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BEST PRACTICES REPORT

(PROCESSING SECTOR)

Supported by
RENEWABLE ENERGY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY
PROGRAMME (REEE)
DISCLAIMER
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is
implementing the Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (REEE) Programme
on the basis of a commission from the German Federal Ministry for Economic
Cooperation and Development (BMZ). On behalf of Government of Pakistan,
Small & Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) & National
Productivity Organization (NPO) are implementing partners in this project.

The opinions and analyses expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect
the views and official policies of the REEE Programme.

This report is based on the findings of energy efficiency audits and will be
updated on a regular basis to include more suitable measures identified in
additional energy efficiency audits.

Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1
BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................... 1
ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE)..................................................................................................................... 1
ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE) PROJECT ....................................................................................................... 1
ADVANTAGES / IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY ............................................................................ 1
ENERGY SAVING POTENTIALS ....................................................................................................... 3

1 WORKERS’ TRAINING ON WATER AND ENERGY CONSERVATION ............................. 3


1.1 PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................ 3
1.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS ................................................................................................................ 3
2 BETTER PROCESS CONTROL ................................................................................................. 4
2.1 PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................ 4
2.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS ................................................................................................................ 4
3 INSULATION OF BARE HOT SURFACES ............................................................................... 7
3.1 PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................ 7
3.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS ................................................................................................................ 7
4 REUSE OF STEAM CONDENSATE........................................................................................... 8
4.1 PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................ 8
4.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS ................................................................................................................ 8
5 UPKEEP OF STEAM TRAPS...................................................................................................... 9
5.1 PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................ 9
5.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS ................................................................................................................ 9
6 INSTALLATION OF ECONOMIZER ON BOILER FLUE GAS............................................ 11
6.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 11
6.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 11
7 MEASUREMENT OF BOILER EFFICIENCY ........................................................................ 12
7.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 12
7.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 12
8 ENERGY LOSS THROUGH BLOW DOWN ........................................................................... 14
8.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 14
8.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 14
9 INSTALLATION OF WATER SOFTENER/REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) FOR PROCESS
AND BOILER FEED WATER............................................................................................................ 15
9.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 15
9.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 15

Title
Best Practices Report (Version 1.0) in Processing Sector

Date
January, 2008
Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
10 FLAME ADJUSTABLE SINGEING MACHINE...................................................................... 18
10.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 18
10.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 18
11 INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER ON HOT WASTEWATER ............................... 19
11.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 19
11.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 19
12 IMPLEMENTATION OF COUNTER CURRENT WASHING AT MERCERIZATION /
SOAPER /.BLEACHING PLANT....................................................................................................... 20
12.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 20
12.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 20
13 REUSE OF COOLING WATER................................................................................................ 21
13.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 21
13.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 21
14 INSTALLATION OF TEMPERATURE GAUGES/INDICATORS ON HOT MACHINES... 22
14.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 22
14.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 22
15 INSTALLATION OF WATER FLOW METERS ON WATER INLETS................................ 23
15.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 23
15.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 23
16 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM .............................................................................. 24
16.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 24
16.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 25
17 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM .................................................................................................. 29
17.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 29
17.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 30
18 LIGHTING.................................................................................................................................. 32
18.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 32
18.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 32
19 REUSE OF CLEAN HOT WATER STREAM OF JETS.......................................................... 34
19.1 PROBLEM .............................................................................................................................. 34
19.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS .............................................................................................................. 34

Title
Best Practices Report (Version 1.0) in Processing Sector

Date
January, 2008
Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
The Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) as well as
the National Productivity Organization (NPO) have been supported by the
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH to
introduce Energy Efficiency in the Textile Industry. This initiative helps the textile
sector address energy losses and related productivity, quality losses.

As a first exercise, detailed energy efficiency audits were conducted by national


consultants under supervision of international energy efficiency experts in six
textile units (two spinning units, two processing units and two integrated units).

ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE)


Energy Efficiency (EE) by definition means using less energy to achieve same
or better output compared to pre-implementation of the energy efficiency
project.

Energy Efficiency does not mean rationing or having to do without energy.


Rather, energy efficiency means identifying wasteful energy usage, and taking
steps to reduce or eliminate that waste without adversely effecting the
production and the quality of output. Illustratively, the energy efficiency process
is depicted below as

ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE) PROJECT


Energy Efficiency (EE) project refers to any process, technique or equipment
that helps to achieve reduction in energy consumption to perform a designated
operation to achieve same or better level of output while maintaining or
improving process time, quality, performance and safety with minimal
environmental impact.

ADVANTAGES / IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY


The following are some of the advantages of implementing EE projects:
 Reduction in energy consumption, thereby adding directly to the profits
or bottom line of the company
 Lowering the vulnerability to energy prices for unit/corporate that has
implemented EE projects

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 Reducing the need for investment in newer power plants and import of
energy
 Reducing the dependence on conventional resources like oil and natural
gas etc.
 Reducing emissions of air pollutants in most cases

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ENERGY SAVING POTENTIALS

1 WORKERS’ TRAINING ON WATER AND ENERGY


CONSERVATION
1.1 PROBLEM
Workers attitude affect processes and environmental performance of the
organization. Main reasons for such kind of attitude are generally the lack of
education and awareness regarding importance of resource conservation. They
are unaware of the fact that their working practices can save substantial
resources of the organization with no cost. This awareness and education can
be imparted in workers through training which is the basic step towards the
implementation of energy efficiency.

Following areas are identified where improvements can be achieved through


workers training.

