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EFFECTIVE BOILER WATER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
Presented by
Paul R. Puckorius

Puckorius & Associates, Inc


December 7, 2010
Presented by Process Heating
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EFFECTIVE BOILER WATER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
Presented by
Paul R. Puckorius

Puckorius & Associates, Inc


December 7, 2010
Presented by Process Heating
THIS WEBINAR WILL
COVER THESE TOPICS

 LOW PRESSURE BOILERS- < 900 psi


 WHAT WATER QUALITY IS NEEDED
 HOW TO PROTECT THE BOILER
 WHAT TREATMENTS WORK WELL
 WHAT CONTROLS ARE IMPORTANT
HOW TO PROTECT YOUR
BOILER

 Feed it Good Quality Water


 Maintain Good Water Treatment Control
 Handle Varying Steam Demand
 Handle Startup and Shut Down Properly
 Protect Boiler When it is Layed Up
Objectives of Boiler Water
Treatment Program
 To Prevent Deposits on Boiler Tubes

 To Prevent Corrosion of all Metals in Entire Boiler Cycle

 To Produce Good Steam Quality for all Uses at all Times

 To Prevent Boiler Tube Failures

 To Properly Startup, Shut Down, & Layup Boilers


An Effective Boiler Water
Treatment Program
 Prevent Deposits on Boiler Surfaces
(causes loss of heat transfer & weakens
metal due to over heating)
 Prevent Oxygen Corrosion (causes
pitting of boiler tubes & rust deposits)
 Prevent low pH (below 9 will cause
corrosion and produce red water)
 Prevent condensate contamination (may
result in iron, copper, & oil into boiler)
 Produce Acceptable Steam Quality
WHAT IS GOOD QUALITY
WATER?

 Provides Efficient Equipment Operation


 Increases Life Expectancy & ROI
 Optimizes Water Use and Waste
 Cost Effective Programs
 Reduces Maintenance and Labor
GOOD QUALITY WATER
DEPENDS UPON

 Boiler Pressure
 Boiler Operation
 Boiler Design
 Consistent & Effective Makeup Water
ASME Boiler WaterGuidelines
No Superheaters & Turbines
Steam Purity 1 ppm Maximum
0-300 psig 301-600 psig

SiO2 <150 <90

T. Alkalinity; ppm <1000 <850

OH Alkalinity; ppm NS NS

Mmho <7000 <5500


ASME Boiler Water Guidelines
Firetube Boilers
1 ppm TDS Maximum Steam Purity

0 to 300 psig

SiO2; ppm <150

T. Alkalinity; ppm <700

OH Alkalinity; ppm NS

Mmho <7000
ASME Boiler Water Guidelines
Watertube Boilers
With Super heaters/ Turbines

SiO2 Total Alk. OH Alk. Mmho


0-300 <150 <350 NS 5400-1100
301-450 <90 <300 NS 4600-900
451-600 <40 <250 NS 3800-800
601-750 <30 <200 NS 1500-300
751-900 <20 <150 NS 1200-200
901-1000 <8 <100 NS 1000-200
1001-1500 <2 NS NS <150
1501-2000 <1 NS NS <80
ABMA Boiler Water Limits

BW TDS Steam TDS TSS FCO


0-300 psig 3500 1.0 15 0.0003
301-450 psig 3000 1.0 10 0.0003
451-600 psig 2500 1.0 8 0/0004
601-750 psig 1000 0.5 3 0.0005
751-900 psig 750 0.5 2 0.0006
901-1000 psig 625 0.5 1 0.0007
1001-1800 psig 100 0.1 1 0.001
1801-2350 psig 50 0.1 1 0.002
2351-2600 psig 25 0.05 1 0.002
2601-2900 psig 15 0.05 1 0.003
TYPICAL BOILER SYSTEM
Losses

Steam Condensate Makeup


Steam Makeup
Uses System
Losses

Boiler

Deaerator
Blowdown

Boiler
Feedwater

Boiler
Feedwater Pump
FIRE TUBE BOILER
Firetube Boilers

 Heat on Inside of Tubes


 Water on Outside of Tubes
 Advantages
– Suitable for low pressure operation
– Reliable
– Low Space Requirements
Firetube Boilers

