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ON TIPS

NOTES
Note making is a skill that we use in many walks of life be it at school, at university or at the work-
place. However, accurate note making requires a thorough understanding of concepts. We, at Oswaal,
have tried to encapsulate all the chapters from the given syllabus into the following On TIPS NOTES.
These notes will not only facilitate better understanding of concepts but will also ensure that each
and every concept is taken up and every chapter is covered in totality. So go ahead and use these to
your advantage... go get the OSWAAL ADVANTAGE!!

Chapter 1 : Introducing Biology


Ø Biology is the study of life. l Botany – study of plants
Ø Although modern biology is a relatively recent l Zoology – study of animals
development, sciences related to it have been l Human Biology – study of man and his
studied since ancient times. relation to other organisms.
Ø While the formal study of medicine dates back Ø The study of biology becomes important for the
to Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC), it was following reasons :
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) who contributed (a) It aids in the study of diverse life forms and
most extensively to the development of biology. shows their value to humans.
His work focused on the history of animals, (b) It provides an insight into the intricacies
biological causation and the diversity of life. and complexities of all life forms and helps
humans develop respect for all life forms.
Ø His student, Theophrastus, wrote one of the
(c) It makes humans understand the need for
West’s earliest known botanical texts in 300 B.C.
nutrition, health care, animal husbandry
on the structure, life cycle, and uses of plants.
and natural resources.
Ø Modern biology is a vast and diverse field, (d) It helps humans grasp the cause, effect, and
comprising many branches and subdisciplines. principles of treatment of various diseases
Ø Biology  or Life Science is the study of and thereby improve the quality of human
living organisms. Since this term has a wide life.
application, it can be divided into more specific (e) It is helpful in solving the problems of
branches. These include : population, pollution, and conservation.

Chapter 2 : Cell - The Unit of Life


Ø All living organisms are composed of cells, Ø The cell theory, states that all organisms are
which are the fundamental units of structure. composed of similar units of organization called
Ø The discovery of the cell was made possible cells. The concept was formally articulated by
through the invention of the microscope. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in
The cell was first discovered and named so 1839, and has remained as the foundation of
by  English physicist Robert Hooke in 1665. modern biology.
Ø The first man to witness a live cell under a Ø Cell theory as proposed by Schleiden and
microscope was Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who Schwann, was later modified by Rudolf Virchow
in 1674 described the algae Spirogyra. Cell theory states that :
On Tips Notes 21
(a) All life forms are made of cells. (with well-defined nucleus and organelles
(b) Cells arise from pre-existing cells. enclosed in membranes).
(c) The cell is the structural and functional unit Ø A cell consists of three parts: the cell membrane,
of life. the nucleus, and, between the two, the
Ø The cell is the basic structural and functional cytoplasm.
unit of all living organisms. It is the smallest part Ø Within the cytoplasm lie intricate arrangements
of the body of an organism, capable of existing of fine fibres and hundreds (or even thousands)
independently and performing the essential of minuscule but distinct structures called
functions of life. organelles.
Ø Organisms may be prokaryotic (without well- Ø A cell carries out nutrition, respiration, excretion,
defined nucleus or organelles) or eukaryotic transportation, and reproduction.
Ø Cell Organelles and their functions :
Cell organelle Function
Cell membrane l Protect and gives definite shape to the cell.
(found in all cells) l Regulates the movement of substances across the cell.
Cell Wall l Provides mechanical strength and support to the cell.
(found only in plant cells) l Makes the cell turgid.
l Protects cell against pathogen and injury.
Nucleus l Stores genetic material.
(Control room of the cell) l Controls all cellular activities.
l Responsible for transmission of characters.
l Directs protein synthesis
Nucleolus l RNA synthesis.
Ribosomes l Involved in protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum l Provide supporting skeletal framework to cell.
(Transporting channel of the cell) l Involved in synthesis and transport of lipid and protein.
Golgi apparatus l Packages materials synthesized in cell and dispatches from
(Packaging and dispatching unit cell across plasma membrane.
of the cell)
Mitochondria l Site of cellular respiration.
(Powerhouse of the cell) l Produces ATP (universal currency of energy) through Krebs
cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Lysosome l Contains digestive enzyme that helps in intracellular
(Digestive bag of the cell) digestion.

Chloroplast l Site of photosynthesis.


(found only in plant cells) l Store food in the form of carbohydrate.
(Kitchen of the cell)
Vacuole l Provide turgidity and rigidity to the plant cell.
(Storage sac of the cell) l Take part in excretion and osmoregulation.

Ø Comparison of animal and plant cell :


Feature Plant cell Animal cell
Size Large in size Comparatively smaller in size.
Cell wall Present Absent
Vacuole Single large vacuole present Few small vacuoles present
Chloroplast Present Absent
22 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
Nucleus Lies at one side in peripheral Lies in the center of the cell
cytoplasm
Centrioles Absent Present

Ø Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell :


Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
No definite nucleus or nucleolus is present. Definite nucleus is present.
A single circular DNA is present DNA inside chromosome is present.
Membrane bound organelles are absent. Membrane bound cell organelles are present.
E.g. Bacterial and cyanobacteria E.g. Plants, animals and fungi

Chapter 3 : Tissues - Plant and Animal Tissues


Ø A tissue is formed by a group of cells that are • Meristematic tissue have actively dividing
similar in structure and work together to achieve cells and are responsible for continuous
a particular function. growth in plants.
Ø Plant Tissue : • Permanent tissue includes protective
• Plant tissues are broadly categorized into tissue (epidermis), supportive tissue
two types, i.e, meristematic tissues and (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma)
permanent tissues. and conductive tissue (xylem and phloem).

Ø Types of Plant tissue :

Ø Animal Tissue : • Animal tissues are broadly classified into


• Animal tissues are made of unique cells. four types : Epithelial tissue, connective
tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue.
On Tips Notes 23
Ø Types of Animal Tissue :

Ø Epithelial Tissue : and tear i.e. skin and also the lining of
• Epithelial tissue forms the protective layer. oesophagus..
Epithelial tissue act as a barrier to keep the Ø Connective Tissue :
different body systems separate. • Connective tissue connects different organs.
• Different types of epithelial tissues are Different types of connective tissues are
classified based on their shape and function. classified based on their shape and function.
• Squamous epithelium : These are thin, flat • Blood is a type of fluid connective tissue.
cells that are closely packed. The squamous • Bone is a hard porous tissue that protects
epithelial cells line the cavities of the mouth, the internal organs.
oesophagus, alveoli, and blood vessels. This • Fibrous connective tissue packs and binds
tissue gives protection against mechanical various organs.
injury and also blocks the entry of germs. • Ligaments connect two bones, and tendons
• Columnar epithelium : The columnar connect bones to the muscles.
epithelium has cells that are pillar-like and • Cartilage is found at the end of long bones
column-like. It is present in the lining of the and lends flexibility.
stomach and intestine. Its functions include • Areolar connective tissue fills the space
absorption and secretion. inside organs.
• Glandular epithelium : These are modified • Adipose tissue is found below the skin and
columnar epithelial tissues. They are large around kidneys. Its main role is to store
cells that present in the tear glands, sweat energy in the form of fat, although it also
glands etc. Their main function is secretion. cushions and insulates the body.
• Ciliated epithelium : Columnar epithelial Ø Muscular Tissues :
tissues, which have cilia are called ciliated • Man can move because of the elasticity
epithelium. They are present in the lining and flexibility of muscular tissues. There
of the trachea, kidney tubules etc. The are three types of muscular tissue : smooth
rhythmic movement of the cilia helps in the muscles, skeletal muscles and cardiac
movement of material in one direction. muscles.
• Cuboidal epithelium : These cells are • Smooth Muscles : These muscle cells do
cuboidal in shape. They are found in the not have striations or stripes. Hence they
salivary glands, kidney tubules, sweat are called smooth muscle cells. They are
glands etc. Their main function includes also called as involuntary muscles. The
absorption, secretion and excretion. cells have a single nucleus and the cells
• Stratified squamous epithelium : Squamous are spindle-shaped. They are found in the
epithelium arranged in many layers is walls of the hollow organs like the stomach,
known as stratified squamous epithelium. uterus etc. Their main function is to move
It is found in organs that are prone to wear the material through the body.
24 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
• Skeletal Muscles : These muscles have Ø Nervous Tissues :
stripes or striations. Hence they are also • Nervous tissue transfer information from
called as the striated muscles. These muscles one part of the body to another. Nervous
are voluntary muscles that are controlled by tissues have elongated cells called neurons.
us. They mainly help in the locomotion and
• Neurons are fundamental units of nervous
are attached to the skeleton. The skeletal
system. They join end to end to form nerve
muscles can be found in the muscles of the
fibres.
limbs, face, neck etc.