 Excessive use of water is frequent. Sometimes there is no monitoring and


record keeping of water consumption. Water keeps on running and wasted from
the machines even in case it is stopped. Water hoses, used for floor and
equipment washing, are mostly seen lying on the floor with continuous running
of water at the time of no use.

1.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Proposed actions are to conduct trainings of the workers which is considered
very important for at source pollution abatement. There is need to create
awareness among workers regarding the environmental issues associated with
the excessive use of water and improper chemical storage and handling. They
should be educated and trained about the importance of resource conservation,
best practices and the consequent benefits.

Trainings should be conducted in the following areas;

 General energy awareness


 Energy Efficiency (EE) specific for the mill
 Resource conservation measures (water, energy, chemical)

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2 BETTER PROCESS CONTROL
2.1 PROBLEM
Normally workers are habitual of carrying out textile processing with
conventional techniques, they do not like to change it and consider hard to
adopt better practices or any thing different from their natural working style.
Due to lack of education and training, they are unable to understand the
chemistry behind each process. They can not understand that these chemical
processes are based on certain process parameters such as temperature,
concentration and pH. Slight variation in these parameters, can result into either
excess use of chemicals or deterioration of fabric quality, in most of the cases.
In the absence of the feeling of their importance among workers, they consider
controlling, monitoring and recording them in daily log sheets useless.

2.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Following are some of the process control parameters, at each process level,
which need to be controlled and recorded for the purpose of better performance:

Grey Fabric Reception


 Get information from the grey fabric suppliers regarding type and quantity of
different sizing chemicals applied on the fabric
 Record information of the grey fabric received from suppliers, including its type,
length, width and GSM (gram per square meter).

Singeing
 Record information of the grey fabric received from grey fabric store, including
its type, length, width and GSM (gram per square meter).
 Record production of the singed fabric with all of the fabric parameters
mentioned above parameters.

Desizing
 Optimize desizing process recipe on the basis of type and quantity of sizing
chemicals present on the fabric
 Record quantities of chemicals like enzyme, salt and detergents used in the
desizing bath
 Control and record temperature and pH of the desizing bath
 Record production of the sized fabric with all of the fabric parameters
mentioned above.

Scouring
 Optimize scouring process recipe on the basis of type and quantity of sizing
chemicals present on the fabric
 Record quantities of chemicals like caustic soda, sodium carbonate (soda ash),
,detergents, and sodium silicate used in the scouring bath
 Control and record temperature of scouring chemical solution and bath (and
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pressure in case of scouring in kier)
 Record production of the scoured fabric with all of the fabric parameters
mentioned above

Bleaching
 Optimize bleaching process recipe according to the degree of whiteness
required (for darker shades, bleaching may be omitted).
 Record quantities of chemicals like bleaching agent (NaOCl), used in the
bleaching bath
 Control and record temperature of the bleaching bath
 Record production of bleached fabric with all the fabric parameters mentioned
above

Neutralization
 Monitor and record pH of the fabric before neutralization
 Record quantity of acid used for neutralization
 Monitor and record pH after neutralization
 Record production of neutralized fabric with all the fabric parameters mentioned
above

Mercerization
 Control and record temperature and concentration of caustic soda bath
 Control and record percent stretch of fabric
 Record quantity of caustic soda used for mercerization
 Record production of mercerized fabric with all the fabric parameters mentioned
above

Dyeing
 Record quantities of chemicals like dye, salts, levelers, caustic soda, sodium
carbonate, acids etc.
 Temperature and pH of dye bath in each step
 Control and record pressure of the dye machine in case of jets
 Record production of the dyed fabric for each type of dye with all the fabric
parameters mentioned above.

Boiler
 Record daily water and gas consumption in the boiler section
 Record daily steam consumption (if steam flow meter is installed)
 Monitor and record TDS, pH and hardness of the boiler feed water
 Monitor and record TDS of the blow down
 Monitor and record TDS, pH and hardness of the returned steam condensate
 Record hardness at which regeneration of water softener is carried out with the
frequency and quantity of salt used in it (if water softener is installed)
 Blow Down should be on the basis of Water TDS

Steam Distribution System


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 Some of the common problems faced by mills in the distribution of steam are
briefly described
 Inadequate capacity of steam generation due to deterioration in boiler capacity
or due to expansion of processing without a matching expansion in the boiler
plant
 Large pressure fluctuations at the machine due to use of too small a pipe line
 Improper design of branch piping particularly after pressure reducers
 Inadequate draining of the lines
 Poor lagging
 Live steam leakages
 Inadequate pressure at machines due to a large number of machines being
trapped from the same branch line
 Uneven distribution of steam load on different mains or branches
 Absence of sufficient margin for possible future expansion
 Wrong inclination of steam mains, branches and other pipe lines

Steps Required Minimizing the Problems in Distribution Pipelines


 During a cold start, steam must be admitted gradually by opening the main
valve only slightly to start with, or by opening a small by pass around it. The
main valve should be opened fully only after the line has warmed up.( It is
estimated that in a well lagged 100 mm line of about 30 m length there can be
condensation to the extent of 7kg/hr due to heat loss)
 Steam separators must be provided where dry steam is desired
 The pipes and fittings must be lagged properly
 Pipes should be installed with a downward inclination in the direction of steam
flow to avoid water hammering in pipelines. The inclination may be of the order
of 10 cm to 20 cm in 100 m length
 All branches from the steam mains should be taken from above to avoid their
acting as subsidiary drains
 Drain pockets in the form of equal T must be provided on the line to collect the
condensate. Suitable steam traps with by-pass must be connected to these
drains pockets. The drain pockets should be installed at intervals of about 75 m
in lagged pipe lines

