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Conceptual Design for Tidal Energy Power Plant: A Supplementary Power Generation Plant for

Residential Use in Neighboring Areas of


Mati City

Presented to
the Mechanical Engineering Department of
School of Engineering and Architecture
Ateneo de Davao University
E. Jacinto St. Davao City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for ME 520: Power Plant Design Lab

Submitter by:

Francis Lawrenz D. Guevarra


Cyrus B. Matunhay
Vanne Jo V. Pajo
Matthew John S. Sy

Submitted to:
Engr. Geoffrey L. Rodriguez

MARCH 2019
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study


Tidal power is not a new concept and has been used in Britain and France since at least the
11th Century for milling grains.[ CITATION God04 \l 13321 ] Oceans cover over 70% of the earth's
surface and the energy contained in waves and tidal movements is enormous. It has been
estimated that if less than 0.1% of the renewable energy available within the oceans could be
converted into electricity it would satisfy the present world demand for energy more than five times
over.[ CITATION Fel07 \l 13321 ]
However, tidal power remains well below its potential in terms of application. Presently, tidal
plants exist only in France since 1967 (La Rance), Canada since 1984 (Annapolis Royal), and in
China (the Bay of Kislaya and Jiangxia Creek). Many tidal projects are being considered today
including the seven projects in England, Derby Hydro Power of Western Australia: (48 MW);
Corova, south coast of Alaska; Southern portion of Chile; Gujarat, India: (1000 MW); Mexico: (500
MW); the Philippines: (2200 MW) and China: (20,000 MW).[ CITATION Tid09 \l 13321 ].
The usual technique in harnessing the tide is to dam a tidally affected estuary or inlet, allowing
the incoming tide to enter the inlet unimpeded and then using the impounded water to generate
power. The main barriers to uptake of the technology are environmental concerns and high capital
costs. In recent years, these problems have been mitigated considerably by design, by
involvement of experts and local communities in the identification and installation of new plant, and
by a growing understanding of how to achieve more sustainable energy development. However
there have been very few studies in the academic literature that analyze this process of how a new
form of sustainable energy has been changing to become more mainstream and acceptable.
[ CITATION Yas19 \l 13321 ]
Generally speaking, it is quite possible to harness energy from the tides; however, the
technology is not yet practically and commercially available; there are also environmental
concerns. Therefore, until now, tidal power generating issues have not been substantively
addressed. The attempts to achieve environmental resolution will be the primary focus of this
paper. The other major problem of high capital costs will also be addressed.[ CITATION Ric04 \l
13321 ] Like hydro schemes, tidal power has high capital costs due to the large scale of
engineering involved but involves low operating costs.
Tidal power has the extra problem of having to be located in a coastal environment where
engineering is likely to be even more costly due to the changeability of the coast. [ CITATION
DrM00 \l 13321 ]However, there is no research that has been conducted yet where the coastal
engineering infrastructure is already present like Mati City, Davao Oriental Philippines famously
known for its high wave and active waters. This paper suggests a design on how tidal power can
be harnessed in Mati City.
1.2 Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this research paper is to design and determine the feasibility of a tidal power
plant in Mati, Davao Oriental, Philippines.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research study is to create a conceptual design for a tidal power plant
intended for residential use in Mati City. The following are the subobjectives that will be achieved at
the end of the research:

a) To design and model the tidal power plant using theoretical calculation and Solidworks 2018,
b) To generate at a total theoretical costing on the tidal power plant,
c) To create a theoretical tariff base on total cost and average load and
d) To conclude the overall applicability and feasibility of establishing tidal energy power plant to
Mindanao areas.
1.4 Significance of the Study

This research paper is intended to provide necessary information for applicability and feasibility
of establishing tidal energy power plant in Mati City. Moreover, designing and studying renewable
energy is in-line with Ateneo de Davao Vision-Mission statement.

1.5 Scope and Limitations

This study will only be in scope within the nearby areas of Mati City. The assumed average
load will be determined through online government data and all data will be on year 2020 data basis.
The benchmark for costing for equipments is the cheapest but reliable and available online. Land and
sea area costing will be neglected since this type of data is not available online. Efficiencies on
calculation will range from 70% to 80%. Tariff calculation will base on a 50-year return of investment
and on per year analysis.

1.6 Definition of Terms


a) Renewable Energy – also called as “green” or “clean” energy which are is collected from
renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight,
wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
b) Non-Renewable Energy – is a source of energy that eventually run out. Most sources of non-
renewable energy are fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil.
c) Tidal Power- A way of harnessing power or energy through tidal waves.
d) Tidal Barrage-Tidal barrage is a structure generally built across the mouth of the estuary
through which the water flows in and out of the basin. The tidal barrage has sluice gates that
allows the flow of water in and out of the basin. Also referred as dam.
e) Sluice Gates-Sluice gates are used when filling or emptying the basin of a tidal power plant.
f) Waterwheel-Waterwheels are machines that convert the energy of flowing or falling water into
power that can be used to do other tasks.
g) Power Substation- a part of an electrical generation, transmission and distribution system.
Substation transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, aor perform anyof several other
important functions.
h) Tariff- is a method of charging a consumer for consuming electrical power.
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter will discuss the important literatures related to the conceptual design of this study.

2.1 Tides

Tides are the periodic motion of the waters of the sea due to the inter-attractive forces between
the celestial bodies. [ CITATION Nic08 \l 13321 ]Tides are very long-period waves that move through the
oceans in response to the forces exerted by the moon and sun. Tide and current are not the same.
Tide is the vertical rise and fall of the water and tidal current is the horizontal flow. In simple words, the
tide rises and falls, the tidal current floods and ebbs. The principal of tidal forces is generated by the
Moon and Sun. The Moon is the main tide-generating body. Due to its greater distance, the Sun’s
effect is only 46 percent of the Moon’s.[ CITATION Sha11 \l 13321 ]

2.2 Tidal Energy

Tidal energy is one of the new and evolving technologies, which is commercially still not viable
and still in Research and Development stage. Tidal energy is inexhaustible and can be considered as
a renewable source of energy source. It is an advantage because it is less vulnerable to climate
change; while the other sources are vulnerable to the random changes in climate. The review given by
the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU) on the Tidal Stream Energy was the initial attempt to
estimate the energy from tidal stream resources in the UK.[ CITATION ETS93 \l 13321 ] The points
marked by the ESTU were later studied and modified in 2001 in a document submitted to the UK
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) by Binnie, Black and Veatch.