Chapter 4 : The Flower


Ø Flower is a specialized reproductive shoot • Monoecious plant : If the male and female
in which the leaves are modified into floral flowers grow on the same plant, then the
structure. plant is said to be a monoecious plant.
Ø Structure of a bisexual flower : Examples : Pumpkin, Maize, Cucumber etc.
• Bisexual flowers have both male • Dioecious plant : If the male and female
(androecium) and female (gynoecium) flowers grow on separate plants, then
reproductive structures, including a stamen the plant is said to be a dioecious plant.
and a carpel respectively. Examples : Palm, Papaya etc.
• Essential parts of a flower are the Ø Complete and Incomplete Flowers :
reproductive parts (stamen and carpel) and • Complete flowers : When all the four
non-essential parts are the non-reproductive whorls of the flower are present, it is called
parts (calyx and corolla). a complete flower. All bisexual flowers
• Sepal protects the bud; petal attracts the are generally complete flowers. Example:
insects, stamen produces pollen grain, Hibiscus.
carpel receives pollen, and its ovary • Incomplete flowers : Some flowers have
becomes the fruit containing seed (ovules). only the male parts (Staminate) or only the
Ø A flower can be divided into following based on female parts (Pistillate). These are called
the reproductive structure it has. unisexual or incomplete flowers. Example:
• Bisexual Flower : A flower that contains both papaya.
male and female reproductive structures is Ø Essential and Non-essential reproductive
called a bisexual flower. Bisexual flowers whorls
are also called hermaphrodites. They are • Essential/ Reproductive Whorls : The
perfect flowers. essential whorls of a flower are the whorls
• Unisexual flower : A flower that has only that are directly associated with the process
one reproductive structure, either male or of reproduction. Examples : Stamen and
female, is called a unisexual flower. carpel
• Staminate flower : A unisexual flower, • Non-Essential/Non-Reproductive whorls :
which contains only androecium is called a The non essential whorls of a flower are
male or staminate flower. the whorls that are not directly associated
• Pistillate flower : A unisexual flower, which with the process of reproduction. They are
the helping parts, which either protect the
contains only gynoecium is called a female
reproductive parts of the flower or make
or pistillate flower.
them attractive for pollination. Examples :
• Neuter flower : A flower in which both
Calyx and Corolla.
male and female reproductive organs are
• Nectaries are common in most brightly-
absent is called a neuter flower.
coloured flowers. They attract insects such
Ø Sexuality in Plants :
as bees and ants for cross pollination.
• In most plants, the flowers are bisexual.
• The pollen grains are finely-powdered
They contain both male and female particles of different shapes.
reproductive parts. In some plants, the male
• Inflorescence : The manner of arrangement
and female flowers are separate. They are
of flowers on the plant is called inflorescence.
called unisexual flowering plants. These
• Placentation : The mode of arrangement
plants are of two types— Monoecious and
of ovules within the ovary is called
Dioecious.
placentation.
On Tips Notes 25
Chapter 5 : Pollination and Fertilization
Ø Pollination : • Protandry : Anthers mature earlier than
• Pollination is defined as the transfer of gynoecium of the same flower. Examples :
pollen from the anther to the stigma of the Salvia, Sunflower.
same flower or another flower. • Protogyny : Pistils mature earlier than
• Pollination is vital for the sexual stigma of some flower.
reproduction. It is the first process of • Self-sterility : Pollen grains of a flower
fertilization in flowering plants. are incapable of completing growth on
• Pollination can be of two types : self- the stigma of same flower due to mutual
pollination and Cross pollination. inhibition. Examples : Orchid, Sunflower
Ø Self - Pollination : etc.
• The transfer of pollen grains from the • Herkogamy : In certain flowers, there may
anther of a flower to the stigma of the same be some physical barrier between anther
flower or another flower on the same plant and stigma so that self pollination becomes
is called self-pollination. impossible. For e.g. stigma may have a
hood which prevents pollen from anthers of
Ø Advantages of Self - Pollination :
the same flower from falling on it. Example
• Pollination is guaranteed. No energy is spent : Calotropis.
on producing showy petals, scent, nectar or
• Heterostyly : This is the condition of
a large number of pollen grains. Desired
occurrence of two or more than two types
parental characteristics are retained.
of flowers which have different length of
Ø Disadvantages of Self - Pollination : styles and stamens. E.g. Oxalis, Primula.
• Weakening of species due to inbreeding as Ø Fertilization :
undesired traits cannot be eliminated.
• The fusion of the male gamete present in the
• No new varieties are formed. pollen with the female gamete or the egg
• Anthers and pistils must mature at same present in the ovule to produce a zygote is
the time, failing which pollination cannot called fertilization.
occur.
• Double fertilization : It is a characteristic
Ø Cross-Pollination : feature of flowering plants. In this process,
• The transfer of pollen grains from the anther out of the two sperm nuclei, one sperm
of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form
flower on another plant of the same species an embryo (process is called syngamy) and
is called cross - pollination. another fuses with the secondary nucleus to
Ø Advantages of Cross-Pollination : form an endosperm (process is called triple
• Healthier offspring and new varieties fusion).
produced. • Because two kinds of fusion—syngamy
• Plants spread to far-off places. and triple fusion—take place, the process is
• Healthy seeds produced in large numbers. known as double fertilization.
Ø Disadvantages of Cross-Pollination : Ø Fate of Floral Parts after Fertilization :
• Cross - pollination is not fully successful • Ovary → fruit.
because of complete dependence on Ovule → seed.
pollinating agent. • Integuments → seed coat.
• Energy has to be spent on producing the • The wall of the ovary → the wall of the fruit.
large amount of pollen; and showy flowers. • Endosperm nucleus → nutritive tissue for
Ø Conditions favouring Cross Pollination : the growing embryo.
• Unisexuality : This is the condition where • The petals, stigma, style and anthers → dry
the plants are unisexual, which enable them up and fall off.
to cross-pollinate. • Sepals → persist as small leaf leaf-like
• Dichogamy : Androecium and gynoecium structures near the stalk of the fruit or might
mature at different times. fall off.
26 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX

