бы вернуться рань-
ше и провести вечер с ребенком. 6. Ты был не так уж сильно занят. Ты мог бы нам помочь. 7. Он мог бы сде-
лать это для вас. Ему это совсем не трудно. 8. Вы могли бы быть с ней повежливее. 9. Вы могли бы
предупредить меня, что собрание отложено. Почему вы не сделали этого? 10. Он мог бы хоть что-нибудь
сказать, чтобы поддержать меня. 11. Она беспокоилась. Вы могли бы ей позвонить. 12. Вы могли бы
подождать меня пять минут. Я опоздал не по своей вине. 13. Я, пожалуй, пойду. 14. Я, пожалуй, лучше
останусь дома. 15. Лекарство совершенно не помогло мне. Я с тем же успехом мог бы пить воду вместо
него. 16. Я, пожалуй, подожду еще немного. 17. Я, пожалуй, пошлю ему телеграмму. 18. Я не получил от
поездки за город никакого удовольствия. Я с тем же успехом мог бы остаться в городе.
VII. Study and practise.
1. 'The play may begin at any moment,' I said.
'It may have begun already,' Susan answered. I hurried to the ticket-office. 'May I have two tickets please?' I asked.
'I'm sorry, we've sold out,' the girl said. 'What a pity!' Susan exclaimed. Just then, a man hurried to the ticket-office.
'Can I return these two tickets?' he asked. 'Certainly,' the girl said. I went back to the ticket-office at once. 'Could I
have those two tickets please?' I asked. 'Certainly,' the girl said, 'but they are for next Wednesday's performance. Do
you still want them?' 'I might as well have them,' I said sadly.
2. Mrs Smith: Have another cup of tea before you go, Mrs
Jones. Mrs Jones: I should be off really. I want to catch the ten
o'clock bus into town and it's nearly quarter
to already. Mrs Smith: You may as well have another cup and catch
the 10.30. You'd have to run to catch the 10 o'clock now and you might miss it even then.
Mrs Jones: All right, then, thank you. And can I have another of those chocolate biscuits?
Mrs Smith: Of course you can. Here you are ...
Mrs Jones: Did you read about that awful business at the new comprehensive school last week?
Mrs Smith: Yes, I did. A boy assaulted a teacher with a knife. Whatever next?
Mrs Jones: He ought to be given a good beating. They're too soft on children these days. The children can do what
they like, and the teachers can't do anything to punish them ... May I have another biscuit?
Mrs Smith: Of course — help yourself. I don't know why they abolished corporal punishment. Things like that didn't
happen when we were at school because the teachers kept these hooligans under control by using a cane.
Mrs Jones: That's true ... Ah, well, I must go now ... Oh dear! Is your clock right? It can't be twenty past ten already.
Mrs Smith: I'm afraid it is. You've missed the 10.30 too now. You may as well stay here for a chat and go into town
after lunch.
Mrs Jones: Yes, I might as well. But Mrs Brown is expecting me. I really ought to ring her and tell her that I won't
be turning up. Could I use your phone?
Mrs Smith: Certainly.
A. Using the verb given with 'be' or 'as well', rephrase each sentence.
Example. It is possible that society is responsible for this, (might) Society might be responsible for this.
1. I'm sure she isn't his wife. She's too young and pretty, (can't)
2. I think that this is the quickest way to get there, (might)
3. I don't really need a big chicken, but they haven't got a small one, so I suppose I'll have to take a big one. (might)
4. I think he's home by now. He left over an hour ago. (should)
5. I'll never pass the exam. I think I'll stop trying, (may)
6. It isn't possible that he's back. He only left 5 minutes ago. (can't)
7. I'm not sure but I think John is meeting Mary again tonight, (may)
8. It is almost certain that he'll be successful. He's very confident, (should)
3. Harry: Were you able to write that letter yesterday, Nora? Nora: Which letter do you mean? Harry: The one to
the headmaster of Peter's school, saying
we want to take him away on holiday a week before
the end of term.
Nora: Oh no! I must write it tonight. Harry: You ought to have written it yesterday, you know.
We may have left it too late. Nora: But I thought you said I needn't. Besides, don't
you think you ought to write it, as Peter's father?
It might seem better coming from you. Harry: But you can write that kind of letter much better
than I can; you always could. Nora: I think you might do it instead of me — you know
I hate letter-writing. Harry: Perhaps we might write it together. Where's a
piece of paper? Nora: There may be some in this drawer. Yes, here you
Harry: Now. What can we say? Nora (hesitating) : Well you could say, er — you could
say Peter needs a long holiday. Harry (dubiously): That might do. Nora: Harry, you could have spoken to the
when you met him last week; then we needn't have
written this letter.
Harry: Yes, I know — and you could have written the
letter yourself yesterday when you said you were
going to. Nora: Well, anyhow, we don't seem to be making much
progress with it now. Peter: Hello, Mum and Dad! Harry: Hello, Peter. Nora: Hello, Peter. Peter: I've got some
good news for you! Our headmaster
says the holidays are starting a week earlier because
the school is to be painted. Nora: What a relief, Harry! We needn't have worried
about how to write our letter.
A. Comment on the uses of the modal verbs in the conversation.
B. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following.
1. Нам не надо было беспокоиться о том, как написать наше письмо. 2. Ты бы мог поговорить с директором,
когда ты встретил его на прошлой неделе. 3. Ты написала (смогла написать) то письмо вчера, Нора? 4. Тебе
следовало написать его вчера. Возможно, мы запоздали с ним. 5. Но ты можешь написать такого рода
письмо гораздо лучше, чем я, ты всегда это умела. 6. Директор говорит, что каникулы начинаются на
неделю раньше, так как в школе должна будет произведена покраска. 7. Ты могла бы написать письмо сама
вчера. 8. Ты мог бы сказать, что Питу нужны длинные каникулы. 9. Возможно есть немного бумаги в ящике
письменного стола. 10. Ты не думаешь, что тебе как отцу Пита следует написать его? 11. Возможно, мы
могли бы написать его вместе. 12. Я думаю, что ты мог бы это сделать вместо меня.
C. Report the conversation.
D. Act out the conversation.
§13. Offers: will, shall, can, could, would
We use will to say that we are willing to do something or to offer to do something.
I'll help you with your suitcase.
I'll lend you my bicycle if you want.
Are you hungry? I'll make you something to eat.
(I'll = I will)
We also use will you? in offers and invitations.
What will you have to drink? Will you have dinner with us?
We use shall I? (= do you want me to?) to offer to do something for someone.
Shall I help you?
Shall I open the door for you?
Shall I post this letter for you?
We also use can/could (= 'ability') to offer to do something for someone.
I can post this letter for you.
I could lend you some money if you want.
Sometimes when we use can or could to 'ask for permission', we are really offering to do something.
Can I make you something to eat? Could I carry that bag for you?
In these uses, could is less direct and more polite than can.
We also use would with verbs such as like and prefer to make polite offers and invitations.
Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like me to help you? Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening?
I. Make offers using the words below.
Shall I switch off something to drink?
I'll help you an umbrella if you like.
Would you like me to your coat?
phone the light?
Can I take some bags for you?
Would you like for the doctor?
Could I carry you do the washing up.
I can lend
II. Note this pattern:
Your friend is finding it difficult to open a bottle. You say: I'll open it for you.
Offer to do more things for a friend, using I'll.
1. Your friend looks cold.
2. Your friend is reading, and the room is getting dark.
3. You think your friend might be thirsty.
4. Your friend has written a letter. He can't find an envelope.
5. You think your friend might be hungry.
6. Your friend has to catch a train. You have a car.
7. Your friend is short of money.
8. Your friend took a jacket to be cleaned. You are going near the cleaner's.
9. Your friend has two heavy suitcases.
10. Your friend is about to go home. He has no umbrella, and it's pouring with rain.
///. Make offers for the following things and substances.
a sandwich, some coffee, a slice of toast, some potatoes, an orange, some fruit, a cup of tea
Example: Would you like a sandwich?
IV. Offer to do things for others.
1. An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack.
Shall I put the suitcase on the rack (for you)?
2. A young woman is shivering and the window is open.
3. Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor.
4. Your friend is moving into his new house.
5. Your sister has difficulty with her homework.
6. Your friend's mother is arriving and he can't meet her at the station.
7. Your friend's suitcase is too heavy for her to carry.
V. Make invitations for the following situations.
1. Your friend has nowhere to stay for the night. Would you like to stay with me?
2. You want your friend to join you for a meal.
3. You want your friend to come on an excursion.
4. You want your friends to have a holiday with you.
5. There is a concert on tonight and you want Tom to come with you.
6. You want your friend to have lunch with you.
VI. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Я одолжу тебе свою печатную машинку, раз она тебе нужна. 2. Ты не хочешь чашечку кофе? — Спасибо,
я бы предпочла стакан чаю. 3. Купить тебе этот словарь? Я завтра буду в книжном магазине. — Я была бы
тебе очень признательна. 4. Зайти за твоим зонтиком по пути домой? — Да, пожалуйста. 5. Я присмотрю за
вашим домом пока вы будете в отъезде. — Спасибо. Это очень любезно с вашей стороны. 6. Я еду завтра за
город. Не хочешь составить мне компанию? — Охотно. 7. Ты не хотел бы сходить со мной в театр? — С
удовольствием. 8. Помочь тебе с домашним заданием или ты справишься сам? 9. Накрыть на стол? — Да,
§14. Suggestions: shall, can, could
We use shall we? to ask for and make suggestions.
Where shall we go? What time shall we leave? Shall we stay at home? Shall we play tennis tomorrow?
We use can and could to suggest possible actions.
We can watch TV if you like.
We could go to the cinema tomorrow.
In this use, could is less direct and more polite than can.
Preference: would rather
Would rather means 'would prefer to'. After would rather, we use the infinitive without to.
'Would you like to go on holiday in June?' 'I'd
rather go in July.'
Would you rather meet on Monday or Tuesday?
We form the negatives with would rather not.
I'd rather not lend him any money.
Note also the structure would rather (do something) than (do something else).
I'd rather take a taxi to the station than go by bus.
Note: would rather = would sooner
I'd rather/I'd sooner be a builder than an
Are you coming with us? — No, I'd rather/
sooner not.
I. Peter and Sally are trying to decide what to do this evening. Complete the conversation using the words in the
box. Use some words more than once.
Why don't we Let's shall we How about could [
Peter: So, what ... we do this evening?
Sally: Well, we haven't got much money. ... staying in and
watching TV?
Peter: Oh, no! I'm fed up with watching TV. Sally: ... go out for a drink, then. We can afford one drink
Peter: All right. Where ... go? Sally: ... go to The Tropical Bar? They have really good
music there.
Peter: Yes, but the drinks are very expensive. , Sally: That's true. Well, we ... go to the pub on the corner. Peter: Yes.
They have very good videos. ... go there. Sally: I thought you said you were fed up with watching TV!
II. Answer the questions. Use could to suggest possibilities. Use should only if you want to give strong, definite
Example. I need to get to the airport. Any suggestions? Possible Response. You could take a taxi or the airport
Or I could take you if I can borrow my brother's
Possible response. In my opinion, you should take the airport \ bus.
1. I don't have any plans for this weekend. I need some suggestions.
2. (...) and I want to go to a nice restaurant for dinner tonight. Any suggestions?
3. I need to get from here to (name of a place in this city/ town). Any suggestions?
4. (...) needs to buy an umbrella, but s/he doesn't know I. where to go. S/he needs some suggestions.
5. I'm hungry. I'm going to eat an egg. Give me some
suggestions on how to cook it. What are the possibilities?
6. I need to get a car, but it can't be very expensive. Any
7. I bought a (name of a car), but I'm unhappy with it. In
hindsight, can you suggest other possibilities for a kind of car I could have bought?
8.1 went (name of a place) for my vacation last summer, but I didn't enjoy it. In hindsight, can you suggest some
other possibilities that I didn't think of? (I had only five days and a limited amount of money.)
9. I went to the food store yesterday and bought some bread.
That's all. But then when it came time for me to fix myself some dinner, all I had was some bread and butter.
Suggest some possibilities of other things I could have bought.
10. (...) went to (name of a restaurant) for dinner last night, but the food was terrible. Do you have any hindsight
III. Complete the conversation using would like to or would rather.
Julie: What ... (you) drink, Auntie? ... (you) have tea or coffee?
Aunt: I ... have tea, please.
Julie: What about you two boys. ... (you) have tea as well?
Boys: No, we ... have coffee, please.
Julie: OK. And what about Amanda? ... (she) drink something?
Aunt: No, I think she ... have anything at the moment. She ... sleep!
IV. Use I would rather ... to say what you prefer.
P> buy a TV set or save my money
I would rather save my money than buy a TV set.
1. go to the cinema or stay at home
2. buy a mountain bike or save money
3. revise for an English test or go to a party
4. look round a museum or watch a basketball match
5. go up in a rocket or go down in a submarine
6. work as a fashion designer or be a journalist
7. listen to music at home or go to a pop concert
8. learn windsurfing or take a course in parachute jumping
9. live abroad or stay in my country
10. play football or watch a football match on television
V. Supply negative short answers with I'd rather/I'd sooner
to these questions.
1. Are you coming with us? No, ... I'd rather/I'd sooner not.
2. Do you want to catch the next train? No, ...
3. Shall we go to a restaurant? No, ...
4. Do you want to go out tonight? No, ...
5. Shall we go to the country tomorrow? No, ...
6. Do you want to go swimming? No, ...
7. Shall we invite Betty Smith? No, ...
VI. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Когда мы сели в машину, он сказал: 'Мы могли бы прокатиться сейчас. Здесь недалеко есть одно место,
которое я бы хотел тебе показать.' 2. Я бы предпочел не говорить тебе того, что я о нем знаю. 3. Мне совсем
не хочется идти на этот вечер. Я бы предпочел остаться дома и поговорить с родителями. 4. Он предпочитал
слушать других, чем говорить сам. 5. Он бы предпочел не уезжать еще. 6. Я бы предпочла сначала прочесть
письмо. 7. Чем мы займемся сегодня вечером? — Мы могли бы сходить в кино. — Хорошая идея. 8.
Сколько мне заплатить носильщику? — Решай сам. 9. Пообедаем сегодня где-нибудь? — С удовольствием.
10. Где мы остановимся в Москве? — Мы могли бы остановиться в гостинице 'Минск'. Это хорошая
гостиница, и она расположена в центре города. 11. Поедем за город в воскресенье? — С удовольствием. 12.
Чем мы сейчас займемся? Будем смотреть телевизор? — Я бы предпочел погулять, чем смотреть телевизор.
13. Я купил би-
леты на восьмичасовой сеанс. — Хорошо, а где и когда мы встретимся? — У кинотеатра в 7.40.
VII. Study and practise.
I. Jackie: Let's plan our summer holiday. Where would you rather go this year? Spain or Italy?
Jeff: Well, I'd really prefer to have an active holiday for a change — maybe walking in Switzerland or even
canoeing in Scotland.
Jackie: If those are your only suggestions, I'd sooner stay at home! Come on — be reasonable. I'm not athletic and I
need two weeks' sun every year!
Jeff: OK. Calm down. We'll do whatever you prefer. We usually do!
A. Respond to the following suggestions using I'd rather/I'd sooner.
Example: Do you want a coffee?
I'd rather/I'd sooner have an orange juice.
1. Let's go to an Indian restaurant.
2. Shall we play tennis this afternoon?
3. Let's paint the door red.
4. Would you like to watch television?
5. Do you want an apple?
6. Come for a walk.
2. Richard: Where shall we go for our holiday this year? Joan: We're going to Spain, aren't we? Richard: No,
let's have a change. I'm tired of Spain. Joan: We can go to Greece if you like. Richard: No, I want to get away
from the Mediterranean.
