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Chapter 4 – The Global Interstate System

 
Introduction
 
The state has traditionally been the subject of most interest to scholars
of global Politics because it is viewed as "the institution that creates
warfare and sets economic Policies for a country." Furthermore, the
state is a political unit that has authority over its own affairs. In other
words, its borders are recognized by other countries. It is assumed that
whoever is in charge of those borders has the right to determine
exactly what is going to happen in their country. The Treaty of
westphalia of 1648 established the notion of the nation-state and the
idea of state sovereignty. Today, the globalization of politics created
an atmosphere where the ideas of the nation-state, state sovereignty,
government control, and state policies are challenged from all sides.
With globalization, some scholars suggest a decrease in the power of
the state and that other actors are actually becoming more powerful.
These actors include multinational corporations and global civil
society organizations, like the Red Cross, that cross national
boundaries.
ls the idea of the nation-state outdated in the contemporary world? If
so, what is it that we need to think about as "replacements"? In this
chapter, we will look at regional alliances and worldwide
organizations of states. This manifests the efforts of countries and
governments in the world to cooperate and collaborate together. Next,
international and regional economic bond bodies, such as IMF and the
World Bank, must also be considered as they often push for neoliberal
reforms in the world. The third kind of replacement to the traditional
nation-state and the idea of national autonomy comes from the non-
state actors. One of these is the private capital groups, including banks
and groups of people, with money that can determine the well-being
of people in a particular area. Multinational corporations and non-
governmental organizations, such as the Amnesty International, are
significant organizations that put into question the strength of national
autonomy and global politics. The emergence of non-state
organizations, like AI-qaeda, Isis, and terrorist organizations, which
seek power try to depose a government and replace the system with
their own ideological belief.
 
Global Governance in the Twenty-First Century
 
There is a series of specific factors behind the emergence of global
governance. The first on the list must be the declining power of
nation-states. If states themselves were highly contingent and in flux
(cerny, 2007, p. 854), it would open the possibility of the emergence
of some form of global governance to fill the void.
A second factor is the vast flows of all sorts of things that run into and
often right through the borders of nation-states. this could involve the
flow of digital information of all sorts through the Internet. It is
difficult, if not impossible, for a nation-state to stop such flow and in
any case, it is likely that such action would be politically unpopular
and bring much negative reaction to the nation-state involved in such
an effort. For example, China's periodic efforts to interfere with the
Internet have brought great condemnation both internally and
externally.
Then, there is mass migration of people and their entry, often illegally,
into various nation-states. If states are unable to control this flow, then
there is a need for some sort of global governance to help deal with
the problem. The flow of criminal elements, as well as their products
(drugs, laundered money those bought and sold in sex trafficking,
etc.), is a strong factor in the call for global governance (Levy and
Sznaider, 2006). In these cases and others, there is a need for some
degree of order, some sort of effective authority, and at least some
potential for the improvement of human life. These are but a few of
the things that can be delivered by some form of global governance.
Another set of issues that has led to calls for global governance
involves horrendous events within nation-states that the states
themselves either foment and carry out, or are unable to control
(Nordstrom, 2004). For example, in Darfur, Sudan, perhaps hundreds
of thousands have been killed, millions of people displaced, and the
lives of many disrupted in a conflict that date back to early 2003. The
government of Sudan and its military have been implicated in the
conflict between ethnic and tribal groups and the Sudanese
government has been resistant to outside interference in its internal
affairs. One could even go back to WWII and argue that the Holocaust
could have been prevented, or at least mitigated, had there been I
viable form of global governance to put pressure on Nazi Germany
and ultimately, to intervene in a more material way, perhaps militarily
(Bauman, 1998).
Then, there are global problems that single nation-state cannot hope to
tackle on their own. One is the global financial crises and panic that
sweep the world periodically, which nations are often unable to deal
with on their own (Strange, 1996). Indeed, some nations (e. S, the
nations of Southeast Asia) have often been, and are being, victimized
by such crises. Unable to help themselves, such nations are in need of
assistance from some type of global governance.
Nation-states have long struggled to deal with problems like these
through various interstate systems (e. g., alliances such as NATO), but
the more recent trend is toward the development of more truly global
structures and methods of dealing with various sorts of issues and
problems.
 