Chapter 6 : Seeds-Structure and Germination


Ø A seed is a fertilized, matured ovule of a • The outermost layer of the endosperm,
flowering plant, containing an embryo. which is continuous with the fused seed
Ø This tiny embryo enclosed within the seed coat and the fruit wall, is rich in protein and
grows to form a new plant by the process of is called aleurone layer.
germination. • Embryo is present below the endosperm. It
is made of single cotyledon called scutellum
Ø Plant embryo in seeds have structures called and embryonal axis with plumule and
cotyledons. Upon germination, the cotyledon radicle.
usually becomes the embryonic first leaves of a
• Root cap protects the tip of the radicle. The
seedling.
radicle is surrounded by a protective sheath
Ø A cotyledon is the central part of a seed embryo called coleorhiza. Plumule is also protected
to which the plumule (the immature shoot) and by a covered sheath known as coleoptile.
the radicle (the immature root) are attached.
Ø Germination :
Ø Seeds are classified according to the number of
• Germination is the development of a plant
cotyledons present in the embryo. Flowering
from a seed or a spore under specific
plants whose embryos have a single cotyledon
environmental conditions.
are grouped as monocots, or monocotyledonous
plants; embryos with two cotyledons are • The most common example of germination
grouped as dicots, or dicotyledonous plants. is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of
an angiosperm or a gymnosperm.
Ø E.g of monocot seeds – Maize, Wheat etc.
Ø Examples of dicot seeds – Pea, Gram, Kidney • There are 2 types of germination, namely :
bean etc. Epigeal germination and Hypogeal
germination.
Ø Structure of Dicot Seed :
• A bean (dicot) seed is normally kidney- • In epigeal germination (or epigeous
shaped, flat, and has a notch on one side. germination), the hypocotyl elongates and
forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing
• The hilum is the point where the seed is
the cotyledons and apical meristem
attached to the inner margin of the fruit.
through the soil. Once it reaches the surface,
• Micropyle is the opening through which the it straightens and pulls the cotyledons and
pollen tube enters the ovule. shoot tip of the growing seedlings into the
• Seed coat is further divided into an outer air. Example : Kidney bean, Tamarind,
coat, known as the testa, and inner coat, Papaya.
known as the tegmen. The inner coat is thin,
membranous, and generally united with the • In hypogeal germination, the epicotyl
testa. The seed coat is tough and waterproof. elongates and forms the hook. In this
It covers and protects the embryo. type of germination, the cotyledons stay
underground where they eventually
• The embryo is the baby plant, which
decompose. Here the cotyledon remains
emerges from the seed and germinates into
below the soil. They dry up and become
a mature plant.
shriveled when the food reserves are
• A typical dicot embryo consists of an exhausted. The epicotyl elongates and
embryonal axis and two cotyledons. pushes the plumule above the ground.
The portion of embryonal axis, which lies Example : Maize, pea and mango.
above the level of cotyledons is the known
as epicotyl. It terminates with the plumule • Conditions necessary for germination :
(shoot tip). The three bean seed experiment shows that
oxygen, water, and suitable temperature
The cylindrical portion of the embryonal
are necessary for seeds to germinate.
axis, which lies below the level of
cotyledons, is hypocotyl. It terminates with • Viviparous germination : This is a special
the radicle (root tip). The root tip is covered type of germination found in mangrove
with a root cap. plants. In this type, the seeds germinate
Ø The Structure of Monocot Seed : while still attached to the parent plant. The
• The maize grain (monocot) is roughly oval embryo grows out of the seed and then out
in shape and normally flattened. of the fruit. It then projects in the form of a
• Most of the grain is occupied by the green seedling, displaying the root and the
endosperm and is filled with reserved food. hypocotyl.
On Tips Notes 27
Chapter 7 : Respiration in Plants
Ø All living things get the energy they need to live • Organisms that do not require the presence
from this chemical reaction called respiration of oxygen for the process of respiration are
This process needs glucose as a starting point. called anaerobes.
Ø Respiration is the process which helps in • In muscle cells, lactic builds up in the
releasing energy from cells of the body. It is a muscles and may cause cramps and
catabolic process. soreness.
Ø Respiration and photosynthesis are opposite • Respiration in plants can be investigated
to each other. Respiration uses oxygen and by carrying out experiments to show the
produces carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis uses production of carbon dioxide and heat as
carbon dioxide and produces oxygen. well as the consumption of oxygen.
Ø Glycolysis : Glycolysis is the metabolic process
Ø There are two types of respiration, namely : that serves as the foundation for both aerobic
Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration. and anaerobic cellular respiration. In glycolysis,
Ø Aerobic Respiration : glucose is converted into pyruvate.
• The breakdown of glucose in cells in Ø Krebs cycle or Citric acid cycle : It is a series
the presence of oxygen is called aerobic of chemical reactions used by all aerobic
respiration. organisms to release stored energy through
• One mole of glucose yields 38 molecules of the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from
ATP on complete oxidation. carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon
dioxide and chemical energy in the form
Ø Anaerobic Respiration : of adenosine triphosphate, (ATP).
• The breakdown of glucose in the absence of Ø Experimental set up to show respiration in
oxygen is called anaerobic respiration. Plants :
• Sometimes, glucose undergoes incomplete
oxidation to form ethanol and carbon
dioxide and a lesser amount of energy is
released. This is anaerobic respiration or
fermentation. It may occur temporarily in
plants and in our muscle cells when oxygen
is not available. Some bacteria and fungi
always show anaerobic respiration.
• The process of anaerobic respiration results
in the formation of alcohol (in yeast) or lactic
acid (in muscles) along with the release of • Germinating seeds are respiring and
carbon dioxide and energy. therefore releasing heat.
• Two ATP molecules are released during an- • Boiled seeds have been killed and therefore
aerobic respiration. are not respiring anymore.
Ø Experimental set up to demonstrate that carbon dioxide is given off during respiration :

• Tube B- Limewater remain clear.


• Tube D- Lime turns milky showing presence of carbon dioxide.
28 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
Ø Anaerobic respiration in Yeast : • It is observed that after some time, air
bubbles arise and they turn the lime water
milky showing that the air evolved is
carbon dioxide. Open the cork of the test
tube containing sugar and yeast. The smell
of alcohol is observed. This shows that the
products of anaerobic respiration by yeast
are ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Chapter 8 : Five Kingdom Classification


Ø Taxonomy is the science of defining groups Ø Species is an organism of a particular kind whose
of biological organisms on the basis of shared members can interbreed among themselves to
characteristics and giving names to those produce fertile young ones. It is the basic unit of
groups. classification.
Ø Classification is the process of grouping similar
things into groups or categories on the basis of Ø In 1969, Robert Whittaker proposed a "five
similarities and differences. kingdom system of classification" : Monera
Ø Classification is essential because it helps us (the prokaryotes); Protista (the single-celled
understand how the countless organisms have eukaryotes); Fungi (fungus and related
evolved over time. It helps in systematical study organisms); Plantae (the plants); and Animalia
of these organisms and helps us understand (the animals).
relationships among these.
Ø Broad classification of kingdom Animalia based on common fundamental features :
• Whittaker Five Kingdom Classification :
On Tips Notes 29
• Features of Five Kingdoms :
Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Type Unicellular Unicellular Multicellular Non Multicellular, Multicellular
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes green Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic
Mode of Autotrophic Autotrophic Saprophytic or Autotrophic Heterotrophic
nutrition or or Parasitic Sometimes
Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Symbiotic
Body Lack well Some Fungus is made Exhibits high Exhibits high level
defined organisms filaments called level of tissue differentiation and
nucleus and use hyphae. The differentiation have specialized
cell organelles pseudopodia network of hyphae specialized body organs.
or cilia or for is mycelium body organs. They have well
movement developed nervous
system
Examples Bacteria, Blue- Amoeba, Yeast, Rhizopus, Trees, Plants, Fish, Insects,
green Algae Paramecium, Mushrooms moulds Shrubs Animals Humans,
Euglena Birds

• Classification of Kingdom Plantae : Kingdom Plantae shows a lot of diversity because of which
it has been divided into four divisions : Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Sperm Exhibits high
level differentiation and have specialized body organs. They have well developed nervous system
anthophyta (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms).
30 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
Ø Broad classification of kingdom Animalia based on common fundamental features :