 Disadvantages
– Limited pressure; ~300 psig
– Relatively poor steam quality; small
steam release space
WATER TUBE BOILER-TYPE D
Watertube Boilers
 Water on Inside of Tubes
 Heat in Furnace Surrounding Tubes
 Various Types/Designs
– “A” Type
– “O” Type
– “D” Type
– “L” Type
 “Unlimited” Pressure
 Good Steam Quality
Watertube Boilers

+ Advantages –
-Suitable for High Pressures
-Reliable
-Excellent Steam Quality
+Disadvantages
-Large Space Required
-Requires Very Good Water Quality
-Sensitive to Deposits/Corrosion
PROTECTING BOILER
FROM CORROSION
 Boilers are Made of Carbon Steel
 Must Form a Protective Coating
 Coating is a Form of Iron Oxide
 Coating is Called Magnetite
 Coating is Black and Hard and Thin
HOW TO FORM MAGNETITE

 Remove Oxygen to Zero in Boiler


 Raise pH of Boiler Water above 10
 Prevent all Deposits on Boiler Surface
 Carry a High Hydrate Alkalinity in Boiler
MAGNETITE- WELL
PROTECTED BOILER TUBES
DEPOSIT CONTROL
METHODS
 Remove Before Boiler- Known as
External Treatment of Makeup Water
 Condition Potential Water Deposits in
the Boiler- Known as Internal treatment
of Boiler Water
BOILER WATER DEPOSIT
CONTROL – EXTERNAL
VERY COMMON
 Sodium Zeolite Softening- removes only
the hardness
 Cold /Hot Lime Softening- removes
hardness, some alkalinity, and some
dissolved solids
 Demineralizers- removes Everything
 Reverse Osmosis- removes Everything
BOILER DEPOSIT CONTROL–
INTERNAL METHOD-
KEEPING DEPOSITS SOLUBLE
 Specialty Chemicals such as
Phosphonates, and Polymers- Very
Common in Boilers Operating at <600 psi
 Previous Chemicals used were Chelants
such as EDTA and NTA- Not very common
currently due to Corrosion Concerns
BOILER DEPOSIT CONTROL–
INTERNAL METHOD-
KEEPING DEPOSITS SOLUBLE
 Often requires low hardness Feed Water
+ Usually less that 2 ppm hardness needed
+ If higher Hardness, Costs for WT higher
 Produces a much Cleaner Boiler
+ Due to Solubilized Hardness- no Sludge
+ Maximizes Boiler Heat Transfer
BOILER DEPOSIT CONTROL–
INTERNAL METHOD-
FORMING DEPOSITS (SLUDGE)
 Most Common- add Phosphate to Boiler
+ Will form hardness “sludge”
+ Will be removed by Blowdown
 Use of Phosphate w/Polymer/Phosphonate
+ Will form some soluble and some “sludge”
+ Will provide a “cleaner” Boiler
Sludge Conditioners &
Dispersants
 Sludge conditioners allowed sludge to
remain free flowing and accumulate in
bottom drum
 Current approaches
– Low feedwater hardness
– Keep precipitated particles dispersed so
they can be removed with surface
blowdown
Naturally Occurring Sludge
Conditioners and Dispersants
 Tannins
 Lignins
 Starch
 Seaweed derivatives
 Sugars
 Carboxymethyl cellulose
BOILER DEPOSIT CONTROL–
INTERNAL METHOD-
FORMING DEPOSITS (SLUDGE)
 Phosphate Levels 20-40ppm in Boiler
+ Ortho Phosphate can cause deposits in
feed water line
+ Poly Phosphate will not cause deposits in
feed water line
 Polymers/ Phosphonates Levels often 10-
30ppm in Boiler
Summary of Phosphate
Treatment Programs
PO4 OH- Na:PO4 Ratio pH
Conventional 20-40 100-350 N/A 11 - 12

Coordinated 5-25 Trace 2.85:1 to 3:1 (9 - 10.5)