Why Boiler Feed Water Treatment is Necessary


 To prevent corrosion, the alkalinity in the feed water and in the boiler water is to
be controlled. Dissolved oxygen in the feed water is also liable to cause
corrosion.
 High concentration of dissolved solids in the feed water necessitates excessive
blow down from boilers resulting in undue loss of heat. Some boilers, such as
the economic boilers, are very sensitive to dissolved solids.
 Hardness in water causes scale formation in the boiler, resulting in lower
thermal efficiency. Scale on the outside or inside of tubes may also result in
overheating because of poor heat transfer and in premature failure of tubes.
 Presence of excessive sodium alkalinity in the boiler water is likely to cause
caustic cracking of boiler metal. The tendency for caustic cracking is inhibited by
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
the presence of sodium sulphate or sodium nitrate in adequate concentrations.
3 INSULATION OF BARE HOT SURFACES

3.1 PROBLEM
Energy is a major resources of the textile industry, for which mill owners have
become more conscious about its saving due to day by day rise in its prices.

There are a number of reasons due to which energy losses occur. Uncovering of
hot fluid carrying pipelines and machines is one of these reasons. There are
different locations in the production hall where either proper insulation is not
provided for the heat conservation purposes or present insulation has been
damaged and not been repaired.

Besides energy losses, uncovered hot surfaces can cause skin burn in
case these were touched unintentionally by the workers and visitors. The
recommended safe touch temperature range is 55-65oC.

3.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


To minimize the energy losses, all the bare steam carrying pipelines and
equipments, hot water pipes and condensate return pipes, etc. should be
insulated. There are different kinds of insulation material available such as
calcium silicate, rock wool and glass wool. At the fluid temperature of up to
650oC, calcium silicate and rock wool are suitable, whereas, fibre glass wool is
useful for temperatures between 250-450oC. Fiberglass insulation is
recommended for the textile industry.

After selecting insulator, its optimum thickness is evaluated because cost of the
insulation depends largely on its thickness. In case, thickness is inappropriate,
heat losses are not reduced and heat energy is lost to the environment by
conduction through insulator. At a certain thickness, called critical thickness,
heat losses start decreasing with the increase of thickness. Thickness, above
the critical thickness, is the optimum thickness.

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4 REUSE OF STEAM CONDENSATE

4.1 PROBLEM
Steam is an important source of supplying thermal energy to the process.
Steam is either employed directly or indirectly. Direct usage typically occurs in
the form of steam being injected into water or injected on the fabric. Direct
usage has the highest possible heat transfer efficiency. Indirect usage requires
additional heat exchanges – thus reducing the heat transfer efficiency. But this
method has the advantage that the condensed steam (condensate) which has
transferred its energy can be used again.

Steam condensate is a pure and hot water stream, which can be reused for
boiler feed water and for the formulation of dye and printing solution. Most of the
units waste this important water stream due to non existence of its proper
collection and reuse arrangement.

Following are the sources from where the steam condensate is generated and
ultimately wasted as wastewater stream:

 Calenders' heaters
 Drum dryers
 Kiers heaters
 Jets' heaters
 Comfit heaters

4.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


It is better that the industry should make arrangements for the collection of
steam condensate streams from all the sources in an appropriate sized
insulated storage tank and use for:

 Boiler feed water


 Preparation of dye bath
 Preparation of printing paste
 Hot water in the process vessels

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
5 UPKEEP OF STEAM TRAPS
5.1 PROBLEM
Steam traps are the important part of the steam distribution system. In closed
circuit, steam after loosing its latent heat, becomes liquid called steam
condensate, which has to be removed from the system. In case, steam
condensate is not removed, steam system will not work due to its accumulation
in the system. As both streams i.e. steam and condensate, are present in the
lines, therefore such type of equipment is required which only removes
condensate but not the steam. Steam traps are fitted in the steam lines to
remove only steam condensate, air and non-condensable gases, not the steam.
In case these traps do not work properly due to some reasons or become
damaged, they allow both streams of steam and condensate to escape from the
system freely. Wastage of steam is not only the economic loss but also makes
working environment hot and humid.

In most of the textile industries, steam traps are found malfunctioning. Steam
leakage, along with the condensate is a regular feature in the production hall.
Maintenance crew does not have realization that these malfunctioning traps
cause huge energy losses. Most of these traps were fitted in the system, at the
start but not replaced or repaired after they became damaged during operation
as nobody consider it important entity.

5.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


All the malfunctioning steam traps should be dismantled and checked whether
these are workable after minor repair and cleaning or require replacement.

Maintenance staff is advised to examine them regularly and take care of their
proper repair, maintenance and replacement, if required, on regular basis. A
variety of steam traps are available in the market. Some are very expensive with
long life whereas the others are cheap and get damaged soon.
Thus steam traps selection is important for their uninterrupted operation. Brief
description of different steam traps is given in the following section.

Float and Thermostatic


Float and thermostatic traps consist of a ball float and a thermostatic bellows
element. When condensate flows through the body, the float rises or falls and
opens the valve according to the flow rate. The thermostatic element discharges
air from the steam lines. They are good in heavy, and light loads and on high
and low pressure, but are not recommended where water hammer is a
possibility.

Orifice
They contain an adjustable orifice in the body which continually discharges
condensate. They are self regulating. When the rate of condensation
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
decreases, the condensate temperature increases due to the presence of
steam. It causes throttling in the orifice and reduces capacity due to steam
flashing on the downstream side. An increased load decreases flashing and the
orifice capacity becomes greater.

There is possibility that on light loads, these traps pass live stream. They can
become clogged due to the build up of particulates in the orifice. These
impurities can cause erosion and damage the orifice size, causing escape of
steam.

