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AASHTO Steel Tunnel Liner Plate

Smooth-back tunnel liner plate in soft ground


Cooper E8
Job Name: Subject: Cover (ft)
Job Number: Originator: Checker: ###
###
Purpose: ###
To design an initial liner for a tunnel using steel liner plate. ###
Hoop thrust capacity of the liner is checked for a specified overburden pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and live load pressure, which ###
consists of either AASHTO H-20 Truck Loading or Cooper E-80 Train Loading (Per AREMA). ###
###
Assumptions/Limitations: ###
Surrounding ground consists of granular or cohesive soil (Not rock)
Tunnel support is 2-flange or 4-flange, smooth-back liner plate. Cooper E8
Liner plate joints (flanges) are non-compact (not slender)

Validation
XLC formulae and peer review provide verification of intended functionality.

References
- AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2010)
- CALTRANS Bridge Design Specifications (2000) Soil Type L
- AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering Granular (
- AISC Manual of Steel Construction, 13th Edition Silt & Clay
- Contech Tunnel Liner Plate Design Guide Saturated
No data
Figure Grade EL 100 ###
Overburde
Span (D)
Water Table H/D
###
Tunnel Crown EL 94.5 ###
###
###
15 ft Excavated Dia ###
Tunnel Invert EL 79.5 ###
###
Material Properties ###
Steel Yield Strength fy = 28,000 psi
Steel Ultimate Strength fu = 42,000 psi CD at Tunn
Steel Elastic Modulus E = 29,000,000 psi

Site & Geometry


Tunnel Excavated Diameter Do = 15.00 ft
Types
2-Flange
Elevation at Grade ELGR= 100.00 4-Flange
Elevation at Tunnel Invert ELINV= 79.50
Elevation at Tunnel Springline ELSL= 87.00 #NAME?
= ELINV + 0.5Do
Elevation at Tunnel Crown ELCR= 94.50 #NAME?
= ELINV + Do Soil Types
φ>15
Dead Loads (D) φ<15
Earth Pressure (H): Layer EL @ Top γ' σv @ TOP σv @ BOT
Fill 100.00 120.0 0.0 660.0

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at Tunnel Crown 94.50 DH = 660.0

Overburden Pressure at Tunnel Crown DH = 660.00 psf


Soil Type Silt & Clay (φ=11) CALTRANS Sect. 16
Height of Overburden H= 5.5 ft
Span (diameter) of Tunnel Do = 15.0 ft
H/D= 0.37 #NAME?
= H / Do
Coefficient CD CD = 0.37 CALTRANS Sect. 16
Design Soil Dead Load at Tunnel Crown WD = 660 psf #NAME?CD
= DH
H/D

Hydrostatic (FE): Water Table EL γW σ @ crown


0.00 62.4 0.0

at Tunnel Crown 94.50 DFE = 0.0

Total Dead Load Pressure


Total Dead Load Pressure DTOT = 660.0 ft = #NAME?
DFE + W D

Live Loads (L)


Choose Live Load: Cooper E80

Cover: at Tunnel Crown 5.5 ft


Cooper E80: at Tunnel Crown 2266.7 psf
AASHTO H20: at Tunnel Crown

Live Load Pressure at Tunnel Crown L= 2266.7 psf

Total Design Pressure


Total Design Pressure at Tunnel Crown W= 2926.7 psf #NAME?
= L + DTOT

Liner Plate Design


2-Flange or 4 Flange 4-Flange
Required Stiffness EI/D2 > 111

Liner PL Elastic Modulus E = 29,000,000 psi


Liner PL Moment of Inertia I= 0.1634 in^4
Tunnel Excavated Diameter Do = 15.00 ft
Liner PL Stiffness 146.3 #NAME?
= EI AASHTO Ch. 12
[12Do]2
OK, >111

Check Critical Buckling


Critical Diameter Dc = 193.1 in #NAME?
= r 24E AASHTO Ch. 12
k fu
12Do= 180.0 in
Do < Dc

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Minimum Spec'd Tensile Strength fu = 42,000 psi
Liner PL Radius of Gyration r= 0.66 in
Soil Type φ<15
Soil Stiffness Factor k= 0.44

Calculate Buckling Stress (fc < fu) fc1 = 23,751.7 psi = fu - fu2
#NAME? 12Dok 2
AASHTO Ch. 12
48E r
fc2 = 24,166.7 psi #NAME?
= 12E AASHTO Ch. 12
[12Dok / r]2
fc = 23,751.7 psi #NAME?
= min(fc1 , fc2)

Calculate Allowable Thrust


Required Factor of Safety FOS= 2.00
Liner Plate X-Sectional Area A= 2.74 sq-in/ft
Allowable Thrust T= 32,566 lbs #NAME?
= fc A
FOS
Safe Pressure Wall = 4,342.1 psf #NAME?
= 2T
Do
Max Appied Pressure W= 2,926.7 psf
Provided Factor of Safety FOSPROV= 2.97 #NAME?
= FOS W all
W
Check Seam Strength
Seam Strength fseam = 119,100 plf
Required Factor of Safety FOS= 3.00
Max Allowable Thrust T= 39,700 lbs #NAME?
= fseam
FOS
Max Allowable Pressure Wall = 5,293.3 psf #NAME?
= 2T
Do
Max Applied Pressure W= 2,926.7 psf
OK #NAME?
= if(W all>W , "ok" , "insufficient")