Ø Porifera : • Have jointed limbs, one pair each on some


• Simplest multicellular animals with or on all body segments.
perforated bodies. • Have an exoskeleton made of chitin. They
• The body consists of a tube or tubular cast off their exoskeleton during growth in
structures. early life, which regrows.
• Holes all over the body lead into the canal • Examples : Prawn ,Butterfly, Spider, Tick,
system. Mite, Crab, Scorpion, Fly and all other
• Canal system circulates water throughout insects.
body and brings in food and oxygen. Ø Mollusca :
• Hard exoskeleton. • Bilateral symmetry, little segmentation.
• Minimal differentiation into tissues. • Have a soft, unsegmented body (without
• Mainly found in marine habitats. appendages) with a hard, calcareous shell
• Example : Sycon. to protect the soft body.
• Open circulatory system, kidney-like
Ø Coelenterata (Cnidaria) :
organs for excretion.
• Aquatic animals whose body cavity is filled
• Muscular foot for movement.
with mesoglea.
• Reduced coelom.
• Radial symmetry.
• Mostly aquatic while some are found in
• Body made of two layers of cells : Epidermis
and Endodermis. moist soil.
• Fixed or free living, live in colonies or alone. • Examples : Snail, Mussel.
• Examples : Hydra, Sea anemone, Jellyfish. Ø Echinodermata :
Ø Worms (Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Anneli- • Spiny-skinned organisms. Possess a spiny
da) : exoskeleton.
• The body is cylindrical and divided into • The body may be spherical, cylindrical or
ring-like segments. In each segment, there is star-shaped, hard, unsegmented or non-
a representation of different organ systems. metameric.
• Found in a variety of habitats such as
• Radial symmetry.
freshwater and marine water. They can also
be found in burrows on land. • Free-living marine organisms.
Ø Arthropoda : • Triploblastic, coelom present.
• Largest group of animals seen in all habitats. • Tube feet for locomotion.
• Bilaterally symmetrical, segmented. • Exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate.
• Open circulatory system–no blood vessels; • Examples : Starfish, Sea urchin, Sea
coelomic cavity filled with blood and called
cucumber.
haemocoel.
On Tips Notes 31
Ø Protochordata : the notochord to form a supporting
• Marine animals. backbone. Notochord is a flexible rod
• Bilaterally symmetrical. located in the mid dorsal line between
the alimentary canal and the nerve cord
• Triploblastic, coelomic.
in the embryo.
• Notochord–a long rod-like structure that
(b) They have dorsal hollow nerve cord.
separates nervous tissue from the gut is
seen. Provides a point of muscle attachment. (c) They have paired pharyngeal gill slits.
Examples : Balanoglossus, Herdmania. (d) Heart is ventral.
Ø Phylum Chordata : (e) They have post anal tail.
• Vertebrates are members of the subphylum
• Characteristic features of chordates:
Vertebrata, under the phylum Chordata
(a) Chordates have a flexible, supporting and under the kingdom Animalia.
rod or notochord on their dorsal side.
• Vertebrates are a group of animals
In the invertebrates the notochord
distinguished by the possession of a
remains stiff and flexible. In the
backbone or a spinal column.
vertebrates, cartilage or bone replaces
• Sub phylum Vertebrata is further divided as :

Chapter 9 : Economic Importance of Bacteria and Fungi


Ø Economic Importance of Bacteria : Ø Serums :
• Bacteria consist of a large domain of • Serums contain antitoxins of specific
prokaryotic microorganisms. These are pathogens. Genetically modified bacteria
microscopic living organisms, usually are used to produce serum compounds on
one-celled, that can be found everywhere. a large scale.
They are extremely adaptable and survive • Example : Blood clotting factor for the
wherever they are. treatment of haemophilia.
Role of Bacteria in Medicine : Ø Vaccines :
Ø Antibiotics : • When a weak strain of bacteria is injected
into a healthy body, it is not strong enough
• Antibiotic drugs are made from living
to produce the disease in the body, but is
organisms such as fungi, molds, and certain
sufficient to produce antibodies. These
soil bacteria that are harmful to disease- form the basis of immunization methods.
causing bacteria. Thus, they are used to
• Vaccines produced in this way are used to
control bacterial growth and infection. prevent the onset of diseases in humans.
• Examples : Terramycin, Streptomycin, The administration of vaccines is called
Gentamicin, Penicillin. vaccination.
32 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
• Example : BCG vaccine is used to prevent process is called curing. Bacillus megaterium
tuberculosis. Cholera and typhoid vaccines is used in this process.
have also been developed to prevent these • Hides or skins of animals have pieces of
diseases. flesh sticking to them. Bacteria act on these
Ø Toxoids : and remove all traces of flesh. The hides are
• Bacteria are also useful in the production now treated by a process called tanning to
of toxoids, which are toxins extracted from obtain leather.
bacteria. Some diseases that are treated • Hemp and flax are bound by pectin
using toxoids are diphtheria and tetanus. and tannins which are broken down by
bacteria to obtain individual fibres. This is
Role of Bacteria in Agriculture : called retting of fibres. Retting is a process
Ø Nitrogen-fixing bacteria : employing the action of micro-organisms
• A special category of bacteria that is capable and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot
of converting the atmospheric nitrogen into away much of the cellular tissues and
nitrogenous compounds usable by plants is pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and
called as nitrogen-fixing bacteria. so facilitating separation of the fibre from
• Rhizobium, Azotobacter, and Clostridium the stem.
are species of bacteria that are capable of Ø Dairy Industry
converting atmospheric nitrogen into forms • Bacteria are often employed in the dairy
usable by plants. industry for making yoghurt, ripening
Ø Nitrifying Bacteria : cheese, and giving certain dairy products a
• Nitrifying bacteria convert nitrogenous specific aroma.
waste from dead plants and animals present Ø Harmful Effects of Bacteria :
in the soil into nitrates by a process known • Bacteria act on sugars and proteins in food
as nitrification. to produce products like ammonia and
• Bacillus and clostridium first convert alcohol that spoil the taste, appearance,
nitrogenous waste into ammonia. This is and smell of food. This process is called
then converted into ammonium compounds fermentation.
by the ammonifying bacteria. • Clostridium botulinum acts on canned food to
• The ammonium compounds are then produce a toxic substance which can even
converted into nitrites by nitrifying bacteria be fatal to humans. This is called botulism.
such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrococcus and then It causes gas to build up in deformed tins.
into nitrates by nitrifying bacteria such as • Spirochete cytophaga deteriorates cotton,
Nitrobacter. leather, and wooden articles.
• Denitrifying bacteria like Pseudomonas • Bacteria such as Thiobacillus and
putida and Bacillus subtilis are also present in Microbacillus convert nitrates in the soil to
the soil. These bacteria break down nitrates the gaseous nitrogen. This hampers plants
in the soil and release free nitrogen gas, very much.
which then enters the atmosphere. • Bacteria such as Desulfovibrio convert soil
• Saprophytic bacteria decompose these sulphates into hydrogen sulphide.
substances with the help of digestive • Bacteria are used as bio weapons Toxic
enzymes aerobically or anaerobically substances produced by bacteria can be
(known as fermentation). Thus they help in used to produce disease and even death in
sanitation of nature and are also known as living organisms. Example : Anthrax has
scavengers. Example : Pseudomonas. been used as a germ bomb to spread disease
• Anaerobic bacteria are able to produce in epidemic form.
energy-rich methane, which is the Ø Economic Importance of Fungi :
component of biogas used to produce • In Medicine : Some fungi are source of
energy. medicine such as antibiotics. The first
• Bacteria help in disposal of sewage antibiotic Penicillin was discovered as a
by decomposing it and thus help in fungal product by Sir Alexander Fleming.
environmental sanitation. Yeast is used as a vitamin supplement.
Ø Role of Bacteria in the Industry : • In industry : Breweries use yeast to produce
• Tea leaves are subjected to fermentation to alcohol. Brewers yeast and wine yeast, for
attain a particular flavour and taste. This example, contain zymase, an enzyme that
On Tips Notes 33
can convert glucose to ethanol. Fructose • In Food Industry : Bakeries use yeast to
is converted to glucose by the action of make bread and cakes. It acts on the sugar
invertase. Then zymase converts glucose present in the dough and releases carbon
into ethanol and carbon dioxide. dioxide in the process.
• As Food : Some of the fungi like Mushroom
are edible and serve as food.
• In Cheese Processing : Special varieties of
cheese like blue cheese are manufactured
using bacteria and fungi.