I'd rather have a holiday in the country. Joan: Well, what about Switzerland? We could rent a
chalet up in the mountains. Richard: I'm afraid that might be pretty expensive, and
anyway I'd rather go somewhere we haven't been
Joan: Tibet?
Richard: Don't be silly, I'm serious ... I was thinking of Finland.
Joan: Isn't it rather cold and dark there?
Richard: Not in the summer. They have dozens of fantastic lakes and marvellous pine forests ... if you're lucky you
may run into a big brown bear.
Joan: A wild one?
Richard: Yes, I believe there are still a few.
Joan: All right, see if you can get some brochures ...
A. Read the conversation below and then fill each gap with one of the modal verbs listed. Use each modal verb
once only.
can/'d rather/might/could/can't
David: I'm not going out now, it ... rain.
Anne: Don't be so silly, you ... take an umbrella.
David: I don't like umbrellas, I always lose them.
Anne: Take this umbrella. But please, don't lose it — it
was expensive.
David: It's pink — I ... go out with a pink umbrella. Anne: Look, I must have that meat, or there won't be any
David: We ... have frozen fish, or something like that. Anne: I haven't got any. David: I ... stay home than go
shopping now.
B. Planning your coming holiday make up similar dialogues.
3. Victoria: Let's go away for the weekend — you and Gina,
mom and dad, George and I. Frank: OK. Victoria: Gina, would you rather go to the country or go
to the beach?
Gina: Gee, I don't know. I like to do both. Victoria: What about you, Frank? Frank: I'd rather not go to the
country. I'd rather go
to a beach resort somewhere.
Victoria: Mom?
Mrs Russo: Actually, I'd rather stay home than go
anywhere. Besides, I'm too old to go to the
beach. Victoria: Oh, come on, Mom. You're never too old to
go swimming.
Dad, what about you? Mr Russo: I'm with your mother. Neither the country
nor the beach interests me very much. I think
we'll just stay here. Mrs Russo: Neither your father nor I travel very much,
Vicky, so why don't the four of you go
A. Have a conversation with a classmate. Follow the instructions in the box below, using either the suggestions and
choices in the list or your own ideas.
Suggestions Choices
Let's go away (take Would you rather go to the coun-
a trip). try or to the beach?
go out. Would you rather go to a movie
or go dancing?
go out to eat (go to Would you rather go to an Italian
a restaurant). restaurant or a French restau-
go to a movie. Would you rather see Lawrence
of Arabia or Gone with the Wind?
watch TV. Would you rather watch a news
program or a movie?
get some exercise. Would you rather play tennis or
go jogging?

A: Make a suggestion: Let's ...

B: Agree: OK.
A: Give a choice: Would you rather ... or ... ?
B: State your preference or suggest an alternative: I'd rather
... (than ... )/I'd rather not ... A: Agree: That's fine.
4. Tom and Stella want to get married, but they can't find anywhere to live. Unfortunately Tom doesn't earn a large
Tom: Don't worry dear, we'll find something soon. Stella: Perhaps we could get a mortgage and buy a house..
Tom: Houses are terribly expensive. Stella: Do you think your mother might let us make a flat
upstairs in her house? Tom: I don't really want to ask her, I'd rather find a place
of our own. Stella: Well, get the local paper again tomorrow. There may
be some flats to let advertised there. Tom: All right, I can telephone from the office. Stella: Yes, but if there is
anything that might be suitable,
ring first thing in the morning, you know how quickly
they go.
A. Look at these two ideas:
I CAN telephone from the office. Perhaps we COULD get a mortgage.
Note that it would be possible to reverse CAN and COULD; however, the meaning would change slightly, because
COULD is a more tentative suggestion than CAN.
I COULD telephone from the office. Perhaps we CAN get a mortgage.
Now make more suggestions using can or could in the following situations.
1. It is raining. You and your friend have a free afternoon. There is a good film on.
2. You and your friend are a bit tired. Sometimes you stay at .home in the evening.
3. You need some money urgently. You have a car worth £ 500.
4. You and your friend are waiting in a hotel lounge. An hour ago you had a pot of coffee. You think a fresh pot of
coffee would be a good idea.
5. You need some money in a hurry. Sometimes it is possible to borrow money from the bank.
6. You and your friend run a small business. You had a burglary six months ago and another last night. Burglars are
afraid of guard dogs.
7. You and your friend would like to find au pair jobs. Sometimes you can get a job like this through an agency.
8. Another way of finding a job like this is to put an advertisement in the paper.
Try and think of some more situations where WE CAN ... or WE COULD ... might be useful.
B. Look at these ideas:
There MAY be some flats to let advertised there.
Do you think your mother MIGHT let us make a flat
MAY and MIGHT are both used to express the idea PERHAPS, or IT IS POSSIBLE.
Use the ideas below to make two sentences.
a) With MAY suggesting a 50 per cent possibility
b) With MIGHT suggesting a 30 per cent possibility
1. It's possible that you will get a letter from Emily this week.
2. A new TV would be expensive. Perhaps they will be able to repair the old one.
3. There are black clouds in the sky, but it's possible that it won't rain.
4. You want a copy of a certain book. You find you can't get it locally. Perhaps you will get a copy in the city.
5. Your friend has flu and doesn't feel at all well. But this sort of flu doesn't last long.
6. You are wondering what you will do next year. You are not very happy with your present job. There are often
good opportunities abroad.
7. You want a copy of the Radio Times. They don't have one at the local shops, but sometimes the bookstall at the
station has a lot of copies.
Now think of some things you may or might do in the next few weeks.
C. Look at these ideas:
Tom and Stella WANT TO get married. I'D RATHER find a place of our own.
WANT TO and I'D RATHER are often used in the same conversation like this:
Peter: I want to see the film at the Odeon.
Mary: Do you? I'd rather see the one at the Plaza.
Now use the ideas below to make similar conversations:
1. watch television/listen to the radio
2. go by air/go by ship
3. have a cup of tea/ ... coffee
4. talk about the exam/ ... our holiday
5. get a job in London/ ... Paris
6. go to the football/ ... horseracing
7. see The Beast with Two Heads/ ... Terrors of the Night
8. go to the seaside/ ... go into the country
Can you think of any more conversations like this?
D. Look at this conversation:
— I don't really want to go out.
— Oh, would you rather stay at home?
Use the notes below to make similar conversations:
1. play tennis/go to the cinema
2. go to the theatre/watch television
3. play cards/listen to some records
4. watch television/listen to the radio
5. go to the cinema/stay at home
6. watch this programme/see the film on the other channel
7. meet David and his girlfriend/go for a walk
8. do any more work now/go for a drive
§15. Willingness, intention, determination : will
We can use will to express willingness, strong intentions, for example in promises and threats.
I will be careful with the car, I promise. I will be there to help. I can and will learn it. I promise I won't be late
tomorrow. Stop making that noise or I'll scream!
Refusals: won't, wouldn't
We use won't (= will not) to say that people or things refuse to do something.
Anne won't do her homework. (= She refuses to
do it.)
This machine won't work. (= It refuses to work.)
We use wouldn't (= would not) to say that people or things refused to do something in the past.
This machine wouldn't work yesterday. (= It refused to work.)
He wouldn't answer my question. (= He refused to answer my question.)
/. Complete each sentence using will or won't and a verb from the box. Then say if the sentence is a promise or a
I leave do come tell hit throw lend pay speak
1. Don't touch my camera or I ... you!
2. It's getting late. If you don't hurry up, I ... without you.
3. I ... anyone what you said. Don't worry.
4. I'm very sorry I shouted at you. I ... it again.
5. Get out of my room or I ... you out!
6. If you don't help me, I ... to you again.
7. I ... you my typewriter if you need it.
8. I ... as soon as I can.
II. Make promises using the cues in brackets.
1. There's someone on the phone who wants to speak to your mother, (call her)
I'll call her.
2. I haven't got any money, (pay for it)
3. Don't forget to write, (send/postcard)
4. I'm frightened, (be all right)
5. I can't carry it. (carry/for you)
6. When will I get my ticket? (when arrive/airport)
III. Study and practise.
Mrs Price: Have you got a map of Provence?
Jane: No, but don't worry. We'll get one in Calais.
Mark: When are we going, Dad?
Bob: We won't be long now. Come on, let's go.
There'll be a lot of traffic on the M 25. Mrs Price: Don't worry about the house. I'll look after it. Jane:
Thanks, Mum. I'll phone you as soon as we get
to France.
Mrs Price: Bye! Have a lovely time! Bob: Thanks. We'll send you a postcard.
Jane: Bye, Mum. See you in two weeks.
IV. Replace the words in italics with ... won't ... or ... wouldn't ... as in the examples.
Example I asked my father, but he refused to lend me the money.
I asked my father, but he wouldn't lend me the money.
Example-. I've decided to take the job and I refuse to change my mind.
I've decided to take the job and I won't change my mind.
1. I pushed hard, but the window refused to open. 2. He's proposed to her, but she refuses to marry him. 3. I
switched on the machine, but it refused to work. 4. I've warned her several times about leaving the windows
unlocked, but she refuses to listen to me. 5. We've asked him, but he refuses to help us. 6. We couldn't drive to the
country last weekend because my parents refused to let me use their car.
V. The first time Mr and Mrs Wilson went abroad, they were on their honeymoon — lots of things went wrong. They
still laugh about it, though at the time it was not so funny! Complete Mrs Wilson's description of her honeymoon to
her children with won't or wouldn't and these verbs:
accept let light move start stay stop
'We were going to leave at 6 am on the day after our wedding, to get the 9 o'clock ferry from Dover to France. Then
first thing went wrong — the car____________! Dad got
quite angry, and kept shouting: "Why______it______?"
In the end he had to call a garage, and the mechanic wanted £ 20. We'd changed all our money into foreign currency,
and in those days people______normally______cheques
from someone they didn't know.
"What shall I do?" Dad cried. "He_____________a cheque!"
At last the mechanic agreed, and we just got to Dover in time for the boat.'
'And why______ the car______?' asked Stephen. 'Your
Dad had forgotten to buy petrol,' Mrs Wilson replied. 'Anyway, we got to a campsite in France and tried to put up
our tent, but it was so windy that it_____________up. We
ended up sleeping in the car. Next morning, we found that
all our cooking things were wet. "The stove_____________I"
your Dad kept saying. So, we had a cold breakfast!
But the funniest thing was a few days later, when we were
in the mountains. There was a flock of sheep in the road,
and they ______ ______ us pass. "Sheep_____________
unless you make a loud noise!" Dad said, and he pressed the
horn. But the horn got stuck, and it_____________! It was
terribly embarrassing, but at least the sheep got out of our way!'
VI. Translate from Russian into English.
I. Я сделаю работу в срок. Я обещаю вам. 2. Я заставлю тебя работать. 3. Если ты сделаешь это еще раз, я
накажу тебя. 4. Перестаньте ругаться или я позову полицию. 5. Я закончу печатать документы, даже если
мне придется не спать всю ночь. 6. Я обязательно последую вашему совету. 7. Я не уйду, пока вы не
выслушаете меня. 8. Он попытался объясниться, но я не стал его слушать. 9. Принеси другой кусочек мела.
Этот мел никак не пишет. 10. Я попытался открыть окно, но оно никак не открывалось.
II. Этот нож не режет. 12. Ручка не пишет. 13. Чайник никак не кипит. 14. Он несколько раз чиркнул
зажигалкой, но она не сработала. 15. Я спросил его жену, что с ним, но она не пожелала отвечать. 16. Я
заплатил деньги, и я останусь здесь. 17. Он погасил свет, но сон к нему не шел. 18. Я не буду делать то, о
чем вы меня просите. 19. У нее что-то с желудком, а она ни за что не хочет обратить-ся к врачу. 20. Мы с
надеждой смотрели на небо, но солнце все не всходило. 21. В чем дело? — Ключ не входит в замочную
скважину. 22. Несмотря на все наши усилия, машина все не двигалась с места.
§16. Habits: will, would
Will and would
We can use will to talk about someone's typical behaviour or characteristic habits.
Simon loves music. He'll sit for hours listening to his stereo.
Kate is very kind. She'll always help people if she can.
We use would with the same meaning to talk about the past.
When I was a child my father would sometimes take me fishing.
My grandmother was very absent-minded. She would often buy something and then leave the shop without it.
Will and would are not stressed in this use.
If will or would are stressed ('), it suggests criticism.
He 'will slam the door when he comes in. It really makes me angry.
'She borrowed my camera without asking.' 'She 'would do a thing like that. She's always borrowing things without
Used to and would
When we talk about past habits, we can use used to or would.
When we were children, we used to/would play
Cowboys and Indians together.
When I was a child, my elder brother used to/
would take me to the cinema every Saturday morning.
When we talk about past states, we can use used to, but not would.
My grandfather used to be a policeman.
I used to have a moustache, but I shaved it off.
I. Complete the sentences using will or would and one of the verbs in the box.
carry on spend lend go lie throw forget
1. Kate is very generous. She ... (always) you money if you need it. 2. Ken's grandfather was very mean. He ...
(never) anything away if he could use it again. 3. Mr Woods is a real chatterbox! He ... talking for hours and hours if
you give him a chance. 4. When Simon was a child, he ... (often) hours just looking out of the window. 5. 'I'm
always tired these days.' 'Well, you ... to bed so late every night, it isn't surprising!' 6. Robert has got a very bad
memory. He ... (often) where he's parked his car. 7. She is not honest. She ... even when there is no need.
//. Write similar sentences, using either the Present Simple, the Present Continuous (with always,), or will, to
illustrate the following characteristics.
He's a very good company.
He makes me laugh.
He's always telling jokes.
He'll not only tell funny stories, but he'll listen to
what you've got to say as well.
1. She's such an optimist. 2. He has terrible table manners. 3. He's so adventurous. 4. Our neighbours are really
friendly. 5. My daughter is a bit naughty. 6. But my son is so good-natured. 7. She's a very outgoing person, isn't
she? 8. I wish you wouldn't be so fussy! 9. He's painfully shy, isn't he?
III. Write similar sentences, using either used to or would, to
illustrate the following past habits.
My grandfather was such a kind man.
He used to know if something was wrong, and he'd
always make it better.
I. Andrew could be very selfish at times. 2. My sister was so untidy when she was young. 3. My mother's big
passion was walking. 4. When he was younger, he was so spoilt. 5. My parents were very interested in amateur
theatricals. 6. My English teacher had real favourites in the class. 7. My mother was terribly houseproud. 8. I was
very sporty when I was a child.
IV. Will' and 'would'
Both are used to express characteristic behaviour. If the
speaker finds the behaviour annoying, will and would are
stressed, and are not contracted.
Compare the following:
My children are very good. On Saturday mornings they'll
watch television and get their own breakfast so we can have
a lie-in.
But they will fight about which one should feed the cat.
Rewrite the following sentences, using will or would. If the sentences seem to express the speaker's annoyance,
underline the modal verb to show that it is stressed.