Calculate Maximum Allowable Jacking Thrust


Consider both the capacities of flanges at liner plate joints that are parallel to the axis of tunnel advance and the capacity of the full liner
plate skin.
Calculate Maximum Allowable Jacking Thrust at Joints
Section Properties: tw = 0.375 in
tf = 0.375 in
H= 2.250 in
Beff = 9.375 in #NAME?
= 25tw
A= 4.922 sq-in #NAME?
= Bef f t w + 2t f (H - tw)
Liner Plate (typ)

Beff=9.375 in
Advance tw=0.375 in

A
Jacking Load (P) NA
(typ) H=2.25 in
y=1.74 in
A
37.6875 in

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B-B
tf=0.375 in

16 in Section A-A

Calculate Neutral Axis (NA) location and I:


b [in] h [in] A [sq-in] y [in] Ay [in^3] I-y [in^4] I-NA [in^4]
Flange 9.375 in 0.375 in 3.516 2.063 7.2510 0.0412 0.4044
Webs 0.75 1.875 in 1.406 0.938 1.3184 0.4120 1.3200
Total 4.922 1.741 8.5693 1.7245

Check Compactness Criteria:


Assume shape is a double-angle
Flange controls compactness by inspection
Liner Elastic Modulus E = 29,000,000 psi
Liner Yield Strength Fy = 28,000 psi
Limiting b/t ratio λr = 14.4821318478 =#NAME?
0.45 E AISC Sect. B4
Fy
Flange Width (single leg) b= 4.688 in = 0.5B
#NAME?
ef f

Flange Thickness t= 0.375 in = t#NAME?


f

b/t Ratio b/t= 12.5


Section is noncompact AISC Sect. B4
Check Compression Capacity:
Only flexural buckling need be checked since the liner plates are restrained against torsion about the axis parallel to tunnel advance.

Check Flexural Buckling:


Cross Sectional Area A= 4.922 sq-in
Controlling Moment of Inertia I= 1.7245 in^4
Controlling Radius of Gyration r= 0.592 in #NAME?
= I
A
Effective Length of Liner Joint kL= 16.0 in

kL/r kL/r= 27.0


Limiting kL/r LIMIT 151.6 #NAME?
= 4.71 E AISC Sect. E3
Fy
27<=151.6: Use Fc1
2
Elastic Buckling Stress Fe = 391,724 psi = pE
#NAME? AISC Sect. E3
kL / r2
Fc1 = 27,175 psi = (0.658Fy / F e)Fy
#NAME? AISC E3-2
Fc2 = 343,542 psi #NAME?
= 0.877Fe AISC E3-3
Critical Buckling Stress Fc = 27,175 psi
Factor of Safety Ωo = 1.67 AISC Sect. E1
Max Allowable Compression Stress Fall = 16,272 psi =F c / Ωo
#NAME?
Max Allowable Jacking Thrust per Joint Tj-all = 80,090 lbs #NAME?
= FallA AISC E3-1

Calculate Maximum Allowable Jacking Thrust at Full Plate Skin


Assume a 1" wide section, perpendicular to jacking thrust
1 in

0.375 in

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Section B-B

Section Width b= 1
Thickness t= 0.375 in #NAME?
= tf
Cross Sectional Area A= 0.375 #NAME?
= bt
3
Moment of Inertia = bt
I = 0.00439453125 #NAME?
12
Radius of Gyration = I
r = 0.108253175473 #NAME?
A
Effective Length, in jacking direction kL= 16.0 in #NAME?
= kL
kL/R kL/R= 147.8016689125 #NAME?
= kL / r
Limiting kL/R LIMIT 151.5796466737 #NAME?
= 4.71 E AISC Sect. E3
Fy
147.8<=151.6: Use Fc1
2
Elastic Buckling Stress Fe = 13,102 psi = pE
#NAME? AISC Sect. E3
kL / R2
Fc1 = 11,447 psi = (0.658Fy / F e)Fy
#NAME? AISC E3-2
Fc2 = 11,490 psi #NAME?
= 0.877Fe AISC E3-3
Critical Buckling Stress Fc = 11,447 psi
Factor of Safety Ωo = 1.67 AISC Sect. E1
Max Allowable Compression Stress Fall = 6,855 psi #NAME?
= Fc / Ω o
Total Length of One PL LPL = 37.6875 in
Effective Length of Full Skin PL Leff = 28.3125 in #NAME?
= LPL - B ef f

Max Allowable Jack Thrust per 1" full skin Tall = 2,570 lbs #NAME?
= FallA AISC E3-1
Max Allowable Jack Thrust on Full Skin PL Tpl-All = 72,776 lbs #NAME?
= TallLef f

Total Allowable Jacking Thrust per PL PPL = 152,866 lbs #NAME?


= Tpl - All + Tj - all
Number of Plates per Ring NPL = 15 #NAME?
= 12Dop
LPL
Total Allowable Jacking Thrust Pmax = 2,293,696 lbs #NAME?
=NPLP PL

1,147 Tons = #NAME?


Pmax
2000

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