Congruent 2-5 Zero 2.3:1 to 2.6:1 (8.8 - 9.4)

Equilibrium <2.4 <1.0 N/A (9.3 - 9.6)


Phosphate Programs
Alternatives Based on Pressure
PSIG 0-300 301-450 450-600 450-600 601-750 751-900
PO4; ppm 30-60 30-60 20-40 5-25 <2.4 <2.4
Mmho 1100-5400 900-4600 800-3800 200-800 <150 <150
TDS; ppm 550-2700 450-2300 400-1900 100-400 <75 <75
OH Alk; 20-200 6-50 2-20 1-4 0.17-1.0 .17-1.0
ppm
pH 11-12 10.5-11.5 10-11 9.7-10.4 9.0-9.7 9.0-9.7
SO3; ppm 20-40 20-40 15-30 10-20 5-10 3-8
SiO2; ppm <150 <90 <40 <8 <2 <2
Polymer 5-10 5-10 3-8 2-5 2-5 1-3
Makeup Soft Soft Soft DI DI DI
BOILER DEPOSIT CAUSES

 Loss in Heat Transfer- Wasted Fuel


 Possible Gradual Boiler Tube Softening
and Eventual Failure
 Corrosion Under Deposits due to
Caustic Concentration
Effect of Overheating Due to Deposits
Long-term Overheating Tube Failure
OXYGEN REMOVAL
METHODS
Mechanical Deareation of Feed Water
+ Various Types Of Equipment using
Heat and Steam

Chemical Oxygen Scavengers


+ Various Types Of Chemicals
Oxygen Pitting
DEAREATOR OPERATION
 Maintain Adequate Temperature- This is
at Full Saturation for the Pressure
 Maintain Good Agitation- This is to
Obtain Steam & Water Mixing to Strip
Gases from Water
 Maintain Proper Steam Plume for
Proper Partial Pressure of Atmosphere
Principles of Deaeration
 Heating
 Agitation
 Adequate Venting
 Practical Considerations
90 - 95% of oxygen is removed easily by
mechanical separation; the remaining 5 -
10% must be removed by molecular
diffusion.
Types of O2 Scavengers
 Non-Volatile Oxygen Scavengers
– Stay in boiler water
» Sodium sulfite most common
» Erythorbic acid (iso ascorbic acid-vitamin C)
» Sodium erythorbate
» Amine neutralized-proprietary

 Volatile Oxygen Scavengers


– Exit boiler with steam
– Hydrazine most common; also other “hydrazine substitutes”
OXYGEN SCAVENGERS
 Sulfite is most Common
 Often Sodium Sulfite with Catalyst (Co)
and is a Dry Product
 Recently Sodium Bisulfite which is
much more Soluble and thus a liquid but
it is acid and needs more alkali
 Common Dosage is 20-40 ppm Sulfite
Volatile Oxygen Scavengers
 Hydrazine
 Diethylhydroxylamine - DEHA
 Carbohydrazide
 Hydroquinone
 Methylethylketoxime - MEKO
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
CORROSION CONTROL
 Need to Prevent Low pH due to Carbon
dioxide

 Need to be sure Oxygen is not Present


since will Cause Pitting Corrosion
Carbon Dioxide Gouging
CONDENSATE SYSTEM LOW PH
CORROSION CONTROL
 Need to Neutralize the Carbonic acid
(carbon dioxide dissolved in water)
 Consider using a Dealkalizer if very high
Carbon Dioxide
 Use Organic Chemicals known as
Neutralizing Amines
 Neutralizing Amine will not protect against
Oxygen corrosion
Dealkalization of Boiler
Feedwater
 Purpose of alkalinity reduction
– Bicarbonates in makeup water decompose in
boiler to produce carbon dioxide
2NaHCO3 + Heat Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Carbon dioxide is carried with steam


– CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid.
Low pH condensate causes acid corrosion of
condensate piping
CO2 + H2O H2CO3
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
CONDENSATE SYSTEM-
NEUTRALIZING AMINES
+Most common are these three amines
+Morpholine/ Cyclohexylamine/ and
Diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)
+Amines are added to the Boiler and the
Steam carries into the Condensate
+These three can be used alone or often
blended to give better system protection-
they condense throughout entire system
DISTRIBUTION RATIO
 DEFINED AS THE RATIO OF AMINE
REMAINING IN STEAM TO AMINE IN
CONDENSATE
 AMINE WITH HIGH DISTRIBUTION
RATIO STAYS IN STEAM LONGER
 AMINE WITH LOW DISTRIBUTION
RATIO CONDENSES WITH “EARLY”
CONDENSATE
DISTRIBUTION RATIOS OF
COMMON AMINES
AMINE DISTRIBUTION RATIO
MORPHOLINE 0.48
CYCLOHEXYLAMINE 2.6
DEAE 1.45
AMP 0.31
AMMONIA 10
METHOXYPROPYLAMINE 1.0
CONDENSATE CORROSION
CONTROL FROM OXYGEN
 Need to Prevent any Oxygen Entering
System by stopping any in leakage

 If Oxygen continues entering the steam and


in the condensate- Need to use a Filming
Amine to “coat” the condensate pipe
CONDENSATE CORROSION
CONTROL FROM OXYGEN
 Filming Amines used are –
+Octadecylamine (ODA)
 Filming Amines must be added to the
Steam line- not the boiler
 Filming Amines difficult to control dosage
 Often both Neutralizing & Filming Amines
are blended together to help each
STEAM QUALITY NEEDS
 Need to Identify Steam Uses
 If only Heating-Not as critical
 If to drive Turbines- Need low Silica in
Boiler Water and No Carryover
 If both Heating and Turbines- Need Low
Silica in Boiler Water and No Carryover
BOILER WATER MONITORING
 Advanced Method-Traces Active Treatment
 Automatic Steam Quality & Purity Testing
 Continous Conductivity Tests/Blowdown
 Numerous Condensate Corrosion Testing
 Monitoring “Transport’ of Iron
 Automatic Monitoring reduces time for
Manual Testing & Improves Accuracy
 Also Phosphate/pH/turbidity, etc
NEW BOILER STARTUP
 Need to Implement an Alkaline “Boilout”
 Will remove Oil/ Grease/Rust to prevent
Deposits and Over Heating of Tubes
 Acid Needed if Much Mill Scale on Tubes
 If Acid used, Follow with an Alkaline Boilout
 Use of Neutral pH Boilout Treatment may
not be as efficient as Alkaline Boilout
BOILER LAYUP METHODS
 Wet Layup needs “full” Boiler, hi pH. Sulfite

 Dry Layup needs no moisture and nitrogen

 Volatile Vapor Phase Inhibitors used for


both Wet and Dry Layup
TREAT YOUR BOILER WELL
 Will Provide Long Life & Good Operation
 Will Prevent Poor Quality Steam
 Will Save Considerable Energy
 Will Reduce Maintenance & Repair
 Will Save Manpower Time
 You Will Sleep Well
 Good Luck with Your Boiler
WHO IS PUCKORIUS &
ASSOCIATES, INC?
 PROVIDE CONSULTING SERVICES ONLY
 DO NOT SELL CHEMICALS OR EQUIPMENT
 WORK THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
 WORK ON ALL TYPES OF WATER SYSTEMS
 PROVIDE TROUBLE SHOOTING, PREPARATION
OF SPECIFICATIONS, TRAINING AND LITIGATION
 PROVIDE EVALUATION OF WATER TREATMENT
PROGRAMS AND COST EFFECTIVE
APPLICATIONS
 SAVE OUR CLIENTS MANY TIMES OUR FEES
NEED MORE HELP?
HOW TO CONTACT US?
Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 6621 West 56th Ave
Suite 200 Arvada, Colorado 80002
Phone-303-674-9897 Fax-303-674-1453

Florida Office- 9005 Lake Lynn Drive Sebring, FL 33876


Phone 863-655-1036
E-mail Waterphd1@aol.com
Web - www.Puckorius.com &
www.watertrainingservices.com
Paul Puckorius cell- 303-638-0587
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