1. My grandfather sat in his rocking chair for hours, watching the fire and sucking on his pipe. 2. My grandmother
used to get very cross because he put his muddy boots on the table. 3. My dog is so intelligent. I don't have to tell
her when it's time to go for a walk. She gets the lead and she tugs at my trousers until I stand up. 4. But she runs in
other people's gardens and pulls up their flowers. 5. When I was young, if
we had a severe winter we were cut off for weeks on end, and we had to live on whatever was in the house. 6. When
my aunt, who's a bit deaf, wants some peace, she takes the batteries out of her hearing aid. It works! It's impossible
to get through to her! 7. But then she forgets where she put the batteries! 8. My first boyfriend was an incurable
romantic. He bought me flowers every Friday, and he wrote poems about us. 9. My flatmate adores tea. She drinks
six cups at breakfast. 10. My father's quite a wealthy man, but he goes out without any money. 11. He borrows some
from whoever's around, but he always pays it back. 12. My daughter keeps interrupting me when I'm trying to
concentrate. 13. He kept asking me the most stupid questions. 14. My aunt loved writing letters. She wrote twenty or
thirty a week. 15. My dog followed me round wherever I went. 16. But he left his hairs on all the furniture. 17. So I
had to spend hours trying to get them off. 18. When we went out for a walk, he ran miles and miles.
V. In order to practise using would to express a repeated action in the past, use would whenever possible in the
following sentences. Otherwise, use used to.
I. I ... (be) very shy. Whenever a stranger came to our house, I... (hide) in a closet. 2.1 remember my Aunt Susan
very well. Every time she came to our house, she ... (give) me a big kiss and pinch my cheek. 3. Illiteracy is still a
problem in my country, but it... (be) much worse. 4.1... (be) afraid of flying. My heart ... (start) pounding every time
I stepped on a plane. But now I'm used to flying and enjoy it. 5. I got a new bicycle when I was ten. My friends ...
(ask) to ride it, but for years I ... (let, never) anyone else use it. 6. When my grandfather was a boy and had a cold,
his mother ... (make) him go to bed. Then she ... (put) goose fat on his chest. 7. When I was a child, I ... (take) a
flashlight to bed with me so that I could read comic books without my parents' knowing about it. 8. Last summer,
my sister and I took a camping trip in the Rocky Mountains. It was a wonderful experience. Every morning, we ...
(wake) up to the sound of singing birds. During the day, we ... (hike) through woods and along mountain streams.
Often we ... (see)
deer. On one occasion we saw a bear and quickly ran in the opposite direction. 9.1 can remember Mrs Sawyer's fifth
grade class well. When we arrived each morning, she ... (sit) at her desk. She ... (smile, always) and ... (say) hello to
each student as he or she entered. When the bell rang, she ... (stand) up and (clear) her throat. That was our signal to
be quiet. Class was about to begin. 10. I'll never forget evenings spent with my grandparents when I was a child. My
grandmother ... (tell) stories of her childhood seventy years ago, and we ... (listen) intently and question her for
every detail.
VI. Which of these sentences can be completed with either used to or would? Which of them can only be completed
with used to?
1. When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer, if the weather was fine, we ... all get up early and go for
a swim.
2. When I was little, I ... be afraid of the dark. 3. Before he went to prison, he ... live in a large house. He ... have a
lot of money. 4. As a boy, I... go for long walks, especially on summer mornings. 5. Whenever Arthur was angry, he
... just walk out of the room. 6. That cinema is nearly always empty now. I remember a few years ago it... be
crowded every night. 7. We ... live next to a railway line. Every time a train went past, the whole house ... shake. 8.
When he went out, Jack ... always take an umbrella with him whether it was raining or not. 9. Years ago I... have a
motorbike. 10. Each time we went out together he ... show me something new, something interesting. 11. Sharon ...
think that dressing in black looked great. 12. In her youth Marion ... have long hair. 13. Joe and his friends ... carry
radios everywhere they went. 14. When she was young she ... be much thinner.
VII. Look at the following text.
As a boy, I liked going for long walks, especially on summer mornings. We lived in the country, and the hills behind
our house were beautiful. I got up early, and without waking my parents, I crept out of the house. Once I walked for
twenty miles, and my parents got very worried. We had a dog called
Rex, and together we climbed the hills while the rest of the world was sleeping. I loved those days, so innocent, so
carefree. I went back there last year; but it wasn't the same.
A. Which of the verbs in italics ...
a. can take would or used to?
b. can take only used to?
c. must stay in the Past Simple?
B. Now retell the story, using the Past Simple, used to or would.
VIII. Study and practise the texts.
1.1 don't remember very much about my childhood, actually. My wife's always asking me 'When you were a boy,
did you use to ...' and I reply 'I don't know, I can't remember.' We didn't ... we didn't use to talk very much, we
weren't very close, or if we were, we didn't show it. I remember I used to have my hair cut every Friday. My father
and I would go together. I had the shortest hair in the school. When they'd finished cutting it, they'd burn the ends
with a sort of candle. Oh I'll never forget that smell.
2. I got on very well with my mother. I used to tell her everything — or nearly everything — and she'd talk to me
openly too. Sometimes she'd say to me 'Don't go to school today. Stay with me.' And we'd go out shopping or
something like that. It's a wonder I had any education at all, the number of days I missed from school.
IX. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Вечера он по большей части проводил за игрой в шахматы. 2. Он часто засыпал с книжкой в руках и с
очками на носу. 3. После работы он обычно дожидался нас у моста. 4. Когда я была студенткой, я имела
обыкновение проводить выходные дни в библиотеке. 5. Джон очень любит читать. Он часами просиживает
за чтением книг. 6. Летом мы обычно ходили в лес за грибами и ягодами. 7. Он имеет обыкновение звонить
мне поздно вечером, когда я уже сплю.
§17. Special uses of will/would in if-clauses
Normally will and would are not used after if in conditional sentences. There are, however, certain exceptions.
if you will/would is often used in polite requests, would is the more polite form.
If you will/would wait a minute I'll see if Mr Jones is free. (Please wait.) I would be very grateful if you would make
the arrangements for me.
if you would + infinitive is often used alone when the request is one which would normally be made in the
circumstances. The speaker assumes that the other person will comply as a matter of course.
If you'd fill up this form.
(in a hotel) If you'd just sign the register.
(in a shop) If you'd put your address on the back
of the cheque.
(in a classroom) If you'd open your books.
if+will/would can be used with all persons to indicate willingness:
If he'll listen to me I'll be able to help him. (If he is willing to listen ...)
If Tom would tell me what he wants for his dinner I'd cook it for him. (The speaker implies that Tom is unwilling to
tell her.)
won't used in this way can mean 'refuse':
If he won't listen to me I can't help him. (If he is unwilling to listen/ If he refuses to listen ... ) If they won't accept a
cheque we'll have to pay cash. (If they refuse to accept ...)
will can be used to express obstinate insistence:
If you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain. (If you insist on playing ...)
if+would like/care can be used instead of if+want/ wish and is more polite:
If you would like to come I'll get a ticket for
If you'd care to see the photographs I'll bring
them round.
If he'd like to leave his car here he can.
Intention, command: shall
Shall in the second and third persons can express (A) the subject's intention to perform a certain action or to cause it
to be performed, and (B) a command. Both these uses are old-fashioned and formal and normally avoided in modern
spoken English.
A. Examples of shall used to express the speaker's intention (promise, threat or warning):
You shall have a sweet = I'll give you a sweet or I'll see that you get a sweet. He shan't come here = I won't let him
come here. They shall not pass = We won't let them pass.
In the past, i.e. in indirect speech, it is usually necessary to change the wording:
He said, 'You shall get a sweet' = He promised me a sweet.
B. Examples of shall used to express a command:
Yachts shall go round the course, passing the marks in the correct order, (yacht-racing rules) Members shall enter
the names of their guests in the book provided, (club rules)
This construction is chiefly used in regulations or legal documents. In less formal English must or are to would be
used instead of shall in the above sentences.
/. Analyse the modal meanings of shall and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The victory of peace can and shall be won. There shall be no war. 2. He shall do it whether he wants it or not. 3.
Higgins: Listen, Eliza. I think you said you came in a taxi. Eliza: Well, what if I did? I've as good a right to take a
taxi as anyone else. Higgins: You have, Eliza, and in future you shall have as many taxis as you want. You shall go
up and down and round the town in a taxi every day. Think of that, Eliza. 4. You shall answer for it! 5. You shall
have no cause to complain of me, dear. There shall be no difficulty about money. 6. Anyone found guilty of robbery
shall be shot at once. 7. If you're a good boy, you shall steer from time to time. 8. 'That's the last time!' she cried.
'You shall never see me again!' 9. You shall repent of this neglect of duty, Mr Gummer. 10. 'She shall go off
tomorrow, the little artful creature,' said Mrs Sedley, with great energy. 11. Paula: I've got to tell Mr Tanqueray.
Hugh: By God, you shall do nothing of the sort. 12. Don't be afraid, Jane, I saw it was an accident. You shall not be
punished. 13. I shall make you happy, see if I don't. You shall do what you like, spend what you like. 14. It shall be
done as you wish. 15. She shall pay for it, she shall. 16. That day shall come. 17. You shall not run away before you
answer. 18. 'You shall stay just where you are!' cried Pheasant. 19. You shall do as you like now and always, my
beloved child. I only wish to do as my own darling pleases. 20. The child has been lazy, so he shall not get any
sweets. 21. 'Forgive me,' he said, 'I promise you it shall never happen again.'
//. Use will or shall to fill the spaces in the following sentences. Sometimes either could be used.
1. When you are in bed I... be at work. 2. Who'll help me? — I ... . 3. We will unite to resist oppression, and tyrants
... not triumph over us. (We won't let them triumph.) 4. What ... we do now? — Wait. 5. You've been a good child,
and when we get home you ... have a sweet (I'll give you a sweet.) 6. Your father ... hear of this. (I'll certainly tell
him.) 1. ... we go to the cinema? — Yes, let's. 8. She ... tell the same story over and over again, (obstinate
insistence) 9. Club rule: Members ... write the names of their guests in the book provided. 10. Theatre regulation:
Persons ... not be permitted to sit in the gangways. 11. Where ... I be in six years' time, I wonder? 12. He ... not come
here again. (He refuses.) 13. He ... not come here again. (7 won't let him come.) 14. Clause in lease: The tenant ... be
responsible for all repairs. 15. This kind of snake ... not bite unless it is startled. 16. ... you have a cigarette? — No,
thanks, I don't smoke. 17. He ... play his radio very loudly, which annoys me very much, (obstinate insistence) 18.
By this time next year I ... be earning my own living. 19. Who ... take this letter to the post for me? — I ... . 20.
What ... we do with all the food that's left over? 21. Do you know the way? No? Then I ... show you. 22. Where ... I
put it? — Put it behind the piano. 23. Police notice: ... anyone who witnessed the accident please ring 2222. 24.
Yachts ... go round the course, passing the marks in the correct order, (extract from Yacht Racing Rules) 25. When
... you hear the result? — I ... not hear for another week. 26. 'I ... not apologize,' she said, stamping her foot. 27.
Who ... I say called? — You needn't mention my name. He ... know who I am. 28. She ... never do anything you tell
her. 29. I ... not be here next week. 30. I ... not have to do any cooking for a month. I'm going to a hotel. 31. ... I put
it on your desk? — Please do. 32.1 ... fill up this form! The questions are impertinent. — If you don't, madam, you
... (negative) get your visa. 33. ... you stand quite still for a moment, please? 34. ... I put more salt in the stew? 35. A
dog ... obey his owner but a cat ... not. 36. 'No harm ... be done to your child. I ... see to it,' the doctor tried to soothe
the mother. 37. May I go on with the
work or ... I wait for further instructions? 38. Don't worry, everything ... be arranged as you want, I promise you. 39.
But remember this: what I can't have, no one else ... . Do you understand? No one else! 40. He ... always say
something which makes us laugh. 41. If you ... help me we can finish by six. 42. Hold the door open for me, ... you?
III. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Вы этого не сделаете, запомните это! 2. Вы ответите за ваши действия! 3. Не беспокойся. Ты получишь
деньги обратно. 4. Когда мы узнаем что-нибудь, вы непременно услышите об этом. 5. Это можно сделать, и
это будет сделано. 6. Если ты будешь вести себя так, ты будешь наказан. 7. Если ты будешь хорошо
заниматься, у тебя будет новый велосипед. 8. Вы можете работать здесь. Вам никто не помешает. Я
позабочусь об этом. 9. Вас долго не задержат. У вас только проверят документы. 10. Вы еще пожалеете! 11.
Я буду тебе благодарен, если ты подождешь меня.
§18. Other uses of should
Verb + should
We can use that... should after verbs like suggest, insist, recommend, agree; we often leave out that in an informal
I suggest (that) he should see the doctor. She insisted (that) I should take the money. I agreed (that) we should tell
the police.
Adjective + should
We can use (that) ... should after adjectives which express feelings eg surprised, sorry, shocked, interesting,
I was surprised (that) she should fail/have failed the exam.
I am sorry (that) he should feel so unhappy. It is interesting (that) you should say that.
We also use (that)... should after adjectives such as important, essential, natural and similar adjectives.
It is important (that) we should arrive on time.
It is essential (that) he should be prepared for
It is advisable (that) every one should have a
Ideas like these can also be expressed without should.
I was surprised (that) she failed the exam. It is important (that) we arrive on time.
// ... should ...
If you should see Tom this evening, can you tell him to phone me?
This is similar to 'If you see Tom' (without should). With should the speaker is less certain.
If it should rain, can you bring in the washing
from the garden?
Don't worry if I should be late home tonight.
You can also begin with should (before the subject):
Should you see Tom this evening, can you tell him to phone me?
I. Report these ideas using the verbs in brackets followed by (that) ... should, as in the example.
Example 'You must visit us,' they said to me. (insist) They insisted (that) I should visit them.
1. 'Why don't you apply for the job?' she said to me. (suggest)
2. 'Stay in bed for a few days,' the doctor said to him. (recommend)
3. 'You must help me,' he said to me. (insist)
4. 'Let's go to the cinema,' they said to us. (suggest)
5. 'You must pay the rent by Friday at the latest,' he said to us. (demand)
6. 'Why don't you go away for a few days?' Jack said to me. (suggest)
7. 'You really must stay a little longer,' she said to me. (insist)
8. 'Yes, let's invite him to the party,' she said to me. (agree)
//. Complete each sentence using should and the most suitable verb in the box. Use each verb only once.
Example The situation is very difficult, but it's important that everybody should stay calm.
come pass feel worry listen leave say
1. It's essential that Sarah ... the exams if she wants to go to university.
2. It was embarrassing that Simon ... into the room just as we were talking about him.
3. I'm sorry that you ... so angry. I didn't mean to upset you.
4. It's funny that you ... that. I was going to say the same thing.
5. It's only natural that parents ... about their children.
6. Isn't it typical of him that he ... without saying goodbye?
7. It's very important that everyone ... very carefully.
III. In this exercise you have to use if ... should ...
Example: I don't suppose you'll see Tom this evening but if you should see him, can you ask him to phone me?
1. I don't think Ann will arrive before I get home but... can you look after her until I come?
2. I don't think there will be any letters for me while I'm away but ... , can you send them on to this address?
3. I don't suppose you'll need any help but ... , just let me know.
4. I don't think you will see Jane but ... , give her my love.
5. I don't think he will succeed but ... , no one will be more pleased than I.
IV. Put should or would in the spaces in the following sentences.
1. ... you mind opening the door? 2. ... you like another cup of coffee? 3. He insisted that the newspaper ... print an
apology. 4. The old admiral ... sit for hours watching the ships. 5. ... you be so good as to keep an eye on my house
while I am away? 6. I ... say nothing about it if I were you. 7. That dress doesn't suit you; you ... buy another. 8. If
you pulled the communication cord the train ... stop and you ... be fined. 9. They went to the cinema at 2.30, so they
... be back here by 6.00. 10. ... you please help me with this? 11. It
is very strange that he ... think that. 12. I wish he ... not play his radio so loudly. 13. ... you be very kind and lend me
your typewriter? 14. I ... like to know where you have been. 15. It was decided that the matter ... be referred to a
special committee. 16. Perhaps you ... be kind enough to let us know about this. 17. If the telephone ... ring please
say that I'll be back at six. 18. ... you like to come or ... you rather stay here? 19. There are too many accidents.