Effects of Globalization to Governments
 
One of the key aspects of state sovereignty is the government, It is a
group of people who have the ultimate authority to act on behalf of a
state, Each state has its own right to self-determination and that other
country should not intervene in the affairs of that state unless there are
extraordinary reasons to do so. Other countries must recognize
sovereignty or the right to govern one's own territorial borders. Each
state is autonomous unto itself and responsible within its own system
of government to those who are governed. The decisions, the conflict,
and the resolution of that conflict are done through the institutions of
government established and codified in that particular state, whether
or not through elections. Elections, especially in democratic society,
provide the leadership of the state. In addition, the policy is developed
and implemented in the interest of the people of a state by a specific
government. A civil society within a state can also act as a
counterweight or as a supplement to government. Civil society
includes the private economy, educational institutions, churches,
hospitals, fraternal organizations, and other non-profit organizations.
There have been several challenges to the government and ultimately,
to state autonomy. We can divide these challenges into four traditional
challenges, challenges from national or identity movements, global
economics, and global social movements.
 
Traditional Challenges
 
External intervention can generally be described as invasion by other
countries. For example, when Saddam Hussein was the ruler of Iraq in
199o, he decided he was going to take over the oil fields of Kuwait.
He invaded Kuwait and took it over. As a result, he was dislodged by
an international coalition led by the United States.
These days, we can see external intervention in other forms. Russia's
external intervention into the affairs of Ukraine, a sovereign state in
the post-Soviet era, is another instance of intervention in the autonomy
of the state. Russia intervenes in the affairs of people in Crimea who
want to become part of Russia again even though they are part of
Ukraine. Crimea declared its independence from Ukraine and re-
affiliated with Russia. This is a case of how there might be a national
identity within a country that is assisted by a neighbouring country.
Ukraine argues to have autonomy to determine the case for Crimea.
As a result there is current conflict between Ukraine, not recognizing
Crimea's sovereignty, and Russia, not recognizing Ukraine's
sovereignty over Crimea.
Internal political challenges can also happen. For example, after the
Arab Spring in Egypt, a new constitution was created and a
government was elected. That government was more fundamentalist
and rejected the notion of a plural society that included religious
diversity. The military staged a coup that deposed the government in
order to restore stability. Other examples include the Taliban's efforts
to control the government of Afghanistan. In Syria, the original
rebellion against Assad came from the country's own internal
dissenters who wanted to replace the government even though they
were also Syrian nationals.
There are also regional organizations challenging state autonomy. The
United Nations intervened in Sudan because of the several years of
civil war. More recently in Europe, specifically in Greece, it also
interfered in the Greek debt crisis.
 
 
 
Challenges from National/Identity Movements
 
The next challenges are part of a national identity or movement. It is
important to know that a nation has cultural identity that people
attached to, while a state is a definite entity due to its specific
boundaries. However, different people with different identities can
live in different states. For example, the Kurdsreside in several
different countries including Iraq, Iran, and Turkey. The Catalans live
primarily in Spain but we can also find some of them in France.
Scottish nationalism is another example that challenges the traditional
notions of state sovereignty. In 2014, Great Britain had a vote in
Scotland to decide whether Scotland was going to become its own
autonomous state apart from Great Britain. They voted against it but
Scotland has a significant degree of autonomy now as compared to
more than two decades years ago.
Global movements, such as the AI-qaeda and ISIS, are another
example of national or identity movements. In this case, they are
structured around the fundamentalist version of Islam.
 
Global Economics
 
The third major source of challenge comes from global economics.
Global economy demands the states to conform to the rules of free-
market capitalism. Government austerity comes from developments of
organizations that cooperate cross countries, such as WTO and
regional agreements, such as NAFTA, theEuropean union (Eu), and
the Association of southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Neoliberal economics or neoliberal capitalism started in the 198os. It
focuses on free trade and dismantling trade barriers. It made sure that
governments did not impose restrictive regulations on corporate
presence, as well as on the free flow of capital and jobs. Free trade
was seen as the ideal or the normative belief, that is, the best economy
is one where there is free trade everywhere. Laws and standards that
would interfere with the flow of capital in a particular country,
including environmental regulations, were deemed to discourage
economic growth. Neoliberal economics requires a state to cooperate
in the global market through the free flow of capital, the privatization
of services, and fiscal austerity or constraint. In turn, the government's
role is diminished as it relates to the market. Neoliberal economics is
seen as a threat, in general, because a state cannot protect its own
economic interest as a sovereign state.
A specific example to expand global economic influence is the use of
IMF and the World Bank in forcing government reforms in poorer
country. Furthermore, the regional economic development efforts
focused on expanding free trade and market liberalization. Businesses
from developed countries put their factories and pay people to build
factories and produce goods in developing countries worldwide. These
corporations will sell the products in developing countries. This
exacerbates rising inequality in the world. Greece is one example that
explains how neoliberal economics can threaten the sovereignty of a
state. It began in 1981 when Greece joined the EU. As a larger
alliance, the EU broke down all kinds of barriers among its member
states, including Greece, like passports, visas, and license plates. It
allowed people to travel across European borders and encouraged
economic cooperation and collaboration of member states. Twenty
years later, Greece adopted the euro as S own currency and got rid of
the drachma. The government of Greece borrowed money for
infrastructure improvements, largely linked to their hosting of the
2004 0lympics. This put Greece in a large debt. In 2007 and 2008, the
worldwide financial crisis made Greece's economy to collapse.
 
