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Assessment One



Personality and Individual Differences......................................................................................3

Employee Motivation and Organisational Behaviour................................................................4

Impact of personality and individual differences on employee motivation...............................6

Impact of personality and Individual Differences on organisational behaviour........................8



The present assignment is intended in providing a brief evaluation of the impact of
personality and individual differences on employee motivation and organisational behaviour.
Regarding this, brief reviews on personality and individual differences of employees are
elucidated in the report. Moreover, the general concepts of employee motivation and
organisational behaviour are described in the report. According to the observations of
McCormac et al. (2017), employees are always the major and imperative element of an
organisation, and it is of great concern to look after their welfare and wellbeing to ensure that
they contribute their maximum to the achievement of organisational objectives.

Personality and Individual Differences

A unique way by which a person thinks, feels and behaves can be referred to as their
personality. Personality comprises the moods, opinions, and attitudes of the people and can
be best visible through their interactions with others. Phaneuf et al. (2016) commented that
the personality includes the behavioural characteristics of a person that are generally inherited
or acquired from others. Moreover, the personality itself makes a person distinct from others
in the way they observe the people, relations with the environment and other social classes.

Generally, personality can be identified to be comprised of certain characteristics like

consistency, psychological and physiological, multiple expressions and impacting behaviours
and actions. Zeigler-Hill and Shackelford (2018) pointed out that there are chances that
people behave in a similar manner in certain situations, making them recognisable and
displaying regularity to behaviours. In spite, personality is accepted as a psychological
concept; biological processes and needs can even influence the personality of a person.
Personality solely does not make people behave and respond in certain manners to the
environment; instead, it also persuades people to act in specific ways. Further, Gignac and
Szodorai (2016) included that personality can be expressed in the form of thoughts,
expressions, feelings, close relationships, and social interactions.

Numerous theories support the way personality can be developed within people. While type
theory suggests that there are only a few types of personalities that people follow and that

they are influences by their biological processes, trait theories pertain with the fact that
personalities are formulated in people through their internal characteristics developed from
the genetic basis (Turel, 2017). Sigmund Freud has an important role in the formulation of
psychodynamic theories of personality through which the influence of the unconscious mind
of people is emphasised. On the other hand, behavioural theories rely upon the truth that the
interaction between the individual and the environment make up their personality. In contrast
to this, Corr (2018) added that the humanist theories of personality refer to the significance of
free will and individual experiences in articulating the personality of a person. In some
circumstance, people may behave, feel and act in a way that is unnatural and deviating from
the expectations of the culture thereby disturbing the communities and societies. Such
conditions are referred to as personality disorders.

Employee Motivation and Organisational Behaviour

Motivation is one element that boosts the performance of an individual to accomplish a

specific goal and objective. Employee motivation is the process to stimulate their actions
towards the organisational goal (Sokro, 2012). Organisational structure, culture and integrity
of operations were some of the factors that were influencing on employee motivation. It is a
significant concept to motivate employees so that motivation makes them meet their full
potential in their works and help the organisation to retain better employees (Lau and
Roopnarain, 2014).

As per the observation of Govender and Parumasur (2010), the motivational effect may vary
for every individual because it did not provide a stable state of mind in person. The
motivational factor influenced by one worker will not be affected by the other one. The
organisational behaviours such as work culture, politics and the working environment have
become more challenging factors for employees. Thus proper motivation is required for
employees to understand the organisational behaviours and to create friendly nature with the

However, the organisations are suggested to motivate their employees to improve the
expectancy of productivity and to enhance a good profit in the market. As per the view of Lau
and Roopnarain (2014), the motivation theories are categorised mainly into two areas content

based motivational theory and process-based motivational theory. Content-based theories will
provide the idea of needs that motivate employees while the process-based theories explain
how the behaviour selection of employee to meet their needs. Expectancy theory (process-
based) and Herzberg’s two-factor theory (content-based) will detail the two categories of
motivational theory in this report (Kuranchie-Mensah and Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016).

Vroom’s expectancy theory

The expectancy theory of Victor Vroom focused more on the outcomes rather than focusing
on the needs. Parijat and Bagga (2014) reveal that the Expectancy theory states that according
to the intensity of expectation to achieve the outcome will lead an individual to perform them
in a particular way. The theory expresses that employee motivation is a result of how an
individual needs a reward, the evaluation that the probability that the exertion will prompt
expected execution and the conviction that the performance will prompt reward. The three
variable influenced by expectancy theory was expectancy, instrumentality and valence.