Inverted Bucket
They have a bucket that rises or falls as steam and/or condensate enters the
trap body. When steam is in the body, the bucket rises and closes the valve.
When condensate enters, the bucket sinks down, and opens the valve and
allows the condensate to drain. These traps are ideally suited for water hammer
conditions.

Thermodynamic
They have a disc that rises and falls depending on the variations in pressure
between steam and condensate. Steam tends to keep the disc down or closed.
When condensate builds up, it reduces the pressure in the upper chamber and
allows the disc to move up for condensate discharge.

This trap is good where steam pressures remain constant. It can handle
superheat and water hammer but is not recommended for process, since it has
a tendency to air bind and does not handle pressure fluctuations well.

Two of the most common causes of trap failure are over sizing and dirt. Over
sizing causes traps to work too hard. In some cases this can result in blowing of
live steam. Dirt is always created in the steam system. Excessive build up can
cause plugging or prevent a valve from closing. Dirt is generally produced from
pipe scale or from over treating of chemicals in the boiler. Mostly inverted bucket
types are used in the textile mills.

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6 INSTALLATION OF ECONOMIZER ON BOILER FLUE
GAS
6.1 PROBLEM
o
Flue gas discharged in the atmosphere at a temperature of 180-200 C from the
steam boiler contains substantial thermal energy, which is being lost in the
atmosphere presently.

6.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Flue gas thermal energy should be recovered and used to heat boiler feed
water by the installation of economizer. Economizer comprises of shell and
tubes and attached with the boiler stack. The hot flue gas passes through the
shell side and fresh water is pumped through the tubes of the economizer. Use
of preheated water in the boiler reduces fuel consumption in the boiler.

Special care has to be taken when using economizers at boilers fuelled by


heavy oil fuel or charcoal/lignite. During the combustion of these higher amount
of sulphuric acid is generated. The chimney must be able to handle the acid
without getting damaged.

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7 MEASUREMENT OF BOILER EFFICIENCY
7.1 PROBLEM
There is much more worry about the efficiency of the steam boilers, mainly
because of the day by day rise in the energy price. The more efficient the boiler
is, the lesser its fuel consumption will be.
Industry should install water, steam and gas (where gas is the fuel) flow meters
to measure consumption of these utilities and consequently enable
measurements of boiler performance or efficiency. Ignorance of boiler
performance monitoring and evaluation is a serious concern with respect to
energy conservation and environmental pollution.

7.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


The boiler feed water consumption is monitored to estimate the steam
production of the boiler. The boiler stack emissions should be analyzed to
review the combustion efficiency of the boiler. The analysis parameters are
given below:

Boiler Stack Analysis

Parameter
Temperature of flue gas
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen Oxides-NOx (NO2+NO)
Nitric Oxide (NO)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)

To keep an optimal air-fuel ratio at different loads, an automatic lambda control


system can be used1.

Boiler efficiency can also be calculated with the following relation:

Efficiency Actual energy consumed to produce 'x' quantity of


steam x 100
(%) = Theoretical energy required to produce 'x' quantity of
steam

For steam monitoring, steam flow meter can be installed at the boiler. However,
if installation of steam meters is not possible due to their high price, then water
and gas meters can be used to measure boiler efficiency, which are relatively
cheap. One cubic meter of water and 90 m3 of natural gas at 80% combustion

1
A system for retrofitting burners with lambada control is offered under www.burnermax.com
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
efficiency generate about one ton of steam at 150 Psig.

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8 ENERGY LOSS THROUGH BLOW DOWN
8.1 PROBLEM
Blow down discharged in the environment at a very high temperature from the
steam boiler contains substantial thermal energy, which is normally lost in the
atmosphere.

8.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Two types of blow downs are conducted - intermittent and continuous. The
frequency of intermittent blow downs is normally three-four times a day with an
estimated flow rate of 1 m3/day. In most of the textile mills, normal practices of
blow down rate is about 13% of the boiler feed water, which is higher than the
normal range of 6% to 8%, but can be as high as 10% when boiler feed water
has a high solid contents. Reason for such high blow down is the higher
concentration of TDS in the boiler feed water. For this one must utilize the
substantial thermal energy from blow down.

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9 INSTALLATION OF WATER SOFTENER/REVERSE
OSMOSIS (RO) FOR PROCESS AND BOILER FEED
WATER
9.1 PROBLEM
Generally the groundwater is the source for process and boiler feed water in the
textile mills. This water contains calcium, magnesium and other metals which
have certain impacts in textile processing in terms of additional water and
chemical consumption and product quality deterioration. High mineral laden
water also leads towards additional energy requirements. The use of such water
also results into scale formation in the machines and conveyance system which
affects their life and efficiency.

In case of boiler, scale formation on the heating surfaces affects the boiler
efficiency and may lead to damages of the boiler tubes. To cope with the
situation, boiler water conditioning chemicals are dosed in heavy quantities,
which is expensive in terms that salt deposition increases at the bottom of boiler
body and removed ultimately from the system through blow downs. Excessive
blow downs are one of the sources from where thermal energy is lost
extensively.