Most of the existing technology used for tidal energy conversion is from the wind power
industry.[ CITATION Bah07 \l 13321 ] United Kingdom is capable to produce over 20% of its electrical
needs from its tidal resources.[ CITATION Cal06 \l 13321 ] It is also a fact that the studies carried out so
far in predicting the energy that can be extracted from tides, has only focused on the past and present
availability of the energy. But it is also important to consider and address the effects of exploiting the
renewable energy sources for energy extraction. There has to be an understanding among the
developers as to when and where to stop the energy extraction so that there is minimum, or no
disturbance caused to the regular natural phenomenon.
2.3 World Tidal Energy Data

The necessity to reduce CO2 emissions and gradual increase in cost of fossil fuel has resulted
in a significantly increased use of tidal energy. Today, tidal energy around the world is increasingly
being considered as a potential source of renewable energy.[ CITATION Bry07 \l 13321 ] Extreme tides
are found in many locations across the globe. Some of them are: the Pentland Firth, Scotland; the
Severn estuary; the Aleutians; the fjords of Norway; the Philippines; the Straits of Messina, Italy; the
Bosporus, Turkey; the English Channel; Indonesia, and the straits of Alaska and British Columbia.

The first major hydroelectric plant was put to operation in 1967 that used the energy of the tides to
generate electricity. It produced about 540,000 kW of electricity.[ CITATION Cha09 \l 13321 ] Studies
have shown that the European territorial waters have 106 locations for extracting tidal energy that
would provide electricity of 48 TW per year. It is estimated around 50,000 MW of installed capacity
being achievable along the coasts of British Columbia alone. There are greater predictions of
extracting energy of about 90,000 MW off the North West coast of Russia and about 20,000 MW at the
inlet or Mezen river and White Sea. There are also estimations along the West coast of India having
potential to generate 8,000MW.

Site Country Tidal Elevation (m)


Bay of Fundy Canada 16.2
Severn Estuary England 14.5
Port of Ganville France 14.7
La Rance France 13.5
Penzhinskaya Guba Russia 13.4
(Sea of Okhotsk)
Puerto Rio Gallegos Argentina 13.3
Bay of Mezen (White Russia 10
Sea)
[CITATION Gor \l 13321 ]

2.4 Philippine Tidal Energy

The Philippines has long been using five main types of renewable energy – hydro, geothermal,
wind, solar, and biomass. And recently – tidal energy. The Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC)-
Renewables Corp. announced that the first ocean power plant will soon be set up in the San
Bernardino Strait between Sorsogon and Northern Samar, where the Pacific enters the sea
surrounding our Visayan islands.
Figure 2.1 Global Tidal Range

2.5 San Bernardino Ocean Power Plant

The tidal power plant would harness the marine current resource in San Bernardino Strait, a
channel separating the islands of Luzon and Samar, in order provide a reliable supply of clean power
to the island of Capul, in the province of Northern Samar. The turbines would be deployed in one of
the three concession areas granted by Service Contracts to H&WB by the Philippines’ Department of
Energy in 2013, the one in Capul pass. The three Service Contracts are now the property of the SPC
created by H&WB in May 2017, called San Bernardino Ocean Power Corporation (SBOPC).[ CITATION
hwb19 \l 13321 ]

The project aimed to revolutionize the energy mix of Capul, an off-grid area, by replacing the
obsolete, costly and polluting diesel generators with a green and cost-competitive alternative. The first
phase of the project consists in a 3 MW power plant featuring SABELLA’s field-proven tidal turbine
coupled with onshore batteries for storage. The main characteristics of the San Bernardino ocean
power project are the following:

· three Sabella D18 turbines each with a 1,000-kW rated power output;
· estimated 2,820 MWh net electrical output per year;
· 1 MWh storage system aiming to: smoothen the injection of the power production of the tidal
turbines depending on the grid demand; secure the supply to the electrical grid so as to
avoid blackouts; and tentative commissioning in 2024 for a 25-year operational lifetime.
[ CITATION hwb19 \l 13321 ]

2.6 Method of Tidal Energy Extraction

Two primary methods to extract energy from tidal power are tidal barrages and tidal stream.
2.6.1 Tidal Barrage

Tidal barrage is a structure generally built across the mouth of the estuary through
which the water flows in and out of the basin. The tidal barrage has sluice gates that allows the
flow of water in and out of the basin. The water flows into the bay during high tide and the
water is retained by closing the sluice gates at the beginning of low tide. The barrage gates are
controlled by knowing the tidal range of the location and operating it at right times of the tidal
cycle. There are turbines located at the sluice gates which produce electricity when the gates
are opened during the low tide.[ CITATION Tid15 \l 13321 ]

The advantage of using barrage to method to generate electricity in comparison with


fossil fuels is that it reduces the greenhouse effects, to provide a better environment. La Rance
tidal power plant, France is an example for barrage method. On the top of the barrage there is
a four-lane highway that cuts 35 km of distance between the towns of Saint Malo and Dinard
representing.[ CITATION Tal18 \l 13321 ]