Expectancy: It is considered as a belief or faith that involving in a task with better effort will
provide a better outcome also. Expectancy was influenced by several factors such as
availability of resources, self-efficiency, past experiences and goal difficulty (Purvis et al.,

Instrumentality: According to Ugah and Arua (2011), these sections point out the belief that
an individual will only get the reward if he/she met with the performance expectation. Trust,
decision control and policies between performance and outcome are the main factors
influenced by instrumentality.

Valence: The final part of the motivation puzzle is the concept of the valance, and it ends
with achieving the expected outcome.

Herzberg’s two factor theory

Herzberg’s two-factor theory proposed that there are mainly two factors that influence
motivation in the workspace of the organisation. Alshmemri et al. (2017) illustrated that the
two-factor theory tries to provide motivation from the root of workplace onwards. Further,
the theory mentions that every organisation has some factors that cause employee job
satisfaction. On the other hand, there are some factors affecting dissatisfaction, where all
these factors independently act on each other. Motivators and Hygiene factors are the two
factors of Herzberg’s motivation theory (Ghazi et al., 2013).

Motivators: Presence of motivators will provide positive satisfaction in employees and make
them capable to work hard to achieve the organisational goal. Psychological needs of
employees are satisfied with the help of motivations at organisations. Achievements,
responsibility, recognition and growth and promotion opportunities were some of the
motivational factors (Chu and Kua, 2015).

Hygiene factors: Hygiene factors are an essential one for the existence of motivation which
will not provide a positive satisfaction. However, the absence of hygiene factors will create
dissatisfaction in employees and cause on their works. According to Ghazi et al. (2013), to
avoid the dissatisfaction in employees hygiene factors are mentioned as maintenance factors.
The hygiene factors were included with salary, status, organisational policies, security and
physical working conditions.

Impact of personality and individual differences on employee motivation

Motivation will affect each person differently, and it is because of their personality or due to
their behavioural differences. Motivation will effect on employees according to their
willingness to accept the motivation strategies proposed by the management. According to
psychologists, it is analysed the employees who are more attached to emotional stabilities and
employees with low psychoticism are more focused on the motivational strategies (Akhtar et
al., 2015). On the other side, it mentions that the aggressive minded employees make a
negative reflection on the motivation techniques even it is a beneficial factor to them.
However, some employees may resist the programs and strategies put forward by
management to motivate employees; thus, resistance is due to the varying personality and
individual differences seen in employees. Further, the employees with such aggressive nature

are supportive only for monetary motivations; they improve their work quality with the
monetary incentives (Govender and Parumasur, 2010).

While considering the receptive mind of the employee in motivation, the personality of
employees is viewed as two levels, such as extravert and introvert. The introverted persons
are more focused on their achievements rather than considering social activities (Barrick et
al., 2013). Extrovert persons are focused toward the outsiders, and they wish to be a part of
social performances. The introvert employees are focusing on responding effectively on the
hygiene factors at the same time, the extravert employees effectively respond to the presence
of motivators (Kuncel et al., 2010). As in the case of an organisation, extroverts are mainly
initiating protest against the organisation to highlight their dissatisfaction occurred due to the
lack of motivators. But in many cases, the introverts were the followers to such kind of
demonstrations and strikes.

Moreover, the employees are motivated through financial and non-financial beneficial
activities. Every employee works in a company to attain their personal goal, which can be
noted as their wage or incentive. Thus some employees will work to achieve success
achievement for them as well as to the organisation also while some others work for their
own goal. Monetary motivational strategies will improve the working performance of the
employees with a selfish personality (Alshmemri et al., 2017). These kinds of employees are
more focused on motivations like incentives, rewards, promotions and other beneficiary
necessaries. On the other hand, some employees were considering just an appreciation from
the management or higher authorities as a motivational factor in their job carrier. These
variations seen in the motivational level is just because of different personalities and
individual differences of employees.

However, it is clear that the personality, behaviour and individual differences of employee
have a significant role in motivational purposes. Lack in the motivational program to
employees will negatively impact on the organisation's performance and profit (Ouyang et
al., 2015). The motivations more influence the employees with the more accepting mind, and
others will reflect a resistance mind towards the motivations. Providing with different
motivational techniques to employees to meet their needs according to the personality will
improve their dedication towards the organisation; hence it increases the performance rate.

Impact of personality and Individual Differences on organisational behaviour

Individual differences develop remarkable impacts on the organisational behaviours.