9.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


It is recommended to install water softener for the treatment of process and
boiler feed water, mainly to remove calcium and magnesium salts. Industries
facing problem for iron contents, water softener for the iron can also be
considered. Major consumption of the soft water will be for boiler feed water and
for preparation of following process water:

 Desizing
 Scouring
 Bleaching
 Mercerization
 Dyeing
 Printing

Water Softener
Ion exchange removes unwanted ions from the raw water by transferring them
to a solid material, called an ion exchanger, which accepts them while giving
back an equivalent number of a desirable species stored in it. The most
commercial ion exchangers are synthetic plastic materials, such as
copolymers of styrene and divinyl benzene. Cat ion exchanger (used to
exchange cat ions of calcium and magnesium with sodium) called sodium
zeolite is generally used. The ion exchanger has a limited capacity for storage
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of ions, called its exchange capacity. Due to its limited capacity, ion exchanger
eventually becomes depleted

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of its desirable ions and saturated with unwanted ions. It is then washed with a
strong regenerating solution containing the desirable species of ions (sodium
chloride salt solution), and these then replace the accumulated undesirable
ions, returning the exchange material to a usable condition i.e. the unwanted
calcium and magnesium ions on the surface of exchanger are
washed/removed by exchanging themselves with the sodium ion of salt solution
during regeneration process.

Zeolite softening is the oldest and the simplest of the ion exchange process. It
removes hardness from water, including iron and manganese, if these
constituents can be kept in the reduced ionic form.

The equipment design is simple consisting of a steel shell holding the ion
exchange bed and provided with piping and valves to permit the essential
operations of softening, backwash, brining and rinsing. If storage capacity is
provided for softened water, a single unit may be adequate for the plant needs.
In larger plants, it is common to have more than one unit, so that one can be
taken out of service for regeneration without interrupting the flow of soft water.

Reverse Osmosis (RO)


Reverse Osmosis (RO) plants are used to reduce dissolved solids in the
process water. In RO, driving force, the differential pressure across the
membrane, causes water to flow from the stronger solution (high TDS
water) to the weaker (low TDS water). The most widely used membrane
materials are cellulose acetate, triacetate and polyamide polymer. The type of
the membrane has to be adapted to the particles size in the water.

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Date
January, 2008 17
Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
10 FLAME ADJUSTABLE SINGEING MACHINE
10.1 PROBLEM
Most of the textile industries have installed singeing machines with burners fixed
to certain length. Grey fabric subjected to singeing treatment varies in width
(from 1 to 2 meter). Fabric of any width, whether wide or small, has to pass over
the full width of burners. This is due to the fact that the burners' width is fixed
and can not be adjusted according to the width of the subjected fabric. This is
one of the areas where substantial energy is lost.

10.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


It is recommended to modify the existing fixed burners of the singeing machine
and convert them into adjustable form. For adjustable burners, their width will be
controlled or adjusted according to the width of the fabric to be singed. Extra
burners will be turned off in case shorter width fabric is subjected to singeing.

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January, 2008 18
Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
11 INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER ON HOT
WASTEWATER
11.1 PROBLEM
Extensive hot washes are carried out in the textile industries to wash impurities,
undesired chemicals and unfixed dyes and pigments. Hot wastewater from
these washes contains substantial amounts of thermal energy which costs
millions of rupees per year.

These wastewater streams are discharged at a temperature of 50-80 oC from


various processes:
o 0
 Desizing wash water at 50 C to 70 C
o 0
 Washing water discharged from kiers at 50 C to 70 C
o 0
 Mercerization hot wash water at 50 C to 80 C
o 0
 Soaper hot wash water at 50 C to 80 C

11.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Thermal energy from the wastewater streams should be recovered. It is not
practicable to recover energy from all the wastewater streams but there are few
from which energy can be recovered effectively. Major factors for evaluating the
viability and effectiveness of heat transfer are the temperature and the flow of
the stream under consideration.

For the effective heat recovery, following are the suitable waste streams:

 Hot mercerization washes


 Hot soaper washes
 Hot bleaching plant washes

Heat energy of the above hot washes can be recovered by installing shell and
tube heat exchanger. For the implementation of this option, hot washes are first
collected in a small covered storage tank. It is then pumped into the heat
exchanger while passing through the strainer, in the tube side, whereas fresh
water, which will be used as hot washing water, flows in the shell side. Fresh
water is heated and used in the washings. Under such arrangement less
quantity of steam will be required to heat up the washing water up to the
required temperature as it is already pre-heated.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
12 IMPLEMENTATION OF COUNTER CURRENT
WASHING AT MERCERIZATION / SOAPER
/.BLEACHING PLANT
12.1 PROBLEM
Post mercerization/bleaching/soaper washes, which are in different
numbers, consume large quantity of water and steam. Normally washing
pattern is such that each wash box acts as an individual chamber where
water and steam is supplied at one side and hot wastewater is discharged
through overflow pipe from the other side.

12.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


To avoid large consumption of water and energy in the current post
mercerization washes, the current washing pattern of each chamber, acting
individually, will be changed to counter current sequence (one unit), which
allows water and energy savings.

In the counter current washing, water flow is designed in such a way that the
clean fabric makes contact with the clean water and dirty fabric with the dirty
water. Fresh clean water is supplied in the last box from where clean fabric
comes out after washing. This water, from the last box, overflows to the next
box and so on. The overflow pipes are arranged in such a way that the overflow
pipe at the last box is placed at the highest level whereas it is at the lowest level
at the first box. This difference in levels of overflow pipes establishes gradient
by which water flows from the last box to the first. From the first box, water is
discharged as wastewater. In this way, wastewater of one box is used as feed
water for the next and so on. In case of hot wastewater, its energy is utilized in
washing, too.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
13 REUSE OF COOLING WATER

13.1 PROBLEM
Fresh water is used in machines and pumps to cool mechanical seals and other
moving parts in order to avoid overheating. Typical examples of this type of
machinery are:

 Compressors
 Thermo oil boiler pumps
 Ammonia chillers

After absorbing heat, cooling water is discharged as wastewater. It is a clean


warm water stream which can be used at various processes.