Chapter 10 : Nutrition
Ø Nutrients are substances that provide spinach, salads and other green vegetables are
nourishment essential for growth and for the good sources of roughage.
maintenance of life. Ø Nutritional disorders due to deficiency of
Ø A balanced diet is a diet that contains all nu- dietary component : The diseases which occur
trients, water and roughage in correct propor- due to deficiency of one or more nutrients
tions. It ensures good health of the individual. (proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and
Ø Six classes of nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, minerals) in our diet are called deficiency
proteins, mineral salts, vitamins, and water. diseases.
Ø Carbohydrates and fats provide energy. Ø Malnutrition is the condition caused by not
Ø Proteins are needed for growth and repair. getting enough food or right kind of food.
Ø Mineral salts are needed as constituents of body
Ø The growing children suffer from protein-
substances.
energy malnutrition as they require more
Ø Vitamins serve special functions related to
proteins for their growth and development.
growth and development.
Ø Protein energy malnutrition results in two
Ø Water helps in transport of digested food,
diseases: Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.
oxygen, and waste matter. It helps to maintain
• Kwashiorkor : This disease develops in
body temperature.
children whose diets are deficient of protein.
Ø Roughage adds bulk to the diet and helps It occurs in children between 6 months and
in elimination of wastes from the digestive 3 years of age.
system. It is mainly formed of undigested food • Marasmus : It is caused due to the deficiency
of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It
in the form of fibre. Lack of roughage caused
usually affects infants below the age of one
constipation. Dahlia, cabbage, cellulose-rich like
year.
Ø Vitamin deficiency diseases :

Vitamins Function Deficiency Disease Sources


Vitamin A Needed for vision, Night blindness, Xe- Fortified milk, cheese,
healthy skin and mucous rophthalmia cream, butter, fortified mar-
membranes, bone and tooth garine, eggs, liver, green
growth, immune system vegetables.
health
Vitamin B1 Part of an enzyme, Needed Beri beri Found in all nutritious foods
for energy metabolism; Im- in moderate amounts: pork,
portant to nerve function whole-grain or enriched
breads and cereals, legumes,
nuts and seeds.
Vitamin B12 Part of an enzyme, Needed Pernicious anaemia Meat, poultry, fish, seafood,
for making new cells; eggs, milk and milk
Important to nerve function products; not found in plant
foods
34 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
Vitamin C Antioxidant; Part of an Scurvy Found only in fruits and
enzyme, needed for protein vegetables, especially citrus
metabolism; Important for fruits, and vegetables.
immune system health;
Aids in iron absorption
Egg yolks, liver, fatty fish,
Needed for proper fortified milk, fortified
Vitamin D Rickets in children,
absorption of calcium; margarine. When exposed
Osteomalacia in adults
stored in bones to sunlight, the skin can
make vitamin D.
Folic acid Part of an enzyme, Needed Macrocytic anaemia Leafy green vegetables and
for making DNA and new (Megaloblastic anaemia) legumes, seeds, orange
cells, especially red blood juice, and liver; now added
cells to most refined grains
Vitamin E Antioxidant; Protects cell Reproductive failure in Polyunsaturated plant oils
walls males and females (soybean, corn, cottonseed,
safflower); leafy green
vegetables; wheat germ;
whole-grain products; liver;
egg yolks; nuts and seeds
Vitamin K Needed for proper blood Faulty blood clotting, Leafy green vegetables and
clotting Haemorrhage vegetables in the cabbage
family; milk; also produced
in intestinal tract by bacteria

Chapter 11 : Digestive System


Ø Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble • Structure of tooth :
food molecules into small water-soluble food
molecules so that they can be absorbed into the Enamel
watery blood plasma.
Ø The Digestive System
Crown

Dentine
• Animal digestion begins in the mouth,
then moves through the pharynx, into the Pulp containing
blood vessels
oesophagus, and then into the stomach and and nerves
small intestine.
Neck

Gum (gingiva)
• Digestive system is broadly divided into
two parts : Alimentary canal and Digestive Bone
glands.
• The various organs of the digestive system Periodonfal
are mouth, teeth, oesophagus, stomach, membrane
Root

small intestine, large intestine and anus. Cementum


• Human teeth are found in four shapes and
size : incisor, canine, premolar, molar. Root canal
• Incisors are used for biting and cutting Opening at tip
food. of root
• Canines are used for tearing and piercing
• The tongue positions the bolus for
food.
swallowing and then peristalsis pushes
• Premolars and Molars are used for chewing the bolus down the oesophagus into the
and grinding food. stomach.
• The pulp is the innermost portion of the • Peristalsis is a wave-like movement of
tooth and consists of connective tissue, food bolus through the gut by muscular
nerves, and blood vessels, which nourish contraction.
the tooth.
On Tips Notes 35
• Saliva secreted from salivary glands • The jejunum is the middle section of the
provides the chemical digestion. Saliva small intestine that serves as the primary
moistens and lubricates the food. It contains site of nutrient absorption.
an enzyme called salivary amylase, which • The ileum is the final section of the small
helps in digestion of starch (a carbohydrate). intestine that empties into the large
• In the stomach, acids and enzymes are intestine.
secreted to break down food into its nutrient • The inner wall of the small intestine is
components. covered in wrinkles or folds called plicae
• The churning of the stomach helps to mix circulares that project microscopic finger-
like pieces of tissue called villi, which in
the digestive juices with the food, turning it
turn have finger-like projections known as
into a substance called chyme.
microvilli.
• Stomach helps in storage and digestion of
• The function of the villi and microvilli
food.
is to increase the amount of surface area
• It is divided into three parts: upper (anterior) available for the absorption of nutrients.
fundus, middle cardiac stomach and lower • The colon absorbs water and some remnants
(posterior) pyloric stomach (antrum). of digested food.
• The gastric glands present in its walls • The rectum temporarily stores undigested
secrete gastric juices, which help in the food and wastes that is to be defecated
digestion of food especially protein. These through the anus.
juices contain hydrochloric acid (HCl), • Bile is stored temporarily in gall bladder
mucus and enzymes like pepsin. Pepsin is until it is needed by the small intestine to
a protein digesting enzyme. emulsify fats.
• Pyloric stomach leads to small intestine • Bile helps in proper digestion of fats by
by an opening called Pylorus, guarded by breaking down large fat globules into
pyloric sphincter muscle. smaller ones, so that enzyme can easily act
• The chyme (partially digested food) from on it and digest them. This process is known
stomach enters into small intestine where as emulsification of fats.
complete digestion and absorption of food Ø Experiments on digestion of food :
takes place. • There are tests for different foods like Iodine
• The small intestine have three major regions : test for starch, Fehling test for glucose, and
duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Biuret test for protein.
• The duodenum is the first section of the Ø Absorption of digested products :
small intestine that connects to the pyloric • Amino acids and simple sugars → absorbed
sphincter of the stomach. Partially digested through thin epithelium of villi → reach
food, from the stomach, is mixed with bile capillaries → blood circulation → enters
from the liver and pancreatic juice from the liver through hepatic portal vein.
pancreas to complete its digestion in the • Fatty acids and glycerol → absorbed into
duodenum. lymph vessel → lymphatic system → enters
blood stream.