Aside from high debt that burdened the government, Greece had
several of its employees struggling with pensions. Tax revenues were
lower, and as a result, they could not pay their debts back. In 2009,
their credit rating dropped which made it harder for them to pay back
their debt. This led to a series of austerity packages in Greece which
meant that there was less government spending. IMF bailed them out
from the crisis in exchange for more austerity. In conclusion,
economic crises can force government to subscribe to the terms and
conditions of the global financial market and of other nations that can
help them regain economic stability.
 
Global Social Movements
 
Finally, we have global social movements. Most of the time, they are
not seen as a threat but they definitely challenge state sovereignty.
Social movements are movements of people that are spontaneous or
that emerge through enormous grassroots organization. These social
movements are transnational movements which means they occur
across countries and across borders. Therefore, states have less control
over them.
For example, human rights movements create a public sentiment,
value, and agenda. The idea is that there are certain rights that states
cannot neglect or generally, what we call human rights. If a country
decides that they are going to have a particular policy and if that
policy violates the international standard of human rights, there is a
challenge to the ability of states to fully implement it. An example is
the United States' position on the death penalty. There is an
international consensus, with a few dissenting countries like China,
South Africa, and Russia, against the death penalty. This means that if
somebody is sentenced by death penalty and somehow he is in a
country around the world, there are rules against that state extraditing
into the United States.
The environmental movement is another example of global social
movements related to public policy. A specific case is the so-called
Blockadia or the state where social movements emerging in local
areas fight back as a response to the controlling efforts by the
apparatus of government to protect the interest of neoliberal
capitalists. Consensus on women's rights is another example in many
countries. Arguably, the biggest conflict between the West and the
fundamentalist Islam is over the role of women in society, as well as
women's autonomy. Rights of personal autonomy are another example
and this includes issues on homosexuality, same-sex marriage, and
gender equality.
There is also an increased role in international organizations like the
United Nations and the International Criminal Court in Hague, the role
of non-governmental organizations like Doctors without Borders or
Amnesty International, and the role of global media.
 
The Relevance of the State amid Globalization
 
The state is a distinctive political community with its own set of rules
and practices and that is more or less separate from other
communities. It has four elements people, territory, government, and
sovereignty. The first element of a state is a permanent population.
This population does not refer to a nomadic people that move from
one place to another in an indefinite time. This permanent presence in
one location is strengthened by the second element of a state, a
defined territory. A territory has clear boundaries. A territory is
effectively controlled by the third element, government. The
government regulates relations among its own people and with other
states. This means that the state is a formally constituted sovereign
political structure encompassing people, territory, and its institutions
on the one hand, and maintaining its autonomy from other states on
the other hand.
 