Compressors are used at a number of machines where pneumatic control


is required such as rotary printing and stenters. Thermo oil boilers are
used with those machines where high temperature is required, which can
not be attained with saturated steam such as stenters, dryers and agers.
Ammonia chiller is used to keep caustic soda at lower temperatures for
the effective cold mercerization process.

13.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Cooling water stream, discharged from any of the above mentioned machines,
should be collected in a storage tank attached with a pump, which can be used
according to the requirement at suitable machine or process. It is preferred that
this water should be used for the washing of vessels, containers, machine parts
etc instead of using in the process because sometimes it becomes
contaminated with iron particles and oil and grease contents.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
14 INSTALLATION OF TEMPERATURE GAUGES/INDICATORS
ON HOT MACHINES

14.1 PROBLEM
Energy monitoring is the first step in the energy management. In most of the
industries, no actions have been taken to reduce energy losses by the
management due to a lack of awareness about the energy conservation and its
benefits. A number of areas have been identified where energy is not being
monitored. Temperature is not monitored for the hot washing baths such as
desizing, bleaching, scouring and dyeing processes. Workers keep on injecting
steam in the baths to heat up water, even after attaining the required
temperature. Since there is no temperature indication and automatic shut off
valves for steam, temperature is being controlled by visual judgment. The lack
of energy monitoring results in energy wastage and its excess and unnecessary
use at various levels of production processes.

14.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Energy monitoring and recording is the first step towards energy management.
All the machines where hot water or chemical solutions are used should be
fitted with temperature gauges/indicators to monitor temperature. On the basis
of temperature, steam supply to these machines should be controlled. The
areas where temperature indicators are required to be fitted are shown below:
 Desizing machine
 Continuous bleaching machine (Bleaching and scouring saturators)
 Continuous washing machine or wash boxes of continuous bleaching machine
 Rope washing machines
 Kier
 Open jiggers
 Jets
 Pressure jiggers

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January, 2008 22
Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
15 INSTALLATION OF WATER FLOW METERS ON
WATER INLETS

15.1 PROBLEM
In general, water is abundantly available and easily accessible in Pakistan. No
direct cost is borne for it. Workers, in general, consider this commodity as cheap
and invaluable. Even management is not much concerned about the excessive
use of water in different processes, especially in washing. Mostly, these washes
are continuous, where water is supplied at one end and discharged from the
other. Excess use of water is not only the direct loss of natural resource but also
it results into excess use of chemicals in the process vessels because most of
the textile chemicals are fed in the process vessels on the basis of water
quantity. If more chemicals are added in the process vessels, there will be more
pollution in the washing wastewater at the end.

15.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Resources can only be conserved when water consumption is the optimum in an
industry. Water optimization can not be implemented without water monitoring.
For water monitoring and its controlled use, water flow meters of appropriate
size and types will be installed at the tube wells inlets and at all the major water
utility machines and areas.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
16 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

16.1 PROBLEM
Proper electric distribution systems are important for the reduction of energy
losses. The electrical power distribution system, from the source to utilization
points, consists of electric lines of varying sizes, switches and circuit breakers,
transformers and protective equipment. The voltage in an electric circuit will
drop in proportion to the circuit resistance. Resistance varies with wire size,
temperature and metallic material. When conductor losses increase, the current
necessary to deliver a given amount of power increases at any point in the
circuit, as power derives from the product of the voltage and current. This
principle applies likewise to switches, circuit breakers and protective equipment.

Generally the electrical distribution system losses are due to voltage unbalance,
over and under voltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to
ground, and poor connections. Losses due to poor connections represent one
third of the total loses.

Electrical Motors
After electrical distribution system, electrical motors play an important role in the
energy saving. The electric motors are the main consumers of the electricity.
More than 90% of the electricity is consumed by the electric motors. Major
savings of electricity can be achieved by improving the motors performance.

Following are the concerns regarding electrical motor performance:

- Old class III motors


- Operation of motors at low load
- Abnormal operation of motors

Old Class III Efficiency Motors


Mostly, different types of motors are installed. Some motors are purchased from
the local market and some received as attached with the imported machines.
The local motors are of Class III efficiency whereas for the imported motors, the
efficiencies are not known. Class III efficiency motors operate at lesser
efficiencies and consume more energy.

Operation of Motor at Low Load


When a motor has a greater rating than the machine requirement, motor
operates at partial load. In this state, the efficiency of the motor is reduced.
Generally oversized motors are used in the industry due to following reasons:

Actual load of the machine is not known and electrician’s select oversized motor
to be on the safe side. Designers and suppliers of the machines want to ensure
that their units have ample power so they suggest a driver that is substantially
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
larger than the real requirement
When replacement of motor is required and if there is no exact rating motor
available in the industry, electricians install the next larger motor available in the
store. Later on, when correct sized motor is purchased, they do not replace it
and oversized motor continues to be in use.

A large motor is selected for some unexpected increase in the driven equipment
load which is not materialized. Process requirements are reduced but oversized
motors are not replaced.

Abnormal Operation of Electrical Motors


Sometimes motors consume more energy due to their abnormal operation. It
should be in the mind of maintenance crew and the electricians that the smooth
energy transfer from one form to other like electricity to the output shaft speed,
belt transmission etc. should not produce abnormal heating, heavy noise, spark
etc. Spark in motors is produced in case of contactor switching, loose joints etc.
Heat is produced in motors due to friction, metal to metal touch, poor lubrication
and misalignment. Sound is produced from the equipment in the form of
vibration, mounting on bed, noise from belts, bearings, metal to metal contact
etc. In case, faulty motors are kept on running, these will consume much
energy.