Employers significantly consider the individual differences to make decisions on their
recruitment and selection processes. However, Nielsen et al. (2017) illustrated that in order to
develop effective results for the organisation, it is vital to explore about the individual
differences to evaluate the individual performance of employees thus influencing the overall
outcomes of the organisation. It is imperative to understand the individual interest and skills
of employees to allot and assign them with the right job they can showcase. Azucar et al.
(2018) noted that the people have diverse characteristics making them unique and distinct
from each other. The employers must have the skills and ability to distinctively explore this
difference in the employees, thus being able to assign them with the most appropriate and
suitable job for them. Employers significantly require understanding the needs and abilities of
employees, thus making them most comfortable and relaxed with the organisational duties
assigned. It is essential to study the way the employees interact and relate with others to
expect the best performance form them as well. Jonason et al. (2020) mentioned that the way
individuals differ from others could be of numerous factors like ethnic origin, gender, culture,
background, attitudes, personality traits, intelligence, perception, motivation and others.

The expectancy theory discussed above itself supports this fact that only if an employee is
designated with the job that fits them will encourage and motivate them to contribute their
fullest to the organisational objectives. Chances and possibilities of rebel and conflicts among
the employees are exceptionally higher within organisations comprising of diverse people.
Therefore, Rocchi et al. (2017) pinpointed that the issues and problems that arose due to this
reason can be resolved with the implementation and execution of effective human resource
management practices. It becomes the part of the human resource division of an organisation
to bring about harmony and unity among the employees through including them in effective
ways for the varied operations of the organisation. It is essentially a fact that organisational
behaviour is impacted by the employees of the organisation. If the employees belong to
diverse groups, it becomes incredibly cautious for the concerned authorities to give due
consideration to these differences of the employees and interact and associated with them
accordingly (Jain and D'lima, 2017). Herzberg's theory of motivation also includes this fact
that only when employees obtain their expected levels of rewards and recognition from their

organisation, they can be made motivated and committed to the organisation. However, there
may be certain factors, the devoid of which can cause severe impacts on employee

In the same way, the personalities of the employees even have significant impacts on
organisational behaviour and employee motivation. There can be various traits and types of
personalities within an organisation. Williams et al. (2017) noted that the level up to which
the various motivational activities influence the employees to depend upon the personality of
the employee. It can be observed in people possessing excellent emotional stabilities are more
likely to accept motivational activities in a positive way, while the others are observed to
follow a resistive approach towards the organising of such motivational programmes within
organisations. The aggressiveness within people can also influence the way they accept
motivational programmes conducted and executed in organisations. Beckmann et al. (2020)
revealed that the highly aggressive people tend to give more importance to physical and
monetary rewards while the less aggressive people are satisfied with rewards that are in the
form of appreciations or any other qualitative aspects. More often, it is revealed that interest
within employees is found to be highly influenced by positive motivational activities carried
out by organisations. In contrast to this, thee extroverts consider the motivation as an
inevitable segment of their career, the absence of which may tempt them to show
underperformance in their roles and repsonsibi9litries.

The different types of personalities within the people can impact the overall organisational
behaviour as well. The culture and structure with which the organisations continue to operate
significantly depend on the employees existing within the organisation. The personalities of
the employees are expressed in the ways they behave and interact with others. The friendlier
and collaborative the personalities of the employees are the more productive and sustaining
are the organisational culture. At the same time, the more rebellious and conflicting are the
employees, the less successful is the corporate culture. It is vitally essential to maintain
supporting and festering relationships among the employees to assure collaboration and
cooperation among them. In order to actuate this, it is necessary to train and encourage the
employees to behave and acct within the organisation in the most appropriate and healthy
manner. McCormac et al. (2017) pointed out that the employers will have to make sure that

the employees are very much committed and dedicated to the organisation through offering
them with the most effective and efficient motivational programs and activities.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the impact of individual differences and personalities on
organisational behaviour.  


The present report, therefore, discussed the impact of personality and individual differences
on employee motivation and organisational behaviour with the help of supporting theories
and models related to personalities and motivation. It was observed through the report that
personalities and individual differences of employees have significant role in their motivation
and organisational behaviour as well.

Akhtar, R., Boustani, L., Tsivrikos, D. and Chamorro-Premuzic, T.(2015)Theengageable
personality: Personality and trait EI as predictors of work engagement. Personality and
Individual Differences, 73, pp.44-49.

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P.(2017) Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life

Science Journal, 14(5), pp.12-16.