Everyone ... be much more careful. 20. Their method was always the same; they ... wait till their victim had left the
bank and then go up to him and ask for a light. 21. What are you doing here? You ... be in bed. 22. It is essential that
this matter ... be kept out of the newspapers. 23. He suggested that the money ... be raised by public subscription. 24.
If you ... change your mind, this address will always find me. 25. If this machine ... at any time fail to give complete
satisfaction please post us the enclosed card. 26. If he offered me money I ... refuse. 27. I wish you ... not ask so
many questions. 28. He ordered that Tom ... leave the house at once. 29. I ... be most grateful if you ... do this for
me. 30. He is anxious that everyone ... understand why he acted as he did. 31. You ... not argue with your father; you
... obey him. 32. He was a very patient cat; he ... sit for hours beside a mousehole. 33. ... the pain return take one of
these pills. 34. It is important that I ... see him at once.
V. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Мы можем опоздать. Я предлагаю взять такси. 2. Мой . муж настаивает на том, чтобы мы провели отпуск
в Париже. 3. Отец потребовал, чтобы я бросил курить. 4. Врач порекомендовал, чтобы я провел лето на
море. 5. Мэри предложила, чтобы мы купили подарок Джону, который скоро покидает фирму. 6. Отец
согласился, чтобы я принял участие в поездке. 7. После ужина он предложил пойти в кино, но она
отказалась. 8. Они все согласились, что надо что-то делать с мальчиком. 9. Он настаивал на том, чтобы я
взял отпуск. 10. Вот я и подумал, что ведь абсурд, что мы живем рядом и не разговариваем. 11. Важ-
но, чтобы вы упомянули об этом. 12. Мне жаль, что ты так плохо обо мне думаешь. 13. Было странно, что в
ее возрасте она так безразлична к вечеринкам. 14. Я был удивлен, что он не сдал экзамен. 15. Необходимо ,
чтобы она пришла пораньше. 16. Он был доволен, что Кэт все же назвала ребенка в его честь. 17. В случае,
если пойдет дождь, я останусь дома. 18. Если случится так, что она приедет, я дам тебе знать. 19. Если вдруг
кто-нибудь позвонит, скажи, что я вернусь к 5 часам.
§19. Need and dare as modals and as full verbs
Need as a modal and as a full verb
1. We use need as a modal (without to after it) mainly in the negative to mean 'it isn't necessary':
I needn't go to the meeting today.
I needn't have gone to the meeting yesterday.
2. In the affirmative, we use need as a modal:
— in questions: Need you go so soon? Need you have told him the truth?
— with 'negative adverbs' (eg hardly): I need hardly tell you how important this is.
3. Otherwise, we generally use the full verb need to (used like any regular verb):
I need to/ I don't need to/I needed to/I didn't need to go to the dentist this morning.
J. Replace the phrases in italics with modal need or the full verb need to.
modal full verb
1. Is it necessary for you to
go so soon? Need you go? Do you need to go?
2. Is it necessary for me to
wait till you return?.........................................................
3. It's not necessary for them
to wait............................................................................
4. It wasn't necessary for you
to have said that................................................................
5. It's hardly necessary for
me to explain it.................................................................
6. There is no need for him
to learn about this.........................................................
7. All that is necessary for
you to do is to agree...........................................................
8. / don't think there is any
need for you to explain.....................................................
//. Explain the forms of need in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. Need you bring your girl-friend with you? 2. Does he need to study more at home? 3. I need hardly say that I
agree with you. 4. He doesn't even need to do it for a living, either. 5. You needn't be afraid of me. 6. I needn't have
phoned the plumber. I learnt later that John had already phoned him. 7. You need not meet me unless you like. 8.
You needn't be nervous about that. 9. The forecast was for fine weather so I didn't need to bring my umbrella. 10.
'I'm not ambitious.' 'You don't need to tell me that.' 11. It was obvious. You needn't have protested. 12. Need we
insist upon the date? 13. Do you need to work hard? 14. She said that if he didn't like to come to her parties he
needn't come at all. 15. You needn't have brought your umbrella after all. It hasn't rained. 16. It is warm. You won't
need to take a coat. 17. Did you need a passport to go to Scotland? 18. I need to go to the bank. 19. Does he need to
arrange a visa? 20. He needs to save money for his holiday. 21. Did you need to help him? 22. If you don't like the
cocktail, you needn't drink it. 23. Need I pay? 24. She said that if he didn't like to come to her parties he needn't
come at all.
III. Study and practise.
Jeff: I'd like to learn to drive. Could you explain to
me what I have to do? For instance, need I own a car before I can start?
' Instructor: No, you certainly don't need to have a car. In fact, we prefer to use our own cars as they have dual
Jeff: Do I need to do a written test as well as a
practical one? Instructor: No, but you need to know your highway code in
detail. Jeff: So all I really need now is the money for a course
of lessons — and my courage!
The form of dare as a modal and as a full verb
1. We use dare as a modal (that is, without to after it) mainly in the negative to express lack of courage:
I daren't tell him the truth. I daren't ask for more money.
2. In the affirmative, we use dare as a modal:
— in questions: Dare you do it?
— with 'negative adverbs' (eg hardly): I hardly dare tell him what happened.
— in the expression I daresay (or I dare say): I daresay (= I suppose, no doubt) you are right.
3. We also form questions with do/does/did:
Do you dare tell him? I don't dare tell him.
4. We can use dare to as-a full verb:
Do you dare to tell him? I don't dare to tell him.
5. And note: I didn't like the meal ...,
but / daren't say so/I daren't have said so/I didn't dare (to) say so/I dared not say so.
IV. Supply dare, daren't, dare not have (done), didn't dare (do), etc.
1. I ... tell them I've just broken their favourite vase.
2. I ... tell them I had broken their favourite vase.
3. I hardly ... mention this, but you still haven't paid for those tickets.
4. ... we ask for more money after what he has just said?
5. I knew I was right, but I ... say so at the time.
6. I'm going to tell your mother what you've just said! — Just you ...!
T. She'd like to wear more unconventional clothes, but she ....
8. We didn't like the meal they gave us, but we ... said so. It would have been rude.
9. They offered me something strange to eat which I ... refuse.
Uses of dare
We use dare in four ways to express:
1. courage: Very few climbers have dared (to) attempt Mount Everest without oxygen.
Dare (to) is in the affirmative here, and this use is relatively rare.
2. lack of courage: I don't dare (to) tell the children that their holiday has been cancelled.
This use of dare (to), in the negative, is the most common.
3. challenge: I dare you to jump off that wall.
We use dare only as a full verb with to for challenging. We use it in the affirmative and negative like any other verb.
'Challenging' is common in the language of children.
4. outrage: How dare you read my private diary!
We use dare only as a modal without to when expressing outrage.
V. What do the sentences below express? Choose a, b, c, or d:
a — courage b — lack of courage с — challenge d — outrage
1. You dare raise your voice! _d
2. I dare you to put a spider in her desk.___
3. How dare you speak to me like that?___
4. He's the only person who'll dare (to) stand up to her!___
5. I wanted to ask for some time off, but I didn't dare.___
6. Jill's friends dared her to bring her pet snake to class.___
7. I daren't ask for any more money.___
8. He lost his job because he dared (to) speak out.___
9. Don't you dare do anything like that in public again!___
10. I daren't have said so at the time, but I was very bored.___
11. John never dares to stand up in public and say what he thinks.___
12. I'm going to break the door down! — Just you dare!___
VI. Analyse the uses of dare in the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. He felt he dared not reply. 2. Her face bore an expression of such ferocity that no one dared come near to speak
with her. 3. I dare say you're a little tired after your walk, dear. 4. He dared not look into her face. 5. I did not dare to
ask him to call off his trip. 6. Who dares to jump over the stream? 7. She did not dare to leave the house in case he
telephoned. 8. How dare you talk to me like that? 9. 'Don't you dare to speak to me!' she screamed. 10. How many
years is it since we danced together? I daren't think. 11. 'How dare she come here!' cried Davidson indignantly. 12.
No one dared to live in the house since. 13. With laughing and jokes they handled things which formerly they had
not dared touch. 14. He'd never dare to do an operation on his own responsibility. 15. My son is not in town; but I
dare say he will be before long. Can I give him any message? 16. He does not dare to come here again.
VII. Combine the correct forms of dare and need with the verbs in brackets.
It was a routine flight from Hilo on Hawaii to Kahului 110 miles away. Suddenly, there was a tremendous noise and
the top of the plane was torn away! Ninety-four passengers (not move) ... , wondering what would happen next.
They (not worry)... because Robert Schornsteimer, the pilot, was firmly in control. For 25 minutes they hardly
(breathe) ... , though there was plenty of unwelcome fresh air! 'I (not open) ... my mouth,' one of the passengers said
later. 'I hardly (tell) ... you how terrified I was.' The passengers embraced the pilot who had brought the plane down
safely. 'I've heard of a plane flying off a roof,' joked one of them later, 'but never of a roof flying off a plane!'
VIII. Study and practise.
Peter: I've just failed my exams. I daren't tell my father. Jake: I'm not surprised. I don't think I'd even dare to go
home. Peter: Well, in that case, I won't. I'll go to France and find
a job there. Do you dare to come with me? Jake: Why not? It could be fun.
I. Comment on the uses of the modal verbs. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. 'If you are in trouble,' I said, 'you must send for me.' 2. 'You must listen to me, Jim Wilson,' she said with almost
an accent of command. 3. Devit's expression showed disappointment, relief, a little anger. 'You ought to have
arranged an appointment,' he said irritably. 4. What can have happened to change him so much? 5. 'She smashed his
kite. He says he'll never forgive her for that till his dying day.' 'He must be crasy.' 6. Perhaps for the first time in his
life Freddy would not listen to his father. 7. Someone's got to do it sometime and it might as well be you. 8. Madam,
may I speak to you a moment? 9. He could not have left her at such a moment — he couldn't! 10. He had to go — he
was obliged to go, to see about the land over there! 11. Remember, it's some of the money I ought to have had. You
are to use it to make your way. 12. 'What's happened to the dog?' I said. 'It isn't here. His master may have taken it
with him.' 13. 'It's early yet. We might walk part of the way,' he suggested. 14. Cars must not be parked in front of
the entrance. 15. I'm quite well and I will not go abroad. Why will you bother me so about my health? 16. Need you
be so inflexible, Blanche? 17. Look up, Tom, look up. Boys as they go to boarding schools should hold their heads
up. 18. You can get a taxi just at the end of the street. You won't have to walk more than a few yards. 19. No, we are
not going to fight at all if you'll only let me talk. 20. I think I ought to stand the tickets; he's always hard up, you
know. 21. I've got to run now because I have a date. 22. One mustn't shirk one's responsibilities. Not even the
painful ones. 23. 'Boys of your age ought to be in bed by eight,' she said.' 'No wonder you're tired in the morning.'
24. 'Shall I serve?' said Doris. 25. He's obstinate, and when he's once made up his mind nothing can move him. 26. 'I
must do my best for her,' thought Jolyon, 'he left her to me in his will. But what is the best?' 27. 'What can I do for
you?' he said in cordial
tones. 28. The rules said you must lie quietly at rest in your bed as a help to getting well. 29. The arrangement was
that you were to give your views and I was to say what I thought of them. 30. He needn't have bought such a large
house. His wife would have been quite happy in a cottage. 31. Why should we put an end to all that's sweet and
lovely? "What must come will come. 32. It is but right they should do their share. 33. Awfully sorry, Mother, I've
got to go out to dinner now. 34. You should have left me alone. It's all I'm fit for. 35. I'm afraid that we're going to
have to move. 36. We may have to take steps. 37. 'Oh,' cried Fleur. 'You can't have done it!' 38. We won't argue
about that. It isn't the time to argue now. I must consider what ought to be done. 39. I must talk to you, Percy. You
may as well have a drink while you listen. 40. This was a scene — it could be nothing else and he must face it. 41.
He took a position from which he could see what was going around. 42. 'The old actor was drunk,' thought he. 'Still
there may be truth in what he said.' 43. I hear somebody's steps on the stairs. She must be coming! 44. You shall not
search my rooms. 45. I will make your excuses to Margaret. 46. Need it be finished by Saturday? 47. Judging from
the books and papers on his writing — table he must have been working for several hours. 48. Surely Holly might
have told him all this before. 49. They may not have come back yet. Let's ring them up and find out. 50. I wonder
what that could have meant? 51. If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are
late for your appointments. 52. Do you think you could complete it by the evening? 53.1 think we might be great
friends. 54. Surely you can't have eaten all of it. 55. You could easily have been killed. 56. By the end of the evening
I almost felt that I ought to call him 'Uncle Jack'. 57. Felix said hastily, 'Forgive me. I shouldn't have troubled you.'
58. You can be really annoying, you know! 59. You might have drowned! 60. Jack would get lost, wouldn't he? It's
typical! 61. You can go if you want to, of course, but could you leave the boy here if only for half an hour? 62. It
might have been worse. 63. You might have asked me if I had an objection.
//. Discuss the difference, if any, in the following groups of sentences.
1. a. May I use your phone?
b. Could I use your phone?
c. Can I use your phone?
2. a. You should take an English course.
b. You ought to take an English course.
c. You're supposed to take an English course.
d. You must take an English course.
3. a. You should see a doctor about that cut on your arm.
b. You had better see a doctor about that cut on your arm.
c. You have to see a doctor about that cut on your arm.
4. a. You must not use that door.
b. You don't have to use that door.
5. a. I will be at your house by six о clock.
b. I should be at your house by six o'clock.
6. — There is a knock at the door. Who do you suppose it
a. It might be Sally.
b. It may be Sally.
c. It could be Sally.
d. It must be Sally.
7. — There's a knock at the door. I think it's Mike.
a. It may not be Mike.
b. It couldn't be Mike.
c. It can't be Mike.
8. — Where's Jack?
a. He might have gone home.
b. He must have gone home.
c. He had to go home.
9. a. Each student should have a health certificate.
b. Each student is to have a health certificate.
c. Each student must have a health certificate.
Ю- a. If you're having a problem, you could talk to Mrs
b. If you're having a problem, you should talk to Mrs Anderson.
11. a. I've got to go.
b. I have to go.
c. I should go.
d. I'm supposed to go.
e. I'd better go.
f. I'd prefer to go.
12. — I needed some help.
a. You should have asked Tom.
b. You could have asked Tom.
13. a. When I was living at home, I would go to the beach
every weekend with my friends.
b. When I was living at home, I used to go to the beach every weekend with my friends.
///. Choose the sentence closest in meaning to the sentence given.
1. It's possible that we'll know the answers tomorrow.
a) We may know all the answers tomorrow.
b) We should know all the answers tomorrow.
2. I don't think you should ring him now. It's rather late.
a) You might not ring him now. It's rather late.
b) You'd better not ring him now. It's rather late.
3. You needn't come if you don't want to.
a) You won't come if you don't want to.
b) You don't have to come if you don't want to.
4. I think it's wrong for you to work so hard.
a) You don't have to work so hard.
b) You shouldn't work so hard.
5. Perhaps these are the keys.
a) These might be the keys.
b) These must be the keys.
6. I know. Why don't we go out to eat instead?
a) I know. We must go out to eat instead.
b) I know. We could go out to eat instead.
7. It would be quite wrong for us to lock the cat in the house for a week.
a) We'd better not lock the cat in the house for a week.
b) We can't lock the cat in the house for a week.