2.6.2 Tidal Stream

In the early 1990s, tidal power was mainly focused on harnessing the tidal flow and
generating the energy by means of potential storage rather than through tidal stream. Tidal
stream technologies have made massive progress towards commercialisation in the last
decade. Extensive research is being carried out in UK waters related to tidal stream energy.
UK has a target at achieve 20% of its electricity requirement through ocean resources by 2020.
About 40 energy converting machines are being developed and prorotypes are being tested in
the labs and in waters of UK (Irena, 2014). Since the tidal stream energy is still a emerging
technology, it has no standardizations, but variety of devices are being developed to make use
of the water flow to extract electricity. However, the efficiency of each of the devices has to be
flawlessly examined by extensive testing to choose the appropriate device for a particular
location.[ CITATION Nat20 \l 13321 ]

2.7 Type of Tidal Turbines/Devices

2.7.1 Horizontal Axis Turbine

Horizontal axis turbines extract energy from moving water in much the same way as
wind turbines extract energy from moving air. The tidal stream causes the rotors to rotate
around the horizontal axis and generate power.[ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below
represent the horizontal axis turbine.
Figure 2.2 Horizontal Axis Turbine

2.7.2 Vertical Axis Turbine

Vertical axis turbines extract energy from the tides in a similar manner to that above,
however the turbine is mounted on a vertical axis. The tidal stream causes the rotors to rotate
around the vertical axis and generate power. [ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below represent
the vertical axis turbine.

Figure 2.3 Vertical Axis Turbine

2.7.3 Oscilatting Hydrofoil

A hydrofoil is attached to an oscillating arm. The tidal current flowing either side of a
wing results in lift. This motion then drives fluid in a hydraulic system to be converted into
electricity. [ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below represents the oscilatting hydrofoil.
Figure 2.4 Oscilatting Hydrofoil

2.7.4 Enclosed Tips (Venturi)

Venturi Effect devices house the device in a duct which concentrates the tidal flow
passing through the turbine. The funnel-like collecting device sits submerged in the tidal
current. The flow of water can drive a turbine directly or the induced pressure differential in the
system can drive an air-turbine. [ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below repersents the
enclosed tips turbine.

Figure 2.5 Enclosed Tips

2.7.5 Archimedes Screw

The Archimedes Screw is a helical corkscrew-shaped device (a helical surface


surrounding a central cylindrical shaft). The device draws power from the tidal stream as the
water moves up/through the spiral turning the turbines. [ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below
represents the archimedes scre turbine.

Figure 2.6 Archimedes Screw Turbine

2.7.6 Tidal Kite

A tidal kite is tethered to the sea bed and carries a turbine below the wing. The kite
‘flies’ in the tidal stream, swooping in a figure-of-eight shape to increase the speed of the water
flowing through the turbine. [ CITATION Eur20 \l 13321 ] Figure below represent the tidal kite
turbine.
Figure 2.7 Tidal Kite Turbine

2.8 Type of Water Wheels

Waterwheels are machines that convert the energy of flowing or falling water into power that
can be used to do other tasks. If you've ever seen waterwheels, you know that they are usually large
wheels made of wood or metal that have many blades or buckets along the outside edge to capture
the power of moving water. Waterwheels are usually positioned vertically (up and down), so that their
movement turns an axle positioned horizontally (side to side). The axle transfers its energy to a drive
belt or system of gears that operate a mechanism to do work of some sort.

Waterwheels are a viable proposition for producing electriciy for domestic purposes. They are
simple to control and aesthetically pleasing. Although they run realtively slowly and requrie a high ratio
gearbox to drive a generator, for low powers - say below 20kW - and heads below 8m, they are worth
considering.

2.8.1 Overshot waterwheel

This type of waterwheel can achieve an efficiency of over 80% with careful design. The
disadvantage is that it must have a diameter almost equal to the head. This places an upper
limit on the head at which a wheel can be practicable. The largest electricity generating
overshot wheel in Europe is at Aberdulais in South Wales, operated by the National Trust. It is
8m diameter and can produce up to 20kW.[ CITATION Alt10 \l 13321 ]

Figure 2.8 Overshot waterwheel


2.8.2 Breastshot waterwheel

The water hits the breast shot waterwheel much higher than on the undershot wheel
and is more efficient. Variations on the breastshot wheel worth considering and which are
capable of efficiencies of over 60% are the Poncelet, Pitchback and the modern Zuppinger
wheel. Each of these has a large number of blades, usually curved to smooth the entry of
water, and both rotate in the direction of the water flow at the base. [ CITATION Alt10 \l 13321 ]

Figure 2.9 Breastshot waterwheel

2.8.3 Undershot waterwheel

This is probably the oldest design. The paddles are flat and are simply dragged round
by the flowing water. The undershot wheel is not the most efficient – at most 30% and has a
very low output. [ CITATION Alt10 \l 13321 ]

Figure 2.10 Undershot waterwheel

2.9 Tidal Power Requirement

2.9.1 Head Requirement

Tidal range may vary over a wide range (4.5-12.4 m) from site to site. A tidal range of at
least 7 m is required for economical operation and for sufficient head of water for the turbines.
A 240 MWe facility has operated in France since 1966, 20 MWe in Canada since 1984, and a
number of stations in China since 1977, totaling 5 mWw. Tidal energy schemes are
characterised by low capacity factors, usually in the range of 20-35%.[ CITATION Oce18 \l
13321 ]

2.9.2 Barrage

Barrage or dams are used to form a barrier between the sea and the basin or between
or between one basin and the other in case of multiple basins. Tidal power barrages have to
resist waves whose shock can be severe and where pressure changes sides continuously. The
barrage needs to provide channels for the turbines in reinforced concrete. The location of the
barrage is important, because the energy available is related to the size of trapped basin and
to the square of the tidal range.