It is important to differentiate the idea of nation from state. Nation
refers to a people rather than any kind of formal territorial boundaries
or institutions. It is a collective identity grounded on a notion of
shared history and culture. If we talk about the Philippines as a state,
we may refer to the Philippine government, the Philippine territory,
and its internal and external sovereignty. If we talk about the
Philippines as a nation, we refer to our shared collective notion of
democracy, our history, and our collective identity. In other words, the
state is a political concept, while a nation is a cultural concept. States,
through its formalized institutions, more or less reflect nations. This
would allow states to have a certain people with their own collective
identity. In turn, they should be allowed to form their own political
State. This is the principle of national self-determination.
This brings us to the concept of the nation-state. It is a territorially
bounded sovereign institution that governs individuals sharing a
collective history, identity, and culture. In reality, it is difficult to think
of any nation as having any shared national identity. The Philippines,
although formally a state, has a variety of ethnic traditions.
A variety of arguments are made including that nation-states continue
to be the major players on the global stage (Gilpin, 2001), that they
"retain. At least some power in the face of globalization"(Conley,
2002, PP  · 378-399), that they vary greatly in "their efficacy in the
face of globalization"(Mann, 2007, p · 472), and that the rumours of
the demise of the nation-state are greatly exaggerated.
Beland (2008) argued that "the role of the state is enduring-and even
increasing-in advanced industrial societies"(p . 48). He saw greater
demands being placed on the state because of four major sources of
collective insecurity terrorism economic globalization, leading to
problems such as outsourcing and pressures toward downsizing, as
well as the current economic crisis; threats to national identity due to
immigration and the spread of global diseases such as AIDs. Further,
the state does not only respond to these threats, but may also 2ooo). A
good example is the U. S. and British governments' arguments prior to
the 2003 war with Iraq that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass
destruction(WMDs) that posed a direct threat to the United States and
United Kingdom. The United States even claimed that Iraq could kill
millions by using offshore ships to lob canisters containing lethal
chemical or biological material into American cities (Isikofr and Corn,
2006). The collective insecurity created by such outrageous claims
helped foster public opinion in favour of invading Iraq and
overthrowing Saddam Hussein.
 
The other side of this argument in support of the nation-state is that
global processes of various kinds are not as powerful as many believe.
For example, global business pales in comparison to business within
many countries. In addition, some question the porosity of the nation-
state by pointing, for example, to the fact that migration to other
countries has declined substantially since its heights in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Gilpin, 2001).
A related point is that it would be a mistake simply "to see
globalization as a threat to, a constraint on, the nation-state it can also
be an opportunity for the nation-state " (Conley, 2002, pp  · 378-399).
For example, the demands of globalization were used as bases to make
the needed changes in Australian society, specifically allowing it to
move away from protectionism and in the direction of
neoliberalization, to transform state enterprises into Private
enterprises, and to streamline social welfare. With this, the rhetoric of
globalization, especially an exaggeration of it and its effects, was
useful to those Politicians who were hopeful of such changes.
 
Institutions That Govern International Relations

There are several international organizations that governments of countries around


the world and individuals participate in. These include the United Nations, the
International Court of Justice, NAFTA, and NATO. There are also non-
governmental organizations promoting social and economic growth. Let us look at
them one by one.
 
Peace Treaties and Military Alliances The UN and NATO
 
Global politics entails relationship of countries and different governments and non-
governmental organizations. The United Nations (UN) is one of the leading
political organizations in the world where nation-states meet and
deliberate. However, it remains as an independent actor in global politics. The
premise for its establishment was the restructuring of the world devastated after the
Second World War. The term "United Nations" was coined by former U. S.
president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942 (United Nations, 2011). Its operations
began on October 24, 1945. It started with 50 representatives from
different countries. Generally, it functions in four areas military issues, economic
issues, environmental issues, and human protection. It is made up of close to 200
countries from around the world, 193 member states to be exact, with the Republic
of South Sudan as its latest member (United Nations, 2011). The UN, with its
headquarters in New York City, was designed to be a place where countries could
come to discuss their issues without resorting to violence and war, which had
plagued our planet for several years in the past. Maintaining peace and building
friendships is the number one goal of the UN, as well as providing a forum where
countries could gather to discuss global issues. The General Assembly is the
gathering of all of these countries. It is held in an auditorium where speeches are
given. Representatives from different member states can vote on issues.

Maintaining international peace and security became the central mission of the UN
after the war. Up to this day, the UN is the major force in governing interstate
relations (Ritzer, 2015). According to the UN (2011), peace and security are
maintained “by working to prevent conflict helping parties in conflict make peace;
peacekeeping; and creating the conditions to allow peace to hold and flourish". The
UN also has what is known as the Security Council. This group of countries
decides what to do when two or more countries are waging war or are on the verge
of fighting. There are five permanent members of the UN Security Council—the
United States, Britain, Russia, China, and France. In addition to the five members,
10 additional countries join the permanent members for two-year terms, making a
total of 15 countries. The Security Council tries to be the arbiter in ceasefires
between two sides. They can pass sanctions like block trade with
another country as a punishment. They can send troops or observers and, if worst
comes to worst, they can use military force. In the past, UN peacekeepers have
been sent to Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The "big five" permanent
members have a veto power, which means that one member can stop the entire
council from taking action against a country. This has come up recently during the
Syrian Civil War in which Russia and China, who are allies with Syrian leader
Bashar Al-Assad, have been able to stop the other members from stepping in to
deal with the Syrian leader who was accused of using biological weapons against
his own people.
 