Chapter 12 : Skeleton : Movement and locomotion


Ø In the human body, the skeletal system shapes • Holds internal organs in place.
the body while the muscular system supports • The vertebral column allows humans to
movement. stand upright; hollow spaces in the skeleton
• Human skeletal system consists of a frame give protection to internal organs.
work fo bones (206) and few cartilages. • Hollow bones make the body light but
strong. They are stronger than solid bones.
• It is divided into two main parts : axial and
Ø Axial Skeleton
appendicular
• It lies along the longitudinal axis of the
Ø Functions of the Skeleton : body.
• It provides support and rigid framework to • It includes Skull, Vertebral column, Sternum
the body. and Ribs.
36 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
• Skull : Skull is the endoskeleton of head and • The next three pairs of bones are called false
lies at the upper end of vertebral column. It ribs. They are attached to the spine in the
is made of 29 bones. back while in the front they are all attached
• It includes 8 bones of cranium, 14 bones of to the last true rib (and not to the sternum).
facial, 1 hyoid bone and 6 ear ossicles. • The last two pairs of ribs (floating ribs) are
attached to the spine at the back and appear
• Cranium is made of eight bones with
to be free in front as they are not attached to
serrated margins, which allow them to
anything.
interlock with each other. This makes the
• Sternum is the long flat bone in the centre of
cranium immovable and gives maximum
the chest connected to ribs by cartilaginous
protection to the brain.
joints.
• An opening at the back of the skull is • Ribs + Sternum = Rib cage
known as the foramen magnum. It allows
Ø Appendicular Skeleton :
the spinal cord to pass through. A rounded
projection present on either side of this • The bones of the upper and lower limbs
along with the pectoral and pelvic girdle
opening allows the articulation of the head
make up the appendicular skeleton.
with the first vertebra (atlas).
• Bones of the forelimb and hind limb largely
• Facial bones : 14 facial bones are present correspond to each other.
which includes Nasals (2), Maxillae (2),
• Bones of the upper arm include the single
Zygomatics (2), Lacrimal (2), Palatines (2), long bone humerus.
Inferior nasals (2), Mandible (1) and Vomer (1).
• Radius and ulna are the bones of the lower
• Mandible (also known as lower jaw is the arm.
largest, strongest and only movable bone of • There are eight carpals or wrist bones.
the face. • The palm is made of five metacarpals.
• Hyoid bone : It is U-shaped bone seen • The digits are the bones in the fingers. All
below buccal cavity. It serves as a point of fingers have three bones each except the
attachment for muscles of the tongue and thumb which has two bones.
floor of the mouth but it does not articulate • Femur or thigh bone is the longest and
with any other bone. strongest bone in our body.
• Ear ossicles : In each middle ear, there are • Fibula and tibia form the bones of the lower
three small irregular, movably attached leg.
bones called ear ossicles- Malleus (2), Incus • The patella or knee cap covers the joint
(2) and stapes (2). between the femur, fibula, and tibia.
Stapes is the smallest bone in the human • There are seven tarsal bones in the ankle.
body. • The foot is made of five metatarsals.
• Vertebral column (Backbone) : It is formed • There are 14 digits or bones of the toes,
of 33 ring-like bones called vertebrae. three in each toe and two in the greater toe.
However it consists of 26 bones because • Pelvic and pectoral girdles help articulation
5 sacral vertebrae are fused to form one of the appendicular skeleton to the axial
sacrum and four coccygeal vertebrae are skeleton.
fused to form one coccyx. Ø Joints :
• Formula for vertebral column in man is C7 • Joints are the points at which two separate
bone meet. They are firmly held together by
T12 L5 S1 Co1 ligaments.
• Ribs : The ribs protect the heart and lungs • They can be classified into three main types:
from injuries and shocks, protect parts of (a) Immovable joints : This type of
the stomach, spleen and kidneys, and play joints does not allow any movement.
an important role in respiration. Example: Joints between upper jaw and
• There are 24 ribs arranged as 12 pairs. rest of skull.
• The first seven bones are called the true (b) Partially movable joints : This type
ribs. They are connected to the spine in the of joints permits limited movement.
back and to the sternum in front. Example: Joint between a rib and
breastbone.
On Tips Notes 37
(c) Movable joints : These are freely the synovial cavity, filled with a
movable joints. They are also known slippery,  viscous synovial fluid.
as synovial joints. There is a space Examples: Ball and socket joint, hinge
in between these joints known as joint, pivot joint and gliding joint.

Chapter 13 : Skin - The Jack of All Trades


Ø The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a • Sweat glands : These are coiled, tubular
total area of about two square meters. glands which open to the skin surface by
Ø The skin protects us from microbes and the means of ducts. Sweat is mostly made
elements, helps regulate body temperature, and of water with small amounts of sodium
permits the sensations of touch, heat and cold. chloride and urea.
• Mammary glands or milk-producing
Ø Layers of skin :
glands are actually special sweat glands. In
• The skin has three layers : Epidermis, females, these become active after the birth
Dermis, and Hypodermis. of a child and produce milk.
Ø Epidermis : • Oil glands : These are also called sebaceous
• It is the outermost layer of the skin. This glands. They open into the hair follicles.
is made of stratified epithelium which in The sebum or oil secreted by these traps
turn is made of three regions. These include moisture and prevents evaporation of water
stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, from the body.
and stratum malpighi. • Nails : Nails are made of keratin. They
• Stratum corneum is made of dead epithelial grow from the nail root present below the
cells, which contain a protein called keratin. skin at the base of the nails.
• The stratum corneum (or cornified layer) Ø Hypodermis :
prevents mechanical injury to the body and • Hypodermis is a deeper sub-cutaneous
reduces the loss of water by evaporation. It tissue, which comprises fat and connective
prevents the entry of germs into the body. tissue.
• Stratum granulosum is made of living cells, • Homeostasis : Homeostasis is the tendency
which are flat and cuboidal in shape. of an organism or a cell to regulate its
• Stratum malpighi is made of cells which internal conditions, usually by a system
contain melanin, a pigment which of feedback controls. This is to stabilise
determines skin colour. the organism's health and aid its proper
• Melanin also protects the body from the functioning regardless of the outside
harmful UV rays of the sun. The cells of this changing conditions.
region are constantly dividing so that the Ø Skin and Heat Regulation of Body :
older cells get pushed to the outside and
• The skin’s immense blood supply helps
form the cornified layer.
regulate temperature: dilated vessels allow
Ø Dermis : for heat loss while constricted vessels retain
• It is found beneath the epidermis. This is a heat.
thick layer made of connective tissue. • The skin regulates body temperature
• It contains blood capillaries, hair follicles, with its blood supply. Humidity affects
sweat and oil glands, and sensory neurons. thermoregulation by limiting sweat
• Blood capillaries : The skin is richly evaporation and thus heat loss.
supplied with blood capillaries especially • The part of the brain that controls body
around the sweat glands and hair follicles. temperature is called the hypothalamus.
They serve to supply food and oxygen to When the hypothalamus senses that the
the skin and to remove waste products body temperature is too high, it sends
from the skin cells. impulses which cause blood vessels
• Hair follicles : These are infoldings of the supplying the capillaries in the skin to
dermis that contain hair root. The hair dilate. This is called vasodilation.
extends outside the epidermis through • When the hypothalamus senses that the
small pores present in the outer layer. body temperature is too low, it sends
38 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
impulses which cause blood vessels and it reduces the blood flow to the surface
supplying the capillaries in the skin to tissues under the skin. As a result, less heat
contract. This is called vasoconstriction, is lost.