Motors bearings and their alignment play an important part in their abnormal
operation. In more than 50% cases, the failure of motor is a mechanical cause
due to improper alignment and the failure of bearings.

16.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Maintenance of Transformer
It is recommended priority for the maintenance of transformers. Generally 3%
transformer losses are unavoidable whereas about 1-2% losses can be reduced
by good transformer maintenance. Efficiency of the transformer is affected
when transformer oil is hydrated (absorbs moisture), which requires dehydration
for the moisture removal. Proper placement with clean surrounding is also
necessary.

Energy Efficient Motors


Energy efficient motors are available from a broad selection of companies.
These motors are the class I and class II motors. Comparative efficiencies are
given in Table. Efficient motors save energy.

Presently class I motors are not available in the Pakistan. These will have to be
imported and become very expensive when taxes are added in their prices.
Class II efficiency motors are manufactured by Siemens and ABB. Replacing
old efficiency class III motors by class II will save energy. However, it is not wise
to replace all the old motors but in stages like when one old motor is out of
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order, it could be replaced.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
Comparison of Motor Efficiency

Efficiency of Different Class Motors


kW EFF3 EFF2 EFF1
1.1 < 76.2 >= 76.2 >= 83.8
1.5 < 78.5 >= 78.5 >= 85.0
2.2 < 81.0 >= 81.0 >= 86.4
3 < 82.6 >= 82.6 >= 87.4
4 < 84.2 >= 84.2 >= 88.3
5.5 < 85.7 >= 85.7 >= 89.2
7.5 < 87.0 >= 87.0 >= 90.1
11 < 88.4 >= 88.4 >= 91.0
15 < 89.4 >= 89.4 >= 91.8
18.5 < 90.0 >= 90.0 >= 92.2
22 < 90.5 >= 90.5 >= 92.6
30 < 91.4 >= 91.4 >= 93.2
37 < 92.0 >= 92.0 >= 93.6
45 < 92.5 >= 92.5 >= 93.9
55 < 93.0 >= 93.0 >= 94.2
75 < 93.6 >= 93.6 >= 94.7
90 < 93.9 >= 93.9 >= 95.0

Removal of Oversized Motors


First of all, plant management should ensure that the over sized motors are not
used in the plant. For that, regular motor load monitoring will have to be carried
out for all the motors at different production loading. The recording wattmeter is
the most useful instrument for this purpose to analyze the load over a
representative period of time.

Also, management must ensure that the factors mentioned due to which over
sized motors are installed, should be avoided.

Replacement of under loaded motors with smaller motors will allow a fully
loaded smaller motor to operate at higher efficiency. This arrangement is
generally most economical for larger motors, and only when they are operating
at less than one third to one-half capacity. Larger motors are typically installed
at the filters and air conditioning units.

Maintenance of Motors and Equipment


A reduction in motor load is one of the best means of reducing electricity costs.
Proper maintenance of equipment will also reduce motor load by eliminating
friction losses from such sources as the misalignment of equipment and belt
drag. Proper lubrication of all moving parts such as bearings and chain drives
will minimize friction losses.
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
Motor cooling fans should also be of proper size because these also consume
energy. Though these are fitted with the motors by the manufacturer, still their
working can be monitored and can be improved and adjusted if required.

Motors maintenance includes:

 Regular checking of motor load


 Timely oiling and lubrication

 Appropriate ventilation
 Cleaning of motor body
 Monitoring of motors with regard to noise, vibration and heating
 Frequent alignment checking

It is recommended that the mechanical and electrical staff should have the
checklist for regularly monitoring the maintenance and upkeep of motors.

Placement of Inverters on Motors


For those machines operating at variable loads, it is recommended that the
inverters should be placed on them to save energy. Inverters should be
compatible with the motors. Most of the old motors can not be operated with the
inverters.

Where inverters are placed, high peak voltages can be experienced at the
motor terminals especially when the distance between the inverter (drive) and
the motor exceeds about 15 meters. Some additional heating to the motor
windings will inevitably occur because of the inverter's "synthesized" AC wave
form.

In case, motors are very old then the first choice should be to replace them, one
by one, if it is feasible. It is not advisable to invest on older motors and place
inverters. The best use of inverter is for variable flow applications. In case of air
conditioning plants, the flow is changed by changing the angles of the fans.
When the flow is reduced, motor takes less amperes but it operates at less
efficiencies. The better way to control the flow is through changing the speed of
motor by using frequency inverters.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
17 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

17.1 PROBLEM
Most of the industries are using piston type compressors but screw type is more
efficient.

Comparison of Reciprocating and Screw Type Compressors


Generally piston type compressors are not considered energy efficient as
compared with rotary type compressors. Piston type compressors have 8-10
compression parts in comparison with 2-4 compression parts of the screw type
compressors.

The energy and cost savings are dependent on the size of the compressor, the
load factor, and the number of hours during which the compressor is used. The
load factor is the average fraction of the rated load at which the compressor
operates. The load factor is fairly constant for compressors that operate only
when they are actually compressing air. Most reciprocating compressors are
operated in this manner. When on, they operate with fairly constant power
consumption, usually nearly equal to their rated power consumption; when they
are cycled off, the power consumption is zero. Screw compressors are often
operated in a different manner. When loaded (i.e. actually compressing air),
they operate near their rated power, but when compressed air requirements are
met, they are not cycled off but continue to rotate and are unloaded. Older
screw compressors may consume as much as 85% of their rated power during
this unload state. Therefore, if a screw compressor is to be operated
continuously, it should be matched closely to the compressed air load that it
supplies. Often, plant personnel purchase compressors having several times the
required power rating. This may be done for variety of reasons, but often in
anticipation of expansion of the facility and a commensurate increase in the
compressed air requirements.

