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The Virus Research Around the World

An Effort to Inform the Public about International Research on Virology and Ventilators

The following are research studies made accessible to the general public from around the world.
The efforts are from different parts of world and are varied. Some of the projects are for
affordable ventilators for those who have developed viral infections in the lungs, other projects
are for antiviral medications. They are written in an informal way in order to provide information
to the general public. The goal is to encourage people in different regions of the world to be
proud of local research that addresses the present pandemic of 2020 as well as any future
pandemics.

ANTIVIRAL
Caffeic acid is chemical found in nature that, in some studies, has been found to have the
antiviral potential against some types of viruses.
Below are brief examples of research in various parts of the world on its capabilities:

Antiviral Capacity of Caffeic Acid and Related Compounds:

TURKEY

A study in Turkey on the antiviral potential of CAPE or Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester. CAPE is
found in honeybee propylis, essentially the coating to bee hives. The researchers conclude:
“Specifically, the anti-viral effects of CAPE and its molecular mechanisms may reveal the
important properties of virus-induced diseases. CAPE and its targets may have important roles to
design new therapeutics and understand the molecular mechanisms of virus-related
diseases.”(Erdemli et al., 2015)

TAIWAN
Researchers investigated the potential of a natural plant extract with a potential strong anti-
HCoV-NL63 potential from the Sambucus Formosana Nakai, a species of elderberry native to
Taiwan, China, Japan, India, and neighboring regions. The extract has caffeic acid, and the report
concludes that caffeic acid may caffeic acid could be “the vital component with anti-HCoV-
NL63 activity. The finding could be helpful for developing antivirals against HCoV-NL63.”
(Weng et al., 2019)

Vaccine Technology: Virus-Like Particles

Virus-like particles are the use of particles of the virus as opposed to the virus. It tends to allow
for more shorter development time for vaccines and can often be safer than traditional vaccines
based on a virus (Lopez-Marcias, 2012).
Research on this technology ranges from Latvia (Pushko et al., 2013) to Portugal (Raldao et
al., 2010) to Mexico (Lopez-Marcias, 2012) to Iran (Yaldzani, 2019).
This brings the final section, Ventilators. Researchers around the world are developing
ventilators for mass production for the present coronavirus crisis:

MASS SCALE PRODUCTION VENTILATORS

ITALY

As of last year, a collaboration of developers from most Italy have recently developed what is
called MVM, the Mechanical Ventilator Milano, as their research paper put it best:

A Novel Mechanical Ventilator Designed for Mass Scale Production in Response to the
COVID-19 Pandemics (C. Galbiati et al., 2019)
arxiv.org/abs/2003.10405

REFERENCES:

Antiviral activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai ethanol extract and related


phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63 (Weng et al., 2015)
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 2015 Oct-Dec;4(4):344-7.

Antiviral properties of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its potential application
(Ermeli at al, 2015)
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 2015 Oct-Dec;4(4):344-7.

Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines for pandemic influenza:


Performance of a VLP vaccine during the 2009 influenza pandemic
(Lopez-Marcias, Constantino, 2012)
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 8:3, 411–414; March 2012;

Development of Virus-Like Particle Technology


from Small Highly Symmetric to Large Complex
Virus-Like Particle Structures (Pushko et al., 2013)
Intervirology 2013;56:141–165,
Virus-like particles in vaccine development
(Roldão et al., 2010)
Expert Review of Vaccines, Volume 9, 2010 - Issue 10

Production and characterization of virus-like particles of grapevine fanleaf virus


presenting L2 epitope of human papillomavirus minor capsid protein
( Yazdani et al., 2019)
BMC Biotechnology 19, 81 (2019)

Mechanical Ventilator Milano (MVM): A Novel Mechanical Ventilator Designed for Mass
Scale Production in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemics (C. Galbiati et al., 2019)
arXiv:2003.10405v2 [physics.med-ph] 31 Mar 2020