Azucar, D., Marengo, D. and Settanni, M. (2018) Predicting the Big 5 personality traits from
digital footprints on social media: A meta-analysis. Personality and individual
differences, 124, pp.150-159.

Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K. and Li, N.(2013)The theory of purposeful work behavior: The
role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of management
review, 38(1), pp.132-153.

Beckmann, N., Birney, D.P., Beckmann, J.F., Wood, R.E., Sojo, V. and Bowman, D. (2020)
Inter-individual differences in intra-individual variability in personality within and across
contexts. Journal of Research in Personality, 85, p.103909.

Chu, H.C. and Kuo, T.(2015) Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory in educational settings in
Taiwan. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 11(1), pp.54-65.

Corr, P. ed. (2018) Personality and Individual Differences: Revisiting the Classic Studies.
London: SAGE Publications Limited.

Ghazi, S.R., Shahzada, G. and Khan, M.S.(2013) Resurrecting Herzberg’s two factor theory:
An implication to the university teachers. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(2),

Gignac, G.E. and Szodorai, E.T. (2016) Effect size guidelines for individual differences
researchers. Personality and individual differences, 102, pp.74-78.

Govender, S. and Parumasur, S.B.(2010)The relationship between employee motivation and

job involvement. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 13(3),

Jain, N. and D'lima, C. (2017) Organisational culture preference for gen Y's prospective job
aspirants: a personality-culture fit perspective. International Journal of Process Management
and Benchmarking, 7(2), pp.262-275.

Jonason, P.K., Underhill, D. and Navarrate, C.D. (2020) Understanding prejudice in terms of
approach tendencies: The Dark Triad traits, sex differences, and political personality
traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 153, p.109617.

Kuncel, N.R., Ones, D.S. and Sackett, P.R.(2010) Individual differences as predictors of
work, educational, and broad life outcomes. Personality and individual differences, 49(4),

Kuranchie-Mensah, E.B. and Amponsah-Tawiah, K.(2016) Employee motivation and work

performance: A comparative study of mining companies in Ghana. Journal of Industrial
Engineering and Management (JIEM), 9(2), pp.255-309.

Lau, C.M. and Roopnarain, K.(2014)The effects of nonfinancial and financial measures on
employee motivation to participate in target setting. The British accounting review, 46(3),

McCormac, A., Zwaans, T., Parsons, K., Calic, D., Butavicius, M. and Pattinson, M. (2017)
Individual differences and information security awareness. Computers in Human
Behavior, 69, pp.151-156.

Nielsen, M.B., Glasø, L. and Einarsen, S. (2017) Exposure to workplace harassment and the
Five Factor Model of personality: A meta-analysis. Personality and individual
differences, 104, pp.195-206.

Ouyang, Z., Sang, J., Li, P. and Peng, J.(2015) Organizational justice and job insecurity as
mediators of the effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction: A study from
China. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, pp.147-152.

Parijat, P. and Bagga, S.(2014) Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation–An

evaluation. International Research Journal of Business and Management, 7(9), pp.1-8.

Phaneuf, J.É., Boudrias, J.S., Rousseau, V. and Brunelle, É. (2016) Personality and
transformational leadership: The moderating effect of organizational context. Personality and
Individual Differences, 102, pp.30-35.

Purvis, R.L., Zagenczyk, T.J. and McCray, G.E.(2015)What's in it for me? Using expectancy
theory and climate to explain stakeholder participation, its direction and
intensity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), pp.3-14.

Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L., Cheung, S., Baxter, D. and Beaudry, S. (2017) Assessing need-
supportive and need-thwarting interpersonal behaviours: The Interpersonal Behaviours
Questionnaire (IBQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 104, pp.423-433.

Sokro, E.(2012) Analysis of the relationship that exists between organisational culture,
motivation and performance. Problems of Management in the 21st Century, 3(3), pp.106-99.

Turel, O. (2017) Organizational deviance via social networking site use: The roles of
inhibition, stress and sex differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, pp.311-

Ugah, A.D. and Arua, U.(2011) Expectancy theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and
cataloguing departments. Library Philosophy and Practice, 11, pp.1-4.

Williams, E.J., Beardmore, A. and Joinson, A.N. (2017) Individual differences in

susceptibility to online influence: A theoretical review. Computers in Human Behavior, 72,

Zeigler-Hill, V. and Shackelford, T.K. eds. (2018) The SAGE Handbook of Personality and
Individual Differences: Volume III: Applications of Personality and Individual Differences.
London: SAGE.