8. It's possible that the decision will be announced next week.
a) The decision might be announced next week.
b) The decision will be announced next week.
IV. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so that the meaning stays the same.
1. I expect this beach will be deserted. SHOULD
2. Arthur is sometimes really irritating! CAN
3. How about going to the theatre instead? COULD
4. Do you want me to turn off the oven, or not? SHOULD
5. I'm sure this isn't the way to Norwich. CAN'T
6. It would be the same if we gave up now. MIGHT
7. Please turn off the light before leaving. SHOULD
8. Jim keeps giving me presents. WILL
9. It makes no difference if we call it off. MAY
10. Don't bother lying to me. HAVE
11. You should leave before Jack gets back. HAD

VI. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Use
between two and five words.
1. I think you should give up smoking immediately. had
I think you had better give up smoking immediately.
2. I expect we will get there by 5.00, if there isn't too much traffic.
We.................... 5.00, if there isn't too much traffic.
3. Is it necessary for me to bring my passport? have bring my passport?
4. I am sure that the cat is in the house somewhere. be
The cat.............................. in the house somewhere.
5. An aerial is not required with this radio. have
You don' aerial with this radio.
6. It is very inconvenient if you can't drive. to
It's very inconvenient if................................. drive.
7. I am sure that John is not the thief. be
John ....................................................... the thief.
8. All students should report to the main hall at 9.00. are
All the main hall at 9.00.
9. I thought that you would know better! ought You ............................................................ better!
VIII. Complete each sentence so that it contains might, might not, must, mustn't, can or can't. More than one answer
may be possible.
1. Don't stand up in the boat! You ... fall in the river!
2. She says she's stuck in the traffic and she ... be late.
3. You really ... start spending more time on your work.
4. Tell Peter he ... stay the night here if he wants to.
5. That's a really stupid idea! You ... be serious, surely!
6. You ... realise it, but this is very important to me.
7. Don't be silly. You ... expect me to believe you!
8. We're not sure but we ... go to Prague for Christmas this year.
9. Me learn to fly! You ... be joking!
10. Bill cooked the lunch, so you ... expect anything special!
IX. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains can, could, must, have to or should (including negative forms).
1. I'm sure that Helen feels really lonely.
2. You're not allowed to park here.
3. It would be a good idea if Harry took a holiday.
4. I'm sure that Brenda isn't over thirty.
5. Do I need a different driving licence for a motorbike?
6. What would you advise me to do?
7. Mary knows how to stand on her head.
8. You needn't come with me if you don't want to.
9. It's possible for anyone to break into this house!
10. The dentist will see you soon. I don't think he'll be long.
11. I'm sure it isn't the way to Norwich.
12. This climb is possibly dangerous.
13. I expect this beach will be deserted.
14. Arthur is sometimes really irritating!
15. How about going to the theatre instead?
X. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase.
1. It's odd that you ... know Wendy too!
2. You ... better not take any more medicine now.
3. All students ... report to the registrar's office on arrival.
4. How about going to the lake? We ... take a cold lunch with us.
5. I'm not sure about my application. ... I send two copies or three?
6. ... that really be Paula's husband? He looks so young.
7. This ... be the place I suppose, but it doesn't look like it.
8. Both the clocks say 4.30, so that ... be the time.
9. What about this meat? ... I roast it or stew it?
10. Harry studies a lot. He ... know the answers.
11. Oh well, things ... much worse I suppose.
12. It's no use waiting here. We ... well start walking.
13. Jack refuses. He says it's wrong and he ... do it.
14. Cairo ... be quite cold in winter.
15. Rule 6. No member ... enter the bar area wearing sports kit.
16. Quite honestly, you might as ... not bother.
XI. Choose the most suitable response to each comment or question.
a) A. What did I do wrong?
B. 1) You shouldn't have connected these two wires. 2) You didn't have to connect these two wires.
b) A. Why is the dog barking?
B. I) It should have heard something. 2) It must have heard something.
c) A. Why are you home so early?
B. I) I needn't have worked this afternoon. 2) I didn't have to work this afternoon.
d) A. Why did you worry about me? I didn't take any risks. B. I) You must have been injured.
2) You could have been injured.
e) A. You forgot my birthday again!
B. 1) Sorry, I should have looked in my diary. 2) Sorry, I had to look in my diary.
f) A. We had a terrible crossing on the boat in a storm. B. 1) That didn't have to be very pleasant!
2) That can't have been very pleasant!
g) A. Where were you yesterday? You didn't turn up! B. 1) I had to go to London.
2) I must have gone to London, h) A. What do you think about the election? B. I) The Freedom Party had to win.
2) The Freedom Party should have won. i) A. There's a lot of food left over from the party, isn't
B. 1) Yes, you couldn't have made so many sandwiches. 2) Yes, you needn't have made so many sandwiches, j) A.
What do you think has happened to Tony? B. 1) I don't know, he should have got lost. 2) I don't know, he might
have got lost.
XII. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do
not change the word given. You must use between two and five words.
1. It wasn't necessary for me to go out after all. have
I needn't have gone out after all.
2. There was a plan for Jack to become manager, but he left.
Jack......................................manager, but he left.
3. It was a mistake for you to buy that car. bought
You........................................................that car.
4. I don't think Sally enjoyed her holiday. have
Sally.......................................enjoyed her holiday.
5. It's possible that Bill saw me. may
6. I'm sure that Karen was a beautiful baby. been
Karen......................................... a beautiful baby.
7. Perhaps Alan didn't mean what he said. meant
Alan..................................................what he said.
8. It's possible that I left my wallet at home. ; could wallet at home.
9. I think you were wrong to sell your bike. shouldn't
10. You must be thirsty, so can I offer you some tea? like
You must be thirsty, so................................... tea?
11. If I were you, I wouldn't buy a dog. should
I don't think............................................... a dog.
12. I'm sure that Jack hasn't left home yet. have
Jack.......................................................home yet.
13. I suppose that this is Trafalgar Square.
This............................................Trafalgar Square.
14. Perhaps Jean's plane was delayed. been
Jean's plane..............................................delayed.
15. It was unnecessary for you to come early today. have
You............................................come early today.
16. Tony is supposed to be here by now. been
Tony................................................. here by now.
17. Perhaps this is the answer. be
This....................................................the answer.

XV. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so that the meaning stays the same.
1. It wasn't very nice of you not to invite me to MIGHT your party.
2. Thank you very much for buying me flowers! SHOULDN'T
3. It wouldn't have been right to let you do all COULDN'T the work on your own.
4. I don't believe that you have lost your keys CAN'T again!
5. Mary was a talented violinist at the age of ten. PLAY
6. Perhaps they didn't notice the tire was flat. MIGHT
7. The results are expected tomorrow. KNOW
8. They escaped possible injury when the car HAVE crashed.
9. A visa wasn't necessary after all. NEED
XVI. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains can't, might, must, should or needn't.
1. I'm sure that David took your books by mistake.
2. It was a mistake to park outside the police station.
3. It was unnecessary for you to clean the floor.
4. I'm sure that Liz hasn't met Harry before.
5. I'm sure they haven't eaten all the food. It's not possible!
6. Jack is supposed to have arrived an hour ago.
7. Perhaps Pam and Tim decided not to come.
8. I think it was the cat that took the fish from the table!
9. It was a waste of time worrying, after all!
10. It's impossible that we stayed at the same hotel, in that case.
11. It's not necessary for you to wear a uniform.
12. I wouldn't wake her up if I were you.
XVII. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase.
1. Don't worry that Carol is late, she ... missed the train.
2. I begged David to accept some money, but he ... hear of it.
3. That was a lucky escape! You ... been killed!
4. It was supposed to be a secret! You ... told her!
5. I spent last week at the beach because I didn't ... go to school.
6. The plane is late. It ... landed by now.
7. You ... met my brother. I haven't got one!
8. There is only one solution. The butler ... done it.
9. So it was you who set off the fire alarm for a joke! I ... known!
10. Pay attention to what Martin said. He ... serious.
11. Fancy accepting the job like that! You ... asked me first!
12. The test was no problem at all. It ... easier in fact!
13. I'm sure Jack didn't mean to ignore you. He ... noticed you.
14. Hello, I'm home early. I ... late at the office after all.
15. The meat is a bit burnt. You ... cooked it for so long. I did tell you!
16. There were plenty of tickets left for the concert. We ... them in advance.
17. Sally got home at four this morning. The party ... really good!
18. This homework is not as good as usual. I think you ... more time on it.
19. A child ... given everything he or she wants.
20. You ... here when Helen told the boss not to be so lazy!
21. Peter wasn't here then, so he ... broken your vase.
22. If you felt lonely, you ... given me a ring.
23. It's been more than a week. You ... have some news by now!
24. You really ... have gone to so much trouble!
25. I ... have thought that it was rather difficult.
26. You should have seen Jim's face! He ... happier!
27. I'm sorry. I suppose ... been a bit rude.
28. Surely it ... been Ann who told you.
29. You really .... so much trouble over me.
30. One thing is for sure, someone ... known about it.
31. Was it really necessary? You ... to tell the police, you know.
32. They ... saved her from the fire, but the ladder didn't reach her window.
33. Keep your fingers crossed. The traffic warden ... noticed
the car is parked on double yellow lines!
34. It's funny ... bought exactly the same dress as me!
XVIII. Correct any errors in these sentences.
1. You mustn't have forgotten already! (error: can't have forgotten)
2. Paul shouldn't have been more helpful if he had tried.
3. Frank might not have understood what you said.
4. It was funny that she should have remembered me.
5. Harry may have won the match with a bit more effort.
6. You must have told me you had already eaten.
7. Fortunately I needn't have gone to the bank in person.
8. You mustn't have been so unkind!
9. I couldn't have managed without you.
10. I have no idea who it was, but I suppose it would have been Ann.
XIX. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a modal verb and so that the meaning stays the same.
1. The police refused to do anything about my noisy neighbours.
2. Why didn't you back me up!
3. Our worrying so much was a waste of time.
4. It's just not possible for the cat to have opened the fridge!
5. George knew how to ride a bicycle when he was five.
6. I wanted to go to the party, but it was snowing hard.
7. It would have been possible for Helen to give us a lift.
8. It's possible that the last person to leave didn't lock the door.
9. School uniform wasn't compulsory at my school.-
10. It's possible that they didn't notice us.
XX. Choose the correct completion.
1. Dick painted his bedroom black. It looks dark and dreary. He____a different colour.
A. had to choose B. should have chosen
C. must have chosen D. could have been choosing
2. Tom is sitting at his desk. He's reading his chemistry text because he has a test tomorrow. He____.
A. could study B. should be studying
C. will study D. must be studying
3. When Mr Lee was younger, he____work in the garden
for hours, but now he has to take frequent rests because he has emphysema.
A. has got to B. can
C. should be able to D. could
4. Whenever my parents went out in the evening, I____the
job of taking care of my younger brother.
A. would get B. should get
C. must have gotten D. had better get
5. Yesterday I ____to a furniture store. I bought a new
lamp there.
A. could go B. went
C. could have gone D. ought to have gone
6. Jimmy and Maria were naughty children. They___tricks
on their teachers, which always got them into a lot of trouble.
A. could play B. used to play
C. could have played D. may have played
7. Robert has a new car. He___it for a very good price.
He paid 30 percent less than the regular retail cost.
A. could buy B. had to buy
C. was supposed to buy D. was able to buy
8. 'Why are you so sure that Ann didn't commit the crime she's been accused of committing?'
'She___that crime because I was with her, and we were
out of town on that day.'
A. may not have B. wasn't supposed to
committed commit
C. committed D. couldn't have committed
9. 'Since we have to be there in a hurry, we___take a
taxi.' 'I agree.'
A. had better B. may
C. have been used to D. are able to
10. 'It___rain this evening. Why don't you take an umbrella?'
'That's a good idea. May I borrow yours?'
A. had better B. could be
C. must D. might
11. '____you hand me that pair of scissors, please!'
A. May B. Shall
C. Will D. Should
12. Larry drove all night to get here for his sister's wedding.
He___exhausted by the time he arrived.
A. ought to be B. could be
C. must have been D. will have been
13. 'What are you doing here now? You ___be here for
another three hours.'
'I know. We got an early start and it took less time than we expected. I hope you don't mind.'
A. couldn't B. might not
C. had better not D. aren't supposed to
14. ' ___ taking me downtown on your way to work this
'Not at all.'
A. Can you B. Why don't you
C. Would you mind D. Could you please
15. 'I locked myself out of my apartment. I didn't know what to do.'
'You___your roommate.'
A. could have called B. may have called C. would have called D. must have called
16. 'You haven't eaten anything since yesterday afternoon. You___be really hungry!'
'I am.'
A. might B. will
C. can D. must
17. 'I____there at 6 p.m. for the meeting, but my car won't
start. Could you please give me a lift in your car?' 'Sure. Are you ready to go now?'
A. will be B. may be
C. supposed to be D. have got to be
18. 'I left a cookie on the table, but now it's gone. What happened to it?'
'I don't know. One of the children___it.'
A. may have eaten B. could eat
C. had to eat D. should have eaten
19. Peter___rather sleep on a matress than on the floor.
A. shall В. could
С. would D. must
20. 'My boss is always looking over my shoulder whenever I do anything.'
'That__bother you.'
'But it does.'
A. shouldn't B. might not
C. may not D. won't
21. 'This movie is boring and too violent.' 'I agree.___leave?'
A. Will we B. Why don't we
C. Must we D. Would we
22. 'Chris, you ___ the fish in the refrigerator before it
'You're right. I didn't know it was still in the shopping bag.'
A. had better put B. had to put
C. would rather put D. may put
23. 'What does Mr Griffin do for a living?'
'Nothing. He's very rich. He___work for a living.'
A. must not B. shouldn't
C. doesn't have to D. hadn't better
24. 'Why are you so late?'
'I___my aunt to the airport. The traffic was terrible!'
A. could take B. must have taken
C. should take D. had to take
25. 'I heard that Laura was offered a job at a top computer firm in Chicago.'
'Oh? That's wonderful! She __ very pleased.'
A. is supposed to be B. might be C. must be D. is
26. 'The hot weather doesn't seem to bother you.'
'When I had my farm, I__work in the hot fields for
A. used to B. ought to
C. must D. had better
27. 'I need some help with this table.__you lift the other
end, please?'
'Sure. Just a second.'
A. May B. Should
C. Could D. Shall
28. 'How did you get my telephone number? It's not listed
in the phone book, so you __ have found it in the
'I got it from your mother.'
A. may not B. won't
C. might not D. couldn't
29. 'Is littering against the law?'
'Yes. There's a law that says that you___throw trash
on the streets.'
A. don't have to B. must not
C. couldn't D. might not
30. 'Do you like to play tennis?'
'Yes. When I worked at the embassy, I__meet a friend
at 5 every afternoon for a game.'
A. would B. should
C. had better D. would rather
31. 'Harry's new jacket doesn't seem to fit him very well.' 'He___it on before he bought it.'
A. must have tried B. was able to try
C. should have tried D. may have tried
XXI. Use a modal with each verb in parentheses. More than one modal may be possible. Use the one that seems
most appropriate to you.
1. I've never seen a London policeman. — You (see) one! You've been in London a week already! 2. ... I (call) for
you? — No, I (get) a taxi and meet you at the station. 3. I heard their. telephone ringing. — You (not hear) their
phone ringing. They haven't got a phone. 4. Don is putting on a little weight around his middle. He (get) more
exercise. 5. Jack: I've finished. Ann: But you were only half way through when I went to bed. You (work) all night!