2.9.3 Sluice Gates

The sluice ways are used either to fill the basin during the high tide or empty the basin
during the low tide, as per operational requirement. Gate structures can be floated as modular
units. Though, in existing plants, vertical lift gates have been used. The technology is about
ready to substitute a series of flap gates. Flap gates are gates operated by water pressure that
are positioned so as to allow water in to the holding basin and require no mechanical means of
operation. The flap gates allow only in the direction of the sea to basin. Hence, the basin level
rises well above to sea level as ebb flow area is far less than flood flow area.[ CITATION
Ram15 \l 13321 ]

2.9.4 Power House

The turbines, electric generators and other auxiliary equipment’s are the main
components of a power house. For small head, large size turbines are needed; hence, the
power house is also a large structure. [ CITATION Ram15 \l 13321 ]
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Locale

The research design was conducted to the southernmost part of Mati City. The area of interest
is chosen for its good tidal range, specifically Pujada bay. It is necessary that the power station is
nearest to the bay and with a nearby barangay in which the employees can be fully accommodated.
Since the area is located at a rural area, the land cost estimation should be low.

Figure 3.1 Plant Location

3.2 Research Design and Concept

Tidal Energy, the same as any renewable energy sources, undergo critical planning and
evaluating in order to be feasible. Some of the general requirements that must be pre-review before
constructing a tidal energy power plant are listed as follows:

 A place with a tidal difference or range of at least 5 meters


 Does not hinder maritime travels
 Minimal impact on maritime lifeforms
 Not a storm prone area
3.2.1 Schematic Diagram

3.2.1.1 Barrage Diagram and Operation

A tidal barrage is a dam-like structure used to capture the energy from masses
of water moving in and out of a bay or river due to tidal forces. Instead of damming
water on one side like a conventional dam, a tidal barrage allows water to flow into a
bay or river during high tide and releases the water during low tide. [CITATION Nat07 \l
13321 ]This is done by measuring the tidal flow and controlling the sluice gates at key
times of the tidal cycle. Turbines are placed at these sluices to capture the energy as
the water flows in and out.

Figures below show mechanism of how a tidal lagoon system operate. The first
figure shows that high tide water is entrapped within the dam as ebb tide occurs. The
gates are then opened, and electricity is produced due to the power generating
turbines. The gates are remained open until the water inside the dam levels with the
low tide of the open water and at such instant the gate is again closed. Soon after, the
water is in its flood tide state and the gates are again opened for power generation. The
gates are remained opened, until the water level inside the dam is the as high tide level
of the open water. And then, the gates are closed at such instant and the same process
continues.

Figure 3.2 High tide Barrage Figure 3.3 Low Tide Barrage
3.2.1.2 Turbine and Waterwheel Diagram and Operation

Turbines are generally installed with their axis vertical. Water with high head
(pressure) enters the turbine through the spiral casing surrounding the guide vanes.
The water loses a part of its pressure in the volute (spiral casing) to maintain its speed.
Then water passes through guide vanes where it is directed to strike the blades on the
runner at optimum angles. As the water flows through the runner its pressure and
angular momentum reduces. This reduction imparts reaction on the runner and power
is transferred to the turbine shaft.[ CITATION MEC16 \l 13321 ]

Figure 3.4 Turbine Specification

Figure above represent the head and discharge requirement for each type of
turbine. As to be stated, due to the scope of the project, it yields a very low net head
due to limited tidal range. Therefore, waterwheels should be used instead.

Figure 3.5 Waterwheel

Figure above is a water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing
or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.[ CITATION Ene18 \l 13321 ]
A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with
several blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface.

Table 3.1 Type of Waterwheels

Type of Diagram Flow Head Estimate


Waterwhe Requireme Requireme d
el nt nt Efficienc
y
Vertical Low High Head Poor
Axis Volume

Stream Very Large No Head 50 to


60%

Undershot Large Low Head 50 to


Volume 60%

Breastshot Large Moderate 50 to


Volume Head 60%

Backshot Low Large 80 to


Volume Head 90%
Overshot Low Large 80 to
Volume Head 90%

[ CITATION Ene18 \l 13321 ]

As stated, with a very low head but still interconnected with a very large flow the
researchers would use breastshot or undershot waterwheel. This is also advantageous
due to unspecified area of nozzle outlet.

3.3 Collection of Data

Accurate data collection is essential to maintaining the integrity of research. Therefore the
researchers used government online data to retain its integrity. Important data which would be used
are tidal elevation and power required.

3.3.1 Tidal Elevation

Table 3-2 Tidal Elevation

Highest Lowest Tidal


Date Tide Tide Range
Feb 26 1.45 -0.17 1.62
Feb 27 1.43 -0.1 1.53
Feb 28 1.4 -0.01 1.41
Feb 29 1.35 0.1 1.25
Mar 01 1.29 0.22 1.07
Mar 02 1.22 0.35 0.87
Mar 03 1.16 0.48 0.68
1.328571 0.124285 1.204285
Average 43 71 7
The 7-day table of tidal ranges gathered from Tide-Forecast shows a weekly
average of 1.2043m high or head.[ CITATION Tid20 \l 13321 ]

Tidal range is the height difference between high tide and low tide. The negative low tide
indicates a level of water that is below the datum that defines the zero level of the tide. The relevance
of this data is that it is the available head of water that can be utilized in the design of the Tidal power
plant.
3.3.2 Population

Population would be used as a sub-data since there is no average demand of electricity


specified for Mati city released by the government. Table below represents the data by
increment of 5 years.

Tidal 3-3 Population[ CITATION Pop20 \l 13321 ]

Populatio %
Mati City n increase
year
1990 93023 --
year 13.851413
2000 105908 1
year 19.106205
2010 126143 4
year 11.889680
2015 141141 8
14.949099
Average 7
year
2020 162241
Total
Mindana
2553769
o by
1
year
2020

3.3.3 Energy Consumption per Area

The power consumption of residentials of the Mindanao grid is acquired from DOE and
is tabulated below. As well as, the power consumption per person.