Chapter 14 : The Respiratory System


Ø Respiration is the chemical process of releasing capillaries of lungs takes place by the
energy by breaking down glucose for carrying process of diffusion.
out life processes.
Ø Mechanism of Breathing :
Ø There are two of types of respiration, namely : • The breathing mechanism of lungs is
aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. controlled by the diaphragm and the
Ø Aerobic Respiration : intercostal muscles.
• The breakdown of glucose in the presence • The diaphragm is a membrane that
of oxygen is called aerobic respiration. separates the thoracic chamber from the
• This reaction occurs in mitochondria found abdominal cavity.
in the cell cytoplasm. Energy is released • When the diaphragm moves down, the
during this reaction. lungs expand and air is inhaled. When the
• Pyruvic acid is converted into carbon diaphragm moves up, the lungs contract
dioxide. Energy is released and a water and air is exhaled.
molecule is also formed at the end of this • Cellular respiration produces chemical
process. energy and carbon dioxide. The carbon
dioxide from cellular respiration is also
• Aerobic respiration releases more energy
per glucose molecule than anaerobic exhaled from the body through the lungs.
respiration does. Ø Gas Transport (Oxygen transport and Carbon
dioxide transport)
Ø Anaerobic Respiration :
• Transport of Oxygen : Red blood cells (RBC)
• The breakdown of glucose in the absence in blood contain a respiratory pigment rich
of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration. in iron called haemoglobin.
Lactic acid is formed during this reaction.
• Haemoglobin, which has an affinity for
• Anaerobic respiration also occurs in respiratory gases, mixes with oxygen to
microorganisms such as yeast and some become oxyhaemoglobin.
bacteria. • Oxygen reaches into each cell and oxidizes
• Pyruvic acid is either converted into ethyl food and produces energy. This energy is
alcohol or lactic acid along with carbon stored as ATP.
dioxide. • Transport of Carbon dioxide (CO2) :
Ø Human Respiratory System : Carbon dioxide is transported as carbonic
acid (about 7%), as carbamino-haemoglobin
• In the human body, the respiratory system
(20-25%) and as bicarbonates (70%).
consists of air passage through the nose,
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and Ø Respiratory volumes and Capacities :
lungs. • Tidal volume : It is the volume of air inspired
or expired during a normal respiration.
• The primary function of the respiratory
• Inspiratory reserve volume : It is the
system to supply oxygenated blood to all
additional volume of air that can inspire by
the organs of the body and carry back the
forceful inspiration.
blood with carbon dioxide.
• Inspiratory capacity (IC) : It is the volume
• The following are the steps in the human of air inspired after a normal expiration (TV
respiratory system : + IRV).
(a) Inhalation : Breathing in air or taking • Expiratory reserve volume : It is the
in oxygen into the body. additional volume of air that can expire by
(b) Exhalation : Breathing out carbon a forceful expiration.
dioxide-rich air from the body. • Vital capacity : It is the volume of air that
(c) Exchange of gas : The exchange of can breathe in after a forced expiration or
oxygen and carbon dioxide in the volume of air that can breathe out after a
forced inspiration.
On Tips Notes 39
• Residual volume : It is the volume of air • Total lung capacity : It is the total volume
remaining in lungs even after a forcible of air in the lungs after a maximum
expiration. inspiration.

Chapter 15 : Hygiene - A Key to a Healthy Life


Ø The science and practice of maintaining good • Exclusion : Flies can be kept out from
health is known as hygiene. homes by the use of window and door
Ø All public places such as school, office building, screens.
hospitals etc. should be clean. • Spraying : DDT and other insecticides
Ø Vector is an agent that acts as an intermediate can be used to eliminate flies.
carrier of the pathogen. It is also called as a (iv) To prevent water borne diseases :
disease carrier. • Water also brings about diseases (water
Ø Several measures can be applied to control borne) due to contamination and
disease carriers pollution.
Ø Prevention and control of diseases : • Few examples of water borne diseases
(i) Personal hygiene : This measure includes are cholera, dysentery and hepatitis.
maintaining a clean body, consumption of • Cholera : Cholera is an infectious
healthy and nutritious food, drinking clean disease caused by Vibrio cholerae.
water etc. Sources of infection include:
(ii) Public hygiene  Municipal water supplies.
• Proper disposal of wastes and excreta.  Ice made from municipal water.
• Periodic cleaning and disinfection of  Foods and drinks sold by street
water reservoirs, pools, cesspools and vendors.
tanks.  Vegetables grown with water
• Standard practices of hygiene in public containing human wastes.
catering. • Dysentery : Dysentery is an intestinal
(iii) Vector eradication : Various diseases inflammation, especially in the colon,
such as malaria, Filariasis, dengue and that can lead to severe diarrhoea with
Chikungunya spread through vectors. mucus or blood in the faeces.
Thus, these diseases can be prevented by • It results in mild to severe abdominal
providing a clean environment and by pain.
preventing the breeding of mosquitoes. • In some cases, untreated dysentery
Mosquitoes can be eliminated through : can be life-threatening especially if the
• Avoid stagnation of water. infected person becomes dehydrated.
• Regular cleaning of household coolers. • It is mostly caused by Shigella, a
bacterium, or by a protozoan called
• Use of mosquito nets.
Entamoeba.
• Introduce larvivorous fishes like
• Dysentery is caused by poor hygiene.
Gambusia in ponds.
Individuals can take measures to reduce
• Spraying insecticides in ditches, their risk of infection by regularly
drainage and swamps. washing their hands especially before
• Doors and windows should be and after going to the toilet and
provided with wire mesh to prevent preparing food, and by drinking boiled
entry of mosquitoes. water.
Houseflies can be eliminated through : • Hepatitis : Hepatitis is a virus that
• Sanitation : Flies cannot breed if food spreads through contaminated water.
sources are limited. • Symptoms include, dark urine, light-
• Manure, garbage or other decaying coloured stools, and yellowing of the
organic matter should not be allowed skin and whites of the eyes).
to accumulate. • Good hygiene and proper sanitation is
• Trash cans must be kept clean and essential to prevent hepatitis.
tightly covered. • Drinking boiled water and using clean
• Dispose garbage immediately water for cooking can prevent this
especially if it is infested with maggots. disease.
40 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX

Chapter 16 : Diseases – Causes and Control


Ø Disease is a departure from normal health (iii) Epidemic : It affects many people in a
through a structural or a functional disorder in given area in short period. Example :
the body. influenza, chicken pox etc.
Ø World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April. (iv) Pandemic : It is a worldwide epidemic.
For example : H1N1 or swine flu, AIDS
Ø Various Types of Diseases : might be considered pandemic.
• Diseases caused by infectious agents or
Ø AIDS :
pathogens are called communicable or
• HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus
infectious diseases. Examples : Tuberculosis,
causes AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency
Chickenpox, Measles etc.
Syndrome. This virus attacks the immune
• Diseases which do not spread from system of the body. The infected person
one person to another are called non- will not be able to withstand even a minor
communicable or non-infectious diseases. infection. Thus, a common cold can turn
Examples : Beriberi, Scurvy, Arthritis etc. into life-threatening pneumonia.
• Diseases caused by bacteria are called • It is caused by sexual contact with infected
bacterial diseases. Examples : Cholera, person, through unprotected sex, and
Tetanus, Syphilis etc. through multiple partners.
• Diseases caused by viruses are called viral • It is also caused by blood transfusion from
diseases. Examples : Poliomyelitis, Mumps, an infected person to a healthy person.
Rabies etc. • It also infects the foetus of an infected
• Diseases caused by protozoa are called mother. The virus has the ability to cross the
protozoan diseases. Examples : Malaria, placenta and reach the foetus. As a result,
Amoebic dysentery etc. the baby is born with AIDS.
• Diseases caused by parasitic worms are Ø Prevention :
called parasitic diseases. Examples : • Awareness and education about AIDS
Ascariasis, Taeniasis etc. are the most effective ways to control the
• Diseases are classified based on the spread of this disease. A condom is the
frequency of occurrence: most trusted way to avoid infection.
(i) Sporadic : It occurs as scattered or • Donors must be screened for presence of
virus in their blood before being allowed to
individual case. Example: rabies due to
donate blood.
dog bite.
• Controlling drug abuse.
(ii) Endemic : It is constantly present in a
• Use disposable needles in hospitals and
population. Example: common cold,
labs.
goiter in sub-Himalayan regions.