The main deliberative body, the General Assembly, provides a forum for member
states to express their views and reach a consensus. In 1991, the UN's military role
was put into question during its intervention in Iraq's invasion of
Kuwait wherein the Security Council authorized the use of force (Ritzer, 2015).
Aside from this, the UN intervened in the civil wars of less developed countries,
such as Cambodia and East Timor, through "election and human rights monitoring,
disarmament, and even the assumption of state functions" (Weiss and Zach 2007,
p. 1219).
 
The UN is not all about fights. It has a program called UNICEF or the
UnitedNations Children's Emergency Fund. Its primary goal is to help children
around the world. They collect funds to distribute emergency relief from famine
and poverty and disease. It also provides education programs in areas where there
are no schools. While UNICEF is part of the United Nations, they operate semi-
independently and rely on fundraising.

In terms of economic issues, the main focus of the UN is the reduction of global
inequality. The sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) cover a range of concerns
for the improvement of all aspects of life. According to the UN (2017), sustainable
development encompasses economic prosperity, social well-being, and
environmental protection. Since the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) did
not end poverty for all people, the UN's post-2015 sustainable development
agenda showcases the vision of the organization when it comes to broader issues
such as climate change, disaster risk reduction, and gender equality.

Environmental issues, such as pollution and hazardous wastes, are addressed


through United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The increasing rate of
greenhouse gas emissions, rising sea level, and occurrence of extreme weather
patterns are the effects of climate change. As a response, the UN's
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) took efforts that can mitigate
climate change like assessment of climate science, facilitation of climate
agreements, and giving assistance to countries to reduce emissions (UN, 2011).

The UN also has the International Court of Justice (ICJ), usually referred to as the
World Court. It is located in the Netherlands in a town called The Hague. This is
where countries can settle disputes in a. court of law, as well as a place where war
criminals and rulers who have done terrible things to their people can be put to trial
for their crimes. Aside from this, there are also a variety of international courts and
tribunals created by the UN such as the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS). The problem is, sometimes,
getting the violators all the way to Europe to face trial because there is no actual
police force to go out and get them. As more and more countries interact with one
another, people are looking for the ICJ to play a bigger role in the future of our
global world.

Finally, the UN promotes and protects human rights through different


organizations and mechanisms. Since 1948, human rights have been brought into
the realm of international law. This is reflected in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights. A variety of UN-sponsored human rights treaties and agreements
have been done for human protection. Other mechanisms include the Office of the
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), the Human Rights Council,
human rights treaty bodies, the UN Development Group's Human Rights
Mainstreaming Mechanism (UNDG-HRM), and the Special Advisers on the
Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect (UN, 2011). There are
also legal instruments that help the organization like the International Bill of
Human Rights which consists of three legal documents the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights (1948), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. The UN
also believes in democracy and that it is interdependent with development and
respect for all human rights.
The UN is being criticized as being weak and is unable to stop wars. Because of
this, the next institution that we are going to discuss continues to play a big role in
foreign conflicts. This is NATO. It is a defensive treaty or a military alliance
between the United States, Canada, and 25 European countries. This treaty and
international organization is based on the idea of collective security. The countries
in this organization basically agreed to combine their militaries and announce to
the world that if a country messes with one of its members, the other countries will
come to their defense. NATO was created after the Second World War, mostly
during the beginning of the Cold War. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in the
early 1990s, former Soviet states, like Poland and Croatia, had joined NATO,
making the present-day Russia feel more threatened. NATO has sent troops and
undertaken military operations in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Iraq, and Africa. The
United States with, by far, the most advanced military in the world makes up the
bulk of NATO forces and operations. Many of these wars or conflicts are
considered to be strictly U. S. wars.

Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs)


 
Another example of an international organization that was developed out of war is
the Red Cross (Red Crescent in Muslim countries). It is considered as a non-
governmental organization (NGO). NGOs are not tied to any country. This allows
them to operate freely throughout the world. They provide emergency relief such
as food, water, and medical supplies for those whose homes or towns have been
destroyed by disaster or war. They also monitor the treatment of prisoner of wars
and go to conflicts to make sure that no war crimes are taking place. In fact, the
Red Cross began as an organization to help those who were wounded during wars.
The big Red Cross worn by NGOs is the identification that they are not soldiers.
Part of why it is important for the Red Cross to be an NGO is that they remain
neutral and would help the wounded from both sides of war. Since they are neutral,
governments are more likely to let them come into their countries to help. While
the headquarters of the International Red Cross is in Geneva, Switzerland, they
have branches all around the world.
 
In addition to the Red Cross, there are many NGOs dedicated to helping people
around the world. Doctors Without Borders provides free emergency healthcare in
disaster areas; Oxfam fights famine and disease; Amnesty International speaks out
for human rights and political prisoners; and Save the Children helps kids get
health care and education.
 
Global Economic Associations: The WTO and NAFTA
 
The next group is an economic association—WTO. It is made up of 162 countries
around the world and was created with the goal of increasing free
trade. Countries, therefore, can buy and sell goods from one another without
placing taxes on imports or tariffs. In addition, tariffs are used to protect businesses
and companies inside their country. Though good in nature, WTO is not without
criticism. In fact, a protest in Seattle at a 1999 WTO Conference led to a major riot
as some said that WTO was more about helping large companies and corporations
than it was about helping people.
 
Another famous economic organization is NAFTA. This is an economic treaty
between the United States, Canada, and Mexico in which the three countries trade
freely without taxing each other. NAFTA is not without critics either. Some
American autoworkers protested against NAFTA as several car companies moved
their factories to Mexico in search for cheaper labor. NAFTA, like WTO,
represents the challenge in America of keeping manufacturing factories.

Globalization and Globalism


 
You probably think about links, connections, and interrelatedness of things,
people, and countries when you encounter the word "globalization". However,
when compared to the term "globalism", globalization would be better described
as the "increase or decline in the degree of globalism" (Nye, 2002, p. 1). What then
is globalism? Globalism refers to the network of connections that transcends-
distances of different countries in the world. In other words, the links among
countries and people are better associated with globalism while the speed in which
they become linked with one another is globalization.

If we are to make a stark contrast between globalism and globalization by saying


that globalization means connectedness while globalism is not, it will lead to a
confusion that the present is the only time in which people got connected while in
the past they were not. But even before the Industrial Revolution, the
world was already connected. Through the conquests of different empires, such as
those of the Romans, many parts of the world became under one rule. Today,
however, the contemporary world is characterized by being connected through the
Internet, modern transportation, and advanced communication technologies. This is
to say, therefore, that societies in the world have always been connected what
makes the contemporary world different from the past is the type and speed of
connection that people and societies experience.
We can also differentiate globalism and globalization in terms of its "thickness"
(Nye, 2002). Globalism is thin. As it becomes thicker, globalization happens. This
means that being able to connect countries in the world through a more dynamic
and faster way is globalization. Let us take global trade as an example. In the past,
the Silk Road served as the trade routes among countries in Europe and in Asia.
Aside from the trade of silk between the continents, other products, even illegal
ones, were exchanged among traders and consumers. In addition, cultural
interactions among people were made through their trades.However, they were felt
by a relatively small group of people, most especially those who were actually on
the road and did the trades. The connections were not intense nor "thick". In
contrast to the contemporary world, "globalism becomes increasingly thick" (Nye,
2002, p. 1).

This is where globalization comes in. If we look at the global trade today, it has
reached a greater number of people around the world. For example, the selling
products are not solely done through physical transactions but can be done online
as well. This allows one, who has access to computers and the World Wide Web,
to be connected with millions of people around the world. Aside from the number
of people, the speed was also affected by the transition from
thin globalism to thick globalization. In the past, if you were a European trader
taking the Silk Road going to China, it would take you days or weeks to sell your
products. But today, it would only take a few seconds or minutes to sell, buy, and
exchange products and services with other people even if they are a thousand miles
away from you. A concrete example of this is the change in the price of oil which
can happen overnight depending on its price in the world market. Although
globalism and globalization are often understood in terms of the economy, Nye
(2002) gave "four distinct dimensions of globalism economic,
military, environmental, and social" (p. 2). Like economic globalism, the three
other dimensions also become thicker and faster as globalization intensifies. The
enormous speed of potential conflict and threat of nuclear war is an example of
military globalism. In terms of environmental globalism, global warming continues
to accelerate. The last dimension, social and cultural globalism, "involves
movements of ideas, information, images, and of people who carry ideas and
information with them" (Nye, 2002, p. 2). For instance, religious ideas have spread
throughout the world at greater scope and speed. Religious teachings are delivered
today though the mass media, such as televisions, radio, and the Internet. Unlike
before, religious leaders had to walk by foot and had to deliver their messages in a
face-to-face manner.
With the advent of modern mass communication, computers, and social
networking sites, it seems that the connections made through the exchange of
information creates a new kind of network in this contemporary world. It is at this
point that the concept of informationalism will be helpful for us to discuss.
 