Table 3.4 Energy Consumption[ CITATION Dep18 \l 13321 ]

Energy
Consumption Monthly
Mindanao Peak Demand
%
2017 2018 Increase
4.782882
Jan 1589 1665 3
5.641661
Feb 1613 1704 5
5.878750
Mar 1633 1729 8
4.949911
Apr 1697 1781 6
9.160756
May 1692 1847 5
3.940298
Jun 1675 1741 5
8.497536
Jul 1624 1762 9
6.803519
Aug 1705 1821 1
5.035128
Sep 1708 1794 8
8.004708
Oct 1699 1835 7
6.199304
Nov 1726 1833 8
5.284090
Dec 1760 1853 9
1676.7 1780.4166 6.181545
Average 5 7 9
Peak 1760 1853

3.4 Applied Formulas

3.4.1 Tidal Energy

For the energy available from the tidal lagoon. It is represented as:

1
ETidal = Aρg h2 Equation 1
2
Where:

A = the area of the tidal lagoon

ρ = density of seawater (about 1030 kg/m3)


g = acceleration due to Earth’s gravity (9.81 m/s2)

h = the vertical tidal range

The factor half is due to the fact, that as the basin flows empty through the turbines, the
hydraulic head over the dam reduces. The maximum head is only available at the moment of
low water, assuming the high-water level is still present in the basin[ CITATION Mru \l 13321 ].

3.4.2 Power Generation Factors

3.4.2.1 Load Factor

Load Factor of a power plant is the ratio between the average load and peak of
load of the plant. Load factor plays a very important role in the cost of generation per
unit (kWh). For improving load factor, electric load operating in peak hours should be
shifted to non-peak hours.[ CITATION Ele19 \l 13321 ]

Average Load
Load Factor = Equation 2
Maximum Demand

3.4.2.2 Plant Capacity Factor

Plant Capacity factor is the measure of how often a power plant runs for a
specific period of time. It's expressed as a percentage and calculated by dividing the
actual unit electricity output by the maximum possible output. This ratio is important
because it indicates how fully a unit's capacity is used.[ CITATION Nuc15 \l 13321 ]

Average Load
Plant Capacity Factor= Equation 3
Plant Capacity

3.4.3 Economic Evaluation

Tarrif Cost =a+bKW + cKWh Equation 4

Annual fixed cost (a) represent what is due or the annual cost of the organization or
company and interest of the cost of site. Annual semi-fixed cost (b) is on account of annual
interest and depreciation on building and equipment. Lastly, the Annual running cost (c) is due
to the annual cost of fuel, oil, taxation, salaries of operating staff.[ CITATION Fay10 \l 13321 ]
For sea wall, the costs will approximately be £7,500 or 513,174 php per linear meter.
[ CITATION Tru20 \l 13321 ]

For the water wheel, the cost is gathered from a customized waterwheel factory which
includes its installation, shipping, coating and high-quality material, generator connection.
Generally, it costs $1290.00 / foot in diameter or around 214,000 php per diameter of the
waterwheel.

1. CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Summary of Input

The summary of input discusses the data obtained by the proponents for the basis of their
design. These are factors such as peak load demand, average load and energy consumption per
area. This segment of the study shows how certain values were calculated and the relevance for us to
yield a successful design.

4.1.1 Tidal Elevation

Tidal elevation is a key part in the design of this study. Through the website of tide-
forecast.com, the proponents were able to choose a specific location which in our case is Mati and
showed the high tides and low tides of each day for 30 days. The available data used by the
proponents was from the 13th to 31st of March and from the 1st to 13th of April in the year 2020. Through
plotting the values in Microsoft Excel, the proponents where able to calculate the average high tide,
low tide and average available tidal range for the 30-day time period. The tidal range is calculated as
the difference between high tide and low tide for each day. This range is the available water head that
can be utilized by the tidal power plant.

The data available however, limited the design to a monthly analysis. The summary for the 30-
day period is seen in Table 4-1. The average tidal range calculated and used in the design is 1.47333
meters.
Table 4-1 – The average tidal range for the 30-day period(data from tide- tide-forecast.com)
MARCH High Tide (m) Low Tide (m) Tidal Range (m)
13 2.09 0.17 1.92
14 2.01 0.27 1.74
15 1.89 0.41 1.48
16 1.73 0.56 1.17
17 1.58 0.65 0.93
18 1.49 0.63 0.86
19 1.53 0.55 0.98
20 1.51 0.46 1.05
21 1.74 0.38 1.36
22 1.83 0.33 1.5
23 1.9 0.31 1.59
24 1.94 0.41 1.53
25 1.93 0.31 1.62
26 1.93 0.3 1.63
27 1.93 0.29 1.64
28 1.9 0.32 1.58
29 1.85 0.38 1.47
30 1.79 0.46 1.33
31 1.7 0.55 1.15
APRIL
1 1.6 0.63 0.97
2 1.51 0.64 0.87
3 1.52 0.54 0.98
4 1.65 0.4 1.25
5 1.81 0.28 1.53
6 1.96 0.21 1.75
7 2.06 0.19 1.87
8 2.1 0.1 2
9 2.17 0 2.17
10 2.18 -0.01 2.19
11 2.14 0.05 2.09

Average 1.832333333 0.359 1.473333333

4.1.2 Average Load Consumption

The data for average load consumption per month was available from the Department of
Energy for the year 2017 and 2018. The proponents chose the more recent data of year 2018 in
considering the average monthly load consumption.
Table 4-2 – Monthly Load Consumption

Month 2020 (MWh)


Jan 1665
Feb 1704
Mar 1729
Apr 1781
May 1847
Jun 1741
Jul 1762
Aug 1821
Sep 1794
Oct 1835
Nov 1833
Dec 1853
Average 1676.75
Average 1853
The calculation of the average monthly load consumption is show below.

summation of consumption per month


Average Consumption= Equation 4.1
total number of months

For the year of 2020:

1665+1704 +1729+1781+1847+1741+1762+ 1821+1794 +1835+1833+1853


Average Consumption=
12

M Wh
Average Consumption=1780.41667
month

4.1.3 Consumer Population

The consumer population was calculated by utilizing the % increase for a 5-year
increment. The gathered data was available from the website http://population.city/philippines/mati/.