6. I'm sleepy. I (not keep) my eyes open. I (go) to bed before I fall asleep right here. 7. Zoo keeper: In spite of all the
notices, people (feed) these animals. 8. In my country, a girl and boy (not go) out on a date unless they are
accompanied by a chaperone. 9. The instructions were in French. I translated them into English for him. — You (not
translate) them. He knows French. 10. Jones: Stand away from that door! You can't keep me here against my will.
Smith: You (not go) till you have given me an explanation! (I won't let you go.) 11. You can trust me; nobody
(know) that you are here. (I promise to keep it secret.) I (not) even (tell) my wife. 12. My wife and ten children are
coming to join me here. They (not live) in my dormitory room. I (find) an apartment. 13. A: ... I (speak) to Peggy?
B: She (not come) to the phone right now. ... I (take) a message? 14. Jimmy was serious when he said he wanted to
be a cowboy when he grew up. We (not laugh) at him. We hurt his feelings. 15. ... you (cash) this check for me? 16.
A: How are you planning to get to the airport? B: By taxi. A: You (take) a shuttle bus instead. It's cheaper than a
taxi. You (get) one in front of the hotel. It picks up passengers there on a regular schedule. 17. You (not feed) the
bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed them too. 18. Nobody
has been in this house for a month. — Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper basket; somebody
(be) here quite recently. 19. Let's go shopping. The shops (not be) crowded. Monday morning's usually quiet. 20.
Why ... everyone (promote) except me? It's not fair. 21. A: Why didn't you come to the party last night? B: I (study).
A: You (come). We had a good time. 22. A: I (go) to the University of Iowa or Iowa State University? B: Think it
over for a few
days. You (not make) up your mind right now. There's no hurry. 23. A: The phone's ringing again. Let's not answer
it. Just let it ring. B: No, we (answer) it. It (be) important. 24. We (start) yesterday (this was the plan); but the flight
was cancelled because of the fog, so we're still here, as you see. 25. I left my car here under the No Parking sign;
and now it's gone. It (steal). — Not necessarily. The police (drive) it away. 26. He was riding a bicycle along the
motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry. These big lorries are very dangerous. — Perhaps, but Paul (not
ride) a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed. 27. Jane's looking at the test paper the teacher just
returned. She's smiling. She (pass) the test, 28. It's not like Tony to be late. He (be) here an hour ago. I hope nothing
bad happened. 29. He used to have a day off once a week, and on that day he (get) up early, have a hasty breakfast
and set out for the river. 30. I know that it will be difficult to pick him out in such a crowd, but if you (happen) to
see him give him this packet. 31. Why didn't you wait for me yesterday? — I waited five minutes. — You (wait) a
little longer! 32. How did Peter get here? — He (come) on a motorcycle. (This is a possibility.) — He (not come) on
a motorcycle. He doesn't ride one. 33. Police Officer (in a loud speaker van beside a motorway In thick fog): They
are going much too fast. I keep warning them to reduce speed but they (not do) it. 34. Ann: She says she'd rather go
to prison than pay the fine. Tom: She (not go) to prison. (I won't let this happen.) I (pay) her fine for her! 35. A:
Somebody called you while you were out, but she didn't leave her name. B: Who did it sound like? Anybody you
know? A. Well, it (be) Phyllis, but that's just a guess. I (ask) who was calling, but I didn't. B: That's okay. 36. (Alice,
staying at a hotel for the first time, carefully washes up the early morning tea things.) Mother: You (not do) that.
The hotel staff do the washing up. 37. Mrs Smith: I've cooked scrambled eggs for Mr Jones, because of his diet, and
steak and onions for everyone else. Mr Jones: You (not cook) anything special for me, Mrs Smith; I'm not on a diet
any longer. 38. Tom (looking out of the window): Fortu-
nately that teapot didn't hit anyone, but you (not throw) it out of the window, Ann! You (kill) someone. 39. Look at
this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist (paint) such a picture! — Nonsense! A child of five (paint) it with his
eyes shut. 40. It looks like rain. We (shut) the windows. 41. Ann, ... you (hand) me that dish? Thanks. 41. I returned
a book to the library yesterday. It was two weeks overdue, so I (pay) a fine of $ 1.40. I (return) the book when it was
due. 42. Spring break starts on the thirteenth. We (not go) to classes until the twenty-second. 43. ... I (make) an
appointment to see Dean Witherspoon? 44. Neither of us knows the way to their house. We (take) a map with us or
we'll probably get lost. 45. You (not tell) Jack about the party. It's a surprise party for him. 46. Secretary: There's a
Mr Peterson in the outer office, sir. He says he has an appointment. ... you (see) him now? Mr Smith: I (not see) him
now or at any other time. I told him so when we last met. And he hasn't an appointment! 47. Excuse me. I didn't
understand. ... you (repeat) what you said? 48. In the United States, elementary education is compulsory. All
children (attend) six years of elementary school. 48. There was a long line in front of the theatre. We (wait) almost
an hour to buy our tickets. 49. I wonder who carried the piano upstairs. — I suppose it was Paul. — Paul (not carry)
it by himself. Someone (help) him. 50. The car (not start) so we had to ring for a taxi. 51. The people in the flat
above us were members of a band. We liked them very much but they (practise) the drums at night. Nothing we said
made any difference. 52. I don't feel like going to the library to study this afternoon. I (go) to the shopping mall than
to the library. 53. Do you know where Tom is? — He (be) in the canteen. He's usually there between twelve and
one. 54. She asked me what she (do) if any letters came for me while I was away. I told her that my brother would
come every day to pick up my mail. 55. When I rang the exchange and asked for the number the operator said, 'You
(not ring) the exchange! You (dial) direct!' However, he put me through. 56. Bill proposed that women (allow) to
join the club. 57. A:
This is Steve's tape recorder, isn't it? B: It (not be) his. He doesn't have a tape recorder. It (belong) to Lucy or to
Linda. They sometimes bring their tape recorders to class. 58. A: Why is Margaret in her room? B: I don't know.
She (do) her homework. 59. A: Did Ed really mean what he said yesterday? B: No, I don't think so. I think he (kid).
60. Johnny! You (not play) with sharp knives. 61. We (not go) to the concert if you don't want to, but it might be
good. 62. I'm taking my exams in two days. I know I (study) tonight, but I think I'll watch TV instead. 63. It is
essential that everyone (be able) to see the stage. 64.1 suggested that they (have) a hot breakfast and a cold supper.
65. You (love) your father. (It is natural and right.) — Why ... I (love) him? I've never seen him. 66. Remember that
we (be) at his place not later than eight. 67. Ann's birthday was on the 5 th, and now it's already the 8 th. Her
birthday card (send) a week ago. Maybe we (give) her a call to wish her a belated happy birthday. 68. The entire
valley (see) from their mountain home. 69. According to our teacher, all of our compositions (write) in ink. He won't
accept papers written in pencil. 70. Last semester's class was too large. It (divide) in half.
71. Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and now
it's 8.00 and there's no sign of him. Ann: He (forget) that we invited him. He is rather
forgetful. I (telephone) him yesterday to remind
him. (It was foolish of me not to telephone.) Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasn't been to this house before.
I (give) him directions. (I didn't give him directions,
which was stupid of me)
Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a puncture. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long. Ann: Or he (stop) for a
drink and (get) involved in an
argument. Jack's arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or he (run) out of petrol. Perhaps we (go) and look
for him.
XXII. Study and practise.
1. Dear Brenda,
Thanks for replying so quickly to my last letter. You must have been surprised when you received a letter from me.
I'm glad you will be able to put me up when I come to London. Could you possibly give me some directions for
your flat? I'm bound to get lost. Do I have to take a taxi from the station, or is it near enough to walk? Perhaps I
should buy a street map of Birmingham when I arrive. And is it all right if I bring my little brother, Tim? By the
way, congratulations on your new job. You must be very happy. Do you think that you made the right decision,
though? I think you should have gone to university like me. I'm sure that you would have enjoyed it. I have to study
a lot, but with any luck I should get a good job when I finish. I'd better post this letter now.
Best wishes, Sheila
2. Residents in the Blackwood area complained last night that they should have been warned about the escape of a
dangerous snake. The snake, a python, is three metres long, and can kill pets. 'I heard about it on the radio,' said Mrs
Agnes Bird. 'I had to lock my dog in the kitchen this morning, because I thought the snake could easily attack it.
Now I am not sure what I ought to do.' The snake, called Lulu, disappeared from Blackwood Zoo. 'It must have
found a hole in the wall, or it might have slipped out while the door was open,' said zoo director Basil Hart. Mr Hart
said that people needn't have been alarmed. 'A local radio must have mixed up its reports,' he went on. 'We found
Lulu a few minutes after we missed her. We had to climb a tree and bring her down. So you see, you should never
believe silly stories you hear on the radio!'
XXIII. Give general advice to people who want to:
a. improve their health.
b. get good grades.
c. improve their English.
d. make a good first impression.
e. find a job.
f. live life fully every day.
g. get married.
Say: Do this. Don't do that. You should do this. You shouldn't do that. You ought to do this. You don't have to do
that. You must do this. You must not do that. You can do this. You had better do that, etc.
XXIV. Directions: Go to a public place, a place where there are people whom you do not know (a cafeteria, store,
street corner, park, zoo, lobby, etc.). Choose three of these people to write a composition about. Using a paragraph
for each person, describe his/her appearance briefly and then make 'guesses' about this person: age, occupation,
personality, activities, etc.
Example I'm in a hotel lobby. I'm looking at a man who is wearing a blue suit and carrying a briefcase. He is talking
at the registration desk, so he must be registering to stay in the hotel. He couldn't be checking out, because people
have to check out at a different desk. He might be simply asking a question, but I doubt it. Judging from his clothes,
I'd say he's probably a businessman. But he could be something else. He might be a doctor, or a funeral director, or a
professor. He has salt-and-pepper hair and not too many wrinkles. He must be about 50 or 55. He doesn't have any
luggage with him. The porter must have taken his luggage. The hotel clerk just handed the man a key. Aha! I was
right. He is registering to stay at the hotel.
XXV. Work in pairs. Using the given situations, create dialogues of 10 to 20 sentences or more. Then present your
dialogues to the rest of the class. For each situation, the beginning of the dialogue is given. Try to include
appropriate modals in your conversation.
1. Situation: The two of you are roommates or a married couple. It is late at night. All of the lights are
turned off. You hear a strange noise. You try
to figure out what it might or must be, what
you should or should not do, etc. Dialogue: A: Psst. Are you awake?
B: Yes. What's the matter?
A: Do you hear that noise?
B: Yes, what do you suppose it is?
A: I don't know. It ...
B: ...
2. Situation: Your teacher is always on time, but today it is
fifteen minutes past the time class begins and he/she still isn't here. You try to figure out why he/she isn't here yet
and what you should do.
Dialogue: A: Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss/ Dr/Professor____should
have been here fifteen minutes ago. I wonder where s/he is. Why do you suppose s/he hasn't arrived yet? B: Well, ...
3. Situation: The two of you are planning to go on a picnic.
You are almost ready to leave when you hear a loud noise. It sounds like thunder. You are supposed to meet Nancy
and Paul at the park for your picnic.
Dialogue: A: Is the picnic basket all packed? B: Yes. Everything is ready to go. A: Good. Let's get going. B: Wait.
Did you hear that? A: ...
4. Situation: It is late at night. The weather is very bad.
Your eighteen-year-old son, who had gone to a party with some of his friends, was supposed to be home an hour
ago. (The two of you are either a married couple or a parent and his/her friend.) You are getting worried. You are
to figure out where he might be, what might or must have happened, and what you should do, if anything.
Dialogue: A: It's already____o'clock and____isn't home
yet. I'm getting worried.
B: So am I. Where do you suppose he is?
A: ...
XXVI. Choose three of the following topics. Write a short paragraph on each.
1. Write about when, where, and why you should (or should not) have done something in your life.
2. Write about a time in your life when you did something you did not want to do. Why did you do it? What could
you have done differently? What should you have done?
3. Look at your future. What will, might, should it be like? Write about what you should, must, can do now in order
to make your life what you want it to be.
4. Write about one embarrassing incident in your life. What
could, should, might you have done to avoid it?
5. Look at the world situation in relationships between nations. What could, should (or should not), must (or must
not) be done to improve understanding?
6. Choose one of the environmental problems people are considering today. What could, should, may, must, might
be done to solve this problem?
XXVII. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Ему необязательно об этом говорить. 2. Погода, безусловно, будет хорошая. 3. Он не принес книгу, хотя
ему бы следовало сделать это еще на прошлой неделе. 4. Неужели тебя не укачало? Море было таким
бурным. 5. Стоит ли ее ждать? Возможно, она вообще не придет. 6. Он спросил, может ли он положиться на
меня. 7. Ей придется пройти рентген. 8. Вряд ли она оценит его доброту. Она такая эгоистка. 9. Он сказал,
что она уже взрослая и должна помогать матери. 10. Мне не нужно было гото-
вить обед. Мы договорились пообедать сегодня в ресторане. 11. Она понимала, что он должен чувствовать.
12. Можно (вы можете) пройти много миль и никого не встретить.
13. Его зовут Добсон. Возможно, вы слышали его имя.
14. Не может быть, чтобы дверь осталась открытой. Я сама ее запирала. 15. Он предложил, чтобы собрание
провели в среду. 16. Не будете ли вы любезны немного подождать? Ваши документы еще не готовы. 17. Я
могу выучить это и обязательно (непременно) выучу. 18. Он, вероятно, получит телеграмму не позже, чем
через два часа. 19. Многое может показаться вам необычным в чужой стране. 20. Возможно, их не
предупредили, что их сын болен и что жизнь его находится в опасности. 21. Неужели он говорил это
серьезно? 22. Трудно было поверить, что туристы смогли подняться на такую высокую гору. Это, должно
быть, были смелые ребята. 23. Я должна с ним увидеться во вторник вечером. 24. Я не слышал, как подъехал
автомобиль. Вероятно, я еще спал. 25. Им следовало бы удержать его от такого неразумного шага. Они еще
пожалеют об этом. 26. Зря ты пришел. Собрание отменили. 27. Мне очень хотелось поехать в горы, но я не
осмеливался спросить разрешения у родителей, так как знал, что они будут против. 28. В конце концов мы
решили, что нам не следует там дольше оставаться и что нужно отправляться в горы. 29. Мы можем не
спешить. Поезд задерживается на два часа. 30. Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но
мы и слушать не хотели. 31. Он должен был приехать пятичасовым поездом. Неужели он опоздал на него?
— Откуда мне знать? 32. Я считал, что мне следует поставить вас в известность об этом. 33. Автобусом вы
туда не доедете. 34. Она не могла этого сделать! 35. Весьма странно, что он сказал это. 36. Ты мог бы быть
повнимательнее по отношению к своей сестре. 37. Делать все равно нечего, я могу (с таким же успехом)
лечь спать. 38. Удивительно, до чего он неразумен (глуп)! 39. Он, бывало, часто заходил к нам. 40. Вы
говорите, что не желаете этого делать, а я вам говорю, что вы это сделаете. 41. Мы должны подчиняться
законам. 42. Стоянка у этих ворот
запрещена. 43. Если он это говорит, то это, должно быть, правда. 44. Не пойти ли нам на прогулку? 45.