Informationalism
 
Globalism is tied to the notion of networks. For Castells (2000), "networks
constitute the fundamental pattern of life, of all kinds of life" (p. 3). It was
previously mentioned that in the present and even in the past, the world is
connected. The difference between globalism and globalization is the speed and
thickness or intensity of connections. Nevertheless, people are connected with one
another whether as a small community or as a large country.

The question now is about the type of connection that exists and begins to increase
in the contemporary world. The answer lies on the growth of information as the
binding force among people, things, and places around the globe. This
technological paradigm, associated with computer science and modern
telecommunication, that replaces industrialism is called informationalism (Castells,
2004). These are technology, the media, and the Internet. This is not today that we
do not need to produce material goods such as factories, clothes, and food rather,
exchanging information and knowledge, which is clearly immaterial goods,
becomes central in the contemporary world (Hardt & Negri, 2000). This is due to
the "three of the most cutting-edge aspects of the social world in general and
globalization in particular'' (Ritzer, 2015, p. 134), technology, media, and the
Internet.
 
The creation of the world's first container ship in 1956 and the expansion of
airfreight greatly hastened the transport of goods all around the world. But a
notable example of technological advancement is the founding of Federal Express
(FedEx) in the 1970s. It makes use of computer technology in its deliveries.
Computer technology is used to check our health through the invention of
magnetic resonance imaging (MRls), ultrasound, and CT or CAT scans. Space-
based technologies were also made possible through the use of computers (Ritzer,
2015). The launching of satellites for military surveillance, the use of global
positioning systems (GPS), and the operation of global navigation systems (GNS)
are some remarkable examples.

McLuhan and Fiore (2005) argued that in the New Media Age, the importance lies
in the medium, the way in which the message is transmitted, not necessarily in the
content presented through the medium. This means that televisions, radios, and
newspapers have been shaping "individual subjectivity and culture, not only
locally but globally" (Ritzer, 2015, p. 143). In addition, the French social theorist
Guy DeBord (1994) emphasized in his idea of media spectacle the sophistication
and ubiquity of spectacular visual in televisions. This made TV news a form of
entertainment. Although content matters in television broadcasts, visual spectacle
or significance is an important element and perhaps the primary key to catch the
attention of the audience.

When one mentions online social networking, spam, and computer viruses, it is the
Internet that binds them all. The Internet is a mark of the contemporary world.
According to Ritzer (2015), "The Internet has prompted a flat world thesis; anyone
can be involved in it, at least theoretically" (p. 150). Having a computer today in
our homes, our schools, our workplaces, and accessing the Internet through our
personal cellphones allow us to be connected with the rest of the world. We can
gain information by accessing different websites, such as Facebook and Wikipedia,
through the Internet. In the same manner, the information about ourselves that we
share is also exposed. In order to control Internet access and use, there are
mechanisms such as personal passwords or in the case of Chinese government, the
"Great Firewall. "
 
 
Global Citizenship
 
Citizenship is associated with rights and obligations, for instance, the right to vote
and obligation to pay taxes. Both rights and obligations link the individual to state.
It also has to do with our attitudes. We need to be willing to engage and to spend
time and effort to the community of which we feel part of. Community has been
traditionally been regarded as something very local. How, then, can the idea of
citizenship be transferred to the global level?