Table 4-3 - % Increase of Population for a 5-year Increment

Year Population % increase


1995 93023 --
2000 105908 13.8514131
2010 126143 19.1062054
2015 141141 11.8896808
Average 14.9490997
Calculating of present population in the year 2020:

Using this assumption for an estimate of population on the year 2020,

Population=( Recent Population) ¿ ¿

(141141)(100+ 14.940997)
Population=
100

Population of Mati=162241 peopleof Mati

Calculation for Population of Mindanao in the year 2018

Population in Mindanao in the year 2020: 25573691 people of Mindanao

Calculation for percentage population of Mati to Population of Mindanao(2018)

Population of Mati
% Population= x 100 % Equation 4.3
Population∈Mindanao∈the year 2020

162241 people of Mati


% Population= x 100 % = 0.635297486%
25573691 People of Mindanao

4.2 Specification of Tidal Plant

4.2.1 Area of Bay

Figure 4-1 – Distance from the Shore of Mati, Davao Oriental

The tidal power plant would be located 200 meters away from the shore near the Barangay
Lawigan, Mati, Davao Oriental. The distance of 200 meters which is the minimum distance for offshore
deep waters is chosen by the proponents to utilize the offshore deep-water depth. This is
advantageous as a higher difference of tidal range is attained at this part of the sea.

Figure 4.2 – The categories of depth of water

The proponents also tried to consider the possibility of using the near-shore shallow waters,
but a great variation of depth and its minimal available tidal range is detrimental in attaining the power
capable of the design. In shallow waters water the tidal current boundary layer will occupy a greater
portion of the water depth, reducing the resource available to tidal stream devices. [ CITATION Pol10 \l
1033 ] Additionally, shallow channels, which are already highly stressed due to bottom friction, produce
proportionally less power and suffer a diminishing return due to increasing levels of drag. [ CITATION
Ven12 \l 1033 ] Submerged devices in shallow waters will also be closer to the photic zone and hence
subjected to a greater risk of biofouling; being closer to shore they are also likely to more readily
impact highly complex and inter-dependent coastal ecosystems. Devices in shallow waters will also
pose more of a navigational hazard to commercial and recreational marine traffic.

In calculating for the area of the bay certain factors are to be considered. These factors are the
tidal range for a specified time period, the consumer population of the designated power plant design,
the average energy consumption of the area and the density of saltwater.

The average load consumption in a year is calculated as:

average load
average load consumption∈a year =( 1 year x 12 months x x percentage population)
month
Equation 4.4

1780.416667 M wH
(
average load consumption= 1 year x 12 months x
month
x 0.635297486 % )
average load consumption∈a year =135.7313071 M wH
Calculating for the Flow Rate required, assuming that the density of saltwater is 1030 kg/m3
and its specific weight, γ is 10.1043 kN/m3.

m3 2 ∙1000 ∙ average load consumption∈a year


flow raterequired , = Equation 4.5
s 8760∙ γ ∙average tidal range ∙no .of tides per 24 hrs

2∙ 135.7313071 M wH ∙ 1000
flow raterequired=
kN
8760 ∙ 10.1043 ∙1.47333 m∙ 2 tides per 24 hrs
m3

m3
flow raterequired=1.040803372
s

The flow rate calculated is then utilized to calculate for the volume of the bay required:

3600 sec
volume of bay required , m3 =flow rate required ∙ ∙ timeinterval of tides ( hrs ) Equation4.6
hr

m3 3600 sec
volume of bay required=1.040803372 ∙ ∙ 6.333 hrs
s hr

volume of bay required=23730.19199m3

The area of the bay is then calculated through by dividing the volume of bay required to the
average tidal range.

volume of bay required


area of bay required , m 2= Equation 4.7
tidal range

2 23730.19199 m 3
area of bay required , m =
1.47333 m

area of bay required , m 2=16106.46552m 2

The results of the calculation above are based on the average load at zero loss. The
proponents therefore assume a penstock efficiency of 80% and a turbine efficiency of 70% to
calculate for the actual area of bay required for the design.

The flow rate with respect to efficiency will be calculated as

m3 flow rate required


flow rate actual , = Equation 4.8
s turbine η x penstock η
m3
1.040803372
m3 s
flow rate actual , =
s 0.70 x 0.80

m3 m3
flow rate actual , =1.85857745
s s

The actual volume of the bay is calculated with the consideration of the penstock and turbine
efficiency:

3600 sec
volume of bay required , m3 =flow rate actual ∙ ∙ time interval of tides ( hrs ) Equation 4.9
hr

m 3 3600 sec
volume of bay required=1.85857745 ∙ ∙ 6.333 hrs
s hr

volume of bay required=42375.27795 m3

The actual area of the bay is calculated to be:

volume of bay required


area of bay actual , m2 = Equation 4.10
tidal range

2 42375.27795 m3
area of bay actual , m =
1.47333 m

area of bay actual , m2 =28761.54557 m2

The design of the area of the bay is designed to be that of half of a 10-sided polygon or
decagon.