Сейчас они, наверное (пожалуй), уже там. 46. Это, наверное, наш поезд. 47. Ящик стола никак не
открывается. 48. Он выехал в 7.00. Он скоро здесь должен быть. 49. Студентам не полагается выносить
книги из читального зала. 50. Когда мне нужно прийти? 51. Не видно было ни облачка. 52. Их не было дома,
когда я приехал. Должно быть, они не ожидали меня. 53. Наши футболисты в хорошей форме. Они должны
выиграть матч. 54. Почему ты не аплодируешь? Тебе, очевидно, не нравится, как она поет. 55. Ребенок
ничего не хочет есть. — Возможно, он не голоден. 56. Они близкие друзья. Не может быть, чтобы она не
помогла ему. 57. Ваш сын мог бы быть поосторожнее. Он мог сбить моего ребенка. 58. Может быть (могло
быть и так, что), он и не слышал эту новость. 59. Он мог бы поспеть вовремя, если бы бежал быстрее. 60.
Пожалуйста, отправьте письмо без задержки. 61. После экзаменов вы должны сдать все учебники в
библиотеку. 62. По моему мнению, следует избрать ее, потому что она честная, умная и компетентная. 63.
Мы больше не можем ждать! Необходимо что-то немедленно предпринять!
§1. Exercise XVIII, p. 17
1. I think you would be able to persuade him if you tried. — I'll try to. 2. In spite of the storm he was able to reach
the shore. 3. He will be able to speak French fluently if he spends a couple of years in Paris. 4. When I was young I
could/was able to walk thirty kilometres in a day. 5. Why didn't you tell me before? — I could have bought this
book in London. 6. I wish you could join us. — I'm sorry but I can't. 7. Can/ Will you be able to take me to the
airport tomorrow? — Certainly. 8. You can buy this book at any shop. 9. I'll be able to translate this article if you
give me a good dictionary. 10. The weather was fine and we could walk in the park every morning. 11. The weather
is fine today and we could go out for a walk. 12. I wish my brother were at home. He would be able to help you. 13.
She had studied hard and she was able to pass the exam. 14. Were you able to repair/to fix the TV set yesterday? -
No, I'll try to do it today. 15. If you had asked me I could have helped you. I was free at that time. 16. We were able
to transport all the goods in ten days. 17. When he came to London he could/was able to conduct talks with the firms
without an interpreter. 18. He said that he wouldn't be able to give an answer until he thought over the matter
properly. 19.1 could come earlier, if necessary. 20. It was so dark we could see nothing. 21. You won't be able to
translate the headline without reading the whole article. 22. Although the pilot was badly hurt he was able to explain
what had happened. 23. The baby will be able to walk in a few weeks. 24. I can't pay you today. Can you wait till
tomorrow? 25. Since his accident he hasn't been able to leave the house. 26. Could you run the business by yourself?
27. He said that he had lost his passport and hadn't been able to/couldn't leave the country. 28.1 could have lent you
the money. Why didn't you ask me? 29. Winter here can be really cold. 30. We were able to get tickets for the match
yesterday. 31. We weren't able to/couldn't get tickets for
the match yesterday. 32. He could be very naughty when he was a boy. 33. Was he able to/Could he meet you at the
station? — Yes, but he wasn't able to/couldn't take us to the hotel. 34. It can be done and it must be done. 35. My
God! You could have been killed.
§2. Exercise XIII, p. 32
1. Yesterday the children were allowed to stay home from school because of the weather. 2. You can/may use my
library. 3. Doctor, can/may/could/ might I swim in the sea? — Yes, you can/may, but don't stay in the water too
long. 4. You can/may take any of these books. 5. You can't/aren't allowed to cross the street here. It is very
dangerous. 6. May I ask you a question? — Of course, you may, but I don't know whether I'll be able to answer it. 7.
The doctor said I might/ could phone him after 5.00. 8. Tell her that she can/may send me a telegram if she needs
my help. 9. May I take your dictionary? — I'm afraid not. I need it myself. 10. I think you'll be allowed to use the
laboratory. 11. Are you allowed to use a dictionary? 12. He has just been allowed to go home after three hours at the
police station. 13. Can the children go to the skating rink? — No, they can't, it's too late. 14. Ask the coach whether
we can see the gymnasium. 15. May I leave earlier today? — What's wrong? — My mother is ill. — Certainly, you
may leave right now. 16. Could I have a look at your composition? — I'm afraid not. I haven't finished it yet. 17. He
asked if he might leave the book with you. 18. Since his accident he hasn't been allowed to drive. 19. The boss said
that I might/could use his telephone. 20.1 had a visa so I was allowed to cross the frontier. 21. As a child he was
allowed to do exactly what he liked. 22. May they come and see you? 23. You can't/may not/mustn't smoke here. 24.
You're not allowed to talk during a test.
§3. Exercise IX, p. 50
1. Could you give me a consultation today? 2. Will you please fetch me a glass of water? 3. Will you please drop
this letter into a letter box on your way to work? 4. Can you help me translate this article? 5. Would you mind if I
invited my friends? — No, of course not. I'd be delighted. 6. May I switch on the TV set? — I'm afraid not. It's late
already and it's time to go to bed. 7. Will you tell me where I must get off to get to the stadium? 8. Can you call on
me tonight? 9. Could I take your opera glasses for a minute? I want to see the singer's face. 10. Would you help me
with my suitcases? — Certainly. 11. Will you please wait for me a little? — OK. 12. Could you take me to the
station? — Yes, I'd be glad to. 13. Could you help me move to my new flat? — I'm afraid I can't. I'm going away on
business. 14. Come after dinner, will you? 15. Would you mind if I opened the window? It's too stuffy in here. 16.
Can I sit beside you? — Please do. 17. Could you help me pack our things? — I'd be happy to. 18. Would you help
me choose a present for my wife? 19. Would you mind if I took your umbrella? — No, of course not. 20. Could you
take us sightseeing? — I'd be delighted. 21. Will you pass me the salt? — Here you are. 22. Can I leave my brief-
case in the cloak-room? — Sure. 23. Would you mind if I left my things here till I return? — No, not at all. 24.
Would you mind dining in the kitchen? It's too cold in the dining room. 25. Will you please phone the booking
agency and book the plane tickets? 26. Will you show me the train schedule please? 27. Would you mind if I
returned the rest of the money in a week? — No, that would be fine. 28. Would you mind if I used your computer?
29. Could you lend me some money? 30. Could you take my book to the library?
§7. Exercise XIII, p. 89
1. If you are in trouble you must send for me. 2.1 shall have to think it over and make up my mind. 3. But if you
come here to work you've got to work. 4. You must learn to face life seriously, Stephen. 5. You are to come down,
miss, this minute: your mother says so. 6. I told the story because someone had to talk. 7. I must get better. It is
costing Bart too much. 8. Again he had to work at night and again it was
slow business. 9. I was somewhat surprised to find so many people in the hall in which I was to speak. 10. I didn't
have to introduce them. They appeared to have met before. 11. You'll have to take your coat. It's getting cold. 12.
The lake was so near that even Alan who hated walking agreed that they needn't take his car. 13. He knew he did not
need to explain anything to anyone. 14. You are to hand in your test papers in ten minutes. 15. He is supposed to
know that. 16. You needn't have carried all these parcels yourself. The shop would have delivered them if you had
asked them. 17. You needn't take the umbrella. There isn't a cloud in the sky. 18. One of the guests sat down beside
me. I didn't have to be told who it was. 19. Sorry I'm late. I had to take the children to school. 20.You must use a
dictionary. I'm tired of correcting your spelling mistakes. 21. You needn't have changed buses. The number 8 bus
takes you straight to my house. 22. The notice said that visitors mustn't feed the animals. 23. The concert was to
have taken place on the fifth of February but it was put off because of the conductor's illness. 24. Children, you
mustn't play with matches. 25. Why did Tom have to leave work so early yesterday? 26. Don't you have to return
these books to the library today? Aren't they due? 27. The doctor said that the child must be well looked after. 28.
Can you wait for half an hour? — I'm afraid I can't. I have to be at home at 2 o'clock and I've got to hurry up
because it is 1.40. 29. If the pain has gone he needn't take the medicine. 30. He is good at languages and he doesn't
have to study hard. 31. Rudy was invited for dinner at Mary's house. After dinner they were to go to a movie. 32.
You are to do this work by Thursday. 33. I shan't have to take this exam. 34. If I hadn't prepared everything in good
time I would have to do it now. 35. He was to have left by the morning train but something kept him and he had to
go by the evening train. 36. You are not supposed to talk during a test. 37. He said I needn't pay the bill till the 31st.
38. Must I meet them at the station? — No, you needn't. You are to wait for them here. 39. Someone will have to see
her off. I shan't be able to do it.
§8. Exercise XX, p. 122
1. You ought never to have married me, David. It was a great mistake. 2. I'm sorry. I shouldn't have said that. 3.
You'd better stay at home. It looks like rain (raining). 4. I should have invited him too. 5. I think you ought to show
more respect for your elders. 6. Morris said that if it was a duty it ought to be done. 7. You ought to be ashamed of
yourself for using such wicked words. 8. She deserted me. She ought to pay for it. 9. You ought to have chosen a
more suitable time to tell me. 10. When is he going back? — How should I know? 11. It's his own fault. He ought to
have divorced you when he could. 12. You should buy this dress. It suits you. 13. You'd better not go there alone.
14. Well, you were right. I shouldn't have done it that way. 15. Why didn't you come yesterday? You ought to have
phoned me if you were busy. 16.1 wanted a copy of the letter, so I typed it twice. — You needn't have typed it
twice. You could have used a carbon. 17. You shouldn't have mentioned that in his presence. 18. You needn't phone
her. She has already come. 19. You shouldn't spoil your eyes. Switch on the light. 20. You should speak to the
manager once again before you go to London. 21. You'd better go and speak to him now while he is still here. 22.
We'd better not tell Ann. She'd get angry. 23. He's a lawyer and he ought to know such things. 24. They must do as
they are told. 25. You ought to make your own living. 26. You mustn't strike a match. The room is full of gas. 27.
He said that I was not to/mustn't open the door. 28. Should she take up sports seriously? — I think so. 29. You look
tired. You should go out of town for the weekend. 30. You mustn't get up so early. You'll wake up everybody. 31.
He said that we were to meet him at the station. 32.1 thought you ought to know about it. 33. They shouldn't allow
parking here: the street is too narrow. 34. You have to wear a uniform on duty, don't you? 35. She said that I
shouldn't have acted like that. 36. She should be told the news as soon as possible. 37. She should have been told the
news a long time ago.
§9. Exercise XXII, p. 153
1, Where's Tom? — He may/might/could be in the library. 2.1 wonder why Bill isn't here. — He may/might/could
still be waiting for a bus. 3. Do you think the plane will be on time? — I don't know. It may/might/could be delayed
by fog. 4. He may/might not be driving the car himself. 5. I wonder how Tom learnt about Ann's engagement. — He
may/ might/could have heard it from John. 6. He may/might emigrate. 7. It's five o'clock. The meeting
may/might/could have finished already; let's wait a little, he may/might come soon. 8. He may/might/could have
seen her at the concert, but he may/might/could have been mistaken. He's too shortsighted. 9. He may/might/could
have called on me yesterday, but I wasn't at home. 10. She may/might not have received our telegram. 11.1 thought
if his watch was there, the money might/could be there too. 12. The TV set may/might/could have been repaired
already and we may/might be able to see the film. 13. I may/might not be able to go to the concert today. 14. Victor
and Helen aren't at home. They may/might/ could be in the pub. 15. It may/might rain towards evening. 16. They
may/might not have been in the town yesterday. 17.1 may/might/could have been listening to music. I didn't hear the
telephone ring. 18. He may/might not have noticed you, that's why he passed without greeting you. 19. She
may/might/could have been hurt by your tone. You ought to/should be more tactful. 20. Don't take the book to the
library; you may/might need it for your report. 21. She wasn't at the party. She may/might not have been invited. 22.
Why isn't he here? — He may/might not know how to get here. 23. She was afraid she might have forgotten to
switch off the electric iron before she left the house. 24. They may/ might not have come yet. 25. He may/might not
believe you. 26. He said that he might hire a car. 27. I knew that we might have to wait at the frontier. 28. Tom
may/might lend me the money. 29. Do you think he may/might not be able to pay? 30. They may/might/could be
working at the same problem. 31. Good news! I may be offered a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm
10. Exercise VI, p. 167
1. He has a house in London and another in Paris, so he must be rich. 2. I keep meeting him on the bus. He must
live/must be living nearby. 3. He must have taken sleeping pills last night. He didn't wake up till lunch time. 4. What
explosion? I didn't hear any. — You must have heard it! The whole town heard it. 5.1 waited under the clock! — So
did I, but I didn't see you! We must have been waiting under different clocks. 6. There's a lot of noise from upstairs.
It must be Tom. — Why should it be Tom? Other people use that flat too. 7. You haven't eaten anything since
morning. You must be hungry. 8. John has got married! — You must be joking/kidding! 9. You must be tired after
the journey. 10. I hear that your examinations are next week. You must be studying hard at the moment. 11. The
phone rang but I didn't hear it. I must have been sleeping. 12. I made a lot of noise when I came home. You must
have heard me. 13. I haven't seen Jim for ages. He must have gone away. 14. When I woke up this morning, the light
was on. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 15. She knew about our plans. She must have overheard our
conversation. 16. The letter must have been delivered in the morning. 17. Look! There's something lying on the
table. He must have left a note for you. 18. She must be about twenty-five now. She was at school with my sister.
19. This article must have been written five years ago. 20. I did not see Jim but I knew he must be waiting
somewhere. 21. What a wonderful TV set! It must have been expensive. 22.1 wonder who took the money. — It
must have been Tom. He's the only one who was there. 23. I waited about half an hour, and was just thinking that
something must have happened to Kathy when she arrived in a taxi.
§10. Exercise IX, p. 169
A. 1. Evidently the students didn't know (The students must have been unaware) that the timetable had been
Nobody had told them. 2. He was surprised to hear that. He must have heard nothing of it before. 3. You must have
been unjust to him. 4. Evidently, he didn't manage to persuade her to come with us. 5. He must have had no time for
you so far. 6. They must have failed to meet him at the station. 7. He must have failed to recognize me, that's why he
didn't come up to me. 8. You must have . made no attempt to do it, otherwise you wouldn't have said that it was
easy. 9. The foreigner must have mispronounced the name of the dish, and the waiter brought him another dish. 10.
Evidently you haven't been there for a long time. 11. She must have been told nothing about it. 12. They must have
missed the train as they left the house too late. 13. He must have never guessed why we were laughing. 14. You
must have put the key in the wrong place, so I couldn't get into the house. 15. They must have been misinformed.
They were to have come today. 16. He must have had no chance to talk to her before. 17. You shouldn't be angry
with him. Evidently he didn't want to hurt you. 18. There must be no one at home now. 19. Evidently she doesn't
realize her error.
B. 1. It is not likely to rain tomorrow. 2. Evidently I shall be sent away on business. 3. He's sure to pass the exam. 4.
He is not likely to wait for her arrival. 5. He is unlikely to finish the work by Friday. 6. She is sure to help you. 7.
The director is not likely to receive her tomorrow. 8. She is not likely to take the child with her. 9. She is not likely
to come. 10. It is sure to rain today. 11. Our team are not likely to win the match. 12. I am not likely to see Mary. I
shan't probably be in Minsk at that time. 13. Could I talk to you tomorrow morning? — I shall probably be busy in
the morning. 14. He will probably try to get tickets for the cup game.
§10. Exercise XIX, p. 174
1. Can/Could it be true? 2. It can't/couldn't be true. 3. Can/ Could they have lost the match? 4. They can't/couldn't
lost the match. 5. Can/Could he believe that? 6. She can't/ couldn't have told you that. 7. She can't/couldn't have
failed to tell you that. 8. He can't/couldn't have said that. 9. They can't/couldn't have finished the work. They started
it only yesterday. 10. Can/Could they have quarrelled again? 11. He can't/ couldn't have got lost. He has been here
several times.
