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A.

THEORIES OF ACIDS AND BASES

BASED ACIDS BASES


ON
a substance that dissociate in water to form a substance that dissociate in water to form
hydrogen ions (H+) hydroxide ions (OH–)
Arrhenius example : example :
theory NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, NH4OH
HCl, H2S, H2SO4, H2CO3, CH3COOH, HCOOH

Proton (H+) donors Proton (H+) acceptors


[H+] [H+]
Acid Conjugate base Base Conjugate acid

example :

Bronsted-
Lowry
theory
Advantages of Bronsted Lowry Acid Base theory :
1. The solvent must not water
2. The compound abilities to act as an acid or a base (It is called amphoteric or amphiprotic
substances)

Disadvantages of Bronsted Lowry Acid Base theory :


1. It can’t use solvent which has not proton
2. It’s difficult to determine the acid base strength

an electron pair acceptor an electron pair donor


example :

Lewis
theory

QUESTIONS
S
1. Determine conjugate acid of :
a. H2O :
b. NH3 :
c. HCO3– :
d. SO42– :
e. CH3COOH :

2. Determine conjugate pair of :


a. CH3COOH + H2SO4  CH3COOH2+ + HSO4–

b. HCO3– + NH4+  NH3 + H2CO3

c. HNO3 + H2O  NO3 – + H3O+

d. CH3NH2 + HCl  CH3NH3+ + Cl–

e. S2– + H2O  OH – + HS–

5. Draw and use the Lewis theory to show that the following reactions are acid-base reactions :
a. BF3 + F– → BF4– b. NH2 – + H+ → NH3
B. pH SCALE

A set of numbers from 0 – 14 which is used to indicate


whether a solution is acidic, neutral or alkaline/ basic

[H+] x [OH–] = 10–14


pH = – log [H+(aq)]
pOH = – log [OH– (aq)]
pH = 14 – pOH
[H+] = 10–n → pH = n
[H+] = a.10–n → pH = n – log a

Strong acid

[H+] = M x valence M (molarity)

Solid form
ACIDS
Weak acid 1000 mass of solute
M= x
volume of solution Mr
[H+] = √𝐊 𝐚 𝐱 𝐌
Liquid form

[H+] =  x M M=
10 x density x percentage
Mr

Strong base

valence = the number of H+ ion



[OH ] = M x valence the number of OH– ion

BASES  = ionization degree


Weak base
Ka = acid equilibrium constant
Kb = base equilibrium constant

[OH ] = √𝐊 𝐚 𝐱 𝐌
[OH– ] =  x M

Example :

We have a solution of 100 mL of ethanoic acid/ vinegar/ CH3COOH 0.2 M (Ka = 1.8 x 10–5). What is its pH value?

CH3COOH → weak acid

[H+] = √𝐊 𝐚 𝐱 𝐌

= √1.8𝑥10−5 𝑥0.2 = 3.6 x 10–6 = 36 x 10–7 = 6 x 103.5

pH = 3.5 – log 6
Two grams of NaOH is dissolved into 500 mL of solution. Calculate the pH of solution! (Mr of NaOH = 40)

1000 2
M= x = 0.1
500 40

NaOH → strong base

[OH–] = M x valence

= 0.1 x 1 = 10–1

pOH = 1 → pH = 14 -1 = 13

QUESTIONS

1. The concentration of H+ ion in the blood sample of a diabetic is 7.90 x 10– 8 M. What the concentration of OH–
ions in the sample? Is the blood of the diabetic acidic, basic or neutral?
2. What is the pH value of the following solutions of :
a. 0.001 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) d. 0.02 M potassium hydroxide (KOH)
b. 0.1 M HF ( = 0.08) e. 0.1 M ammonia (NH3), Kb = 1.8 x 10– 5
c. 0.1 M formic acid HCOOH (Ka = 1.8 x 10– 4)
3. The ionization degree of HA 0.1 M solution is 25%. Calculate pH and acid equilibrium constant (Ka) for HA
solution!
4. When 0.1 M formic acid is dropped with indicator will provide the same color with HCl 2 x 10–3 M. What is the
value of acid equilibrium constant (Ka) of formic acid?
5. If pH solution of 0.15 M C6H5COOH is 3 – log 3, calculate pH solution of 0.06 M C6H5COOH!
6. 3.7 gram Ca(OH)2 Mr = 74 is dissolved into 5 liter water, calculate pH of solution !
7. 3.36 liter (STP) of NH3 gas flows into 1 liter water. Kb NH3 = 10–5, determine the pH!
8. Calculate the mass of NaOH (Mr = 40) needed to make 100 mL solution with pH 11 + log 2!
9. Calculate the mass of Ca(OH)2 (Mr = 74) needed to make 200 mL solution with pH 13 – log 2!
log 2 = 0.3, log 5= 0.7
10. A student wants to make base solution which has pH is 11 + log 5. He dissolves 29 mg of strong base which has
2 valences into water in Erlenmeyer flask. If the molecule relative mass of base is 58, determine the volume of
solution formed!