Figure 4.3 – Design area of bay


To calculate for the side length, circumdiameter, interior and exterior angles and other needed
dimensions, the bay was first assumed to be the whole decagon. The area of which is twice the area
of bay required.

area of whole polygon ,m2=2 ∙ area of bay actual Equation 4.11

area of whole polygon ,m 2=2 ∙ 28761.54557m 2

area of whole polygon ,m2=57523 m 2

The side length of the polygon can now be calculated as:

A = (1/4)na2 cot(π/n) = nr2 tan(π/n)

Where:

n = number of sides

r = inner radius (separators)

a = side length (borders of the outside surface)

Solving for the side length:

180
a , meter =
√ 4 ∙ areaof whole polygon ∙ tan
n
n
Equation 4.12

180
a , meter =
√ 4 ∙57523 m2 ∙ tan
10
10

a , meter =86.4647 m = length of outside borders

Calculating for the inner radius (seperators)

area of whole polygon


r , meter=
√ n ∙ tan
180
n

57523 m2
r , meter=
√ 10 ∙ tan
180
10
r , meter=133.055 m = length of seperators

Calculating for the circumdiameter , D (see figure 4-4 as guide)

Figure 4-4 – The Circumdiamater or the longest side of the embankment

D = a csc(π/n)

Where:

n = number of sides

a = side length (borders of the outside surface)

1
D , meter=a∙
180
sin
10

1
D , meter=86.4647 meter ∙
180
sin
10

D , meter=279.80 meter = longest side of embankment

Calculation of Interior,x and Exterior angles,y :

Interior angle , x=((( n−2)/n) x 180 ° )

Interior angle , x=(((10−2)/10) x 180 °)

Interior angle , x=144 °

Exterior angle , y =(360 ° /n)

Exterior angle , y =(360 ° /10)

Exterior angle , y =36 °

Calculating for the Perimeter of the bay:


Figure 4-5 – Perimeter Calculation of the bay

Perimeter , P=D+5 a

Where:

D = circumdiameter = longest side of embankment

a = length of outside borders

Perimeter , P=279.80 meter + 5 ( 86.4647 m )

Perimeter , P=712.1235 meter

Figures below shows the proposed tidal barrage as specified from the solution above.

Figure 4-5 Isometric View of Tidal Barrage


Figure 4-6 Top View of Tidal Barrage

Figure 4-7 Side View of Tidal Barrage

4.2.2 Waterwheel Specification

Figure 4.8- Waterwheel Dimensions


Figure 4.9- Isometric view of Waterwheel

The figures above show the proposed design for the water wheel that is to be used for the
plant. The dimensions, mass, volume, density, and material are specified in the figures above

4.3 Proposed Tidal Plant

4.3.1 Tidal Plant Barrage Layout

4.3.1.1 Tidal Plant Barrage Channel/Water way

Calculation for the Area of Water Way:

τ 2 πN
α= = Equation 4.13
I t

where:

α - angular acceleration

τ - torque

I - moment of inertia

N – rpm

t – time

Assuming that the water wheel is a hollow cylinder, the equation for the moment of inertia is:

M
I= (Ro2 + Ri2 ) Equation 4.14
2
where:

M – mass of the water wheel

Ro – outside radius

Ri – inside radius

The equation of torque in the water wheel is:

τ =FRo=PARo Equation 4.15

where:

F – force

P – pressure

A – area of water way

Substituting Equation 4.2 and Equation 4.3 to Equation 4.1:

2 πN PARo
=
t M Equation 4.16
(Ro2+ Ri 2)
2

2 π (30)(60) (1.47333)(9.81)(1030) A(0.5)


=
t 183
(0.5 2+0.373 2)
2

54.09919428
=A
t

Solving for Area at a given time:

Table 4-4 Area Result with Relation to Time

Time (minutes) Area (m2) Height (m) Width


10 0.090165 0.2958 1 ft
15 0.060110 0.1972 1 ft
20 0.045083 0.1479 1 ft
25 0.036066 0.1183 1 ft
30 0.030055 0.0986 1 ft
Figure below shows the in depth look of the waterwheel inside the barrage including the solved
channel way.

Figure 4.10 Water Wheel with Channel

4.3.1.2 Tidal Barrage Water Level Indicator

Figure 11-A Isometric View of Tidal Barrage Figure 11-B Water Level Indicator

Figures above represents the water level indicator of the barrage. The red line
represents an increment of 1 meter. This will serve for as an indicator on when to open
and close the gates. The indicator is painted both side and with few neon paints.

4.3.1.3 Tidal Barrage Sluice Gate Design

Sluice gates design are shown below. Sluice gates are opened on high tide to
let the water in, and on the peak time (end of high tide) the sluice gates close down to
trap the water inside the bay. The schedule of opening and closing of sluice gates can
be found in Tideforcast.com

Figure 4-12 Sluice Gates Design

4.3.2 Tidal Plant Electrical Station Layout

Figure 4-13 Electrical Plant Substation


The figure above shows the proposed tidal plant electrical substation layout. A 44 kV
enters the electrical substation and passes through two transformers which has a rated
capacity of 10 mVA (33 kV) each.

4.4.3 Generator Cost

The rated capacity of the generator was calculated first in order to select the proper
generator and to avoid overdesigning.

Solving for the Generator Rated Capacity:

Average Load
Generator Rated Capacity= Equation 4.17
Working Hours

135,731.3079 kW −hr
Generator Rated Capacity=
hrs
(12 )(365 days )
day

Generator Rated Capacity=30.9889 kW

Since there is no generator with a rated capacity of 31 kW available in the market, the
students selected a generator which has a rated capacity of 35 kW and a cost of ₱5,007,500.
The proposed design of this project would require 5 generators, therefore, the total cost is
₱25,037,500.

Figure 4-14 Generator Specified


The selected generator has the following details:

Table 4-5 Hydro Generator Specificaations

Product Name 35kW Hydro Power Permanent


Magnet Generator
Output Type AC Three Phase
Rated Power 35 kW
Rated Speed 100-3000 rpm
Rated Voltage 44 kV – 113 kV
Phase Type 3 Phase
Generator Material Aluminum Body + Copper Wire + ND-
Fe-B
Generator Type 3 Phase AC Permanent-Magnet
Application Water Turbine
Origin China

4.4.4 Electrical Substation Cost

The students decided to have 2 transformers for the electrical substation of the plant.
Each transformer has a rated voltage of 33 kV (10 mVA) and a cost of ₱5,250,000. Other
components in the electrical substation was estimated to have a cost of ₱5,250,000. The total
cost of the electrical substation is ₱15,750,000.