12. Can/Could he have used the car during/in my absence?
13. Doesn't she like ballet? 14. Can/Could they have been waiting for us all this time? 15. They can't/couldn't be
close friends. 16. He can't/couldn't have given up music. 17. She can't/couldn't have made a mistake. 18. Can/Could
the sisters be so much alike? 19. He can't/couldn't have failed the exam. 20. You can't/ couldn't have got hungry. We
had a good dinner two hours ago. 21. They can't/couldn't have arrived already. The train is to arrive at 7. 22. Hasn't
he invited you to the wedding? 23. She can't/couldn't have been so foolish. 24. He can't/couldn't have failed to see it.
25. You can't/couldn't have been sent to me. I have nothing to do with this. 26. Can/Could he have seen them? 27.
Where can/could he have seen them? 28. They can't/couldn't be waiting ; for us. 29. Can/Could they be waiting for
us? 30. Who can/ could they be waiting for? 31. Can/Could you have written it yourself? 32. He can't/couldn't have
been unaware of the danger. 33. Didn't he phone you yesterday? He said he was going to. 34. Kate is late. What
can/could have happened to her? 35. The children are not at home. Where can/could they have gone?
§10. Exercise XXXIV, p. 186
1. They must be speaking German, but I don't understand much. 2. It must have taken her a lot of time to get here. 3.
He is not likely to object to our proposal. 4. The match is not likely to take place. 5. The accident must have
happened due to his carelessness. 6. He must have failed to notice her leave the hall. 7. We must have been driving
about an hour but the camp is nowhere to be seen. 8. He said that I must know her. I met her at the conferences. 9.
Probably she
hadn't been sent an invitation card, that's why she didn't come. 10. His mother is in hospital again. She must be
seriously ill. 11. He must be waiting for us at the Institute.
12. He must have forgotten that he promised to come. 13. Pro-
bably he doesn't want to interfere. 14. He must have been sleeping for about three hours. 15. The parcel is likely to
be sent before the fifth of July. 16. You must have never put on this dress. It's quite new. 17. They must have
quarrelled. I haven't seen him at our house lately. 18. Where is Nick? — He must have gone sightseeing. 19. She
must be staying with her friends. She wrote that was going to spend her holiday with them. 20. Where is the letter?
— It must have been posted already. 21. He must have failed to recognize her. She has changed so much. 22. The
goods must have been packed very carelessly. 23. They must have been informed about it some days ago. 24. She
must have been glad to see you. 25. I don't see the documents anywhere. He must have taken them with him. 26.
Probably it wasn't done in time. 27. It is quiet in the house. The children must be at school. 28. She has the most
beautiful garden in the village. She must be proud of it. 29. She can't/couldn't have married him. She didn't use to
like him. 30. Can/Could she have gone to the match? I thought she didn't like football. 31. Can/ Could you have
been sleeping all this time? It's three o'clock already. 32. He can't/couldn't have left without asking permission. It
isn't like him. 33. She can't/ couldn't have said that. She is always so tactful. 34. He must have already left. -
/He can't/couldn't have left without seeing me. 35. Can/Could he have received my letter already? 36. Can/Could he
have failed to receive my letter? 37. They can't/couldn't be working in the garden now. It is raining heavily. 38. No,
I don't believe it, she can't/couldn't have deceived me. 39. Your friends can't/couldn't have failed to help you. 40.
Can/Could he have met her before? 41. Can/Could you be indifferent to politics? 42. He can't/couldn't have broken
his promise. 43. They can't/couldn't have noticed us. We were rather far from them. 44. They can't/couldn't have
failed to notice us. We were quite near. 45. Evidently he was not informed
that the meeting had been put off. 46. Evidently the figures haven't been checked. 47. He must have received our
telegram and he may come tomorrow. 48. This book may/might have seemed boring to him, but he must have read it
carefully as he remembers all the details. 49. He said that he might return in May. 50. If all the measures had been
taken, this might not have happened. 51. Can/Could he have said that? He must have been very angry with you. 52.
Probably my words didn't convince him. He went on arguing. 53. You needn't have gone there. They could/might
have come themselves. 54. Can/Could you have believed them? They must have played a joke on you. 55. I can't
understand why Ann didn't come to the meeting. She can't/ couldn't have forgotten about it; she must have fallen ill.
56. She can't/ couldn't have read this book in two days; she may/might/ could only have looked it through. 57. I
can't/couldn't have lost the ticket, I might/may/could have put it into my bag.
58. He couldn't get the book, because the library was closed.
59. He can't/couldn't have got the book; the library was closed. 60. Where's the key? — I don't know. Olga might/
could/may have taken it by mistake. — She can't/couldn't have taken it. She had nothing in her hands when she was
leaving. 61. He may/might not have been there yesterday. 62. Could/Can he have been there yesterday? 63. He can't/
couldn't have been there yesterday. 64. Can/Could he have failed to prove his point of view? 65.1 couldn't help
thinking about it.
§11. Exercise VII, p. 207
1. It's 5.30. The guests should/ought to be here soon. 2. I think you've understood what you have (are) to do. This
homework shouldn't/oughtn't to take you too long. 3. Do you think Rita will pass the exam? — Well, she should/
ought to pass it. She has studied hard. 4. Do you think Rita has passed the exam? — She should/ought to have
passed it. She has studied hard. 5. My question might/may puzzle you, but still I'd like to ask it. 6. He must have told
them nothing
about it. 7. You should/ought to read your composition once again. There must be some mistakes there. 8. You
shouldn't have talked to him like that. He might/could have been hurt. 9. The party ought to/should be interesting.
The students have been preparing it for such a long time. 10. It's not funny at all. You ought to be more serious. 11.
He should/ought to have received my letter. I sent it a week ago. 12. There is no answer. He may/might not have
returned from work yet. 13. I could/ might have done it long ago if I had known that it was so urgent. 14. It's a story
by O'Henry. It ought to/should be interesting. 15. There must be nobody there. 16. They can't/ couldn't have returned
from the zoo. It's their first visit there and they may/might stay there for a long time. 17. They may/ might have been
at the party but I didn't see them. 18. Where is my key? — You must have lost it. — I can't/couldn't have lost it. I
may/might/could have left it in the pocket of my overcoat. 19. They were afraid that they might be asked why Tom
hadn't come with them. 20. He can't/couldn't have cheated them, he is an honest man. 21. You shouldn't have
bothered the professor. I could/might have given you all the necessary information. 22. He is her brother. He ought
to/should know her address. 23. It's 10 a.m. They should/ought to have already arrived in London. 24. I'm to take
this exam in a week. 25. Though it's a very unpleasant mission I feel I ought to tell you the truth. 26. She shouldn't
have said such things in her child's presence. 27. I saw this book not long ago. It should/ought to be here, on the top
shelf. 28. Do you think you'll come home late tonight? — I don't think so. I should/ ought to be home at the usual
§12. Exercise VI, p. 212
1. You might/could haven given your sister a present. Why didn't you? She was offended. 2. You might/could come
on time. Why are you always late? 3. You might/could help me carry this heavy suitcase, Nick. 4. At last you have
come! You might/could have come earlier, you knew I was ill. 5. You might/could have returned earlier and spent
the evening
with the child. 6. You weren't all that busy. You might/ could have helped us. 7. He might/could do it for you. It isn't
difficult for him. 8. You might/could be more polite to her. 9. You might/could have let me know that the meeting
was put off. Why didn't you? 10. He might/could have said something in my favour. 11. She was worried. You
might/ could have phoned her. 12. You might/could have waited for me five minutes. It isn't my fault that I was late.
13. I may/might as well be off. 14. I may/might just as well stay home. 15. The medicine didn't do me any good. I
might as well have drunk water instead of it. 16.1 may/might as well wait a little. 17. I may/might as well send him a
telegram. 18.1 didn't enjoy the outing at all. I might just as well have stayed in town.
§13. Exercise VI, p. 219
1.1 will lend you my typewriter if you need it. 2. Would you like a cup of coffee? — Thank you. I'd prefer a glass of
tea. 3. Shall I buy this dictionary for you? I'll be at the bookshop tomorrow. — I'd be much obliged to you. 4. Shall I
call for your umbrella on the way home? — Please do. 5. I'll look after your house while you are away. — Thank
you. That's very nice of you. 6. I'm going to the country tomorrow. Would you like to join me? — Willingly. 7.
Would you like to go to the theatre with me? — I'd love to. 8. Shall I help you with your homework or will you
manage yourself? 9. Shall I lay the table? — Please do.
§14. Exercise VI, p. 223
1. When we got into the car, he said, 'We could go for a drive now. There is a place near here I'd like to show you.'
2. I'd rather not tell you what I know about him. 3. I do not really want to go to the party. I'd rather stay at home and
talk to my parents. 4. He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 5. He'd rather not leave yet. 6. I'd rather read
the letter first. 7. What shall we do tonight? — We could go
to "the cinema. — Good idea. 8. How much shall I pay the porter? — It's up to you to decide. 9. Shall we dine out
today? — I'd love to. 10. Where shall we stay in Moscow? — We could stay at the Minsk hotel. It is a very good
hotel and it is located in the centre of the city 11. Shall we go out of town on Sunday? — I'd be delighted. 12. What
shall we do now? Shall we watch TV? — I'd rather go for a walk than watch TV. 13. I have bought tickets for the
eight o'clock show. — All right, where and when shall we meet? — Outside the cinema at 7.40.
§15. Exercise VI, p. 233
1.1 will do the work in time. I promise you. 2. I will make you work. 3. If you do it again I will punish you. 4. Stop
swearing or I will call the police. 5. I will finish typing the documents even if I have to stay up the whole night. 6. I \
will certainly follow your advice. 7.1 won't leave until you listen to me. 8. He tried to explain himself but I wouldn't
listen. 9. Fetch another piece of chalk. This chalk won't write. 10.1 tried to open the window but it wouldn't open.
11. This knife won't cut. 12. The pen won't write. 13. The kettle won't boil. 14. He made two or three attempts to
strike his lighter, but it wouldn't work. 15.1 asked his wife what was wrong with his, but she wouldn't answer. 16.1
have paid my money and I will stay here. 17. He turned off the light but sleep would not come. 18.1 won't do what
you ask me to do. 19. There is something wrong with her stomach but she won't consult a doctor. 20. We were
hopefully looking at the sky but the sun wouldn't rise. 21. What's wrong? — The key won't turn in the lock. 22. In
spite of all our efforts the car wouldn't start.
§16. Exercise IX, p. 239
1. He would spend most evenings playing chess. 2. He would often fall asleep with a book in his hands and
spectacles on his nose. 3. After work he would wait for us at the bridge. 4. When I was a student, I would spend the
weekends in the
library. 5. John is very fond of reading. He will sit for hours reading books. 6. In summer we would go to the forest
to pick mushrooms and berries. 7. He will phone me late at night when I'm already sleeping.
§17. Exercise III, p. 244
1. You shall not do it. Remember that! 2. You shall answer for what you did! 3. Don't worry. You shall get your
money back. 4. Well, when we have found out anything you shall hear about it. 5. It can be done and it shall be
done. 6. If you behave like that you shall be punished. 7. If you study hard you shall have a new bicycle. 8. You can
work here. You shan't be disturbed. I will see to it. 9. You shall not be kept long. They will only check your
documents. 10. You shall be sorry! 11. I'll be much obliged to you if you will wait for me.
§18. Exercise V, p. 248
1. We might be late. I suggest that we should take a taxi.
2. My husband insists that we should spend our holiday in Paris. 3. My father demanded that I should give up
smoking. 4. The doctor recommended that I should spend the summer at the seaside. 5. Mary suggested that we
should buy a present for John who was soon leaving the firm. 6. My father agreed that I should take part in the trip.
7. After supper he suggested they should go to a movie but she refused. 8. They all agreed that something should be
done about the boy. 9. He insisted that I should take a holiday. 10. Well, I thought it was too absurd that we should
live next door and not speak. 11. It is important that you should mention it. 12. I'm sorry that you should think so
badly of me. 13. It was strange that at her age she should be so indifferent to parties. 14. I was surprised that he
should have failed the exam. 15. It is necessary that she should come earlier. 16. He was pleased that Kate should
have called the child after him. 17. If it should rain, I'll stay at home. 18. Should she come, I'll let you know. 19. If
anyone should call, tell them I'll be back by 5 o'clock.
Revision. Exercise XXVII, p. 285
I. He needn't be told (about it). 2. The weather is sure to be fine. 3. He hasn't brought the book, though he should
have done it last week. 4. Didn't you become seasick? The sea was rough. 5. Should we wait for her? She may/might
not come at all. 6. He asked if he could depend on me. 7. She will have to be X-rayed. 8. She is not likely to
appreciate his kindness. She is so selfish! 9. He said that she was already grown up and she must/ought to help her
mother. 10. I didn't have/ need to cook dinner. We are to dine at a restaurant today.
II. She knew what he must be feeling. 12. You may walk miles without seeing anyone. 13. His name is Dobson.
You may/might have heard his name. 14. The door can't/couldn't have been left unlocked. I had locked it myself. 15.
He suggested that the meeting should be held on Wednesday. 16. Would you mind waiting for a while? Your
documents aren't ready yet. 17.1 can and I will learn it. 18. The telegram ought to reach him within two hours. 19.
Many things may seem strange to you in a foreign country. 20. They may/ might not have been warned that their son
is ill and his life is in danger. 21. Can/Could he have meant it? 22. It was hard to believe that the tourists had been
able to climb such a high mountain. They must have been brave boys. 23. I am to see him on Tuesday night. 24. I
didn't hear the car drive up. I must have been sleeping. 25. They should have kept him from taking such a foolish
step. They shall be sorry about it. 26. You needn't have come. The meeting is cancelled/ called off. 27. I was eager
to go to the mountains but I didn't dare to ask my parents' permission, as I knew that they wouldn't let me go. 28.
Finally we decided that we shouldn't stay there any longer and that we should go to the mountains. 29. We needn't
hurry. The train is delayed for two hours. 30. He said that he would have to leave in a few days but we wouldn't hear
of it. 31. He was to have come by the five o'clock train. Can/Could he have missed it? — How should I know? 32. I
thought I ought to let you know about it. 33. You cannot go there by bus. 34. She can't/couldn't
have done it! 35. It is strange that he should have said it. 36. You might/could be more considerate to you sister. 37.
There's nothing to do, so I may as well go to bed. 38. It is surprising that he should be so foolish! 39. He would often
call on us. 40. You say you will not do it, but I say you shall (do it). 41. We must obey the laws. 42. You can't
(mustn't) park in front of this gate. 43. If he says so it must be true. 44. Shall we go out for a walk? 45. They should
be there by now. 46. This'll/must be our train. 47. The drawer will not open. 48. He left at 7.00. He ought to be here
soon. 49. The students are not supposed to take the books out of the reading room. 50. When am I to come? 51. Not
a cloud was to be seen. 52. They weren't at home when I came. Evidently they hadn't been expecting me. 53. Our
football players are in good shape. They are sure/bound to win the match. 54. Why aren't you applauding? Evidently
you don't like her singing. 55. The child won't eat anything. — He may not be hungry. 56. They are close friends.
She can't/couldn't have failed to help him. 57. Your son might have been more careful. He could have knocked
down my child. 58. He might not have heard the news. 59. He might/could have arrived in time if he had run
quicker. 60. Will you please post the letter without delay? 61. After the exams you are to take all the books to the
library. 62. In my opinion, she should be elected because she is honest, clever, and competent. 63. We can't wait any
longer! Something must be done immediately!