Chapter 17 : AIDS to Health


Ø Immunity is the defense against a disease. Ø Active immunity is the resistance developed by
Ø Defense system of our body works at two levels: an individual due to a previous infection.
Local defense system and Immune system.
Ø Passive immunity is the immunity provided to
Ø Local defense system includes the protective
an individual not by his own body but from an
mechanical barrier, germ killing secretions and
germ fighting WBCs. outside source in the form of an antibiotic.
Ø Immunity can be classified into two main Ø Antigens are the large complex foreign
categories : Innate immunity and Acquired molecules that activate immunity in the body.
immunity. Ø Vaccination may be defined as protection of
Ø Innate immunity is present at the time of birth the body from communicable diseases by the
and it is non-specific. administration of some agents that mimic the
Ø Acquired immunity is acquired after birth. It microbe.
could be passive or active.
On Tips Notes 41
Ø The agent can be a suspension of killed or • Commonly used disinfectants are cresol,
attenuated microbes, or a substance that mimics phenol, lime, bordeaux mixture etc.
the disease-causing microbes. This is known as Ø Antibiotic :
a vaccine. • The first antibiotic—Penicillin—was
Ø Antiseptics: discovered in 1929 by Alexander Fleming.
It is obtained from a mould (fungus)
• Antiseptics are mild chemical substances
Penicillium notatum.
that kill germs when applied to the body.
• Antibiotics are the chemical substances
• Common examples are lysol, carbolic acid, derived from microbes (such as bacteria,
benzoic acid, boric acid etc. yeast, moulds), which kill or prevent the
Ø Disinfectants : growth of other microbes or pathogens.
• Streptomycin is one of the most widely
• Disinfectants are strong chemical substances
used antibiotics.
that are applied on the place where germs
• Antibiotics are used to fight various types
thrive and multiply. of infections.

Chapter 18 : Health Organization


Ø Health is one of the primary concerns of all • It also looks after maternal and child welfare
governments across the world. centres.
Ø India is a vast country and its population is • The Indian Red Cross Society has also
distributed in broadly five types of habitations. been engaged in training services. Which
Ø These are big cities, small towns, villages, remote includes managements and volunteer
areas and slum dwellings. training, fund raising. Creating more Red
Ø The common health problems of India include cross societies.
food and water borne diseases, and insect and Ø Major activities of WHO :
air borne diseases. • It collects and supplies information about
Ø Two most important international bodies’ the occurrence of disease that are epidemic
concerned with people’s health are Red Cross in nature.
and World Health Organization (WHO). • It also promotes and supports projects for
Ø Major activities of Red Cross : research on disease.
• It extends relief and help to victims of any • It supplies information on latest
calamity. development about the use of vaccines.
• It procures and supplies blood to needy • It lays pharmaceutical standards for
victims. important drugs, to ensure purity and dose.
• It provides all possible first aid in any • It organizes campaigns for the control of
accident. epidemic and endemic diseases.

Chapter 19 : Waste Generation and Management


Ø A waste is anything which an individual decides • Domestic waste includes fruit and vegetable
to or is required to throw away. peels, leftover food, waste paper, plastic,
Ø Some of the types of wastes include municipal glass, rubber, metals etc.
wastes (household waste and commercial • Sources : Kitchen waste, Plastics, Glass,
waste), hazardous wastes (industrial waste), Rags, Paper.
biomedical wastes (clinical waste), special
Ø Industrial Waste :
hazardous wastes (radioactive waste,) and
electronic waste (e-waste) etc. • Waste which is generated by industries is
Ø Domestic Waste : called industrial waste.
• Waste that is generated from domestic • Chemicals, paint residues, oil, ash, sludge
activities such as washing, bathing, cooking and heavy metals etc. are some types of
etc. is called domestic waste. wastes that are generated by industries.
42 OSWAAL ICSE Sample Question Papers, Biology, Class-IX
• The type of industrial waste depends on the • Reusable waste : Wastes such as paper, old
raw materials used and the type of products books, discarded exercise books, and used
manufactured. envelopes can be recycled. In the case of
• Sources : Mining operations, Cement used metallic cans, the metallic components
industries, Oil refineries, Construction can be separated from the non-metallic
units. components and reused.
• Degradable waste : Organic wastes such
Ø Agricultural Waste :
as vegetable peels, leaves, leftover food
• Waste such as animal manure, plant leaves, etc. can be decomposed into useful manure
bark, flowers etc. which is generated from with the help of microorganisms. Such
plants and animals is called agricultural decomposition is called biodegradation,
waste, farm waste or garden waste. and the substances are called biodegradable
• Farm waste includes animal wastes as substances.
well as residues of fertilizers, pesticides, • Non-degradable waste : Wastes such as
insecticides, and other chemicals which plastic, pesticides etc. can be dumped or
are used in agriculture to increase crop buried at far off places.
production. Ø Dumping :
• Non-degradable wastes such as plastic,
• Sources : Agricultural residue, Bagasse,
pesticides, fibres etc. can be dumped or
Pesticides, Fertilizers, Animal Waste.
buried in specially dug up pits at far off
Ø Municipal Waste : places away from human habitation.
• Waste generated from domestic, industrial Ø Composting :
and commercial activities is called • The rotting and conversion of organic waste
municipal solid waste or urban waste. into manure is known as composting. The
• Wastes such as garbage and plastic bags, product formed after composting is called
glasses, metals, fibres, paper, rubber, compost.
discharge from hospitals, hotels etc. are all • Household garbage as well as farmland
wastes can all be converted into useful
included under municipal wastes.
compost.
Ø E-waste Ø Drainage :
• E-waste is mostly generated in large cities. • A drainage system is a channel of pipelines,
However, due to fast-improving lifestyles that carries sewage from houses, offices,
and standard of living, even smaller towns hospitals etc. through drainage pipes, from
and cities are flooded with electronic where it flows to the sewer mains of the
devices, resulting in an increase in e-waste. city.
• The harmful substances found in e-waste • A manhole is a hole with a cover in a road
include cadmium, mercury, lead etc., which or pavement. Through a manhole, a person
are toxic in nature and hence harmful to can enter a drain or a sewer to fix a faulty
human health. Copper, silver, gold etc. are pipe if there is leakage or blockage in any of
some of the valuable materials found in the pipes.
e-wastes. • Sewer mains flow into progressively larger
• The rag pickers and waste dealers collect pipes until they finally reach the wastewater
discarded electronic gadgets. They treatment plant.
remove the usable components and extract • Storm drains are drains through which
secondary raw materials. rainwater flows before it reaches a water
• Most electronic goods contain a variety of body. They are most often separate from
materials and metals, which can be recycled the sewerage system of the cities.
for future use. Ø Incineration :
Ø Segregation : • Incineration is a method in which waste is
• Separation of wet and dry waste is an burnt at very high temperatures.
important step in the process of waste • Hazardous bio-medical wastes, such
management. as discarded medicines, toxic drugs,
• Segregation involves separating the refuse human anatomical wastes, blood, pus,
into three main categories : reusable, microbiological and biotechnological wastes
degradable, and non-degradable wastes. etc., are usually disposed by incineration.
On Tips Notes 43
Ø Effluent Treatment Plants : • Air passing out of a scrubber is dust free,
• Municipal and industrial wastewater is clean, and free of gaseous pollutants.
treated in wastewater treatment plants or Ø Electrostatic Precipitator :
effluent treatment plants before they are • In an electrostatic precipitator, gas or an air
released into the water bodies. stream containing dust, smoke, soot, and
• Treatment of wastewater involves various other particulate matter is passed through
a chamber containing electrically charged
physical, chemical, and biological processes.
plates.
Ø Scrubbers : • The particles may get charged naturally
• Scrubbers are devices used to remove both when they pass through the charged plates.
gaseous and particulate matter. • The electrically charged particles stick to the
• Air is passed through either dry or wet charged metal plates inside the precipitator.
packing material. Gaseous pollutants get • Knocking on the plates drops the particles
dissolved in wet packing. into a hopper tray for disposal. Clean gas or
air passes out of the precipitator.
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