Figure 4-15 Transformer Specified

The selected transformer has the following details:

Table 4-6 Transformer Specifications

Place of Origin Zhejiang, China


Phase Three Phase
Coil Number Three Coil
Rated Voltage 33 kV
Brand Name Abbeycon
Usage Power
Coil Structure Toroidal
Transformer Type Oil Immersed Transformer
Frequency 60 Hz

4.4 Cost Estimation for Fixed Cost

4.4.1 Bay Cost (vj)

The overall tidal power plant bay area consists the barrage and land area. As
aforementioned in the scope, this tidal plant is to be of a government project, therefore the land
cost will be minimal to none.

The approximation for the barrage cost was solved by the data below: It is assumed
that gates are of minimal value compared to the barrage approximation.

Total Perimeter of barrage = 712.1235 m

Height of barrage = 10m

Width of barrage = 3m

Concrete Mixture = 1:3:5 (Cement:Sand:Gravel)

Table 4-7 Costing for the Barrage

Description Unit Value Cost per Overall cost


unit
Total Volume The total volume 21363.71 m3
Required will serve as the
basis for the
concrete mixture.
Amount of For every 1 cubic bags P 165 per P21,855,075.
21363.71 m3∗6.2 3
=164300 bags
Cement Bags meter of concrete, m bag 00
6.2 cement bags
are needed.
Amount of For every 1 cubic 3 P 140 per 3 P1,555,400.
m 3 sand
21363.71 m ∗0.52 33
=13780 m sand
Sand meter of concrete, mm 00
0.52 cubic meter of
sand is needed.
Amount of For every 1 cubic 3 P 140 per
m3 gravel 3 P2,572,220.
21363.71 m ∗0.86 3
=22790 m gravel
Gravel meter of concrete, mm3 00
0.86 cubic meter of
gravel is needed.
Labor Labor cost 30% of P7,794,808.
the total cost of 50
materials.
Total Cost Total cost is the
sum of material P50,666,255.25
cost and labor cost
added by 50% for
stability and
seafloor foundation

4.4.2 Waterwheel Cost

For a fully assembled meter waterwheel complete with bearings and supporting stands
it costs $ 1095 including shipping fee. It roughly estimates to P 54,750 per waterwheel.

For the powerplant design (5 waterwheels) the total water wheel cost P273,750.00

4.5 Cost Estimation for Operating Cost

Operating costs for power plants include fuel, labor and maintenance costs. Unlike
capital costs which are "fixed" (don't vary with the level of output), a plant's total operating cost
depends on how much electricity the plant produces. The operating cost required to produce
each MWh of electric energy. Since the calculation are based on annual load, therefore the
costs are based annually.

4.5.1 Taxes

The corporate income tax rate both for domestic and resident foreign
corporations is 30% based on net taxable income. Excluded from the income tax are
dividends received from domestic corporations; interest on Philippine currency bank
deposit and yield from trust funds.

To have a proper evaluation of the Return of Investment the total sales or


income should accommodate the 30% tax.
4.5.2 Salaries

The skills and work of each employee greatly differ from one another.(e.g;
managerial positions, shift engineers and maintenance crew). To simplify the
researchers proposes to give salary on average of P500 per day for each employee.

Since the power plant would be automated and would mostly require for on-call
engineers , the proponents used the average number of employees required for a tidal
power plant which is 69 employees.[ CITATION Tet11 \l 13321 ]

Salary cost is then calculated as: Equation 4.18

employees∗P 500
69 ∗360 days=P12,420,000.00 per year
employee per day

4.5.3 Interest and Depreciation

The power plant needs to allocate money for maintenance and/or replacement
of equipment. The interest and depreciation take place for each material and equipment
involved in the tidal plant. The proponents assumed a standard 10% in interest and
depreciation for the calculation and 10% for cost not mentioned.

Interest and Depreciation is then calculated as:

Total Equipment Cost =Bay Cost +Waterwheel Cost +Generator Cost + Power Station Cost +Other Cost
Equation 4.19

Total Equipment Cost =( P50,666,255.25+ P 273,750.00+ P 25,037,500.00+15,750,000.00 )∗(1.10)

¿ P 100,900,255.78

Interest∧Depreciation=Total Equipment Cost∗10 % Equation 4.20

¿ P 100,900,255.78∗10 %

¿ P 10,090,025.578 per year

4.6 Tariff Calculation

The calculation for the tariff will base on the following data:

Table 4-8 Tariff Calculation Data

Bay Cost P50,666,255.25


Waterwheel Cost P355,875.00
Generator Cost P25,037,500
Electrical P15,750,000.00
Substation Cost
Other Equipment 10% of total equipment cost
Operating Cost
o Salaries P 12,420,00.00
o Interest and P 10,090,025.578
Depreciation

Taxes 30%
Estimated Return of 50 years
Investment in Years
Ave Load 135.7313079 Mw-hr

Total ¿ Cost =Bay Cost +Waterhweel Cost +Generator Cost + Electrical Substation Cost +Other Cost
Equation 4.21

¿( P 50,666,255.25+ P 273,750+ P25,037,500.00+ P 15,750,000.00)∗(1.10)

¿ P 100,900,255.78

Total Operating Cost per year =Salaries∧Wages+ Interest∧Depreciation of Equipments


Equation 4.22

¿ P 12,420,000.00+ P 10,090,025.578

¿ P 22,510,025.58 per year

(Total ¿ Cost ¿¿ Estimated Return of Investment ∈Years+Total Operating Cost ∈Years )∗(1+Tax)
Tariff =
Average Load∈Kw−hr

Equation 4.23

P 100,900,255.78
+ P 22,510,025.58
50 years
Tariff = ∗(1+30 % )
135,731.3079 Kw−hr

P 234.92
Tarrif =
Kw−hr
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


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