Caecilia Johanna van Peski (as cited in Baraldi, 2012) defined global citizenship as
“a moral and ethical disposition that can guide the understanding of individuals or
groups of local and global contexts, and remind them of their relative
responsibilities within various communities.” Global citizens are the glue which
binds local communities together in an in increasingly globalized world. In van
Peski’s words, “global citizens might be a new type of people that can travel within
these various boundaries and somehow still make sense of the world” (Baraldi,
2012).
Global citizenship does not automatically entail a single attitude and a particular
value with globalization. We must remember that globalization is not a single
phenomenon; rather, there are many globalizations. While some need to be
multiple futures for multiple globalizations. These globalizations created enemies
because according to the one broad view, globalization failed to deliver its
promises (Cohen, 2006). These so-called bottom billion lacks infrastructures and
has been disenfranchised. The opponents of globalization blame either
Westernization or global capitalism. Thus, enemies resist globalization, especially
when it comes to global economy and global governance.

There are three approaches to global economic resistance. Trade protectionism


involves the systematic government intervention in foreign trade through tariffs
and non-tariff barriers in order to encourage domestic producers and deter foreign
competitors (McAleese, 2007). Although there exists a widespread consensus
regarding its inefficiency, trade protectionism is still popular since it shields the
domestic economy from systemic shocks. Fair trade is different approach to
economic globalization, which emerged as a counter to neoliberal “free trade”
principles (Nicholls and Opal, 2005). Fair trade aims at a moral and equitable
global economic systems in which, for instance, price is not set by the market;
instead, it is negotiated transparently by both producers and consumers. While it is
popular among consumers in the North, it has met only limited acceptance among
producers (Ritzer, 2015). Its ability to supply a mass market and its applicability to
manufacture products are also doubted. The third form of resistance to economic
globalization relates to helping the bottom billion based on Collier (2007).
Increasing aid is only one of the many measures that are required. International
norms and standards can be adapted to the needs of the bottom billion. The
reduction of trade barriers would also reduce the economic marginalization of
these people and their nations.

When it comes to dealing with political globalization, increased accountability


(Germain, 2004) and transparency are the key issues. All political organizations, at
different levels, should be more accountable for their actions because they are now
surrounded by an "ocean of opacity" (Holzner and Holzner, 2006, p. 336).
Increased transparency has been aided by various mechanisms such as
transnational justice systems, international tribunals, civil society, and particularly
the Transparency Intemational.

Like globalization, resistance to globalization is multiple, complex, contradictory,


and ambiguous. This movement also has the potential to emerge as the new public
sphere, which may uphold progressive values such as autonomy, democracy,
peace, ecological sustainability, and social justice. These forces of resistance are
themselves products of globalization and can be seen as globalization from below
(Smith, 2008). According to della Porta et al. (2006), the impetus for such a
movement comes from individuals, groups, and organizations which are oppressed
(i.e., self-perception) by globalization from above (neoliberal economic systems or
aggressively expanding nations and corporations). They seek a more democratic
process of globalization. However, globalization from below also involves less
visible, more right-wing elements, such as the America First Party and the Taliban.

The World Social Forum (WSF) is centered on addressing the lack of democracy
in economic and political affairs (Fisher and Ponniah, 2003). However, the
diversity of elements involved in WSF hinders the development of concrete
political proposals. A significant influence on WSF has been that of cyberactivism,
which is based on the "cultural logic of networking" (Juris, 2005) and "virtual
movements”, such as Global Huaren. This cyberpublic was formed as a protest
against the violence, discrimination, and hatred experienced by Chinese residents
in Indonesia after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. In 1998, worldwide rallies
condemning the violence were made possible through the Global Huaren which
according to Ritzer (2015) "became an interesting global watchdog for Chinese
interests" (p-307).
 
Since there is no single globalization, the future is also multi-dimensional. Some
foresee the continuing expansion of globalization both in general as well as in
more specific globalization. Others have a far more pessimistic vision of "Mad
Max" scenarios that could end the current era of globalization (Turner, 2007).

In any case, given that there is no world government, the idea of global citizenship
demands the creation of rights and obligations. Moreover, fulfilling the promises of
globalization and the solution to the problems of the contemporary world does not
lie on single entity or individual, but on citizens, the community, and the different
organizations in societies. The dynamics of globalization demands the efforts of
the whole array of inter-governmental organizations such as the United Nations
and the World Bank; international NGOs like Greenpeace and Amnesty
International; and the citizen initiatives and community action groups that reach
above the nation-state level like the World Social Forum and Occupy Movement.
Ultimately, reforms in global governance are required to allow world citizens to
take more part directly in all aspects of human life at the global level.