Pressure Gauges
Mostly pressure gauges are not installed on the machines or even if installed
then they might not be calibrated.

Auto Drains
Mostly, no auto drain is installed in any of the receiver tanks of the compressors
to control compressed air quality. Due to this, air moisture is not removed
effectively.

Air Leakages
Air leaks around valves and fittings in compressor air lines may represent a
significant energy cost for the mill. Sometimes up to 20% of the work done by
the compressor is to make up for air leaks. The energy loss as a function of the
hole diameter at an operating pressure of 6-7 bar is shown in Table
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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
Energy Loss from air Leaks

Hole Diameter Free Air Wasted (m3/year)By Energy Wasted per Leak
(mm) a Leak of Air at 7 bar (kWh/h)
9.5 2,500,000 30
6.5 1,100,000 14
3.0 300,000 3.5
1.6 70,000 0.9
0.8 15,000 0.2

Mostly, for cleaning compressed air is used through large 8.5 mm diameter pipe,
resulting into energy losses.

17.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Pressure Monitoring
It is recommended to install pressure gauges at all the lines to monitor pressure
and assess the areas where pressure drops occur. There should be the
calibrated gauges. Delivery temperature should also be checked in accordance
with the manufacturer specifications at specified pressure to know the efficient
working of the compressor.

Air Leakages
Maintenance crew should survey the air distribution system and identify all the
leaking points. These points should immediately be rectified to avoid energy
losses. This measure does not require investment.

Cleaning Points
For reducing air consumption, it is recommended that the pipes of 8.5 mm
diameter or more, used for the air cleaning, should be replaced with the 6 mm
diameter with air guns. It will allow reduction in air use and ultimately the energy
consumption. Investment for this measure is nominal.

Air Quality
Use of moist air in the machines and the compressor affects their performance.
Manual bleeding off the receiver tanks is not a good practice as it wastes too
much compressed air. It is recommended to install auto bleeders on these tanks
to avoid this loss. For the better quality air, management should also use dryers
and line filters.

Alternate Compressor Option


It is recommended to replace piston type compressors with screw type.
Excess pressure results in higher leakages and degraded compressor

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performance.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
18 LIGHTING

18.1 PROBLEM
Magnetic Ballasts
In most of the units 40/36 watts tube lights are used. These tube lights consume
more energy as compared with the 36/28 watts tube lights with the same
lumens. These tube lights are attached with the conventional magnetic ballasts
which are not considered energy efficient. These ballasts waste energy in heat
and noise.

18.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


Effective Lighting
Generally, two most common causes of lighting energy waste are excessive
illumination levels and failure to locate fixtures in relation to the activity area.

It will be helpful in improving lighting intensity if more lights are placed over the
machines not on that places like aisle and idle places. Lighting can also be
improved by reducing the height of the tube lights fixtures.

Electronic Ballasts
It is recommended to replace 40 watts tube lights with the 36 watts lights to
reduce electricity consumption. Tube light of 36 watts is available in two types
with different lumens. Detail of 40 and 36 watts tube lights is given in Table.

Detail of Tube Lights

Typeof Tube Light Lumens Lamp life (Hours) Unit Price (Rs)
TL 40 Watt 2,500 6,000 55-60
TLD 36/54 Watt 2,650 13,000 50-60
TLD 36/80 Watt 3,350 15,000 90-100

40 watt tube light with ballast consumes about 52 watts whereas 36 watts tube
light with ballast consumes 44 watts i.e. 10 watts less. About Rs. 150 can be
saved per year per tube light by replacing 40 watts tube light with 36 watts.

It is also recommended to replace conventional magnetic ballasts with the


efficient electronic ballasts for the tube lights. By replacing magnetic ballasts
with electronic ballast, up to14 watts can be saved per ballast. The cost of the
electronic ballast (EB-E) is Rs. 350.

For effective lighting, following are the recommendations:

 Turn off the lights during break hours or when no body is present at work
place

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
 Use the natural light at day times wherever possible and as much as possible

Most of the electronic ballasts available in the market are of 380 volts which can
not operate at the current voltage of 415 volts in the industry. While purchasing,
ballasts, one must consider this aspect and purchase only those ballasts which
can withstand 415 volts.

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Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Programme (REEE)
19 REUSE OF CLEAN HOT WATER STREAM OF JETS
19.1 PROBLEM
In the industries where jets are used for scouring, washing and dyeing, two
types of hot wastewater streams are generated, contaminated and non-
contaminated, at a temperature of 50-80oC from the jets.
Contaminated streams are generated when chemical or dye solutions are
directly discharged or fabric washing is carried out. The clean wastewater
streams are those which are generated as a result of indirect cooling. Indirect
cooling means that the fresh water is passed through the jet heater, instead of
steam, and cools down the hot chemical or dye solution of the jet at a
temperature of 80 to 100 oC. Both these solutions remain in circulation in the
heater and transfer heat without any contact with each other. The fresh water,
after acquiring heat of the hot chemical or dye solution, becomes hot and
continuously wasted. This is a clean hot water stream at a temperature of 60 to
70oC which can be collected and reused in the jets or in the pre-treatment.

19.2 PROPOSED ACTIONS


For the implementation of this option, the hot wastewater will be collected in a
storage tank. This tank can be underground or at the ground level. For
underground arrangement, wastewater will flow into the tank under gravity and
then will be pumped into the desired jet. For ground level tank arrangement,
wastewater from the jets will be collected into a small pit and then from there it
will be pumped into the storage tank. From storage tank, it will be pumped into
the desired jet.

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